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White Paper on

Quality Court Interpretation Services  
 

Submitted to the ACCA Research Committee 

by  

Annalisa Edoo, Lynn Fournier-Ruggles, Charine Mattis, Kaitlyn Matulewicz, and Farlon Rogers

Students in the Master of Public Policy, Administration and Law Program and

Justice System Administration Program

York University

Toronto, Ontario, Canada  

March 12, 2010 

Acknowledgements 

The following individuals are to be commended for their collaboration on this White Paper and dedication to the advancement of Quality Court Interpretation Services:   

Annalisa Edoo, Lynn Fournier-Ruggles  Charine Mattis, Kaitlyn Matulewicz, and

Farlon Rogers

Students in the Master of Public Policy, Administration and Law Program at York University  

Ian Greene and Ray Bazowski

Professors in the Master of Public Policy, Administration and Law Program at York University 

Alanna Valentine, Alison Heddon, Casey Fallon, Evelyn Schwabe, Lizette Surette, Heather Manweiller, Randy Sloan, Sheila Bristo

Project Advisory Committee 
 
 

For their invaluable subject matter expertise, sincere gratitude is also extended to:  

National Network for Court Interpretation  

and all individuals participating in the survey.  
 

Disclaimer: The information presented and the opinions expressed herein are those of the student authors 
and do not necessarily represent the views of the Association of Canadian Court Administrators; its Board, Committee, or  individual members; or its partners.  
 
 

Table of Contents

Executive Summary...................................................................................................4 

1.0 Introduction and Background ��������������������������������������.5

      1.1 Purpose ��������������������������������������������������.5

      1.2 Methodology ����������������������������������������������5

      1.3 Quantifying the Demand for Court Interpretation Services and

      Evolving Demographics ����������������������������������������.6

2.0 Legal Requirements����������������������������������������������.7

      2.1 Legal Requirements Governing the Right to an Interpreter ����������.7

      2.2 The Right to an Interpreter and Civil Litigation ������������������.10

      2.3 International Human Rights Instruments................................................10

3.0 Current Practices ����������������������������������������������...10

3.1 Provincial/Territorial Breakdown ��������.....................................................10

                        British Columbia............................................................10

                        Yukon.............................................................................11     Alberta............................................................................12

                        Northwest Territories......................................................13

                        Saskatchewan.................................................................13

                        Manitoba.........................................................................14

                        Nunavut..........................................................................15

                        Ontario............................................................................16

                        Qu��bec............................................................................17

                        Prince Edward Island......................................................18

                        New Brunswick..............................................................18

                        Nova Scotia....................................................................19

                        Newfoundland and Labrador..........................................19

                        Section 101 Courts.........................................................20 

3.2 Gaps and Challenges ����������������........................................................21

4.0 Innovative Approaches and Best Practices����������������.......................24

      4.1  A Canvass of the Domestic Landscape ����������.............................24

            4.1.1 Accreditation ��.........................................................................24

          4.1.2 Technology: Teleconferencing and Videoconferencing ..........24

          4.1.3 Centralization of Interpreter Services........................................25 

                4.1.4  Special Programs for Aboriginal Languages............................25 

                4.1.5  Standards Set By National Bodies ��������������������...26

            4.1.6 Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: A Case Study.....26

          4.2 A Canvass of the International Landscape ������................................29

                4.2.1 Australia��������....................................................................29

                4.2.2 United States ������................................................................29

    5.0 Summary and Conclusion����������������������������������������.32 

     

    Executive Summary 

          During the last quarter of 2009, subject matter experts across Canada participated in a survey regarding the provision of quality court interpreter services.  The survey was conducted by graduate students in the Justice System Administration program at York University.  Responses to the survey were analyzed along with other relevant research to produce this White Paper on Quality Court Interpretation Services. 

          This White Paper begins by summarizing the constitutional requirements for quality court interpretation services. It then reviews current practices for providing court interpretation services in all Canadian jurisdictions and then lists gaps and challenges encountered in providing these services. Next, it discusses innovative approaches and best practices to providing quality court interpretation services in Canada, and internationally, in Australia and the United States. The White Paper concludes by summarizing findings and a our key learning that, rather than adopting one particular approach, a broad range of innovative approaches and best practices for providing quality court interpretation services may be used to address the demand for quality court interpretation services, and the challenges associated with providing these services in court locations across Canada. 

          There is a tremendous diversity in how interpreter services are provided, with several jurisdictions having established centralized interpreter services, and others providing decentralized services.  Similarly, there is a great diversity in accreditation standards, training programs, and pay for interpreters.  Finding and retaining qualified court interpreters is problem common to many jurisdictions, especially in remote areas and for languages of lesser diffusion. 

          Failing to provide quality court interpretation services is costly.  Crown prosecutors in some provinces and territories report convictions being set aside or proceedings stayed because of an inability to provide quality interpreter services in court proceedings.  In some jurisdictions, civil litigation has commenced to seek compensation for an inability to access quality court interpretation services.

          Through both survey responses and telephone interviews, some court staff responsible for arranging interpreter services told us they would welcome a strategic planning initiative for improving court interpreter services, and that this planning initiative should be as broad as possible, including all relevant stakeholders. As well, we heard a desire for more centralized approaches to providing interpreter services similar to Australia��s nation-wide accreditation system; and for more inter-jurisdictional cooperation, such as between the Immigration and Refugee Board and individuals employed in provincial and territorial court services. We also heard that many jurisdictions across Canada are beginning to use teleconferencing or videoconferencing technology to provide interpreter services, but lag far behind the United States in this regard. 

     

    1.0 Introduction and Background 

    1.1 Purpose

          The purpose of this paper is to describe and assess current practices across Canada for providing quality court interpretation services in court proceedings, at court counters, and in court connected programs and services.1 In addition, the paper will identify gaps and challenges, innovative approaches to providing interpreter services, and describe leading-edge practices in Australia and the United States. Other interpretation services (e.g., parliamentary interpretation, conference interpretation, translation of court documents, and development of terminology in non-official languages) and the provision of recommendations are beyond the scope of this paper as set out by the Association of Canadian Court Administrators (ACCA) Research Committee.2 

    1.2 Methodology

          Research for this White Paper was conducted by five graduate students in the Master of Public Policy, Administration and Law Program at York University. The graduate students were hired by the ACCA Research Committee and supervised by Professors Ray Bazowski and Ian Greene.3 The students�� work was guided by the ACCA Interpreter Project Advisory Committee, which reported to the ACCA Research Committee. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) on the National Network for Court Interpretation also provided valuable advice.  Data on current practices regarding court interpretation services was collected by distribution of survey questionnaires to SMEs in court services in all provinces and territories and in the federal courts.4  These SMEs were identified by the National Network for Court Interpretation and by the ACCA Interpreter Project Advisory Committee.  In some jurisdictions, interpreter services are centralized, so that only one SME needed to respond to the questionnaire.  In other jurisdictions, interpreter services are decentralized, so that there were multiple responses.  Our summaries of information about interpreter services for each jurisdiction present an overview of the responses received for each jurisdiction. The survey was available for response over a four-week period in the fall of 2009.5 SMEs were provided with an electronic (Word or PDF) copy of the survey and access to the survey online through SurveyMonkey.com.6

          The questionnaire was divided into three parts: hiring and compensation of court interpreters, training for court interpreters, and demand for court interpretation services.7  A cross-jurisdictional analysis of provincial, territorial, and purely federal court8 responses resulted in a listing of gaps and challenges in specific regions. 

    1.3 Quantifying the Demand for Interpretation Services in an Era of Evolving Demographics

          The cultural diversity of Canada��s population is ever-changing. Recent statistics illustrate that Canada��s allophone population, comprised of persons whose mother tongue is not an official language, neared 6.3 million in 2006, up 18% since 2001.9  In the 2006 census, Canadians reported more than 200 different mother-tongue languages, including those associated with historic immigration patterns such as German, Italian, Ukrainian and Dutch; and those that characterize more recent immigration trends such as Chinese, Punjabi, and Spanish. In addition, there are over 50 Aboriginal languages belonging to 11 Aboriginal language families, including First Nations, Inuit, and M��tis people.10

                Given these population trends, the demand for quality court interpretation services in court proceedings, at court counters, and in court connected programs and services is expected to be greater now than ever before. Responses to our survey on quality court interpretation services confirm a general increase in the demand for court interpreters over the past five years. For example, British Columbia reported a 25% increase in demand for court interpreters over the last 12 months and a 30% increase in demand over the past five years for Cantonese, Mandarin, French, Spanish, Farsi, and Sign Language interpreters in court proceedings and court interviews.  Comparatively, regional courts in southern Alberta reported a 30% increase for interpreter services over the last 12 months and a 50% increase over the past five years.  Interestingly, the language in largest demand for regional courts in southern Alberta was French. Saskatchewan reported a 10% increase in demand for court interpreters over the last 12 months and a 25% increase over the last 5 years for predominantly Asian languages in court proceedings. Only in some of the smaller court centres in Atlantic Canada were there reports of no increase in demand for court interpretation services. 

    2.0 Legal Requirements 

    2.1 Legal Requirements Governing the Right to an Interpreter

           The right to an interpreter has developed through common law and is expressly supported in numerous federal statutes11 and the Constitution of Canada. In addition, Qu��bec has provincial legislation that enshrines the right to an interpreter. Section 36 of Qu��bec��s Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms states, ��[e]very accused person has the right to be assisted free of charge by an interpreter if he does not understand the language used at the hearing or if he is deaf.��12  This piece of legislation is unique on two accounts. First, Qu��bec is the only province to include the right to an interpreter in its human rights legislation. Second, the law clearly states that an interpreter will be provided ��free of charge.�� However, it is important to note that s. 36 refers to ��accused�� persons, and therefore does not apply to private law cases.

          The English case of R.v. Lee Kun [1916]13, set an important precedent regarding the right of an accused to an interpreter. In Lee Kun the term ��present�� was extended beyond mere physical representation to include the capability of the accused to understand the trial. Lord Reading C.J., wrote that ��[t]he reason why the accused should be present at the trial is that he may hear the case made against him and have the opportunity, having heard it, of answering to it.��14  

           In 1960, the right to an interpreter gained statutory recognition in Section 2(g) of the Canadian Bill of Rights: 

          No law of Canada shall be construed or applied so as to ... deprive a person of the right to the  assistance of an interpreter in any proceedings in which he is involved or which he is a party or  a witness before a court, commission, board or other tribunal, if he does not understand or  speak the language in which such proceedings are conducted.15

                 

          Section 14 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states: 

          A party or witness in any proceedings who does not understand or speak the language in which  the proceedings are conducted or who is deaf has the right to the assistance of an interpreter.16 

    Judicial interpretation of s. 14 has placed some limits on the breadth of the right. For example, Cormier v. Fournier (1986) distinguished between the language of a ��party�� and the language of a lawyer, concluding that s. 14 has no applicability to lawyers.17

          The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII) database shows 86,496 results for litigation in which interpretation was an issue; more than 23,000 of these cases were at the appeal level.18  As of early 2010, CanLII��s database included Supreme Court of Canada decisions from 1948 to the present, and the decisions of other Canadian courts beginning in some jurisdictions as early as 1990, and in others as late as 2008.  Although the CanLII database cannot currently provide an accurate indication of the total number of cases involving interpreter issues from a particular decade, the database clearly indicates that there are significant numbers of cases in which the quality or accuracy of interpretation is an issue.

          In the landmark decision R. v. Tran (1994), the Supreme Court of Canada recognized the right of an accused to an interpreter as a fundamental aspect of justice, fairness, and Canada��s embrace of multiculturalism.19 Tran established that s. 14 of the Charter has a close relationship to other Charter provisions (and should be interpreted in conjunction with them), including the legal rights set out in ss. 7 and 11; equality rights outlined in s. 15; aboriginal rights and freedoms set out in s. 25; and the protection of Canada��s multicultural heritage in s. 27. The Court concluded that ��a multicultural society can only be preserved and fostered if those who speak languages other than English and French are given real and substantive access to the criminal justice system.��20

           Tran established constitutionally guaranteed standards of court interpretation services. However, in delivering the court��s unanimous decision, Chief Justice Lamer stated that the Court��s judgment ��relates specifically to the right of an accused in criminal proceedings, and must not be taken as necessarily having any broader application.��21 The Court��s decision identified an accused person��s right to an interpreter as a ��principle of fundamental justice�� guaranteed by s. 7 of the Charter.22

          In Tran, the Supreme Court established guidelines for assessing the quality of court interpretation services to ensure a high degree of linguistic understanding protected by s. 14. The appropriate standards for assessing the quality of interpretation in criminal proceedings were summarized as continuity, precision, impartiality, competency and contemporaneousness. First, the interpreter service being provided must be continuous, because ��[b]reaks and interruptions in interpretation are not to be encouraged or allowed.��23 The interpretation must be precise, reflecting as best as possible what was expressed in the original language. In outlining the proper standard for interpretation, the Court also stipulated that the interpretation given should be objective and unbiased to promote impartiality. In addition, the interpreter must be competent and the ��interpretation must be of a high enough quality to ensure that justice is done and seen to be done.��24 At the very least this means the interpreter must be sworn in. Last, to satisfy the constitutionally guaranteed standard of contemporaneousness, the interpretation must be given while the court proceedings are taking place.  In comparing consecutive with simultaneous interpretation,25 the Court favoured the former, which -- among other advantages -- was said to be better at detecting interpretation inaccuracies.26 However, the Court acknowledged that under varying circumstances, for example in proceedings involving technological advances or a person with a hearing disability, simultaneous interpretation might be the better practice.27

          Furthermore, Tran established a framework with which to determine a violation of s.14 of the Charter. The standard is three-fold: the determination of need for court interpretation services; 28 the establishment of a departure from constitutionally-protected interpretation standards; and demonstration that the breach occurred while the case was actually being advanced.29 It is the responsibility of the party claiming the breach to demonstrate that the violation meets the test. Remedies available under s. 24 of the Charter for breach of the duty to provide interpreter services that meet the constitutional standard include setting aside a conviction and ordering a stay of proceedings.

          Two recent interpreter cases in Ontario indicate that there remain unsettled issues regarding legal standards for quality interpretation, and that it will likely take some time before these issues are resolved.  In 2003, Janusz Rybak was convicted of second-degree murder; he appealed partly on the grounds of being denied adequate constitutionally-guaranteed interpreter assistance because his Polish-language interpreter was unaccredited.  In 2008, the Ontario Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal, noting that even if the interpretation was inadequate, the accused had not raised this issue in a timely fashion, and there was no evidence that the result was a miscarriage of justice.30  In the Sidhu case of 2005, however, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, in a summary conviction appeal regarding assault charges, ordered that Avtar Sidhu��s conviction should be set aside and a stay of proceedings entered as a result of inaccurate translation of Punjabi at his trial.  Justice Hill was critical of what he considered to be inconsistent standards of interpretation services provided in Ontario courts.31  In 2007, Sidhu and others initiated a class action suit against the Government of Ontario for inadequate court interpretation services.  The suit seeks a declaration that ss. 7 and 14 of the Charter have been violated, an order requiring the testing of all interpreters ��using an appropriate test based on proper standards and to provide the testing results to class members,�� and damages of $55 million.32 

    2.2 The Right to an Interpreter and Civil Litigation

          Section 14 of the Charter explicitly refers to ��a party or witness in any proceedings��; therefore, s. 14 has been interpreted to include civil litigation.33 Although the right to an interpreter applies to civil cases, unlike criminal cases, the right does not create an obligation for the Crown to pay for interpreter fees. In Marshall v. Gorge Vale Golf Club et al. (1987) the litigant, who was completely deaf, privately sought interpretation services by arranging for a transcribing computer to be brought from California. The British Columbia Supreme Court ruled that the Ministry of Attorney General, Court Services Branch did not have a responsibility to pay for these interpreting fees.34 However, in Wyllie v. Wyllie (1987) the court stated that it is unclear whether a court could be ordered to pay for interpreter fees in civil litigation when the claimant is unable to do so.  The court suggested that the bold language used in s.14 might lead to an obligation for courts to pay interpreter��s fees when a person demonstrates impecuniosity.35 

    2.3 International Human Rights Instruments

          In 1976, Canada ratified the United Nation��s International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 14(3)(f) of the Covenant requires that everyone who is criminally charged ��have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.��36 Article 6(3)(e) of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms provides for the identical right.37  

                3.0 Current Practices  

          3.1 Provincial/Territorial Breakdown

                The following is a summary of information received from each jurisdiction through an analysis of responses to the questionnaire.38   

           British Columbia

                In British Columbia, court interpretation services need to be made available to over 44 court locations that handle both civil and criminal cases. In addition, services are delivered in 44 circuit court locations. There has been a steadily increasing demand on the Court Services Branch to provide interpretation services in the court, court connected programs, at the court counter, and in when the crown is interviewing witnesses.  

                To meet this demand, the Court Services Branch currently contracts individually with approximately 200 court interpreters. By contracting with interpreters, the branch has a method to establish service expectations, as well as legal recourse should services rendered not meet expectations. Under some circumstances non-contracted service providers are utilized where there are no appropriate contracted interpreters available. The Court Services Branch works collaboratively with some external organizations for the purpose of quality assurance: The Society of Translators and Interpreters in British Columbia (STIBC); Multi Lingo Legal, which offers multilingual legal resources in nine languages other than English; MOSAIC, a multi-lingual non-profit organization; and the Westcoast Association of Visual Language Interpreters (WAVLI).

                The Ministry of Attorney General formally recognizes the following interpretation credentials: graduation from and certification by the Vancouver Community College (VCC) Court Interpreting Certificate Program; certification as a Court Interpreter by the STIBC; certification as a Court Interpreter from a society belonging to the Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council (CTTIC)39; certificate of Interpretation from the Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada (AVLIC); and certification as a Sign Language Interpreter by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID). These programs are designed in direct response to the needs of the courts. Interpreters certified through the program are bound to comply with a Code of Ethics. Through these programs, bilingual speakers obtain practical training in interpreting techniques, legal terminology and procedures.

                Prior to employing the services of an interpreter, the courts in British Columbia conduct a criminal record check and follow-up with the applicant��s references. Qualified interpreters are required to have full competency in a specific language or dialect, and must provide accreditation and certification to confirm their competency.  Interpreters certified by a recognized accreditation association or school require no additional testing. Non-certified interpreters are subjected to criminal record checks and personal and professional references are followed up. British Columbia does not sponsor in-house training programs for interpreters or orientations, and there are no written materials or glossaries of terminology provided to interpreters.

                It is the court interpreter clerks who are primarily responsible for retaining appropriate, qualified court interpreters.

                Uniquely, the Provincial Court of British Columbia has issued a directive suggesting that the right to a visual40 language interpreter extends to lawyers and articled students. According to the directive, ��[w]hen a matter is being scheduled for a hearing, lawyers and articled students who self identify as having a particular disability...should be scheduled so as to accommodate their particular disability to the extent that it is not an undue hardship on the court or would unreasonably interfere with the administration of justice.��41  

          Yukon

                Similar to other regions, court interpreters in the Yukon are expected to be competent in the specific language or dialect required and to have accreditation. No language testing, in-house training, orientation, or glossary of relevant legal terminology is provided to interpreters.

                Most interpreters are hired by Senior Court Clerks on freelance contracts. Court clerks do not maintain a formal database for interpreters.

                There are very few certified interpreters in the region. Interpreter services are provided by teleconference in approximately 10 to 20 cases per year.   

          Alberta

                A growing immigrant population42 has increased the demand for interpreter services and presented challenges for providing interpreter services in court locations across Alberta. Court Services, a division of Alberta Justice and Attorney General, is working to improve access to quality court interpretation services throughout Alberta.

                At present, there is no single or consistent approach for locating, hiring, or scheduling court interpreters in Alberta. Interpreters may be located, hired, and scheduled by staff working in court locations or Crown Prosecutors�� offices. Most interpreters are located using lists. Staff in particular court locations maintain some lists independently, while other lists are shared between court locations. There is no centralized list that can be accessed by all staff. There is no standard means of sharing information about the quality of services received from court interpreters, although in some court locations this information is noted on interpreter lists.

                When an interpreter cannot be located using a list, an interpreter company may be contracted, or out-of-province interpreters may be sought. Staff in some court locations reported the use of videoconference and teleconference equipment to provide interpreter services, but the frequency of such occurrences was unknown.

                Most interpreters are hired using freelance contracts. Freelance court interpreters are paid $45 per hour for a minimum of two hours pursuant to the Fees and Expenses for Witnesses and Interpreters Regulation.43 Expenses for travel to and from court proceedings are also covered in this regulation.

                The Department of Justice Canada provides payment for court interpreters in criminal proceedings prosecuted by the Public Prosecution Service of Canada. Court Services provides payment for court interpreters in criminal proceedings prosecuted by the provincial Crown. In accordance with the Government of Alberta��s Alternative Communications Policy,44 Court Services also provides payment for sign language interpreters for deaf/hard of hearing persons who are required to attend civil proceedings. In addition, Court Services provides payment for alternative formats for print materials such as audiotapes, Braille, large print or synthesized speech for these individuals. 

                Aboriginal individuals requiring interpreter services in criminal docket court and family docket court proceedings without previously providing notice may occasionally be assisted by the Aboriginal Court Worker and Aboriginal Family Court Worker Programs. Where the presiding judge agrees that the proceedings will not be prejudiced, Court Workers who speak the required dialect may interpret for Aboriginal individuals on an informal, ad hoc or ��as needed�� basis. 

                In some court locations, minimum language requirements and a criminal record check are required before staff may employ the services of a court interpreter. With the exception of the Red Deer Provincial Court, there is no formal or in-house training or orientation, and there are no other materials provided to interpreters, such as a glossary of relevant terminology for court interpreters. The Red Deer Provincial Court has implemented in-house training and orientation for court interpreters provided by the Giovanni Translation and Interpretation Service.

                Staff responsible for locating, hiring, and scheduling court interpreters have identified a number of challenges. These include: 

          • Locating sign language interpreters and qualified court interpreters for languages of lesser diffusion that are less commonly requested.
          • Hiring sign language interpreters or companies that are willing to provide interpreter services for the regulated rate of $45 per hour.
          • Hiring court interpreters to provide competent and impartial services in remote and smaller communities. Some interpreters know or are related to the individual who requires their services. Other interpreters sometimes feel intimidated by the individual who requires their services or by other community members. Still other interpreters are not willing to take the time to travel long distances to circuit court locations for the regulated fee.
          • Locating and hiring court interpreters on short notice.
           

          Northwest Territories

                In 2008/2009, the Territorial and Supreme Court of Northwest Territories used interpreters on approximately 61 occasions. With the exception of four instances, all interpreter services were used for Aboriginal languages; further, T��licho was used in 53.4% of situations requiring an interpreters for an Aboriginal language.45 The difficulty in securing interpreters for court sittings is intensifying, but for the number of ��certified interpreters�� the difficulty is diminishing. Consequently, when interpreters are not available locally, an interpreter is used from outside of the community; however, travel complications can have the effect of delaying proceedings.

                Interpreters are hired from agencies by court clerks through referrals from the local RCMP, health agencies, or the government. Court clerks rely on interpreter agencies to ensure interpreters are adequately prepared to offer quality court interpretation services. Accreditation programs and testing are not offered by the Courts. No formal orientation or in-house training is available, and no glossaries of legal terminology for Northwest Territories Aboriginal languages exist.

                Since 2006, CanTalk over-the-phone translation interpretation46 has been an alternative option to in-court interpretation. The Territorial Court has used this service twice for Croatian interpretation.47  

          Saskatchewan

                Court clerks in each court office across Saskatchewan are responsible for contracting interpreters. The major challenge that clerks face is locating qualified court interpreters to provide services in languages of lesser diffusion in small communities dispersed throughout the province. Because of the increasing demand for court interpretation services in languages of lesser diffusion and the growing diversity of the province, the Court of Queen��s Bench reported that in the past year, it had to seek an out-of-province interpreter four times.

                Court interpreters are required to be competent in the specific dialect or language for which they are hired to interpret. Currently, there are no formal certification or training programs in Saskatchewan. The Association of Translators and Interpreters of Saskatchewan (ATIS)48 was established in 1980 to assess the language ability and knowledge of interpreters; those with sufficient ability can become associate or certified members of ATIS. However, ATIS is not a training or teaching institution.

                Saskatchewan regulations state that the guaranteed rate for a court interpreter in the Court of Queen��s Bench is $17.50 each half hour. Other arrangements can be negotiated through letters of agreement if a court interpreter cannot be found to work for this rate, and no one else is available.  Interpreters are also entitled to claim all categories of travel allowance available to public servants (per diem, per kilometre, transportation, and accommodation).49 

          Manitoba

                Manitoba is officially a bilingual province.50 The Government of Manitoba provides interpretation and translation services in any proceeding, including all court proceedings, from one official language to the other official language through the Interpretation Section of Manitoba Culture. 

                Unless there is Crown involvement, court coordinators for the Manitoba Justice Courts Division are responsible for scheduling court interpretation services in official languages through the Interpretation Section of Manitoba Culture.  Court coordinators also arrange American Sign Language/Deaf-Blind interveners/Note takers and non-official languages interpretation through government authorized agencies. Where there is Crown involvement, a member of the Crown Attorney��s Office will coordinate the interpretation request.51

                Various approaches are used to provide court interpretation services in languages other than English and French. In Winnipeg, the Language Bank is used to arrange court interpretation services when there is crown involvement. Deaf and deaf-blind Manitobans are provided ASL/English interpreter services from E-Quality Communication Centre of Excellence (ECCOE).52 The Aboriginal Court Worker Program provides assistance to accused in understanding the court process and locating interpretation services if requested by the crown or a judge on remote reserves.  

                The Language Bank is currently developing a course that deals specifically with court and legal interpretation. The Language Bank also offers a free introductory course that runs for 14 weeks and encompasses all aspects of interpreting, such as the role of the interpreter; cultural bridging; basic legal, medical, and social service interpreting; specific vocabulary; and ethics and professionalism.53 Interpreters from the Aboriginal Court Worker Program are not accredited.

                Translation services are contacted by a Motion/Hearing/Trial Coordinator through the Interpretation Section of Manitoba Culture. Trial Coordinators and legal counsel are responsible for making sure all documents and background materials are forwarded to interpreters in advance of court.

                The Government of Manitoba provides for the cost of official language interpretation and translation services, interpretation for languages other than French and English in cases involving the Crown, and American Sign Language/English Interpreters or Deaf-Blind interpreters. In civil proceedings where a party or witness requires interpretation services in languages other than French or English, the litigant assumes responsibility for coordination and cost.54 

          Nunavut

                Established in 1999, the Nunavut Court of Justice is the only single-tier circuit court structure in Canada. The Court travels to different communities and interpreters are hired regionally when possible; however, approximately four to five weeks a year, the Court uses out-of-province interpreters when none are available locally. The Court hires approximately 20 freelance interpreters, and one full-time interpreter is a member of the court staff. Remote interpreter services used by the Court include both videoconferencing and teleconferencing technologies.

                The Nunavut Court of Justice maintains a database of language interpreter services for Inuktitut, French, and Innuinnaqtun languages. Three American Sign Language (ASL) interpreters are also included in the database.

                A prospective interpreter must undergo a criminal record check, an interview process that is both formal and informal, and a quality interpretation check to determine their knowledge of Inuktitut (both written and verbal), before being employed by the Court. The interpreter must be competent in the specific language or dialect requested, have specialised training, and be certified or accredited.

                 In collaboration with Nunavut Arctic College,55 the Court runs an eight week Legal Interpreters Program for the Inuktitut language. The program includes courses in legal interpreting, specialized vocabulary skills, and simultaneous and consecutive interpretation. . The Court hires graduates as apprentice interpreters who work as trainees for a minimum of 100 hours before they are considered certified interpreters. Interpreters are equipped with training materials, including glossaries, which are provided in the legal interpreting course.  

          Ontario

                Through the Ministry of the Attorney General (MAG), Court Services Division, staff interpreters and over 800 accredited freelance court interpreters provide interpretation in over 100 spoken languages, American Sign Language and Langue des signes du Qu��bec. Ontario courts provide over 150,000 courtroom hours of interpretation annually,56 illustrating the high demand of interpreting services required by Ontario��s multi-linguistic population. A Registry of Accredited Freelance Interpreters is maintained centrally and is accessible to the more than 250 court offices province-wide. Local courts use the registry to schedule interpreters. Court Services Division has a policy to ensure that interpreters are scheduled fairly. 

                Court Services Division has also developed a systematic protocol for dealing with formal complaints regarding interpreters.  

                Unaccredited interpreters may be used only in situations of extreme urgency. The effort to reach an accredited interpreter must be carefully documented. A Supervisor or Manager must approve the use of any unaccredited interpreters and the court, Crown, defence and/or any other counsel/parties in the case must be informed.

                To become a Ministry of the Attorney General accredited interpreter, individuals must:

            • Pass a Bilingual or English Court Interpreting Test
            • Attend a training seminar and pass a written test in courtroom procedures and interpreter ethics; and,
            • Successfully complete a background check with the Canadian Police Information Centre.

                Interpreters are provided with a Lexicon of relevant terminology in their respective languages. The Ministry currently has lexicons available in 26 various languages. Interpreters are also provided with a handbook describing the roles and expectations of court interpreters.

                As part of an initiative to improve access to justice, the Ontario Court Services Division has contracted with Vancouver Community College (VCC) to develop, administer (in conjunction with MAG), and evaluate new interpreter tests. Exams, based on actual court cases, have been developed for the 25 highest-demand languages in Ontario, and an English court interpreting test has been created for all other languages. All accredited interpreters in Ontario will be re-tested in 2009/2010.  Various policies have been developed to support the testing initiative.  Research is also being conducted on models of accreditation that will, once implemented, be used as an aid to scheduling. 

                In addition, the Court Services Division has undertaken a pilot project utilizing current videoconferencing and teleconferencing equipment to provide interpretation services remotely to court offices that are unable to schedule an accredited interpreter locally. Remote interpretation has been used in approximately eight occurrences over a ten-month duration.   

          Qu��bec

                Like Manitoba, Qu��bec is officially bilingual with respect to court proceedings.57 

                The Translation Service at the Palais de Justice in Montreal, which deals only with criminal cases in the Court of Qu��bec reported that approximately two-thirds of court interpreter requests are for interpretation in an official language.  The Court maintains an interpreter database with about 100 interpreters, 25 of which are official language interpreters.  Visual language interpreters are hired through a private agency.  Videoconferencing is used for interpretation only in one or two cases a year.  Most of the requests for court interpretation of Aboriginal languages are for Inou or Inuktitut and are in the Youth Division. There are approximately five requests per month for these languages.  The most common non-official  language court interpreter requests are Spanish, Tamil, Punjabi, and Turkish.  There are about two requests per week for visual language interpretation. 

                The written policy governing court interpretation services is Directive A-6, Services D'interpr��tes Et Paiement Des Frais.58  This document sets out the policy for providing court interpreter services when litigants or witnesses do not understand the official language being used in court, First Nations languages (Cree and Inuit) and sign language;  the management and provincial responsibilities (provincial, regional, and local coordinators) for providing court interpetation services; recruitment, testing and qualification standards, and training for interpreters; and contracting and remuneration standards for interpreters.

                The policy indicates that the Minister of Justice is responsible for the costs of providing court interpretation services in federal criminal proceedings, provincial criminal proceedings, and youth division proceedings (including child protection proceedings) where a party or witness does not understand the language of record (English or French) being used for a particular proceeding.59 In civil proceedings and adoption proceedings, the party is responsible for providing and paying for interpreter services when a party or a party��s witness does not understand the language of record.  If a judge does not understand the language of one of the parties (or the party��s witness) in a hearing, then the Minister of Justice is responsible for the costs of providing interpreter services. The Minister is also responsible for providing interpreter services in Cree and Inuit to those individuals who fall under the protection of the ��Convention de la Baie-James et du Nord qu��becois��60 and Naskapis recipients under the ��Convention du Nord-Est qu��becois.��61 In accordance with the policy, court interpreters are hired for a minimum of three hours at a rate of $24 to $43 per hour; the scale recognises that interpreters who hold a university degree in interpretation, or hold an interpreter accreditation from l'Ordre des traducteurs, terminologues et interpr��tes agr����s du Qu��bec (OTTIAQ) will be compensated at the higher end of the pay rate.62 

                To be eligible for work as a court interpreter, the applicant must pass the knowledge test based on the official Interpreters Guide,63 as well as pass the Court interpretation aptitude test.  An interpreter who is a member of OTIAQ, however, is required only to write the knowledge test.  Interpreters can claim travel allowance (per kilometre or cost of ground transportation, and parking), and accommodation and meals where necessary.  Competence in the foreign language is the most important qualification for interpreters and accreditation is a second priority.  Interpreters are administered oral tests for continuous and simultaneous interpretation; as well, there is a written knowledge test of the Interpreters�� Guide.  A new interpreter shadows an experienced interpreter for two court sessions and then is assigned to interpret criminal proceedings. 

                There are language-specific tests for interpreters in a few languages.  The tests are developed and graded by lawyers in the Qu��bec Department of Justice and administered by a coordinator.  As well, there is a 15-minute oral exam and the interpreters are paid $24/hour for taking the training program. 

                The major challenge in the Montreal criminal courts is being able to retain qualified court interpreters when they are paid significantly more for conference interpretation and the payment structure does not take into account how stressful interpretation can be in a jury trial.  Further, it is challenging to properly prepare an interpreter for court as a result of changes in trial dates and expected case durations.  

          Prince Edward Island

                Compared with the other regions survey across Canada, the demand for court interpreters in Prince Edward Island (PEI) is infrequent. For this reason interpreters are hired on an ad hoc basis and there is no identified accreditation, testing, training, orientation, manuals or glossaries of terminology provided for interpreters by Courts in this jurisdiction.

                Approximately five freelance interpreters are used in PEI. The Trial Coordinator takes responsibility for scheduling and contracting the services of interpreters.

                Limitedrequests are made for French language interpreters. If there is a need for non-official language interpretation, interpreters are brought in from outside the Province. In these circumstances PEI collaborates with New Brunswick to use the list of qualified interpreters that is maintained by the New Brunswick Department of Justice. 

          New Brunswick

                All courts in New Brunswick hire official language interpreters through the New Brunswick Translation Bureau.64 This is a unique innovation, a result of the fact that New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province listed in the Official Languages part of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (ss. 16-22).  The Bureau has an Interpretation Coordinator who contracts individually with approximately ten certified court interpreters. To appear on the court interpretation suppliers�� list, an interpreter must be certified through the Bureau.  New Brunswick has a two-level certification system and potential candidates are provided with a Court Interpreter��s Manual prior to the certification exam.  In addition, the Bureau provides potential candidates with training in consecutive court interpretation prior to taking the exam.

                Certification tests are paid for by the New Brunswick Translation Bureau, and are developed, administered, and evaluated by the Bureau��s Chief Interpreter or another experienced interpreter. The level one certification exam has three components: basic translation skills, basic legal knowledge, and French/English consecutive interpretation. After an interpreter has passed the exam, the Bureau conducts an in-court evaluation to test the interpreter��s performance in a courtroom setting.

                Comparatively, level two interpreters have a higher level of proficiency and experience, and are able to interpret simultaneously.  These interpreters are generally assigned to the Court of Queen��s Bench and to lengthier, more complex trials.  The level two certification exam has four components: written translation, sight translation, lawyer-witness exchange for consecutive interpretation, and simultaneous interpreting of French and English.  The Bureau does not use remote interpreter services and interpreters from out of the Province are rarely required.

                The Corporation of Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters of New Brunswick facilitates testing for interpreters of non-official languages through the Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council (CTTIC).65  The Corporation maintains a user-friendly directory of certified and associate (not yet certified) members that can be accessed by court officials when searching for interpreters for non-official languages. 

          Nova Scotia

                Similar to the other provinces and territories surveyed, courts throughout Nova Scotia hire both freelance and full-time court interpreters.  As with other jurisdictions, when interpreters are not available locally, Nova Scotia utilizes out-of-province interpreters; however, this practice is limited, as the demand for foreign language interpreters is minimal. Consequently, courts throughout Nova Scotia did not identify the use of remote interpreter services. In addition, the maintenance of databases varies throughout the province: few courts keep a formal database, others have an informal list of previous interpreters used, and some courts rely strictly on external agencies for interpreter contacts. 

                  For the most part, courts in Nova Scotia depend on interpreter contracting agencies, for example Access Language Services Inc., to ensure that interpreters are qualified and have the pre-requisite knowledge that may be required for a trial. With regard to the French language, testing, training and glossaries of relevant terminology including for pre-trial preparation, are provided by the Department of Justice. In addition, a new Mi��kmaq Interpretive Services training program is offered through the Nova Scotia Community College; this customized program was the result of a partnership between the Mi��kmaq Legal Support Network and the Nova Scotia Community College.  

          Newfoundland and Labrador

                As part of a strategy to establish a formalized court interpretation service for Innu and Inuit communities in Labrador, the Department of Justice in 2007 hired a consultant to assess the situation and to consult with Aboriginal representatives and key stakeholders. As a result, interpreter training programs were developed and delivered to enhance access to justice services and to increase the capacity of trained interpreters available to the Court. Like Nunavut, Newfoundland and Labrador worked with educational institutions to provide an interpreter training program.  In March 2008, the first class graduated from a pilot six week in-class Aboriginal Criminal Law Interpreters Program. In March 2009, students graduated from a four week family law component of the Interpreter Training Program. These programs were designed in collaboration with the Department of Justice, Provincial and Supreme Court Representatives, Aboriginal representatives, the Department of Education, the Department of Linguistics at Memorial University, the College of the North Atlantic, Child Youth and Family Services, and the Public Legal Information Association of Newfoundland and Labrador. As well, the Labrador Advisory Committee provided input. The interpreter courses focused on increasing knowledge of the justice system, and best practices in interpreting skills. Role plays, mock trials, presentations by staff, and input from a consultant with interpreter expertise brings added  value tothe training. The strategy also included the development of glossaries of key Innu-aimun and Inuktitut terms used in legal proceedings.

                The courts work in partnership with local associations such as the Association for New Canadians to arrange interpreter services when language interpretation is required.  The Francophone Association is called upon to provide French language interpretation.  If they do not have anyone available, then requests go to the Department of French at Memorial University. Sign language interpreters are made available when requested. Equipment is available for use by hard of hearing individuals.

                Interpreters are compensated at $45.00 an hour and paid as per government travel allowance guidelines where appropriate. 

                Video conferencing capability exists in courthouses in Newfoundland and Labrador and they are used on an as needed basis.

                Under the Northern Strategic Plan, funding has been secured for interpreter positions in several Labrador communities. Relatively low classification levels created problems with recruitment. Alternatives are being explored to remedy this situation.  Aboriginal court clerks have also been hired for the Provincial Court in Labrador. Aboriginal court clerks have also been hired. A Labrador Liaison Position has been created within the Policy and Strategic Planning Division, and Labrador and Aboriginal responses remain a priority within government.   

          Section 101 Courts 

          Supreme Court of Canada

                Rule 11(1) of the Rules of the Supreme Court of Canada states that a party may use either English or French in any oral or written communication with the Court.66 The Supreme Court provides simultaneous interpretation in both official languages during hearings in every proceeding and upon request in the case of motions heard by a judge or the Registrar.67 The interpreters at the Supreme Court of Canada are provided by the Translation Bureau, Public Works and Government Services Canada.  The Translation Bureau has a dedicated team of local interpreters for the Supreme Court who are more qualified than the accreditation required; some have a legal background and others have acquired specialized knowledge of the Supreme Court through experience or have had some specialized training.  The Supreme Court of Canada is not involved in the selection or hiring of interpreters. 

          Federal Court of Appeal, Federal Court, Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada and

          Tax Court of Canada

                Although the Courts are required by section 15(2) of the Official Languages Act to provide simultaneous interpretation services upon the request of any party to proceedings, this requirement only applies to one of Canada��s official languages.68 The Rules for Regulating the Practice and Procedure in the Federal Court of Appeal and the Federal Court specifically require that the parties make a written application when an interpreter is required for instances when a party does not understand the proceeding in the official language of record.69  The Courts do not provide interpretation services in foreign languages.  Rule 93(1) states that it is the responsibility for the examining party to arrange for the attendance of -- and pay the fees and disbursements of -- ��an independent and competent person, to accurately interpret everything said during the examination.��70 Rule 283 further states, ��Rule 93 applies, with such modifications as are necessary, to the use of an interpreter at trial.��71 

          3.2 Gaps and Challenges

                The most prevalent gap in providing quality court interpretation services across all jurisdictions surveyed relates to the use of court interpreters for services outside of court proceedings. Most jurisdictions surveyed did not address the use of interpreter services at court counters and in court-connected programs and services. Although the right to an interpreter is guaranteed by the common law and s. 14 of the Charter,72 it is not clear from the wording of s. 14 whether this right extends beyond court proceedings. The courts have not yet settled this issue in litigation.

                The challenges to providing quality court interpretation services identified in responses to the survey are fourfold: a lack of qualified court interpreters, demands for languages of lesser diffusion, geographical and regional barriers, and scheduling and payment of interpreters.

                The lack of qualified court interpreters is a challenge for many jurisdictions. Nunavut, Nova Scotia, the Yukon, and the Northwest Territories all reported that a limited number of certified or accredited interpreters makes it difficult to provide quality court interpretation services. Northwest Territories specifically connected the absence of qualified court interpreters to the discontinuance of a certification-training program previously offered in the territory.  Newfoundland and Labrador acknowledged difficulties finding interpreters with adequate knowledge of the court system and other individuals with the necessary skills prerequisite to train as court interpreters.

                A limited number of available accredited court interpreters can create ethical issues. Yukon specifically acknowledged that some court interpreters are related to or have close relationships with the accused or victim. Similarly, Nova Scotia identified the difficulty of finding impartial interpreters in small communities. The constitutional standard of impartiality can be difficult to meet when the pool of qualified interpreters is small and the demand to provide an interpreter is urgent.

                Other challenges to providing quality court interpretation services result from demands for languages of lesser diffusion.  Evolving demographics in Nunavut, Alberta, Ontario, Nova Scotia, PEI, and Newfoundland and Labrador, give rise to difficulties in providing quality court interpretation services when languages or dialects of lesser diffusion are requested.  

                Other common challenges in providing quality court interpretation services are geographic.  New Brunswick identified that certain regions in the northern area of the province do not have any court interpreters, and winter conditions make travel for interpreters coming from the south especially difficult.  Nunavut also acknowledged that regional barriers pose complications for delivering quality court interpretation services.  At times interpreters in Alberta are unwilling to travel long distances to circuit court locations, have no means of transportation, or the cost of accommodating long distance travel is not practical.

                The scheduling and payment of interpreters also poses challenges.  In British Columbia, last minute requests resulting from cancellations by interpreters can make it difficult to find qualified court interpreters.73  Alberta also identified that last minute scheduling conflicts can mean that court matters may have to be adjourned until an interpreter is available.  Several jurisdictions reported that some interpreters request or demand more pay for their services than the regulations allow. 
           

          Table 1

          Summary of Gaps and Challenges For Each Jurisdiction Surveyed 


          PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL JURISDICTIONS GAPS & CHALLENGES

           

          NEW FOUNDLAND & LABRADOR
          • Accessibility to trained interpreters for First Nation and Inuit communities; transportation challenges for interpreters; competing family needs; complexity of court and the nature of cases coming before the court.
          • Interpreter is related to, or known by parties involved.  These are challenges sometimes associated with smaller communities.
          • Demanding nature of the work, coupled with a reliance on one interpreter during a proceeding.
          • Dialect considerations.
          • Difficulties in assessing the interpreting needs of the accused.
          • Ongoing training needs for interpreters and staff.
          NOVA SCOTIA
          • Providing quality court interpretation services for languages of lesser diffusion.
          • Ensuring interpreters are providing quality services.
          • Controlling budgets for court interpreter services provided by a third party.
          • Finding out-of-province interpreters.
          • Finding impartial court interpreters in small communities.
          • Finding available French and American Sign Language interpreters.
          • Training and certification process needs improvement.
          PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
          • Lack of accreditation and training programs.
          • Collaborating with other jurisdictions to find court interpreters.
          NEW BRUNSWICK
          • An insufficient number of court interpreters and an absence of court interpreters in certain regions of the province (especially northern regions).
          • Finding individuals with the necessary skills to train as court interpreters.
          QUEBEC
          • Finding qualified court interpreters at the regulated rate.
          • Changes scheduling and expected case durations.
          ONTARIO
          • Providing quality court interpretation services for languages of lesser diffusion.
          • Developing mechanisms to obtain enhanced data and statistics for court interpretation services.
          MANITOBA
          • Finding non-official language court interpreters when the Language Bank has none to offer.
          SASKATCHEWAN
          • Lack of formal certification or training programs.
          • Providing quality court interpretation services for languages of lesser diffusion.
          • Providing quality court interpretation services in smaller and remote communities.
          • Finding qualified court interpreters at the regulated rate.
          ALBERTA
          • Providing quality court interpretation services for languages of lesser diffusion.
          • Providing court interpretation services in remote circuit court locations.
          BRITISH COLOMBIA
          • Scheduling court interpreters for last minute requests.
          NUNAVUT
          • Limited number of certified or accredited court interpreters.
          • Providing quality court interpretation services for languages of lesser diffusion.
          • Providing quality court interpretation services in the regions.
          NWT
          • Limited number of qualified, certified, or accredited court interpreters.
          • Paying court interpreters at a higher rate than the regulations allow.
          YUKON
          • Limited number of certified or accredited court interpreters.
          • Finding impartial court interpreters who are not related to or have close relationships with the accused or victim.

          4.0 Innovative Approaches and Best Practices 

          4.1 A Canvass of the Domestic Landscape

                Several jurisdictions across Canada are adopting innovative approaches for providing quality court interpretation services, such as accrediting court interpreters, using teleconferencing and videoconferencing to provide interpreter services, using centralized interpreter services and adopting specialized programs for Aboriginal Languages. In addition, best practices for providing interpreter services are becoming apparent through standards set by national bodies and other organization such as the Immigration and Refugee Board. 

          4.1.1 Accreditation

                Ontario, Qu��bec, British Columbia, New Brunswick and Nunavut appear to be the most advanced jurisdictions with regard to accrediting court interpreters.  As noted above, British Columbia recognizes accreditation provided by a number of interpreter organizations, and Ontario has its own accreditation process which it is currently enhancing.  Qu��bec has its own court interpreter ��aptitude test�� which evaluates foreign language interpreters in three competency areas (memory, consecutive interpretation and simultaneous interpretation), a knowledge test of court procedures, and a training and orientation program. An applicant may re-take both or either of the aptitude or knowledge tests after six months. The testing is conducted by the local coordinator who transmits the results to the provincial coordinator.  New Brunswick has a certification system through the New Brunswick Translation Bureau, and Nunavut, with its unique single-level trial court, provides an accreditation program in collaboration with Nunavut Arctic College.  In these jurisdictions, there are procedures for sharing information about the availability of accredited interpreters across the region, particularly for languages of lesser diffusion. In the rare instance when an accredited interpreter cannot be located, contacts are made in other jurisdictions, and the accreditation procedures in these jurisdictions are taken into account.  Unaccredited interpreters may only be used in urgent situations in which an accredited interpreter cannot be found.  The accreditation process includes language proficiency and knowledge of court processes and terminology.  

          4.1.2 Technology: Teleconferencing and Videoconferencing

                Teleconferencing is one alternative to providing in-person court interpretation services. Telephone interpreting is especially useful when court interpreters reside in remote locations; when there are no certified or accredited court interpreters available locally; and when last minute cancellations do not allow enough time for replacement interpreters to travel to the court location. The following disadvantages are associated with telephone interpreting: poor quality connections may lead to mistakes in interpretation or frequent repetitions; non-verbal language cues are missing; and telephone interpreting can be costly over long durations.74

                The use of videoconferencing to provide interpreter services in Canadian courts is an innovation in early development. However, videoconferencing is widely used to provide interpreter services in some jurisdictions in the United States, and is used successfully by Canada��s Immigration and Refugee Board. Videoconferencing is an improvement over telephone interpretering because it allows non-verbal language cues to be transmitted over video and audio connections.

                 

           4.1.3 Centralization of Interpreter Services

                In Ontario, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Nunavut, centralized bodies locate and schedule court interpreters.  There was less concern reported about the quality of court interpreter services in these jurisdictions than in most other jurisdictions surveyed.  Nevertheless, these jurisdictions reported difficulties in consistently being able to locate court interpreters who met standards for languages of lesser diffusion and to provide services in remote court locations.

                In Manitoba and New Brunswick, centralized interpreter services for official languages  provide official language interpretation for government services other than court proceedings and for government-sponsored conferences.  Given that there are common elements in the provision of interpreter services in the public sector, economies of scale for the provision of interpreter services can be achieved.  Furthermore, court staff in jurisdictions without centralized interpreter services reported difficulties negotiating interpreter contracts and suggested it may be more appropriate for a centralized agency to arrange interpreter services for the courts. 

                Individuals responsible for arranging court interpretation services courts can learn from the experience of organizations providing interpretation services in other public sectors, such as health care.  For example, the ��Boston model�� of providing interpreter services in health care has elements in common with the Language Bank model in Manitoba.75  Moreover, parties contending that the availability or quality of translation services does not meet constitutional standards have also commenced litigation in the health care system.76 

          4.1.4 Special Programs for Aboriginal Languages

                As indicated above, there are over 50 Aboriginal languages in Canada belonging to 11 Aboriginal language families, including First Nations, Inuit, and M��tis people.77 It is a challenge for courts to provide quality interpreter services in these languages, especially in small, remote communities.  Some jurisdictions have developed innovative programs to meet this challenge.  For example, the Aboriginal Court Worker Program in Manitoba and Alberta can assist individuals by helping them to locate interpreter or translation services.  In addition, the Nunavut Court of Justice has created a database of interpreter services for several Aboriginal languages.  The Court also provides a legal interpreters program for the Inuktitut language in collaboration with the Nunavut Arctic College.  Graduates from the program are hired as apprentice court interpreters and work a minimum of 100 hours before being certified. Newfoundland and Labrador has also developed an interpreter training program with a focus on Aboriginal languages in collaboration with educational institutions.  This program has produced glossaries of key Innu-aimun and Inuttitut terms used in legal proceedings.  Further, Aboriginal language interpreter positions have been funded through the government��s Northern Strategic Plan for several Labrador communities.   

          4.1.5 Standards Set by National Bodies

                The Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council (CTTIC), is a national body comprised of eleven provincial and territorial member organizations that represent professional translators, interpreters and terminologists in Canada.78 Founded in 1970, CTTIC is the successor to the Society of Translators and Interpreters of Canada (STIC). CTTIC is a member of the International Federation of Translators (FIT),79 and works to set, maintain and promote national uniform standards of interpretation through certification.80

                CTTIC��s Board of Certification administers the court interpretation exam, which was first created by STIC and l��Orde des traducteurs, terminologues et interpr��tes agr����s du Qu��bec (OTTIAQ),81 and subsequently taken over by CTTIC in 1993. The exam measures language proficiency; legal terminology and procedures; consecutive interpreting; and involves a mock trial. Certification status is provided to interpreters who successfully complete the exam.82

                In Ontario, New Brunswick, British Columbia and Qu��bec, provincial law protects the title ��certified court interpreter��. These provincial organizations work alongside educational institutions in their jurisdiction to provide programs in interpretation and seminars for continuing education. 

           4.1.6 Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: A Case Study

               Canada��s largest administrative tribunal, the Immigration Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) is also one of Canada��s largest public sector providers of foreign language interpretation services. The IRB employs 200 tribunal members in five locations83  and adjudicates up to 60,000 cases annually.  Foreign-language to official language interpretation occurs in 76% of all immigration and refugee proceedings.84 

                The IRB requires interpreters to perform consecutive foreign-language interpretation during proceedings; to translate short documents submitted during, before, or after proceedings; and to provide interpretation services at counters. The requirement to produce transcripts of the proceedings prevents the IRB from using simultaneous translation.85

                Courts in Canada and other jurisdictions86 seek referrals for interpreters from the IRB from time to time.  The IRB approach to providing interpretation services comprises many of the elements for providing quality court interpretation services in court proceedings, at court annexed programs and services and at court counters. 
           

          Administration

                The IRB Interpreter Program is administered by Regional Coordinators working in Interpreter Units in each of the five regions and a National Coordinator working in Ottawa. Interpreters are hired based on their specialized knowledge of the proceedings and terminology; their flexibility in scheduling; and their hourly rates (which can run as high as $150). From 2004 to 2005, the IRB provided interpretation services in 220 languages in over 60,000 scheduled proceedings. Expenditures for interpreters amounted to $3.15 million over that period.87   

          National Data Base

                Each region uses the same standards to test, train and contract local interpreters from a single national database. The national database contains a list of 1,200 interpreters accredited in 267 languages and dialects.88

                The IRB uses out-of-province interpreters as a last resort when an interpreter for a particular language is not available.  In these situations, the proceedings may be conducted by videoconference.89

                On request from other organizations in Canada and abroad, the IRB will provide referrals for interpreters from its database. However, the IRB��s ��accredited interpreter status�� is ��for and of Board use only��.90  Organizations that use an interpreter referred from the IRB must make their own arrangements to ensure quality services are received and paid for. 

          Contracts and Compensation 

                All interpreters are considered to be ��contractors who work on a freelance basis in the community��. Consequently they may be employed by other agencies, courts, tribunals or law offices. Each interpreter must sign a standard Professional Services contract that outlines the terms and conditions of the interpretation services to be provided. This includes the interpreter's rate of pay ($24.00 /hour), duration of the contract, and the maximum value of the contract (generally up to $10,000).91 A policy sets out the standard workday for the contract.92 The service contract is intended to provide flexibility to enable interpreters to take a more competitive contract, even at the last minute. The National Coordinator for the IRB estimates that the top 10 languages interpreted in IRB proceedings comprise 70-80% of all service contracts.93  
           
           
           

          Quality Standards

                Accreditation

                An interpreter must be a Canadian citizen or permanent resident, have a secondary school diploma or equivalent, and provide a minimum of two professional references. An interpretation contractor is ��accredited�� after passing a language proficiency test and obtaining an ��enhanced reliability�� security clearance, completing an orientation, and signing a Code of Conduct.94   

          Security Clearance

              Enhanced security clearance is required for all interpreters contracted by the IRB because they regularly have access to private information. 

        Language Testing

            

      The IRB has used language tests since the 1990s.95

        Language tests include oral interpretation and sight translation.

            

      The IRB has developed its own language tests in 52 foreign languages. In instances where no in-house language test has been created, the IRB uses the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, available in 370 official translations as a substitute for the sight translation test – an innovation that may be useful in courts needing to test the proficiency of interpreters in languages of lesser diffusion.96

       

            

      Correctors (university professors or interpreters with university degrees from outside the testing region) listen to audio recordings of candidate��s answers to score the test. There is a 70% pass mark.  Managed by the Registrar in each region, the test results are maintained on the interpreter's file as evidence of the interpreters�� ability and proficiency for the contracted language.97 

            

      Training

            

      Contracted interpreters must complete a paid half-day orientation, which includes observing one or more hearings, in order to become familiar with IRB terminology, protocol and procedures.  Orientation materials include a handbook for interpreters, a Code of Conduct98

      , a pre-hearing script, and a description of and protocol for all proceedings.99

       

            

       

            

      Quality Control/Monitoring

            

      Registrars in each region solicit feedback from tribunal staff to identify training gaps and conduct audits of two randomly chosen hearings during an interpreter��s first year of contract employment with the IRB.  The purpose of the audit is to confirm that regional Interpreter Units are selecting qualified interpreters for the national database.100

         

            

      Complaints Process

            

      Complaints regarding interpreters�� conduct, outside the context of a hearing (e.g., tardiness, rudeness to staff, etc.), are dealt with by a formal review committee.101 

      4.2 A Canvass of the International Landscape

            

      A survey of court interpretation services outside of Canada reveals that Australia and the United States have also developed innovative approaches to providing quality court interpretation services.; in particular with respect to accreditation for court interpreters and access to court interpretation services.  

      4.2.1 Australia

            

      Australian courts provide interpretation services using interpreters accredited by the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI). NAATI is responsible for setting and maintaining standards and quality assurance programs for interpreters in all Australian courts and other sectors of the public service.102

       

            

      NAATI was incorporated in 2001. It is owned jointly by the Commonwealth, State and Territory governments and is governed by a board of directors.  There are NAATI offices in every Australian State and Territory, as well as in New Zealand.  The NAATI web site can be used to obtain the contact information for NAATI-certified interpreters according to their location.  NAATI accreditation can be obtained by passing an accreditation test, completing an approved course, completing an approved post-secondary program in translating and interpretation, proof of membership in a recognized international translating/interpreting association, or proof of advanced standing in translating/interpreting.103

            

      Australian courts also use technology to improve access to court interpreter services. The Federal Court of Australia maintains an innovative and user-friendly web site that provides links to nearly 40 languages for which interpreter services can be requested.  The Australian Government provides a telephone interpreting service that can be accessed 24 hours a day, seven days a week.  The telephone number is accessible from any region in Australia and does not cost more than a local call.  An-on site interpreter can also be requested through the telephone service.104 

      4.2.2 The United States

            

      Like Canada, the U.S. has a large and increasing immigrant population. According to American census data, the number of people who do not speak English, also referred to as ��Limited English Proficiency�� (LEP) individuals, has increased by approximately 14% since 1990, and currently totals 47 million.105

       

            

      In the United States, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, coupled with the Department of Justice federal guidelines for implementing Title VI of the Act, requires ��recipients of Federal financial assistance, including most State courts, to provide meaningful access to their programs and activities to LEP individuals��106

      In addition, state and federal courts have held that: 

      ��providing an interpreter may be necessary to ensure an LEP defendant��s Sixth and Fourteenth Amendment rights to confront adverse witnesses, participate in his or her own defense, and to effective assistance of counsel, as well as to ensure fundamental fairness under the Fifth Amendment��s due process clause.107  

            Standards of accreditation, demand for interpreters, and the availability of funding have all impacted the extent to which various states have been successful in implementing court interpreter training and recruitment programs.  In an effort to meet constitutional requirements for court interpretation services, a federal grant program of approximately $15 million over five years has been developed to improve state court interpreter programs.  A strategy often used to tackle a lack of qualified court interpreters is to create interpreter ��pools�� that can be accessed across jurisdictions.  Resource sharing, and collaborative testing and administration, have allowed states to more effectively access interpreters for languages of lesser diffusion and for specific dialects.108 

            The Consortium for Language Access in the Courts

            The Consortium for State Court Interpreter Certification (now known as the Consortium

      for Language Access in the Courts) was established in 1995 as a result of a collaborative effort by four states (Minnesota, New Jersey, Oregon and Washington) and the National Centre for State Courts to better utilize resources by creating common standards for identifying proficient and qualified interpreters. 

            The Consortium has developed common interpreter examinations to allow courts to standardize testing of court interpreters.  Some states, such as California, use the Consortium exams in addition to their own state exams.  While ��[l]ow passing rates reflect high testing standards maintained by the Consortium,��109 the number of qualified court interpreters is limited. As a result, some interpreters are qualified by the Consortium��s standards and others are qualified by state court interpreters�� exams, which may be more or less demanding depending on the state.110 

            Presently, the Consortium includes 40 states.  Thirteen states have also adopted mandatory continuing education in addition to the interpreter requirements identified by the Consortium.111 
       
       
       

      Table 2:

      Summary of Innovative Approaches to Addressing Gaps and Challenges  


        Innovative Approaches Advantages Disadvantages
        Developing and implementing training, testing, accreditation and certification programs for

      court interpreters

      Trusted, skilled, qualified court interpreters 

      Compliance with constitutional requirements for quality interpretation according to Supreme Court decisions 

      Avoidance of litigation for failure to comply with constitutional requirements 

      Fairer, more just trials, with fewer wrongful convictions or failures to convict the guilty

      Resource intensive -  significant time, cost and human resources are required to develop, implement and maintain training, testing, accreditation and certification programs    

      May result in increased pressure on court budgets 

      Demand for qualified court interpreters may increase at a rate greater than can be met 

      Resistance to change from some may need to be managed

      Contracting interpreter services through a centralized organization Trusted, skilled, qualified court interpreters. 

      Standard approach to service delivery, including

      policies and procedures for providing court interpreters; orientation for court interpreters; a database for locating, hiring, scheduling and paying court interpreters; a code of ethics; a standard complaints system 

      Improved access to quality court interpreters 

      Increased knowledge about and efficiency in providing quality court interpreters  

      Accessibility to some court interpreters may actually decrease as a result of greater demand and competition for their services  

      Unique approaches to service delivery may be required in some court locations  

      Resistance to change from some may need to be managed

      Using technology such as videoconferencing and teleconferencing to provide court interpreters 
      Improved access to court interpreters in remote court locations, at court counters and in court connected programs and services  

      Reduced travel and safety concerns for

      court interpreters

      Reduced quality –

      visual cues (facial expressions and body language) may not be clearly transmitted.

      May be limited to providing consecutive interpretation 

      Resource intensive – costs to install and provide human resources to train staff and maintain functional equipment.

      Resistance to change from some may need to be managed

       

            Alaska

      Alaska has implemented a unique approach to providing interpreter training through the establishment of the Language Interpreter Center in 2008.  This organization is funded by state government agencies and health and non-profit organisations, including the United Way and domestic abuse centres.  The Language Interpreter Center administers state-wide interpreter testing, sponsors workshops on interpretation services, and provides pools of qualified interpreters for government, individual and community needs.112 
       

      5.0 Summary and Conclusion 

            In many parts of Canada, the demand for quality court interpretation services is rapidly increasing in line with Canada��s diverse multilingual population.  At the same time, the constitutional standard for providing quality court interpretation services is being interpreted by Canadian courts.

            In Tran, the Supreme Court of Canada established standards for court interpretation services regarding continuity, precision, impartiality, competency and contemporaneity.  However, the Supreme Court stated that these standards apply only to accused in criminal proceedings, and do not necessarily have broader application. While the constitutional right to an interpreter in criminal proceedings includes a high degree of linguistic and procedural understanding, the application of this right in other court proceedings, in court-connected programs and services and at court counters is unclear.  Moreover, there are limited regulations and other procedures in place to put these standards into practice.

            Failing to provide quality court interpretation services is costly. Crown prosecutors in some provinces and territories reported convictions being set aside or proceedings stayed because of an inability to provide quality interpreter services in court proceedings. In some jurisdictions, civil litigation has been commenced to seek compensation for an inability to access quality court interpretation services.

            Through both survey responses and telephone interviews, some court staff responsible for arranging interpreter services told us they would welcome a strategic planning initiative for improving court interpreter services, and that this planning initiative should be as broad as possible, including stakeholders such as all government agencies that require interpreter services, institutions that provide education and training for interpreters, and accreditation agencies.  As well, we heard of the desire for more centralized approaches to providing interpreter services in jurisdictions with no centralized interpreter services, and for more inter-jurisdictional cooperation.  For example, because the Immigration and Refugee Board is one of Canada��s largest users of interpreters of foreign languages, there are opportunities for cooperation between the IRB and individuals employed in provincial and territorial court services.

            Only a few jurisdictions across Canada have established accreditation standards, training programs and manuals for court interpreters. These jurisdictions face challenges associated with locating and scheduling a limited number of qualified court interpreters who are willing to work for regulated rates that fall below competitive market rates.   

            In many parts of Canada, geographical and regional barriers make providing interpreter services in remote court locations difficult. This situation is compounded by the need to adjust to rapidly changing demographics and the increasing salience of languages and dialects of lesser diffusion.

            This White Paper has identified some innovative approaches and best practices for providing quality court interpretation services both within Canada and abroad. For example, British Columbia, Ontario, Nunavut and Newfoundland and Labrador have developed or are developing accreditation standards or training programs. Australia has implemented a nation-wide centralized system for accrediting interpreters for the entire public sector, along with a user-friendly web page to assist in locating accredited interpreters.  Many jurisdictions across Canada are beginning to use teleconferencing or videoconferencing technology on an ad hoc or pilot project basis to provide interpreter services for languages of lesser diffusion and in remote court locations. Several jurisdictions in the United States routinely employ videoconferencing technology to provide court interpretation services.   

            Individuals collaborating on this White Paper have come to learn that, rather than adopting one particular approach, a broad range of innovative approaches and best practices for providing quality court interpretation services may be used to address the demand for quality court interpretation services, and the challenges associated with providing these services in court locations across Canada.


      1 Court connected programs and services ��include any program or service�� to which a court refers cases on a voluntary or mandatory basis, including any program or service operated by the court.��  Center for Dispute Settlement (Washington, D.C.) and The Institute of Judicial Administration (New York, N.Y.), National Standards for Court-Connected Mediation Programs, at iv, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://courtadr.org/library/view.php?ID=509.  Examples of court connected programs and services include: mediation, diversion and law information.

      2 The ACCA Research Committee developed terms of reference for the project during the summer of 2009. We anticipate the creation of a web site with information supplemental to the White Paper, accessible through the secure ACCA web site, that will contain links to information such as the terms of reference and the questionnaire.

      3 Professor Greene was the Coordinator of the Graduate Diploma in Justice System Administration program from 2001 to 2009, and Director of the Master of Public Policy, Administration and Law Program from 2006 to 2009.  Professor Bazowski is the current Coordinator of the Graduate Diploma in Justice System Administration Program, which has provided students to do research for ACCA on several occasions.

      4 The questionnaire was developed by the students, with input from Professors Greene and Bazowski, to collect the information outlined in the terms of reference.

      5 The survey was initially available for response from October 19 to 30, 2009; however, the window for completion was later extended to November 13, 2009 to facilitate a more inclusive data set.

      6 SMEs were also provided the opportunity to answer survey questions by telephone with a graduate student. SurveyMonkey.com Software Application Services is an online survey tool created by the SurveyMonkey.com Corporation in the United States. SurveyMonkey.com facilitated a collaborative construction of survey questions and allowed the survey to be easily distributed to SMEs across Canada. SurveyMonkey.com was not used to summarize and analyze research findings because the number of responses from each jurisdiction was varied and some SMEs expressed concern about completing the survey online for privacy reasons and instead provided their responses in a Word or PDF document. Rather, a master matrix was created using Excel to capture and summarize the data. The privacy policy and other information about SurveyMonkey.com is available online at http://www.surveymonkey.com.

      7 Although one or more survey was completed from each jurisdiction, the survey was not always complete because the respondent sometimes did not have access to all the survey information requested. In these cases, the results of the Juror Witness Interpreter Ad Hoc Survey, completed by many jurisdictions in 2008 and available on the secure ACCA web page, provided useful supplemental information.

      8 In most Canadian courts, both the federal and provincial governments have some constitutional responsibilities.  However, the courts established by S. 101 of the Constitution Act, 1982 (Supreme Court of Canada, Federal Court, and Tax Court), are administered by the federal government, and judges of these courts are appointed and paid by the federal government.  These courts are known as ��Section 101 courts��.

      9 Chinese languages represent 3% of Canada��s mother tongue populations, following French at 22%, and English at 58%. Statistics Canada Census 2006, accessed on  January 18, 2010 at http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97-557/Index-eng.cfm. 

      10 M.J. Norris, ��Aboriginal languages in Canada: Emerging trends and perspectives on second language acquisition,�� Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 11-008, accessed on November 18, 2010 at http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2007001/pdf/9628-eng.pdf. 

       

      11 For example, the Criminal Code, s. 650 (1), states ��an accused other than a corporation shall be present in court during the whole of his trial.�� The Criminal Code of Canada, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46 , s. 650(1).

      12 Qu��bec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, R.S.Q., c. C-12, s. 36.

      13 [1916] 1 K.B. 337 (C.C.A.), as cited in  R.v. Tran [1994] 2 S.C.R 951.

      14 As cited in R. v. Tran [1994] 2 S.C.R 951 at pg.18, per Lamer C.J.

      15 Canadian Bill of Rights, R.S.C. 1985, App.III, s.2(g).

      16 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982, s.14.

      17 Cormier v. Fournier, 1986 CanLII 92 (NB Q.B.), accessed on February 12,2010 at www.calii.org/en/nb/nbqb/doc/1986/1986canlii92/1986canlii92.html.

      18http://www.canlii.org/eliisa/search.do?language=en&searchTitle=Search+all+CanLII+Databases&sortOrder=relevance&searchPage=eliisa%2FmainPageSearch.vm&text=interpreter+&id=&startDate=&endDate=&caselaw=courts, accessed on February 12, 2010.  This result was achieved by limiting the search to court cases in which ��interpreter�� appeared in the description of the issues raised.  To determine the number of appeal cases, an advance search was conducted limiting the type of court to an appeal court.

      19 R.v. Tran [1994] 2 S.C.R 951.

      20 Tran, op. cit. at pg. 31, per Lamer C.J.

      21 Tran, op. cit. at pg. 14.

      22 Tran, op. cit. at pg. 30.

      23 Tran, op. cit. at pg. 42.

      24 Tran, op. cit. at pg. 44.

      25 Consecutive interpretation occurs after a number of words have been spoken.  Simultaneous interpretation occurs while the person being interpreted is speaking.

      26 Tran, op. cit. at pg. 46.

      27 Ibid.

      28 It is important to note that a party does not necessarily have to invoke s. 14 in order to have the benefit of an interpreter.  The Court ruled that ��[a]s part of their control over their own proceedings, courts have an independent responsibility to ensure that those who are not conversant in the language being used in court understand and are understood.�� Further, substantiating need should not be a difficult step, and ��courts should be generous and open-minded when assessing an accused person��s need for an interpreter.��  Tran, op. cit. at pp. 34-35.

      29 Tran, op. cit. at pp. 33-34.  When a case is not being ��advanced,�� a proceeding occurs that is ��merely in respect of some collateral or extrinsic matter, such as an administrative issue relating to scheduling.��  (p. 47)

      30 R. v. Rybak, 2008 ONCA 354 (CanLII), 90 O.R. (3d) 81; 233 C.C.C. (3d) 58; 171 C.R.R. (2d) 306; 236 O.A.C. 166, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.canlii.org/en/on/onca/doc/2008/2008onca354/2008onca354.html.  The Supreme Court of Canada denied leave to appeal in the Rybak case in January 2009.

      31 R. v. Sidhu, 2005 CanLII 42491 (ON S.C.), accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.canlii.org/en/on/onsc/doc/2005/2005canlii42491/2005canlii42491.html. 

      32 Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Court File No. CV-07-03 708-CP, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://cacounsel.com/Statement_of_Claim.PDF.

      33 Wyllie v. Wyllie (1987) 37 D.L.R (4th) 376 1987 CLB 865, 4 A.C.W.S. (3d) 183, 30 C.R.R.181. 

      34 Marshall v. Gorge Vale Golf Club et al. 39 D.L.R. (4th) 472 1987 CLB 748, [1987] B.C.J. No. 1299, 7 TLWD   713-035, 5 A.C.W.S. (3d) 382, 35 C.R.R. 188.

      35 Wyllie v. Wyllie (1987) 37 D.L.R (4th) 376 1987 CLB 865, 4 A.C.W.S. (3d) 183, 30 C.R.R.181.

      36 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, art.14(3)(f).

      37 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 213 U.N.T.S. 221, art.6(3)(e).

      38 Supra. note 4.

      39 The Council web site can be accessed at http://www.cttic.org/mission.asp.

      40 In this paper we use the term ��visual language�� to refer to sign language, as well as  the various types of interpretation methods that are used by interpreters for the deaf, deaf-blind, and hard-of-hearing, such as American Sign Language, English mode signing, CART (computer-aided, realtime translation of spoken language into text by using a stenotype machine, notebook computer), and so on.

      41 The Provincial Court of British Columbia,  Practice Direction:  Access to the Court for Lawyers and Articled Students who have a disability, issued by the Hon. Hugh C. Stansfield, Chief Judge, on January 4, 2008, at para. 3.

      Accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.provincialcourt.bc.ca/downloads/Practice%20Directions/Prac%20Direction-Access%20to%20the%20Court%20for%20Lawyers%20%20Articled%20Students%20who%20have%20a%20disability.pdf . 

      42 Alberta��s immigrant population from outside Canada has increased by 42% since 2002 and in 2008, 24,195 immigrants entered the province.  Citizenship and Immigration Canada, ��Facts and Figures 2008:  Immigration Overview,�� accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/menu-fact.asp.

      43 Alberta Regulation 123/84.

      44 Government of Alberta, ��Alternative Communications Policy:  Access to Government Public Publications, Meetings and Services,�� accessed on January 28, 2010 at http://www.seniors.gov.ab.ca/PremiersCouncil/AltComm/AlternativeCommunications.asp.

      45 Government of the Northwest Territories Justice, ��Court Interpretation in the Northwest Territories,�� 2010, p. 1.

      46 CanTalk is a telecommunications service provider offering interpretation assistance 24/7. More information is available online at http://www.cantalk.com/index.htm.

      47 ��Court Interpretation in the Northwest Territories.�� Op. cit., p. 2.

      48 The ATIS web site can be accessed at http://www.atis-sk.ca/.

      49 Quality Court Interpretation Survey.

      50 Section 23 of the Manitoba Act (33 Victoria, c 3 (Canada)) which brought Manitoba into Confederation in 1870, reads as follows:

      Either the English or the French language may be used by any person in the debates of the Houses of the Legislature and both those languages shall be used in the respective Records and Journals of those Houses; and either of those languages may be used by any person, or in any Pleading or Process, in or issuing from any Court of Canada established under the Constitution Act, 1867, or in or from all or any of the Courts of the Province, The Acts of the Legislature shall be Printed and published in both those languages.

      From 1890 to 1985, the Manitoba Government did not apply s. 23, but in 1985 the Supreme Court of Canada, in a series of decisions, ensured that s. 23 would be adhered to in the future.  See Ian Greene, The Charter of Rights (Toronto:  Lorimer, 1989), pp. 194 ff (also available on Google Books at http://books.google.com/books) and Reference Re Manitoba Language Rights, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 721.

      51 Source:  email communication from a senior official in Manitoba Justice - Courts Division, December 18, 2009.

      52 ECCOE was established in 1982 as an independent interpretation referral service for the Deaf community as well as others in need of interpretation services.  It has since grown to become one of the largest interpretation referral services in Manitoba, and it receives funding from a variety of sources.  See the ECCOE web site, accessed on February 16, 2010 at http://www.eccoe.com/index.cfm.

      53 Language Bank, Winnipeg Manitoba, ��Language Bank and Frequently Asked Questions,�� accessed on January 18, 2010 at  http://www.immigrantcentremanitoba.com/pdfs/languagebank.pdf.

      54 Ibid.

      55 Nunavut Arctic College, ��Program and Courses-Interpreter Translator��, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.arcticcollege.ca/programs/ProgramView_eng.aspx?ProgramID=037.

      56 Ontario, Ministry of Attorney General, ��How to Request a Freelance Interpreter,�� accessed on January 18, 2010 at www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/courts/interpreters/faqs.asp.

      57 S. 133 of the Constitution Act, 1867 ((U.K.), 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3.) states:  ��Either the English or the French Language may be used by any Person in the Debates of the Houses of the Parliament of Canada and of the Houses of the Legislature of Qu��bec; and both those Languages shall be used in the respective Records and Journals of those Houses; and either of those Languages may be used by any Person or in any Pleading or Process in or issuing from any Court of Canada established under this Act, and in or from all or any of the Courts of Qu��bec.  The Acts of the Parliament of Canada and of the Legislature of Qu��bec shall be printed and published in both those Languages.

      58 A link to this document is included on the web site with supplemental materials for the White Paper.

      59 The language of record is either English or French.

      60 The James Bay and Northern Qu��bec Agreement, accessed on February 10, 2010 at http://www.gcc.ca/pdf/LEG000000006.pdf. 

      61 The Northeast Qu��bec Agreement, accessed on February 10, 2010 at http://www.atns.net.au/agreement.asp?EntityID=2044.

      62 The Order��s web site can be accessed at:  http://www.ottiaq.org/index_en.php.

      63 Guide �� l��intention des interpr��tes judiciaries.  The Interpreters�� Guide is a detailed document that not only describes the interpreter��s role and responsibilities (from conduct to dress code), but also provides a thorough description of the court system and the various proceedings in the province with end-of-chapter knowledge questions.  A link to the Interpreters Guide is included on the web site with supplemental materials for the White Paper.

      64 The web site for the Bureau is: http://www.gnb.ca/0099/Translation/index-e.asp, accessed on February 10, 2010. Interpreters for languages other than French or English are hired through the Department of Justice Court Services. 

      65 The web site for the Corporation can be accessed at:  http://www.ctinb.nb.ca/english/index.php.

      66 SOR/2002-156.

      67 Ibid, Rules 11(2) and (3).

      68 1985, c. 31. (4th Supp.)

      69 Rule 31. SOR/98-106.

      70 Ibid.

      71 Ibid.

      72 Supra note 16.

      73 The Critical Link- A Journal Dedicated to Interpreting in the Social, Health Care and Legal Sectors, Issue 2, February 2004, accessed at http://www.criticallink.org/files/JournalFeb9.pdf on January 18, 2010.

      74 National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators, ��Telephone Interpreting in Legal Settings,�� accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.najit.org/Publications/Position%20Papers/Telephone%20Interpreting.pdf.

      75 See the description of the interpreter services provided by the East Boston Neighborhood Health Centre (accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.ebnhc.org/services.interpreter.php).

      76 See Eldridge v. British Columbia (Attorney General), [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624.

      77 M.J. Norris, ��Aboriginal languages in Canada: Emerging trends and perspectives on second language acquisition,�� Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 11-008, accessed on November 18, 2010 at http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2007001/pdf/9628-eng.pdf. 

      78 Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council, ��By-laws�� 1992, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.cttic.org/publications.asp.

      79 http://www.fit-ift.org/, accessed on February 10, 2010.

      80 Supra, Note 77.

      81 Supra, note 62.

      82 Supra, note 77.

      83 The IRB centres are in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Vancouver and Calgary.

      84 Data for this research is from a 2004-05 study commissioned by the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada to assess best practices (in program management, recruitment and accreditation, orientation, and quality assurance) and an interview with the National Coordinator, Interpreter Program, about current practices.

      85 Ibid.

      86 Australia examined the IRB model before implementing its national database through the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI). See 4.1 A Canvass of the International Landscape below.

      87 Lynn A. Fournier-Ruggles, ��Establishing An Interpreter Program,�� in James L. H. Sprague, Administrative Agency Practice  Vol. 2, No. 4, (Toronto:  Carswell, October 1996),  92.

      88 National Coordinator, Benchmark Review of Interpreter Programs, ��A Study in Best Practices in Canadian Jurisdictions with Large Banks of Interpreters, Immigration and Refugee Board - 2004-05.��

      89 Ibid.

      90 Ibid.

      91 Pricewaterhouse Coopers, ��Audit Of Immigration And Refugee Board Of Canada Regional Offices, Corporate Management And Services Branch,�� May 2008, ch. 3.2, accessed on January 28, 2010 at http://www.irb.gc.ca/eng/disdiv/audver/reg/Pages/index.aspx#32.

      92 Ibid.

      93 The top ten languages interpreted in IRB proceedings are shown in the web site of materials supplemental to the White Paper.

      94 National Coordinator, Benchmark Review of Interpreter Programs, op. cit.

      95 The IRB worked with the then Department of Employment and Immigration Canada, the Department of Secretary of State, the Public Service Commission and the Attorney General��s Office for Ontario to develop the first Interpreter Accreditation Test in the early 1990s.  Fournier-Ruggles, op. cit., 94.

      96 Text of the UDHR available from the United Nations web site, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Introduction.aspx.

      97 National Coordinator, Benchmark Review of Interpreter Programs, op. cit.

      98 Available on the IRB website, accessed on January 28, 2010 at www.irb-cisr.gc.ca.

      99 Ibid.

      100 Ibid, p.12.

      101 Ibid, page 12-13.  **More information needs to be provided about the complaints process.

      102Web site for the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI), accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.naati.com.au/an-index.html.

      103 Ibid.

      104 Ibid.

      105 Conference of State Court Administrators, White Paper on Court Interpretation: Fundamental to Access to Justice, 2007, 12, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://cosca.ncsc.dni.us/WhitePapers/CourtInterpretation-FundamentalToAccessToJustice.pdf .  The Consortium��s White Paper was instrumental in completing this project.

      106 Ibid.

      107 Senate of the United States, 110th Congress, 2nd Session, Calendar No. 932, Report 110-436, ��State Court Interpreter Grant Program Act: report together with minority views,�� Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 2008, retrieved on November 16, 2009 at http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_cong_reports&docid=f:sr436.110.pdf.

      108 Conference of State Court Administrators, White Paper on Court Interpretation, op. cit.

      109 Ibid.

      110 Ibid.

      111 Ibid.

      112 Alaska Immigration Justice project. Language Interpreter Centre, accessed on January 18, 2010 at http://www.akijp.org/LIC%20Newsletter.pdf.

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