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Full text of "The Japan Christian year-book"

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THE JAPAN

CHRISTIAN YEARBOOK

"969-1970


.


CO-EDITORS

RYOZO HARA

JAMES COLLIGAN

IAN MACLEOD


THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY OF JAPAN

(Kyo Bun Kwan)
Tokyo, Japan


Circulation, Sales, and Copyright

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The Japan Christian Yearbook
for 1969-70 is a continuation of the
\Japan Mission Yearbook (1903-1910)
the Christian Movement in Japan,
Formosa and Korea (1911-1932), and
the Japan Christian Yearbook (1950-1967).


EDITORIAL COMMITTEE

Co-Chairmen: In Ha Lee, Tadayoshi Tamura,

Stanley Manierre, James McElwain

Ryozo Kara
Francis Uyttendaele
Helen Post
James Colligan
Ian MacLeod


This Japan Christian Yearbook
for 1969-70 is issued under the joint
auspices of the Japan National
Christian Council and the National
Catholic Committee of Japan


Japan National Christian National Catholic

Council Committee of Japan

5-1, Ginza 4-chome 10-1, Rokubancho

Chuo-ku, Tokyo Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo

Japan Japan

Tel. (03)-567-7566 Tel. (03)-262-3691


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Editorial 1

PART I

TODAY'S ISSUES

1. Issues Confronting the Japanese Christian Today

(a) Toru Takakura 7

(b) James Colligan 21

2. Nationalization of Yasukuni Shrine and Freedom of
Religion

Hisashi Aizawa 34

3. Understanding the Seventies

Robert Epp 63

4. Peacemakers

Reiko Matsuoka 98

5. Student Trends in Present Day Japan

Keiji Kuniyasu 124

6. Towards True Identity: An Analysis of "Christians"
During Three Eras

Toshikazu Takao 132

7. The Future of the Christian University in Japan
Peter Takashi Sakamoto 152

8. The State of the Ecumenical Movement in Japan
Chitose Kishi 173

9. Present Day Okinawa and Japan's Future

Chosei Kabira 186

10. The Christian Pavilion at Expo '70

Paul Pfister 218

PART II

PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY
I. Church Headquarters . 229


II. Christian Schools: Universities and Junior

Colleges 248

III. Headquarters of Protestant Mission Boards and

Societies in Japan 260

IV. Christian Youth and Student Work 284

V. Social Work

(1) Central Organizations 295

(2) Settlements 298

(3) Women's and Children's Homes 303

(4) Homes for Rehabilitation of Women 305

(5) Medical Institutions for Tuberculosis 306

(6) Homes for the Elderly 308

V. Hospitals 314

VI. Foreign Language Churches 320

VII. Publishers 323

VIII. Mass Communication Agencies 332

IX. Others 33T

X. Statistics 388

Note: The Protestant Missionary Directory is not included in this
issue of the Yearbook. Your attention is directed to the
Protestant Missionary Directory, published by the Japan
Evangelical Missionary Association, 1 Kanda Surugadai 2-
chome, .Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Telephone: 294-0597.

PART III
CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY

1. Church Headquarters 341

Central Administration
Local Administration

2. Christian Schools 345

Seminaries

Universities and Junior Colleges


3. Christian Institutions 352

4. Christian Social Institutions 355

Hospitals 355

Clinics 359

Orphanages (by diocese) 361

Homes for the Elderly 370

Institutions for Handicapped Children 374

Settlements 376

5. Christian Publishers 376

6. Mass Communications 378

7. Mission Boards, Orders, Societies of Men 379

8. Mission Boards, Orders, Societies of Women 386

9. Statistics of Catholic Church in Japan 398

Japan Catholic Directory can be ordered through the National Catholic
Committee of Japan, 10 Rokubancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Tele
phone: 262-3691/3.

PART IV
IN MEMORIAM

Protestant Missionaries 411

Catholic Missionaries 423

LIST OF AUTHORS AND TRANSLATORS . . 428


INDEX OF ADVERTISEMENTS

BOOK-STORES

Maruzen Co., Ltd 288B'

CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS

Catholic Frees Center 288A'

Christian Literature Crusade 288A'

Concordia-Sha 288Y

Covenanter Bookroom 288E'

Japan Bible Society Front Cover Page 2

Kirisuto Shinbunsha (The Crist Weekly in Japan) 288 Y

Kyo Bun Kwan (The Japan Christian Quartely)

Back Cover Page 6

Nippon Seikokai 288Z

Seibunsha 288X

Seisho Tosho Publishers 288W

The United Church of Christ in Japan 288V

CHRISTIAN SERVICE AGENCIES

Christian Federation of Childhood Education 288D'

Inter Mission Service Yugen Kaisha .... Front Cover Page 3

Japan Commission on Christian Literature 288V

Japan Sunday School Union Front Cover Page 5

Kiyosato Educational Experimental Project

Front Cover Page 1

Mojin Dendo Kyogikai 288K

Nakatomi Restaurant Chain (YMCA Restaurant) 288E'

Women's Christian Temperance Union of Japan 288E'

Tokyo Union Church Front Cover Page 10

Tozanso Back Cover Page 7

The Korean Christian Church in Japan 288D'


EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Aoyama Gakuin University 288A

Baika Gakuen 2880

Bunka Fukuso Gakuin Front Page 4

Doshisha Kori 288Q

Fukuoka Jogakuin 288L

Heian Jogakuin 288R

Hiroshima Jogakuin 288M

International Christian University 288C

International English Language School . .Front Cover Page 6

Izumi Junior College 288J

Japan Christian Punior College 2881

Japan American Conversation Institute 288T

Joshi Gakuin 288K

Keisen Jogakuin 288L

Kinjo Gakuin 288O

Kobe School of the Japanese Language 288U

Koran Jogakko 288S

Kyoritsu Bible School for Women 288P

Kyushu Jogakuin 288T

Kwansei Gakuin 288D

Meiji Gakuin 288B

Miyagi Gakuin 288H

Momoyama Gakuin 288E

Nippon Rowa Gakko 288R

Obirin Gakuin 288H

Osaka Jogakuin 288R

Palmore Institute 1 288M

Poole Gakuin 288U

Sakura no Seibo Gakuin 288Q

Sei Kei Shin Gakko 288S

Sewa Woman's College for Chistian Workel-s 288J

Shoin Joshi Gakuin 288T

Shokei Jogakuin 288S


IX

'Soen Gakuen 288P

St. Michael's International School 288N

St. Michael's School 288Q

Tamagawa Gakuen 288G

Tamagawa Seigakuin 2880

Tokyo School of the Japanese Language . . Back Cover Page 1

Tokyo Union Theological Seminary 2881

Tokyo Woman's Christian College 288F

Tsurukawa Rural Institute 288P

Yokohama Kyoritsu Gakuen 288N

Yokohama School of the Japanese Language 288U

MEDICAL SERVICES

American Pharmacy Back Cover Page 5

Kinugasa Hospital Back Cover Page 4

Omi Brotherhood, Ltd 288F'

Tokyo Sanitarium Hospital Back Cover Page 2

Dr. H. Shingai (Dentist) Back Cover Page 3

Dr. Taro Takemi Back Cover Page 3

MISCELLANEOUS

Aloha Company, Ltd Back Cover Page 5

Gallery Nichido Front Cover Page 8

Kyo Bun Kwan Jigyosha Back Cover Page 5

Marsh & Mclennan Far East, Ltd Back Cover Page 4

Shinkenkai Engineer's Office Front Cover Page 7

PRINTERS

Aiko Printing Co., Ltd 288C'

Shinko Printing Co., Ltd 288C'

PUBLISHERS

Vaccari's Language Institute Front Cover Page 9

Western Publication Distribution Agency (YOHAN) ...288B'


X

TRAVEL AGENCY

Overseas Travel Service Front Cover Page 11


EDITORIAL

For what are Japanese Christians hoping and praying as
they face the year 1970? This question received special
attention in the preparation of this issue of the Yearbook
which marks the 25th year since the conclusion of World
War II. 1970 will present the Japanese nation and people
with numerous and perplexing international issues, notably
the scheduled reassessment of the Japan-America Mutual
Security Treaty and the related problem of the reversion of
Okinawa from American to Japanese control.

Having accomplished a remarkable postwar recovery,
Japan today manifests a comprehensive economic maturity in
her position as the only industrial nation in Asia. But the
accelerated rate of economic growth has created imbalances.
Strains and pressures have developed in all areas of civic
and private life. The Japanese nation finds herself pulled
by opposing forces of feverish development and restful re
trenchment. Her citizens simultaneously experience well-
being and weariness.

The nation's youth, especially in the universities, are
perplexed at existing social and political contradictions. Re
peatedly, for more than a year, they have resorted to extra
ordinary group action, with consequences extending even
into their homes. The entire scope of Christian life in
Japan is affected by the contagious spread of current critical
problems.

The Yearbook editors have chosen the topics of the 1970
issue with a view to conveying candidly to the Christians of
the world the situation which envelops Christians here. We
have enlisted writers we consider most aware of the problems.
Our policy aimed not at uniformity of standpoints and
opinions. Rather, since consensus in evaluating present
problems would fail to portray realistically the existing


2 EDITORIAL

situation, we chose to present views and emphases and
interpretations expressed by a variety of Christians. Their
views cover a broad spectrum ranging from moderate to
radical. We believe this approach useful in informing our
readers of the varied viewpoints within the Japanese Church.

To this end, the contents treat numerous topics. One
unifying theme recurs throughout: the prayer that peace may
become a reality. Japan, an island nation, sails a sea divid
ing East and West, on a course conveniently central to
north and south. Her mission, she believes, is the actuali
zation of world peace, in accord with «the wording of her
Constitution. The 1970 World Exposition (EXPO '70) has
been planned as an opportunity to emphasize this position to
the whole world.

The Church in Japan continues aware of her weighty
responsibilities. While economic prosperity is desirable in
itself, it has had an adverse effect in increasing the material
ism of the populace. Interest in things of the spirit has
declined. The crime rate has risen. The Church is widely
ignored. In their attempt to alter the undesirable aspects
of the trend, Church leaders are reappraising their own
organizational structures and undertaking self-reform, not
excluding efforts to establish greater solidarity with other
religious groups in Japan. The concept of ecumenism here
extends beyond the familiar Western brand of inter-Christian
relationships, to one which encompasses other religions. The
pluralism of the Japan religious scene makes this a logical
development for the Christian who desires to further an
understanding of Christianity through association with those
unacquainted with it.

The Yearbooks Directory section was compiled in accord
with a new policy. We have attempted to make readily
available to our readers pertinent information and statistical
data of both Catholic and Protestant churches. Suspecting
the imperfection of this initial attempt, we invite criticism


EDITORIAL 3

and suggestions for greater thoroughness in future issues.
We gratefully acknowledge the generous cooperation received
from the Christ Weekly and from information channels of
the Catholic church. Inadequacies in the Directory however,
are in no way attributable to them.

We have accelerated the publication of this issue with
the intention of making it available to the reader before
Christmas. Expecting 1970 to be an indicator of the future
for Japan and surrounding Asian nations, we want to provide
information which may aid in understanding developments
as they occur. We believe strongly that this period of crisis
necessitates a fuller awareness of the problems confronting
all Christians. We pray it proves an occasion for attaining
deeper mutual understanding, that we might all realize the
abundance of our communion in Christ.

Finally, the editors appointed to produce this issue of the
Yearbook wish to express deep gratitude for the opportunity
it has afforded to work together since last year, in harmony,
mutual confidence and a sense of unity in Christ which trans
cends distinctions of Catholic and Protestant.

September 1969 The Editors


PART I
TODAY'S ISSUES


ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE
CHURCH TODAY

by

Torn Takakura
General Secretary

of
The United Church of Christ in Japan

Translated by
John W. Krummel

I. Introduction

Almost ten years have passed since the centennial celebra
tion of the beginning of Protestant missions in Japan. These
ten years have brought about a complex of bewildering
changes in our country. On the occasion of advancing into
the second century of mission, the National Christian Council
and various churches and denominations carried out a number
of commemorative activities. Significant among these was
the Fundamental Policy on Mission Consultation held during
the years 1960-1961 by The United Church of Christ in Japan
(Kyodan) of which the author is a member. The consulta
tion was the Kyodan's first opportunity to investigate tho
roughly the situation of the church and of evangelism during
the past 100 years and especially during the period since the
end of the Second World War. It was in this consultation
that the Kyodan's Fundamental Policy on Mission was brought
forth. From that time the formation of church polity has
been pursued, and mission and service in the world have been


8 TODAY'S ISSUES



developed, on the basis of this policy. The central concern
of the Fundamental Policy on Mission is the renewal of the
church. The orientation revealed in it is not unique to the
Kyodan but expresses a concern common to all churches in
Japan. With this policy as a guide, I will consider issues
confronting today's church, concentrating especially on those
related to the clergy and the laity.

II. The Clergy

The confusion of the post-war years and the pro-Chris
tian policy of the Occupation brought many people to the
weak Japanese churches which were still suffering from the
ravages of war. Not only the city churches but also small
churches in rural areas suddenly revived and membership in
creased tremendously. However, with the Korean War as a
turning point, church membership increase slowed down and
with but few exceptions remained on a plateau. In some
cases it even declined. In these years the church faced not
only the quantitative problem of accomodating the sudden
increase in membership, but more seriously, the qualitative
problem of its inner life. It is an open question as to what
extent the churches, constitutionally weakened before and
during the war, were qualitatively strengthened in the period
immediately after the war.

Soon after the war the several obstacles to the evan
gelization of Japan were scrutinized from various angles.
This in itself wras a contribution. However, the fundamental
study of the very nucleus of evangelism, the church itself,
was completely inadequate. Therefore, it was quite natural
that concern for the renewal of the church developed as an
orientation in the early years of the present decade.

The direction in which the Fundamental Policy on Mis
sion points is correct. However, its focus is wrong. It
stresses, rightly, the role of the laity in mission. Certainly


THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 9

we cannot hope for the Gospel permeation of the masses in
the midst of today's rapid urbanization without the partici
pation of each lay Christian. However, what must be
considered before this is the situation of the clergy who
have the responsibility for training the laity for their parti
cipation in mission. It is no exaggeration to say that the
clergy are essential to the renewal of the church. I have
stressed this point from the time when the Fundamental
Policy on Mission was first formulated. However, since
becoming directly involved in the work of the Kyodan's
Committee on Evangelism four years ago and, as a result,
having had increasing opportunity to visit churches all over
Japan, I have become even more convinced of this.

We must first improve the quality of the clergy if we
are to have a church strong in mission and involved in true
service to the world. The clergy are, in a broad sense, part
of the people of God. However, they are also those especially
called and set apart for mission. In other words, they are full
time officers of the evangelistic corps of the laity in the
church militant.

Today, voices lamenting the difficulty of evangelism are
heard continuously. However, evangelism is not necessarily
difficult. Not to speak of war, man is endangered today by
the public hazards accompanying rapid urbanization and the
spectacular technological revolution, and the degeneration
brought about by the consumption boom. Man has a deep
thirst deep within him. He is searching for something. The
problem is that stones are thrown at those who seek bread.
In this kind of age, as indeed in any age, there is no more
demanding call than that to be a proclaimer of the Gospel.
However, we have attempted to relax the demanding nature
of this call. We clergymen must reflect on the extent to
which we have neglected to take seriously the almost un
bearable burdens which are given along with the promise of
glory to the evangelist.


10 TODAY'S ISSUES

We often hear these days from the laity about lack of
confidence in the clergy. Church members, being ladies and
gentlemen, do not express this candidly, face-to-face with
the pastor. However, at retreats of the laity this problem
often comes to the surface in small group discussions. For
the first time, the Kyodan held a study retreat for lay
leaders, in Karuizawa in the summer of 1967. Church board
members, women's society officers, youth fellowship officers,
and church school teachers gathered from all over Japan. The
most pressing issue which emerged there was that of the
relationship between the clergy and the laity. It was a sur
prising coincidence that in all four of the sub-groups, the
difficulty of establishing solidarity between clergy and laity
was raised as a major concern. We must frankly recognize
that it is we clergymen who are hindering the spread of the
Gospel today.

There are no other men placed in as dangerous a situa
tion, and as susceptible to corruption, as are church pastors.
Protected from the rough seas of the present age, surrounded
by 20 to 30 laymen filled with good will, confined to the
dialogue of the in-group, the pastor is ruined. There are
too many churches which lack the predisposition to nurture
their pastors. Especially unfortunate is the fact that young
men right out of theological school are often sent to such
churches. It would be strange if they weren't spoiled in
such situations.

In order not to become trapped in the parish, the pastor
must have opportunity for the stimulation found in group
study with his fellow clergy. Among the clergy, authoritarian
figures have become rare. Post-war pseudo-democracy has
invaded the churches as well as other institutions of society.
Especially in the case of a church like the Kyodan, which has
but a short history as a united church, where each local
church enjoys a large degree of autonomy, there is the danger
that relationships will remain shallow, that fellowship will be


THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 11

but socializing. It is very unfortunate today that young
pastors have no senior clergy willing or able to give them
firm guidance. Today, emphasis on the training of the clergy
must be given priority in any policy on evangelism. If we
do not do this, there is danger that the renewal of the church
will never even begin.

The Kyodan established a ten-year plan of evangelism on
the basis of the Fundamental Policy on Mission. In 1967,
the first five years of the plan having come to an end, the
Evangelism Committee carried out an evaluation. As a
result, we realized that those places that had made evange
listic progress (and this not simply in terms of numbers)
were places in which the solidarity of the pastors had been
firmly established. Power for renewal of the church is
created out of the solidarity of the clergy, which in turn is
born out of the fellowship they experience as they unite in
mutually stimulating Bible study. In places where the
solidarity of the clergy has been achieved, there are good
leaders who serve to unify the group. It is necessary to
think of the appointments of the clergy with this in mind.
Although the system may be one in which the local churches
call the clergy (as it is in the Kyodan), it is important to
consider the development of a system which makes possible
the mutual training of the clergy. In addition to such on
going activities as group Bible study, special opportunities
for training need to be provided. The pastor is exhausted in
his isolation. It would be effective to create opportunity for
intensive study periods of one to three months, either in a
theological school or a research institute. Up to now the
Kyodan has had an annual summer seminar of seven to ten
days for its pastors. This has been effective in its own
way. However, I believe more intensive study opportunities
are necessary.

Today there are too many cases in which the clergy are
compelled by economic necessity to engage in outside work.


12 TODAY'S ISSUES

It is necessary to establish a guaranteed minimum salary
and pension system immediately. The Japanese church, espe
cially since the end of the war, has received enormous amounts
of aid from overseas churches. However, today it is nearly
at the point of financial independence. In order to achieve
complete financial independence, the more or less unplanned
expansion of activities in recent years may have to be cur
tailed, at least for the time being. However, I believe that
the financial guarantees suggested above can be realized if
we concentrate for a period of time on the improvement of
the quality of the clergy, and if we impress upon the whole
•church the importance of this.

The problem of the theological schools is related to that
of the clergy. When we think about the church of tomorrow,
the theological school inevitably becomes a focus of concern.
After the war the church was so busy re-ordering its
structure that it could not give enough attention to the
education of those who would be the leaders of the church
tomorrow. Trusting the theological schools, the church was
predisposed to leave the education of its future leaders
completely up to the schools. Because of their disillusion
ment with the war experience, many capable young men
entered the theological schools immediately after the war.
It is from among these that many of the outstanding
clergy of today have come. Their period of theological study
was that of the materially difficult days of the immediate
post-war era. Today they are doing good work in various
parts of Japan. The problem appears with the generation
which followed them.

In spite of the sincere efforts of those who are responsible
for the theological schools, it is questionable whether or not
vigorous training of the kind which will give birth to the
church of tomorrow is being carried out in today's theological
schools. Recently a professor in the theological department
of a certain university described the following situation. The


THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 13

theological department is giving passing grades to a number
of students who, if they were enrolled in any other department
of the university, would surely be failing on the basis of
academic ability. High academic achievement is not the
only requirement for an effective clergy. However, it is
necessary for today's pastor to have a level of knowledge,
culture, and competence in his own professional area at
least equal to that of other university graduates. The
problem lies, not only at the door of churches which lightly
recommend to the theological schools students who do not
have the ability to pass the entrance examinations of other
departments in the universities, but also at the door of
theological schools which admit these students simply in
order to have full enrollments.

Living faith is fundamental in the life of the clergy.
However, in addition to this, leadership qualities are demanded
of today's evangelists. It would be preferable for students
to enter professional theological schools after completing their
undergraduate studies. It is not likely that the student right
out of high school, or the church which sends him forth, can
make the right decision about his future vocation. It is not
without reason that we find among our most outstanding
theological students today those who have changed their
professional objectives and entered theological schools, after
graduating from non-theological courses of the university, or
in mid-course.

It is very difficult to change the present university
system. However, the theological schools must concentrate
more on a liberal arts or humanities type of education which
ought to be the foundation of theological training. Dormitory
life needs to be improved too. I believe that strict training
in the areas of daily life, spiritual life, and academic life
must be carried out in theological school, and that the student
must grow into a new type of piety appropriate to life in.
our day.


14 TODAY'S ISSUES

The local church pastor is likely to fall prey to the
psychology of the big fish in a little pond. In order for the
church to realize its mission in the world today it must
strengthen that internal unity given in its Lord. The
solidarity of the clergy is necessary to undergird this. The
seed for this type of fellowship ought to be planted during
theological school. One man responsible for a certain theo
logical school tells me that because the theological school,
as presently constituted, cannot give satisfactory attention
to the spiritual training of the student, this is being largely
left up to the churches of which the students are members.
This is a shirking of responsibility on the part of the
theological schools. Certainly, faithful participation in the
life of a local church is a necessary prerequisite for the
theological student. However, there are very few local
churches that can provide that special type of training
necessary for the theological student. At this point the
theological schools, because of their limited enrollments, are
particularly fortunate. The student must have spiritual
training as well as academic training. There is no doubt
that the academic level of teachers in the theological schools
is much higher than if was before the Second World War.
However, there is a lack of those who can or will give
pastoral guidance to the students.

What then is the proper relation between the church and
the theological schools which have such a great responsibility ?
Each of the theological schools is an independent educational
juridical person and has its own tradition. However, since
mission in Japan is not yet fully developed, there should be
a more intimate interaction between the schools and the
church. We have to search for a system in which the voice
from the field of mission is more adequately reflected in
theological education. Moreover, as for the continuing-edu-
cation of the clergy, it is desirable that an effective and
appropriate policy be based upon full communication with the


THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN j5

responsible organs of the Kyodan and other denominations,
rather than simply developed unilaterally by the theological
schools. The theological schools, which take as their primary
mission the nurturing of evangelists, cannot satisfactorily
fulfill that mission without the support of the church. The
deep prayer and active support of the whole church is neces
sary for the success of the theological schools which have a
heavy responsibility for the church of tomorrow.


Translator's note:

The system of theological education in Japan differs
somewhat from that in North America. The term "theological
school", as used here, does not indicate a three-year post
graduate professional school. The Japanese system is a four-
year undergraduate course in theological studies, plus a
two-year graduate course leading to the equivalent of a
Master of Arts degree. The orientation of his training
throughout tends to be more toward the academic than the
professional.

The Japanese system of theological education can be
understood only within the context of the larger university
system. The Ministry of Education does not accredit any
post-graduate schools independent of a four-year college or
university. Specialization in all disciplines in the university
begins early. The liberal arts, or humanities, tradition is
relatively weak in Japanese higher education. Transferring
from one college or department to another, either within the
university or outside of it, is very difficult. In many cases
it is necessary to begin again as a freshman. The entrance
examination hell in Japan is well known. However, not only
are some universities more easily entered than others, some
departments within the same university are easier to enter
than others. It is common knowledge among Christians that
entrance requirements of the theological colleges or depart
ments are the lowest in the whole university system. This


16 TODAY'S ISSUES

leads to the state of affairs where a significant proportion of
the students in a college or department of theology have no
intention of entering a church-related vocation. This, as well
as the fact that enrollment figures include undergraduates,
needs to be taken into account when evaluating any statistics
about Japanese theological schools.

It should also be pointed out that there is only one
theological school directly related to the Kyodan. This is
the Tokyo Union Theological Seminary, which includes a four-
year college and a graduate school. There are, however,
several other theological colleges, or departments within
larger universities, historically related to particular deno
minations which united to form the Kyodan. A number of
these schools are recognized by the Kyodan as places at
which its clergy may be trained. These schools are inde
pendent as the author points out, each having its own self-
perpetuating board of trustees. They are not church-related
in the strict sense of the word, and consequently are not
directly amenable to church control.

End of Translator's Note


III. The Laity

The following three points relevant to the problem of the
laity are found in the evaluation of the first half of the
Kyodan's Ten- Year Plan of Evangelism mentioned above.
(1) The lay movement is becoming more active. However, it
has not yet reached the point where the laity is the nucleus
of evangelism. In this regard, the leadership role of the clergy
needs more study. (2) It has not yet been adequately under
stood that the layman's witness in his place of work and his
role in the formation of the church are one and the same.
(3) In order to nurture the layman for life in the world,


THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 17

the church must develop a theological understanding of the
Christian's role in society and clearly express this in the
contemporary confession of faith.

Point 1 questions the leadership of the clergy. We have
discussed this above. Professor Imon Fujio of Tsudajuku
University has often pointed out that Japanese Protestantism,
in contrast with the New Religions, has a very narrow front
line of evangelism. If the laity who are in daily contact with
non-Christians are not made the front line of evangelistic ad
vance, the Gospel will be forever shut up in the small group
of middle class intellectuals and will never penetrate the
masses who are the victims of the various contradictions of
today's society. We must reject the pastor-centered church of
the past and fully realize that the bearer of the church, and
the preaching which is its mission, is the whole people of
God, including both laity and clergy. It is especially important
today to stress that the church is the body of Christ, and
that each individual called into the church is an indispensable
part, bearing his own unique call to mission, and particularly,
as Paul points out in I Corinthians 12:22-23, that we cannot
get along without those parts of the body that seem weaker.
The laity are not the hands and legs of the clergy. They
are the indispensable limbs of Christ. No matter how weak
the limb may appear to be, it has been called to mission by
Christ himself. It is for the realization of this that the
pastor must serve.

The second point, which deals with the overcoming of the
division between one's church life and one's life in society,
has a deep relationship with the problem discussed above.
The witness in one's place of work mentioned here is not
limited simply to holding Bible study groups at the place of
work, or visitation evangelism, or direct evangelism through
home meetings. These ought to be understood in the cate
gory of the layman's role in the formation of the church. The
witness in one's place of work is to show forth through one's


18 TODAY'S ISSUES

daily work the style of life appropriate to one who shares in
the blessings of Christ. We must reflect on the point that
the church has thus far tended to stress only those aspects
which have a direct relation to church life, and within its
own fellowship has not pursued vigorously the question of
how the layman as Christian is to live concretely and specifi
cally in his place of work. In the midst of struggling with
problems which he confronts in his daily life, if he does not
surrender to escapism, he often comes up against insurmount
able limits. He is forced to stand in a place where he has no
alternative but to pray. Pastoral care must be enlarged until,
in the midst of a world of work and overflowing with con
tradiction, faith has gained its role and love has borne fruit.
When church life and daily life are geared together as the
wheels of a car, then the Gospel will gradually permeate the
rocky soil of Japan.

In regard to point three, the witness which occurs in our
daily life will probably involve us in political problems. On
the basis of the peoples' sovereignty set forth in the post-war
constitution, we who are at once Christians and citizens have
a responsibility for politics. The kind of attitude which claims
that politics is too corrupt or too difficult for amateurs is,
in effect, a political stance with serious implications. The
believers being the bearers and nucleus of Christian mission
must have correct judgment and action in their various
places of work. Their involvement in politics will be to the
end of promoting the kind of politics that protects mankind,
which God so loved that He gave His only Son for it.

The various involvements of Christians in society cannot
be separated from what the people of God, as the nucleus of
the proclamation of the Gospel, ought to be. Christ himself
preached the Gospel, instructed his disciples, and served the
people. All these works comprise the mission entrusted by
Christ to the Church, His body. This mission which includes
the work of service, teaching, and preaching must be taken


THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 19

up by the laity themselves. They are the bearers of the
Christian mission. The contemporary confession of faith
must be clarified for that purpose, as is pointed out in the
last part of point three. The question of precisely what it
means to live confessing the faith in such an age as this
must be faced and thoroughly discussed.

At the present time, various committees on issues related
to mission are cooperating in work on this problem. Diffi
cult as it is, they are aiming at an orientation by which the
people of God can live by faith, creatively and vigorously in
the midst of this age.

IV. Conclusion

I have dared to limit my discussion here to the problems
of the clergy and the laity, realizing that it is one-sided to
discuss issues confronting the Japanese church today without
considering the question of church structure. Moreover, the
issues relating to the clergy are of such a crucial nature
that, in dealing with them in detail, I have been unable to
treat adequately issues relating to the problem of the laity.

I should like to conclude with a personal observation.
When the history of the Japanese church, which has but
recently entered its second century of mission, is set in the
perspective of the 20 centuries of world Christian history, it
becomes clear that the Japanese church is still in its pioneer
period. In light of this, why is it that signs of the early
stages of old age are already seen in the Japanese church, at
a time when even a wild and violent spirit of evangelism is
demanded? Once a church building is built and the local
congregation is able to stand on its own feet, all its energies
are poured into maintaining itself, and it ends in the estab
lishment of a small, in-grown, self-satisfied clique. The
church lacks that vigorous impact on society which the
Christian pioneers of the Meiji era had. I cannot but regret


20 TODAY'S ISSUES

the lack of a posture of dedication to the Gospel, free of self-
concern, which would be the result of a clergy and a laity
electrified by the formative power of the revolutionary Gospel
hidden in the Bible.

Daily reflective Bible reading in the midst of the problems
of busy harried lives is neglected. When highly advanced
Biblical interpretation is not digested but simply passed on
in its raw state, it is easy to create distrust in the Word of
Life itself. Simple reading of the colloquial Bible will
suffice. We need to start a movement for daily Bible reading.
It is fine to read the many books about Christianity but the
most important thing for both clergy and laity is to live
personally in intimate contact with the Bible. If we do not
have that energy given by the water drawn directly from the
well-springs of life we will not be able to overcome the
paralysis of today's church, nor can we have much hope for
the church of tomorrow.

I repeat that I do not believe today is necessarily an
especially difficult time for evangelism. This is an age in
which it is difficult in every field of endeavor to find the
trump card. In spite of the superficial splendor of our age,
its foundations are unstable. When the clergy and the laity
unite in forming a firm battleline and fight, being enlivened
by the word of the Bible, they cannot help but give light to
this confused nation. Thus the Japanese church, in spite of
its small numbers, will advance as a church capable of con
tributing to the renewal of the world-wide church.


James P. Colligan

Christian baptism does not make a Japanese less Japa
nese. Nor does it free the individual from concern over the
many problems facing his fellow countrymen. If anything,
it adds new responsibilities and new issues to a list already
long. Hopefully, it also provides new principles of action
.and new priorities.

Without exaggerated alarm, the year 1970 approaches
with a foreboding of crisis not easily matched in Japan's
recent past. The Japanese Christian senses this. His share
in his nation's future depends greatly on what he and his
countrymen do in resolving the issues arrayed against them.
Political issues, pure and adulterated, stand prominently
among these. Some have international dimensions, others
national.

Add to these the issues more immediately related to religion
and belief which the responsible Christian must seriously
consider. Some involve his church's relation to the society
in which he lives and works. Others pertain to his own
posture within the church, and concomitant personal loyalty
to Jesus Christ.

Confronted with these issues, the majority of the Japanese
utter a prayerful and recurring theme: peace, peace, peace.
World peace, social peace and peace of soul. But real or
imagined injustices fester and foster continued unrest.

The United States-Japan Security Treaty, scheduled for
renewal, revision or rejection in 1970, is the sputtering fuse
of the year's crises. The U.S. argues the necessity of
adequate security measures to protect Japan and other Asian


22 TODAY'S ISSUES

nations from agression. She maintains that Japan has the
capacity for shouldering much of the burden. To do so,
Japan would have to undertake a military build-up, and
allot the required budgeting to facilitate it.

Japan, generally speaking, shies away from the sugges
tion. She believes a role of strict neutrality will best protect
her and qualify her to advocate world peace emphatically.
Her Constitution, with its anti-war clause, supports argu
ments of this persuasion. She decries power politics and
desires a policy of non-involvement.

Some, not excluding Japanese citizens, consider this a
head-in-the-sand idealism, a refusal to face geopolitical facts.
Moreover, they somewhat cynically observe that Japan's
phenomenal economic growth owes a nod of gratitude to both
the Korean and the Vietnamese conflicts. Idealism did not
forestall profit-taking, they suggest. The real explanation
for Japan's hesitancy is the euphoria which developed with
her high standard of living, they say. Since defense costs
may lower this standard, Japan hopes to avoid these costs.

In any case, the American presence in Japan, and
especially on Okinawa which is still under U.S. control, con
stantly reminds the Japanese that a bitter war in Vietnam
receives logistic support from military bases on their own
soil.

Worse still, Japan feels the hot breath of two hulking
neighbors who take a view of the Vietnam conflict contrary
to that of the U.S. Russia, though harassing Japanese fishing
boats in northern waters and while making no diplomatic
concessions, currently smiles in friendly fashion toward Japan.
China continues her brooding introspection. Recent border
incidents between the two giants send tremors of apprehension
down this island chain. North Korean rumblings intensify
the reaction. With or without the American presence, Japan
may have to decide whether she can afford not to take sides.

In international trade, Japan is under fire from the West


ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 23

for alleged sluggishness in lowering trade barriers and in
welcoming foreign capital investments. Often a cause of
international friction, protectionism presents another set of
issues for the Japanese to resolve, after weighing her own
economic desires against her responsibilities in the commu
nity of nations.

Internally, the political situation reflects the concern
over foreign affairs. The electorate appreciates the continu
ing national affluence, and has refrained from ousting the
incumbent Liberal-Democrats lest that trend be jeopardized.
More importantly, voters in sufficient numbers apparently
suspect that the opposition Socialists, Communists and Clean
Government parties have no feasible program, foreign or
domestic, which would prove more beneficial to the nation at
this time.

Yet, there has been widespread criticism of the allegedly
high-handed manner in which some bills have been passed
into law. In addition to those who criticize for purely
partisan reasons, critics are of two kinds: those who see the
incumbents as too long ensconced and swaggering with a
confidence which dares ignore accepted norms of procedure,
and those who are too naive to accept the existence of pressure
and power plays within a democratic system. Sympathizers
view legal maneuvering as justifiable, indeed as the only
acceptable means of combating the often disruptive methods
resorted to by the opposition factions. Japanese legislators
and public still have adjustments to make in their own brand
of democracy.

Attempts to preserve democratic institutions and pro
cedures carry over into the area of higher education. The
past year has witnessed student demonstrations grow in
creasingly violent in student demand for a voice in university
affairs, and beyond that into governmental decision-making.
Activism, not excluding violence, is the only way they can
obtain a hearing, they explain. They want their rights


24 TODAY'S ISSUES

protected, including the right of self-expression.

University authorities have been patient, often sympa
thetic, even overly permissive, some observers say. Eager
to preserve university autonomy, fearful of government inter
vention and its potential of dictating educational content and
policy as in pre-World War II years, administrators and
faculties have proven a frustrating obstacle for the govern
ment to surmount in controlling organized radical elements
among the students.

Nevertheless, a controversial Law for Temporary Measures
Concerning University Management (University Normaliza
tion Law) was enacted recently (allegedly having been
"rammed" through the Diet by questionable procedures),
intended to enable the strife-torn universities to resume normal
operation, and counteract the barricading of campuses as the
deadline for the Security Treaty renewal approaches. But
1970 may prove to be a blackboard on which is chalked the
future direction of Japan's educational policies. Will the
universities be able to regain what independence they may
have sacrificed to the cause of order in the present crisis?
Or will a trend develop, under whatever political incumbents,
to impose additional restrictions on educational freedom?
Christian educators, parents and students will be involved in
determining this.

Issues of special Christian concern can be arbitrarily
classified under two headings (emphasis here is admittedly
Roman Catholic): Church and State, and the post- Vatican
Council II church.

The question of public financing for Yasukuni Shrine,
where the souls of the nation's war dead are enshrined, has
come to the fore again with the recent proposal that it be
discussed at the legislative level. Christians are among the
groups and individuals who contend that subsidizing Yasu
kuni Shrine contravenes Chapter III, Article 20 of the Con
stitution of Japan, which reads, "Freedom of religion is


ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 25

guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any
privileges from the State. No person shall be compelled to
take part in any religious acts, celebration, rite or practice.
The State and its organs shall refrain from religious educa
tion or any other religious activity." They view this legal
move as an effort to restore Shrine Shinto to prominence as
the official religion, in turn threatening religious freedom.
Even the present arrangement whereby the Imperial House
hold preserves official ties with Shinto invites criticism in
view of the Emperor's position as symbol of the State, they
maintain. On the other hand, precedents abound in other
free nations for government support of shrines to the nation's
heroes.

The Yasukuni case has unique complications. The tradi
tional association, in the minds of the Japanese, of Yasukuni
Shrine with deceased patriotic heroes tends to obviate separat
ing the two. At the same time, the recollection of Shrine
Shinto's preeminence in the militaristic 30s and 40s prompts
many to oppose anything resembling its revival under state
auspices. Proposals offered by parties sympathetic to Yasu
kuni — proposals purported to isolate patriotic from religious
observances at the Shrine — have been received with suspicion,
or at best, with doubt of their feasibility in practice. Japa
nese Christians will have to decide whether the details of the
Yasukuni Shrine subsidization proposal constitute a reason
able, even desirable patriotic proposal in accord with Con
stitutional provisions, or if Shintoism so pervades the
patriotic at Yasukuni as to eliminate the Shrine from con
sideration as the Government-sponsored location of a memorial
to national heroes. With the issue anything less than clear-
cut, Christians will differ in their degree of acceptance or
opposition.

Again in the context of religious freedom, a growing
practice has been observed which poses a potential threat.
For some years now, local officials have extended invitations


26 TODAY'S ISSUES

to church organizations to build and conduct nursery schools
and kindergartens in extensive, publicly financed housing
developments then in the planning stage. The right to conduct
religious services in adjacent buildings and to minister to the
faithful has been tacitly recognized. But recently, contracts
include a clause forbidding all religious activity for the
initial five-year period, under threat of forfeiture of land and
facility, after which time the moratorium on religion may be
reconsidered. Officials maintain that social needs demand
priority, that new residents will have little time for religion
in the immediate future. They indicate that if the church
group will not accept the option and its conditions, others,
perhaps private citizens, will.

Some observers suggest that this restriction by local
officials is motivated less by outright anti-religious sentiment
than by a desire to control the avid proselytizing of Soka
Gakkai (Nichiren Shoshu), the mushrooming sect which con
siders itself a new form of traditional Nichiren Buddhism.
If this is true, the motivation could be political, since Soka
Gakkai has its own political arm, Komeito (Clean Govern
ment party). In any case, for Christians to fight the "no
religion" clause could cause a breach in harmonious relations
between local government and the local church. Failure to
oppose the practice, however, could result in deterring Soka
Gakkai's development today, and Christianity's tomorrow.
For if stipulations like this can be effectively insisted upon
throughout Japan in the name of social welfare and city plan
ning, no religion is guaranteed freedom from local, or
centralized, whims and isms.

Soka Gakkai itself, with its growing political potential,
eventually may prove to be the most serious challenge to
religious freedom in Japan, some believe. Soka Gakkai
leaders deny the possibility and claim they advocate the
individual's right to freely choose his religion. They point
to the banning of their own organization in Taiwan and


ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 27

Korea today, and their suppression in Japan during World
War II, as reasons why they should advocate religious free
dom. And while the sect adheres to a policy of non-coopera
tion with other faiths, incidents indicating disdain of others,
widely attributed to its followers a few years ago, seemingly
seldom occur now. Kiyoaki Murata's recent book, Japan's
New Buddhism, tends to allay the reader's fears regarding
Soka Gakkai. Nevertheless, the notion of this zealous sect,
with its closely aligned political party steadily increasing in
power, remains a cause for concern to some Christians.

Among current social problems of Catholic interest, that
of abortion occupies a prominent place. Without reviewing
here the moral and sociological arguments pro and con, we
note simply that traditional Catholic teaching considers
abortion a grave offense against humanity in the form of the
unborn child. The estimated two million abortions performed
here annually have given Japan a reputation as an abortion
mill. Population planners and profiting medical interests,
among others, have frowned on Catholic opposition to the
practice. It now appears ironical to have governmental
departments expressing fears of a severe labor shortage
nationwide as a result of the low birth rate. Some officials
have hinted at the possibility of government subsidies to
encourage more children per family. Seen from the Catholic
viewpoint, however, the issue remains essentially a serious
moral one, still to be resolved.

Of lesser importance from a Catholic standpoint, yet
worthy in its intent, is Tokyo Governor Ryokichi Minobe's
proposal to outlaw racetracks and racetrack gambling within
his jurisdiction. The fact that the racetrack association
allots a percentage of its income to subsidizing social welfare
institutions, not excluding church-operated ones, provides an
interesting sidelight. The institutions may have to seek their
funding elsewhere.

Less an issue than a current topic of conjecture is Pope


28 TODAY'S ISSUES

Paul VI's rumored visit to Japan during 1970. Reportedly, he
would like to come. An unambiguous, official invitation from
the Japanese Government is a prerequisite. The Government
apparently has entertained certain reservations about issuing
such an invitation: problems of security due to activism related
to the treaty matter; concern that the Pope's presence at this
particular time will be interpreted by some as exerting
undesirable Western influence in Japanese affairs. Never
theless, ostensible occasions include the 25th anniversary
celebration in Hiroshima of the atomic bombing of that city,
a visit to the Christian Pavilion at EXPO '70 in Osaka, and
an international meeting of religious leaders in Kyoto in the
cause of world peace. These contain varying degrees of
acceptability. Should the papal visit materialize, considerable
planning and preparation await Japan's Catholics.

A recurring opinion has latent nationalism reviving in this
country. The nation's economic resurgence and obvious
capabilities of leadership in Asia make national pride and
self-respect inevitable. That this will unavoidably result in
a renewed militaristic stance which entails a threat to other
nations appears unlikely at this time. That it will lead to a
policy of isolationism is also unlikely in view of Japan's
dependence on foreign trade for her economic well-being.
But a growing resentment toward foreigners within the
country, and a desire to limit their movement and activity is
indicated by recent revisions embodied in the Immigration
Control Bill, according to some. Korean and Chinese groups
in particular have objected strongly. While the bill reported
ly aims at closing loopholes whereby illegal immigrants and
others manage to remain here and participate in objectionable
activities, or in activities not consonant with their visa status,
some observers see in the phrasing and administrative pro
visions of the law a lever with which the Justice Ministry
can expel any foreigner without due process. Instead of
ingrown nationalism, however, the more likely direction is


ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 29

one of cooperation with other nations and peoples, as Japan
assumes a greater share of responsibility for peaceful plan
ning and development. Japanese Christians should be ready
to cooperate in such efforts.

Issues internal to the Roman Catholic church in Japan
subsequent to recommendations for change made by the
Second Vatican Council differ only in local coloration from
those experienced by Catholics in other parts of the world.
They have, however, tended to make their appearance felt
in a more gradual fashion, largely due perhaps to the desire
of foreign clergy (still one-half of the total number of
priests) to refrain from disturbing newly baptized parishion
ers, and due to the comparatively limited channels of com
munication through which controversial issues from abroad
reach the Catholic reading public here. Even overseas,
Catholic-sponsored media were often hesitant to discuss
controversies already publicized in the secular press. Then
too, the church in Japan had not the resources to facilitate
prompt changes in liturgy, for example, which other nations
of longer, and pervasively Christian history had: liturgists,
translators, printers . . . and money. Adaptation to indige
nous cultural values so vastly different from anything in the
West presented its own problems.

Consequently, the issues which early caused most dis
turbance were minor ones, like changes in the accepted garb
of priests and nuns. Those earliest involved were inevitably
foreign missioners with access to literature and letters from
their home countries, where changes were occurring at an
accelerated pace. For the most part, the hierarchy, all of
whom had attended the Council sessions, were aware of
arguments for change, and showed understanding of the
situation. But since a change of dress, at least in individual
cases, was immediate and needed no media to publicize it, it
took on an importance far beyond what it deserved. Seen by
some as a denial of justifiable tradition, it posed a threat to


30 TODAY'S ISSUES

orthodoxy in the minds of some members of the clergy and
laity alike. Generally speaking, the groups of religious women
which are predominantly indigenous have been slower to make
noticeable changes than foreign societies, while neckties and
conservatively colored suits have received acceptance in place
of clerical black and Roman collars among both foreign and
indigenous male religious.

More critical are such issues as birth control, religious
vocations, ecumenism and pluralism, parish structure, the role
and function of the clergy, lay cooperation, the diffusion of
Christian doctrine, continued adaptation of Christianity to
Japanese culture and the exercise of authority.

The birth control controversy, which drew worldwide at
tention with the publication of Pope Paul's encyclical,
Human Life, did not precipitate the storm in Japan which it
caused elsewhere, again due to the hesitancy of communica
tions media to inform the public. The secular press, largely
because so few of its readers accept Catholic teaching on the
matter to begin with, simply reported publication of the
document. Catholic vernacular publications, sensing the
inherent controversy, chose not to discuss the issue. A
Pastoral Note of the Japan (Roman Catholic) Bishops' Con
ference encouraged obedience, meanwhile recognizing exten
uating circumstances in individual cases. Serious public
confrontations on the topic never materialized. Many married
Catholics and counselling clergymen still consider the issue
imresolved, if only in their own consciences.

Vocations to the priesthood and the religious life, though
they have not shown a marked decrease in Japan, are never
theless fewer percentage-wise than for some years past. More
noticeable has been the decrease in vocations overseas,
resulting in fewer numbers of foreign missionaries arriving
to supplement the personnel already here. Some observers
anticipate a similar "vocation crisis" among Japanese Chris
tians, who have consistently maintained a high vocation rate.


ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 31

Here as elsewhere, a shortage of priests could eventually
result in the ordaining of reliable laymen to the diaconate,
entrusting them with administrative, educational and limited
sacramental responsibilities.

Ecumenical efforts have shown progress. The cooperation
of Catholics and Protestants to erect a Christian Pavilion at
EXPO '70 deserves special mention. But other activities are
no less important: regular meetings on the parish level and
in private groups, whether among Christian sects alone, or
with Buddhist and Shinto sects and the "New Religions."
The "World Conference on Religion and Peace", scheduled
for Kyoto in October 1970, is expected to highlight the con
tinuing trend in inter-faith activities. Christians are gaining
a new respect for the sincerity of believers in other religions.
They are recognizing the necessity of cooperation in the
attainment of common goals for the betterment of mankind,
without finding it necessary to compromise the basic tenets of
their own faith.

Discussion of parish structures and the role and function
of the clergy are likely to continue. While the celebration of
Mass and the administration of most sacraments will remain
priestly prerogatives, lay participation in liturgical functions
predictably will grow. At the same time, both foreign and
indigenous religious superiors have been assigning personnel
to less traditional jobs in the expectation that their presence
will more directly influence the area of society in which they
are working. A married clergy is less an issue than a
widespread subject of debate, if only unofficially among the
clergy themselves. Accommodation to such a change, should
it eventuate, will involve both economic and organizational
complications.

Methods of diffusing Christian teaching, as well as the
adaptation of Christianity to Japanese manners and mores,
are perennial issues. The relatively small but devout
Christian segment of the population witnesses to the fact


32 TODAY'S ISSUES

that Christianity is not so alien as to be fundamentally
unacceptable. Yet public opinion still considers it something
of a Western intruder. This Western image and the per
petual "'busy-ness" of the Japanese contribute greatly to the
refusal of the populace to study it seriously. The hesitancy
of the secular media to treat religious subjects in depth
further complicate the problem of reaching the people with
Christian news and information. The past year has wit
nessed a noticeable drop in the number of catechumens.

In the religious sphere as in the secular, authority and
its exercise are stimulating much discussion. Some, including
theologians, see the exercise of authority as the vortex of
the numerous issues confronting the church today. Wide
spread democratization in the free world's secular spheres
inevitably exerts an influence on the religious. Dialogue and
greater participation in decision-making represent features
of a democratic society which the necessarily authoritarian
church must eventually adopt, some maintain. Those not in
authority will be expected to carry a greater share of the
responsibility which additional freedom imposes, should
development continue in this direction.

Undoubtedly, the amount of time and energy expended in
recent years by church personnel, both cleric and lay, in their
efforts to update, to renew, to re-think approaches and issues,
has unavoidably curtailed direct missionary and pastoral
endeavors. Certain areas of renewal still lack a satisfactory
solution. Some adjustments remain incomplete. Neverthe
less, a degree of stabilization has evolved, together with an
understanding that crisis means "decisive moment," not
"collapse", and that change need not pose a threat. There
is a readiness on the part of most Christians to do what needs
doing, relying on their faith to assist and support them to
make honest and often courageous decisions in confronting
issues as they arise. Japan's Christians can solve the
apparent enigma raised in Shusaku Endo's novel, Silence:


ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 33

"Why must God be silent during these trying times?" The
answer lies in the dedication of Christians through whom the
Spirit ultimately speaks ... in any nation, in any era, in
any given year.


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE

and
Freedom of Religion

Professor of Sophia University

Hisashi Aizawa, LL.D.

I. The Character of Yasukuni Shrine

"We must console the spirits of those who have met an
untimely death, for if we do not, a curse will come upon
us."

This belief, originating in old folk religion, still exists
today as a part of the Shinto faith.

In 1868 (the first year of the Meiji era), the Shokonsha
(literally, "place to invite souls") was built at Higashiyama,
Kyoto, as a fundamental expression of this belief. The
purpose of the Meiji Restoration Administration in building
the Shokonsha was stated thus: "To console the spirits of
those patriots of the Restoration Era and the souls of those
who died in the Boshin War." With the removal of the
capital to Tokyo the following year, the Shokonsha was
moved to Kudan in Tokyo. In 1879 (twelfth year of Meiji),
the name was changed to Yasukuni Shrine and was elevated
in status to a special Government Shrine.

It would be impossible to give a detailed history of Yasu
kuni here. It can be said that Yasukuni is a product of the
era of Shrine prosperity which began with the Meiji Restora
tion following the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate.


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 35

During the Tokugawa era, Buddhism occupied the position of
a state religion, though a Buddhism already tinged with
Shinto belief and practices. Shrine Shinto had suffered a
decline. But this situation completely changed when the
Restoration administration assumed power. The new admin
istration had some of the characteristics of an absolute
monarchy and therefore began to emphasize the legacy of
the Imperial ancestor's loyalty to the Imperial Throne. This
made it possible for Shrine Shinto to occupy an advantageous
position, and resulted in the decline of the various Buddhist
.sects. The government policy of separating Buddhism and
Shinto resulted in widespread confusion and extremism. It
was during this time that Minatogawa Shrine, deifying
Masashige Kusunoki, was built. It should be noted that
Shokonsha, the model for Yasukuni, was a product of belief
in the supremacy of Shinto after the Meiji Restoration.

The following is a quotation from the Yasukuni Shrine
Magazine: "Yasukuni Shrine was built (by the Emperor) to
express to the subjects the virtue of his unending affection
toward those who died for him. Therefore the subjects
should give their best for the Emperor and for their country,
because it has been made possible by the good offices of the
Emperor."

From this it can be seen that Yasukuni was built not only
for the purpose of comforting the souls of those who died
for the nation, but also to encourage the military morale of
the present and future officers and men of the Imperial Army.
Also, as was natural for this period, Yasukuni was to serve
as an object for the expression of the loyalty of all Japanese
toward their Emperor as the supreme ruler.

Under the old constitution, the Department of the Interior
exercised jurisdiction over shrines, but from the first, Yasu
kuni was an exception and was placed under the jurisdiction
•of the military.

Originally, Yasukuni was not built as a shrine for all those


?6 TODAY'S ISSUES

who died for the nation, since those who fought as rebels;
in the Boshin War, the Byakkotai (White Tiger Party) of
the Aizu clan and the Satsuma troops of the Seinan War,
were never enshrined there. "If you win, your cause is just.
If you lose, your cause is unjust." I think we could say
that both the government army and the rebel army died for
their country while holding a different view or position, and
if Yasukuni was built for all the people, whether government
or rebel, then all the war dead should be enshrined there.

Yasukuni was established only as a shrine for government
forces, loyal to their Emperor and supporting him in his
capacity as Supreme Commander ... in a word, as a shrine
for the military. Its advocates are now insisting on Govern
ment support for it.

The history of the wars in which our nation has engaged
includes the following: 1) The Sino- Japanese War (1894),
2) The Russo-Japanese War (1904), 3) The Manchurian In
cident (1931), 4) The Sino- Japanese War (1937), and 5) The
Pacific War (1941).

The overwhelming number of Pacific War dead who have
been enshrined at Yasukuni ("We will meet each other again
every year in April under the cherry blossoms of Yasukuni")
has brought about tremendous spiritual and psychological
support for a return to the old Constitution's provisions for
government administration of Yasukuni.

II. The Recent Yasukuni Problem

Article 28 of the old constitution seems to be sufficient in
its guarantee of religious freedom, following as it does the
examples of Western countries, "provided the religion does
not disturb the public peace and general welfare or prevent
citizens from carrying out their duties as subjects." How
ever, the imperfections of this guarantee are evident in the
special privileges which were granted to Shrine Shinto, and


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 37

the obligation imposed on the Japanese people to worship at
Shrines. This tendency for Shrine Shinto to be the state
religion became stronger and stronger toward the end of the
«ra of the old constitution. Of course, there is no such thing
as perfect freedom of religion as long as there is in existence
a state religion. Independent believers or atheists do not
want to worship at a shrine. In the past, such people were
•called unpatriotic and were slandered at every opportunity.

This situation was uprooted by the terms of the Postdam
Declaration, since all special privileges for shrines were
abolished. The 110,000 shrines now in existence are all
accorded the same recognition as Buddhist temples or
Christian churches. In theory at least, the separation of
religion and government and the guarantee of freedom of
religion has been accomplished.

But an effort is being made once again to accord special
treatment to Yasukuni. The government is planning to in
troduce a bill, called: "A Bill to Nationalize Yasukuni Shrine".
The bill states its purpose as being: "To recognize the desire
of the nation to express its gratitude and respect to the
spirits of those who died for their country in war, and have
served their nation in government affairs . . ." (Article 1).
The problem is that of using government funds to console their
spirits and to praise their distinguished service.

As to developments leading up to the introduction of this
bill, I mention the following:

(1) At the conclusion of the state of war and the signing
of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, a movement to re-estab
lish the privileged position of the Yasukuni Shrine was
started by a group called the "Urayasu Society," which was
formed in 1955. They began laying plans eventually to in
troduce a bill to nationalize Yasukuni.

(2) Later the Japan Society of War Bereaved began to
cooperate with the Urayasu Society, the former taking the
larger share of the promotion. The J.B.S. decided in 1956


38 TODAY'S ISSUES

to work toward the introduction of a bill for the nationalizing:
of Yasukuni. Since about 1960 the movement has been
gathering signatures and mounting campaigns to get the
government to introduce the bill.

Meanwhile, a move to oppose the bill was beginning,
especially among Protestants. In June of 1967, a group of
interested members of the Diet belonging to the Bereaved
Family Council had planned to introduce the bill, but due to
strong dissatisfaction from the shrines and the Bereaved
Family Society, the introduction was suspended.

In opposition to the bill, a group opposing the revision of
the Constitution had been formed, and together with several
Christian groups, began actively to oppose this effort. A
volunteer group of Christians visited the Diet and questioned
the Nationalizing Committee chairman, vigorously protesting
his plan. In 1967 the largest organization of Protestants, the
United Church of Christ in Japan, had established '"The
Yasukuni Shrine Problem Special Committee," and later an
even wider and more united effort composed of the "Shrines
Problem Special Committee of the Catholic Central Council"
and the "Yasukuni Shrine Problem Committee of the Japan
Baptist Convention" was initiated.

Not only was there opposition from the above-mentioned
groups, but from Buddhist groups also, such as Jodo Shinshu,
Omoto Kyo of the Kyoha Shinto, Maruyama Kyo and Soka
Gakkai, though their positions are somewhat vague. Certain
cultural organizations and societies of the arts and sciences
have likewise gone on record in opposition to the bill. As
of April 1969, political parties who have definitely taken a
stand against it are: the Socialist party, the Communist
party, the Democratic Socialist party and the Komei party,
the last two mentioned being rather weaker in their opposi
tion than the others. In May of 1968, the Japan Buddhist
Association, a nationwide organization of Buddhism (which
does not include Soka Gakkai), decided actively to oppose


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 39

the bill. The opinion of Japanese Buddhism as a whole seems
to be that of opposition to the bill. The Government party
had counted on the strong support of the Japan Bereaved
Society as being sufficient (reportedly they gathered more
than 22 million signatures from all over the nation by
August 1966), and was expecting little opposition to the bill's
passage. But it was surprised by the increasing power of
the opposition, especially when the New Religions Associa
tion, whose main strength comes from Rissho Kosei Kai,
which had supported the Government forces in the Tokyo
gubernatorial contest, announced strong opposition to the
Shrine Bill, in the name of religious freedom.

The result was that the government party was caught off
balance and suddenly intensified its efforts. While professing
to uphold the Constitution, it was putting forth illogical
interpretations of it to achieve its aims. At any rate, it
intends to introduce the bill in the next session of the Diet.
This is the situation as of April 1969.

A word concerning freedom is in order at this point.
Essentially, freedom cannot be given us, as passive recipients,
from without. Freedom must not only be won actively by
the individual, but freedom can only be maintained as we
continually strive to remain free. Article 12, Paragraph 2,
of the Constitution states this in the following words:
"Freedom and individual rights, which are guaranteed by
this constitution, must be maintained by the constant efforts
of the people." In spite of this, we Japanese, generally
speaking, cannot say that we have "fought a good fight" in
this respect, and as a consequence of our insufficient under
standing concerning the essentials of freedom, we have had
a lack of determination in maintaining it. At least this is
true when we compare ourselves with Europeans. This is
true in the matter of the freedom of religion.

Accordingly, a serious consideration of the Yasukuni Shrine
problem gives the Japanese the best opportunity to think


40 TODAY'S ISSUES

about the meaning of religious freedom and what it means to
actually attain it. That is to say, the problem above all is
related to the guarantee of the freedom of religion, which
we will take up later in this article.

III. The Constitution of Japan and Reverence for the
War Dead

It is a natural duty that we should render sincerest grati
tude and respect toward the war dead. Even though they
sacrificed their lives due to extreme national policies, our
duty is the same. To oppose this bill without fulfilling our
duty to the war dead is unreasonable.

Now the key word which appears in the bill, and which
refers to consoling the spirits of the war dead, is a word used
in the Shinto religion. It was carried over from the era
when the two religions, Shinto and Buddhism, existed as one,
and is also found in the vocabulary of Buddhism. Because
it is strictly a religious word (Buddhist- Shinto) expressing a
doctrine peculiar to their faith, we prefer not to use it in
this article. The important thing is how can we most mean
ingfully render our appreciation and gratitude. This is the
problem.

In this situation we are faced with the problem of how
most rationally to obtain our objective.

The essence of the Yasukuni problem is this: how do we
evaluate our Constitution, how do we grasp its meaning?
What is our understanding of what the Constitution has to
say concerning the relationship between the Constitution and
the war dead ?

I would like to point out that the majority of those who
are enshrined at Yasukuni are those who have died since the
Showa era.

If I may state my conclusion now, it is that only within
the provisions of the present Constitution and only by follow-


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 41

ing those provisions to the letter, can we render true homage
and true gratitude to the war dead. This applies to all the
people, but most especially to the ministers of state, the
members of the Diet, our judges and all office holders, who
have been entrusted with the authority of their offices. These
must set an example of upholding and respecting the Con
stitution. Not only should they do this because Article 99
of the Constitution requires them to, but the fundamental
purpose of the Constitution is to provide the basis in national
law for protecting the life, freedoms and rights of the
ordinary citizens against the abuse of power and selfishness of
those in authority. As long as those in authority can use their
authority in a selfish manner, the everyday life of the citizens
cannot be said to be safeguarded.

Another reason for upholding this Constitution is because
it is, in principle, fair and just. That is to say, it is in
accord with the laws of proper government and diplomacy
and is also in accord with the laws of the proper development
of history. There may be some minor defects, but since
sovereignty rests with the people, and its underlying principle
promotes universal peace and esteems fundamental human
rights, it cannot be faulted. Especially do these points stand
•out when we compare it to the old Constitution. The most
important issue concerning this Constitution is not the prob
lem of who wrote it, but whether the contents are good or
bad. It is often said in certain quarters that this Con
stitution was made in America, but in 1951 General Mac-
Arthur said that the insertion of the war renunciation clause
(Article 9) was largely due to a suggestion by Prime Minister
Shidehara. If the contents are good, we should give our
approval, even though some of the work was done by foreign
legislators, and even though the U.S. Government (I do not
say the American people) is among those groups now trying
to change the Constitution.

Finally, let us consider the relationship between the war


42 TODAY'S ISSUES

dead and the Constitution. We will then be able to see that
the Constitution is their precious gift to their beloved country
and to the citizens. Moreover, they sacrificed their precious
young lives for it. More important, this Constitution contains
their prayers for eternal peace, and in this sense it should be
revered. Therefore, rendering honor and gratitude to them
should be in accord with the meaning of this Constitution.
It is primarily their experience and realization of the mean-
inglessness and miserableness of war that is strongly reflected
in this Constitution. Also, deeply embedded in this Constitu
tion is the enormity of the guilt of our past war policies
against Far East nations, especially against the Chinese,
which they, through their suffering, experienced on the
battlefield.

The seriousness and the reality of their sacrifice becomes
more apparent, since a war in any era, for whatever reasons,
whether for self-defense or for purposes of aggression, is
without exception evil. This is true because it is impossible
to draw accurately a sharp line of separation between self-
defense and aggression. A war of aggression is often waged
under the label of self defense or in the name of justice. But
all war violates the basic command: "Love your enemies,"
"Thou shalt not kill." In the words of Draus of Vienna,
"War makes a fool of man, for in war, the heroic deed of an
ally becomes a crime when committed by the enemy, and the
one who strikes the first blow always becomes the oppo
nent."

Since future wars will be nuclear wars — though there may
be short-term localized conflicts — they will mean the complete
destruction of humanity and culture. Accordingly, the evil
of war has been increased immeasurably. Pope John XXIII,
writing in his memoirs in 1963, just before his death, said
that in the nuclear age every war becomes evil and there are
no longer wars of justice. This coincides with the meaning
of Article 9 of the Constitution, and the above-mentioned


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 43

statement is a very important one for Catholic churches, which
have been insisting that arguments for a just war are valid.

IV. The Meaning of Separation of Religion and State

The problem of this bill is none other than that of the
Government granting special privileges to one religious or
ganization. In the first place, it plainly violates Article 20
of the Constitution which provides that "no religious organi
zation can be granted special privilege by the nation." Sec
ondly, it violates Article 89 of the Constitution which forbids
"the use of public property for the convenience of any religi
ous organization." Briefly, this bill violates the principle of
separation of religion and government, which is recognized
by many constitutions of modern times.

The great importance of this principle lies in the fact
that it is the indispensable method of guaranteeing religious
freedom, both in its internal and external aspects, and indeed
fundamental human rights. Freedom of religion cannot be
guaranteed unless a separation of religion and government
exists. To be more specific, when a nation gives special
treatment to an established religious organization, it becomes
itself a kind of religious organization, making use of political
power. Then freedom of religion cannot be assured. His
torical facts in all ages and in many nations prove this to be
true.

When we speak of a reasonable separation of religion and
the state, we do not mean a one hundred percent absolute
separation of all worldly authority and the inner life of the
citizenry, for this is an impossibility. It is impossible in any
society, no matter how far advanced its techniques or
how rationally its sciences may be developed. The teach
ing of Soviet Russia that "religion is an opiate," which is
itself a statement of universal religious belief, is a good
example of the impossibility of complete separation of religion


44 TODAY'S ISSUES

and the state.

At the close of the era of the Meiji Constitution, although
the government paid lip service to the principle of the freedom
of religion, in practice it was giving Shinto an increasingly
privileged position, so that Shinto became a kind of state
religion. The principle of the separation of religion and the
state was thereby denied. To select and favor one religion
among many, in this case Shrine Shinto, is clearly unfair.
The principle of the freedom of religion in its essential and
logical meaning declares that all religions should be equal
in status.

The government at that time sought to justify its actions
by the use of the following curious reasoning: "Since a shrine
is a place where homage is paid to the forbears of the
Emperor, as well as to those who have rendered service to
their country, it is different from a religion. Therefore, there
is no violation of the principle of the freedom of religion in
granting special status to a shrine." This kind of inconsis
tency is not unusual for those in authority, when their anti-
constitution bias comes face to face with the Constitution
itself. Their efforts to evade the Constitution are quite
apparent in this sort of reasoning. Although the Constitution
gives great support to the people in the protection of life and
freedom, those in the seat of authority regard it unfavorably
and are seeking possible ways to circumvent it. In this
regard the essence of the modern Constitution is easily
understood.

In any event, neither faithful, convinced believers nor
atheists can sincerely and joyfully worship at a shrine.
During the time when Shrine Shinto was the state religion,
those who refused to worship were oppressed and accused of
being unpatriotic. This resulted not only in mental and
spiritual pressures, but also in social and government dis
crimination in securing employment, in marriage, and in the
treatment of soldiers in the barracks. In the case of the


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 45

Christian who believes the words of the First Commandment:
"Thou shalt have no other gods before me," and "A man is
justified by faith in Jesus Christ without the deeds of the
law," he cannot in good conscience worship at a shrine, even
in the name of national duty, without being inconsistent and
illogical. The freedom of the Christian is violated.

V. The Revival of Ultra Nationalism and the Argu
ments on the Religious Character of Yasukuni

As has been mentioned, after World War II, the policy of
conferring special privileges given Shrines was abolished, and
the separation of religion and government was established.
Eventually, Yasukuni was recognized as an ordinary religious
body under the provisions of the Juridical Persons Law of
1951 and was given the status of Religious Juridical Body,
which it has today. However, once again the attempt to
grant special government privilege to a shrine is being made
through the efforts to nationalize Yasukuni. The reason for
selecting Yasukuni from among many other shrines is that,
since the war dead and others are enshrined there, it is easier
to appeal to the emotions of the people. In any event, it is
the same road we have travelled before. It is not always
true that what has happened once will happen again, but in
this case I fear that it will, and we must always keep this
in mind. Here is an important lesson from history, both
remote and recent, which must be recognized.

The argument that the problem of Yasukuni does not
involve religion, but is only a matter of traditional customs,
goes against all the facts. The reason for calling Yasukuni
a "Shokonsha" (shrine sacred to the spirits of the war dead)
is that services in honor of the war dead were held there.
This belief has not changed. Shinto ceremonies being con
ducted there at present include such expressions as: "Puri
fication Rites," "Soul Inviting Ceremony," "Tamagushi Offer-


46 TODAY'S ISSUES

ing." These cannot be termed merely traditional customs, for
if this were the case, it would mean that they are a part of
our daily life and observed by everyone, such as giving
year-end presents or sending New Year's cards.

One powerful advocate for the nationalization of Yasukuni
insists that we must distinguish between religious activity
aimed at gaining adherents, and religious acts, such as a
simple ceremony or festival. He insists that Yasukuni is not
engaged in religious activity in its usually understood mean
ing and therefore it should be regarded only as a religious
facility. However, in view of Article 3 of the Yasukuni
Shrine Juridical Persons Law, which specifies Yasukuni's
functions as: "services to honor the memory of the war
dead," "making known divine virtue" and "indoctrination of
believers," I think this is religious activity. It is not correct
to call Yasukuni an ordinary religious facility when it is in
fact a religious organization — a religion.

According to this man's argument, since Yasukuni was
forcibly accorded the status of a religion through outside
pressure, (that is, by the power of the Occupation), Yasu
kuni can return to its original status only through nationaliza
tion.

In a word, his argument is that the union of Shrine Shinto
and government is natural and that their separation is
improper. This clearly violates Article 20 of the present
Constitution. Only when the religious character of Yasukuni
is recognized is its true function made known.

From the viewpoint of religious thought in general, as
well as from the scholarly point of view, Yasukuni is indeed
a religion, and to insist otherwise is the same as saying black
is white. It is impossible, by means of the law, to make
something which is illegal become legal.

But of greater importance is the use of government
authority to hand down a momentous judgment concerning
the religious life of the citizens. This is the same as meddling


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 4<

in the private lives of the citizens. Nothing is more foolish
than for government authorities, pretending to be theologians
of the first rank, to intervene in personal religious matters.
It is here that an even deeper meaning of the principle of
the separation of religion and government is to be found.

VI. The Meaning of Religious Freedom: The Freedom
of Unbelief

A rather widely held view on the meaning of religious
freedom, is that of Mr. Gerhard Anschiitz who divides religi
ous freedom into three categories: 1) The freedom to confess
your faith, 2) The freedom to worship, 3) The freedom to
organize a religion. Another view is that of Mr. L.A. Weigle
who makes the following division: 1) The freedom to believe
and be a member of a church, 2) The freedom to believe as
a citizen of the country. I esteem highly this division
because it places strong emphasis on the guarantee of the
freedom of religion from the standpoint of the citizen. As
citizens who have a religious faith and belong to a religious
organization, we also act as citizens, who have the ultimate
sovereignty and the power to determine our form of govern
ment. Of course, we can use our influence in politics and
can criticize the conduct of our government, or, if we so
choose, can reject it.

I would like to elaborate on the third division of the
meaning of religious freedom. The freedom of religious
belief has two parts: the freedom to believe and the freedom
not to believe. True freedom of religious belief functions
first as the freedom to believe. This freedom guarantees the
right of the adherent to believe in a particular religion.
But freedom also includes the right not to believe in a
particular religion, as in the case of a Christian not to believe
Buddhism.

Next let us think about the freedom not to believe in any


48 TODAY'S ISSUES

religion, that is, the freedom of an atheist. If we pursue to
its ultimate basis the theory of freedom, it is freedom of
thought. Freedom of thought is provided for, along with
freedom of conscience, which in Europe often meant freedom
of religion. In this meaning, freedom not to believe can be
included in the freedom of thought rather than in the freedom
of religion. We cannot deny that non-believers have some
attitude toward religion. Understood in this sense, it is
correct to say that the freedom of religion also includes
freedom not to believe.

Those who do not recognize that the freedom of unbelief
is included in the freedom of conscience, say that in the
constitution of Communist countries there are provisions for
the freedom of anti-religious propaganda and the freedom of
conscience.

Unfortunately, this supposition is not always true in
relation to the above-mentioned point. Generally speaking,
from the standpoint of reason and logic, freedom of religion
essentially includes the freedom not to believe as well as the
freedom of atheism. The freedom of religion, in these two
meanings of the freedom to believe and the freedom not to
believe, is already being practised.

Let us apply this definition of religious freedom to the
problem of Yasukuni. The freedom of atheism should be
guaranteed in the name of the freedom of religion because,
strategically speaking, the struggle to solve the Yasukuni
problem involves the formation of a united front between the
convinced believers and the many others who profess no
religious belief.

I am going to take up next the close relationship between
freedom of thought and freedom of speech, assembly and
association. Among ordinary citizens and also among the
members of the progressive political parties of the National
Diet, there are many convinced atheists. For them, religious
freedom is, first, the right not to believe in any kind of


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 49

religion.

VII. Religious Freedom and Other Civil Rights

The freedom of religion as a civil right cannot really func
tion independently in isolation. It functions with the other
civil rights, especially the freedoms of thought, speech,
assembly and association. This is a proven fact from past
history. The freedom of religion, when given concrete
expression by the believer, naturally has to be related to the
freedom of expression. That is, the freedom of religion,
which is guaranteed by Article 20 of the Constitution, is
vitally related to "freedom of assembly, association, speech,
press and all other means of expression," which are guaranteed
by Article 21 of the Constitution. When religious freedom
includes not only the religious freedom of the individual, but
also a person's religious freedom as a member of a church
and as a citizen of the country, then it is religious freedom
in it is true meaning.

What we call the democratic process of government has
been formed and developed in the struggle to attain the
various above-mentioned freedoms. If this be so, religious
freedom was one of the fruits of the development of demo
cracy. The facts of history, both in Europe and America,
prove this point, especially English history since the seven
teenth century. How severely did Fascism, the greatest
reign of terror in the history of humanity, violate religious
freedom! (Refer to my work: Religion and Government in
Modern States, Chapter 4, paragraph 1.)

The situation in Japan was not an exception. When was
it that the road to political democracy in Japan, through
means of national law, was opened widely to all citizens? It
was when the status of the Emperor was changed from that
of a divine being to that of a human being, and the duty
to worship him was abolished. In a word, it was when true


50 TODAY'S ISSUES

religious freedom was guaranteed by the Constitution. During
the era of the Japanese fascists, religious freedom was
severely restricted.

On the surface it would appear that the only problem
directly related to the nationalization of Yasukuni is that of
religious freedom. But in fact, this is only a part of a larger
problem, which is the movement toward the complete anti-
democratization of the country. This movement includes:
rearming Japan, a revival of military conscription, and the
reform of the electoral system which would result in one party
rule. In short, the effort to abolish the present Constitution.
The plan to nationalize Yasukuni is being promoted as an
ideological and psychological movement.

Accordingly, it is a fearful mistake to regard this problem
as merely another sectarian quarrel between Christianity and
Shinto, totally unrelated to the lives of those who have no
religious belief. Some Christians take this position. Also,
if this bill is passed by the Diet, it will be only a matter of
time until the problem of the nationalization of Ise, Meiji
and many other shrines arise. In any case, we can see that
an intimate and vital connection exists between religious
freedom and political democracy.

VIII. Concerning the Sincerity of the Motive for
Introducing the Yasukuni Bill

Was the bill prepared only for the purpose of expressing
national sentiment and paying homage to the war dead?
According to Article 1 (in the bill as finally presented on
April 18, 1968), the national sentiment is described in the
following words: "The national sentiment should publicly pay
homage and respect toward the souls of the war dead and all
those who died in the service of their country."

Is it right to assign only this one meaning to expressing
the national sentiment? Of course this is one aspect of


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 51

"national sentiment." However, we cannot ignore the fact
that there are national sentiments which differ from these.

A war widow who lives in Yamanashi said, "My husband
who died in the war is definitely not at Yasukuni." A
Tokyo war widow said, "If the word Yasukuni sounds
pathetically and heroically beautiful to some people, I feel
as a surviving wife, that they are already strangers to the
bereaved." These sentiments are also one expression of the
national sentiment. It can also be said that these sentiments
are very close to the spirit of the peace constitution. But
even if this sentiment were that of a minority, which it is,
it must not be ignored. In the final analysis, there are many
varieties of national sentiment. To say that the sentiment
mentioned in the law is the unified sentiment of the nation is
unreasonable.

If this was the true motive for introducing the bill, it
would more appropriately have been introduced sooner. But
this bill is being introduced at a time when the Government
has on its hands the serious internal problem of the renewal
•of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty. It is being introduced
during a time when nationalism and the necessity for national
defense is being emphasized. Behind all this, some larger,
ulterior political intention can be seen.

If the motive for preparing this bill is sincere, a more
appropriate method should have been taken. For example,
one good proposal is to erect a tomb for the unknown war
dead, placing in it a portion of the remains of the war dead
representing all those who died in the war. It should be free
from all religious implications, above all religion, sectarianism,
and denominationalism, a project in which all the citizens
could participate. For this purpose, why not enlarge the
Chidorigafuchi tomb in honor of the war dead, which was
completed in 1959 with the Emperor attending the completion
ceremonies ?

But there is strong opposition to this idea from the shrines


52 TODAY'S ISSUES

and from the Association of Bereaved Families, who insist
that; Yasukuni alone should be maintained for this purpose.

The abandoned remains of countless numbers of war dead
are still to be found in Southeast and especially South Asia.
The collection of their remains is both technically and
economically a most difficult undertaking. But considering
the problem of how completely we wish to express our homage
to the war dead, we should first promptly and more earnestly
solve this problem.

IX. The Ideology of the Advocates of the Bill (1)

The main point of the thinking of those who advocate
nationalization of Yasukuni is, first of all, that it is possible
to favor religious freedom without being in favor of separation
of religion and the state. This reveals their lack of knowledge
concerning the principle that religious freedom cannot be
guaranteed without a separation of religion and government.
One of the most influential advocates of nationalization says,
"Countries in which religious freedom is provided for by the
constitution, but have no provisions concerning the separation
of religion and the state, are the countries where a kind of
union of religion and the government exists."

The already-mentioned proponent is referring to the
article compiled by the Ministry of Education, entitled "The
Text of National Constitutions Concerning Religious Freedom"
(1955), which says: "There are people who claim that in
modern states the separation of religion and government is a
universal principle. But when we compare the constitutions
of several countries, this is not true. To the contrary, coun
tries having separation of religion and government are
fewer in number. Countries with a state religion, including
those having a semi-state religion, number 35, as compared
with 24 having absolute separation of religion and the state.
Because the number of countries having absolute separation


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 53

of religion and state is fewer, it is therefore incorrect to
say that this is a universal principle."

I intend to show that his conclusion about the number of
countries having separation of religion and the state being
fewer is incorrect. Correct or incorrect, the argumentation
of this advocate of nationalism is faulty if it is meant to
indicate that numerical superiority determines the rightness
or wrongness of the matter. The important thing here is not
how many countries have this system but whether this system
is best suited for the country and its citizens. When making
reference to an institution of a foreign country, the first
consideration should be a concrete examination of the rela
tionship of the institution to the country's historical, social
and cultural conditions. Just because a foreign country has
such an institution, it does not follow that Japan must have
the same system. The foreign country has the institution
because of its own peculiar situation. In Japan the circum
stances are different. Therefore a different approach should
be taken.

The arguments of the aforementioned proponent of the
bill come from a misreading of the pamphlet completed by
the Ministry of Education. Acutally the number of countries
having separation of religion and government exceeds 24.
For in the same pamphlet, just a few lines later, there is a
list of 22 countries under the heading "Countries with Religi
ous Freedom." These are: Belgium, Holland, Switzerland,
India, Nationalist China, Communist China, Czechoslovakia,
Poland, Turkey, Brazil, Ceylon and some others. In the
constitutions of these countries, the actual wording, "separa
tion of religion and government," is not used, but in some of
these countries separation of religion and government is
actually being practised. (As one example, please see my
article on the Belgium Constitution of 1831 (Fukuin to Sekai,
May, 1968).

As I said before, countries which have religious freedom


54 TODAY'S ISSUES

are at the same time countries which have separation of
religion and government, and this freedom is guaranteed by
the separation of religion and state. The proponent of the
bill overlooks this self-evident truth.

X. The Ideology of the Advocates of the Bill (2)

The second feature of the arguments put forth by the
proponents for the nationalizing of Yasukuni, is that they
have decided in advance that, not only should Yasukuni be
given special privilege, but also all other shrines as well.

Afterwards they would give their reasoning and arguments
to defend their actions. When from the beginning it is
questionable to give special status, to try to rationalize it is
much more ridiculous.

This proponent contends that a distinction should be made
between religious activity intended to gain adherents, and
those of merely ceremonial significance, the former being a
religious body and the latter a mere religious facility.
Article 2 of the Religious Juridical Persons Law defines the
purpose of a religious body: "The main aims of a religious
body are: propagating a religious doctrine, holding religious
ceremonies, and the indoctrinating and strengthening of
believers." This advocate bases his above-mentioned opinion
on this provision, but he misunderstands the meaning of the
provision. "Propagating a doctrine", concretely expressed,
means "indoctrinating and strengthening believers" and "in
doctrinating and strengthening believers" means "holding
religious ceremonies and events." In other words, the latter
is usually necessary for the sake of the former. These three
things, in a word, are all related to one another. Not only
this, they are all inseparably united.. But this he does not
recognize.

Of course this same article leaves room for discussion,
since there are in it several points which readily invite


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 55

misinterpretation. But the important thing seems to be that
the proponents have presumed that the nationalization of
Yasukuni is an already accomplished fact. Then afterwards,
from the standpoint of their presupposition, they try to win
their argument that Yasukuni is not a religious body by
making a distinction between religious activity and a mere
religious facility.

Let us assume for the moment that this distinction is
allowable. According to the terms of the Religious Juridical
Persons Law, many religious groups which are at present
qualified as religious organizations, would become disqualified
according to his interpretation. Let us consider the situation
regarding the Buddhist temples. Except for some special
sects and temples, they do not carry on religious activities as
he defined that term. At present the main activity, though
not the only activity, of Buddhists temples is conducting
funerals and holding memorial services for the dead.

According to the arguments of this advocate, though the
temple is a religious facility, it cannot be called a religious
organization. This is contrary to the facts. If funeral serv
ices are conducted and prayers for the repose of the souls are
offered, from the Buddhist point of view, these rituals are
religious activities. It is also true that such rituals, from the
standpoint of the original spirit of Buddhism, raise many
questions, even though Gautama and his followers, including
Honen, Shinran, Nichiren, Dogen and the founders of Kama-
kura Buddhism, did not consider such rituals of great concern.

Let us now consider the situation of the Shinto Shrines.
If a Shrine exists at a specified location, then this is where
the devout believer comes to pause before the Torii, and pass
under the Torii and stand before the sanctuary, and quietly
clasp his hands in prayer. He does not clasp his hands
because of the shrine buildings, or because of the beauties of
nature that surround them. He offers his supplication and
his worship to God, and prays for a peaceful daily life,


56 TODAY'S ISSUES

happiness and success. At this place, there is religious
activity with religious effect centered in the shrine. At such
times, it is rare that a Shinto priest would appear, especially
for the purpose of acquiring or instructing believers. In the
rural areas, shrines with regular, full time priests are
numerous.

XL The Ideology of the Advocates of the Bill (3)

The third feature of the arguments of those who favor
nationalization, regardless of whether they are conscious of
it or not, is based on their praise and acceptance of the former
Imperial regime. Instead of recognizing the separation of
religion and government, they approve the uniting of religion
and government. But what religion is it that they anticipate
uniting with the state? It is not one sect of Christianity,
nor one sect of Shinto. It is precisely Shrine Shinto itself.
The Shrine deifies the ancestors of the Emperor and those
who died for the nation. Accordingly it is natural that they
should receive special protection from the nation, these
advocates maintain.

Underlying this is the approval of the old Constitution's
Emperor System and special favoring of Shrine Shinto. The
thing of highest value is closest to the Emperor — this is the
special system of moral values seen here. According to this,
the standard for deciding what is morally good and what is
truth, is proximity to the Emperor. So the nearer a person's
position to the Emperor, the higher his rank as a man, and
the further from the Emperor his position, the lower his rank
as a man. This was the widely accepted system of values
under the old Constitution, and it clashes head-on with the
fundamental principle of the Sovereignty resting with the
people, which the present Constitution upholds.

In that system of ethical values, loving the Emperor was
the same thing as loving the country, because the State and


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 57

the Emperor were one and the same. In the present defense
of the nationalization of Yasukuni, the value of the present
Constitution is ignored. We see this same type of thinking
in the paper published by the Ministry of Education, called
"The Ideal Japanese." That is, "If we direct our respect
toward the Emperor, then we direct it toward our country."
This reveals the lack of understanding of the fundamental
principle of the Constitution, and especially Article 99 of our
Constitution, by those who have a special duty to respect and
protect the Constitution.

As I have stated before, a man may be permitted to
demand his freedom only when he does not interfere with
freedom of others, who also demand freedom. Briefly, we
cannot insist on our freedom at the sacrifice of the freedom
of another. This is applicable concerning religious freedom.
The Shrines, from their own standpoint, insist upon religious
freedom. In spite of this, they are indifferent toward the
religious freedom of other believers. This is brought out
in the following view published by the headquarters of Shrine
Shinto: "To those precious souls enshrined at Yasukuni, who
sacrificed their life for their country, the nation and its
citizens should offer sincere thanks and homage. And all
other Shinto ceremonies should be conducted according to
the principle of religious freedom."

Religious freedom under the old Constitution was inade
quately guaranteed, as we have mentioned before. This
freedom was allowed only within the framework of Shrine
Shinto as the state religion. For those who could not approve
of giving special status to Shrine Shinto, religious freedom
was severely restricted. The above-rcntioned statement by
the head of the Shrines reminds us of the mistaken view of
religious freedom of that day. That is, a religion tied up
with government authority is insisting that it has the pre
rogative to define the limits of the freedom of religion.
When it comes to the matter of paying our respects to the


58 TODAY'S ISSUES

war dead, the spirit of the Constitution must be respected.
Nay, especially then must the freedom of religion, as deter
mined by the constitution, be guarded. This is because the
constitution is a precious inheritance which the earnest desire
of the war dead for peace and democracy made possible for
the country.

XII. The Advocates Views Concerning Religion and
Education

The supporters of the bill make statements concerning
religious education in government schools. They point out
that there are 40 countries which have religious education
in the public schools, and only 15, among them Japan, where
religious education is not taught in the public schools. On
this point they are suggesting that, since the number of
countries where religious education is taught in the public
schools is large, Japan should also have religious education
in the public schools. Again, their main consideration is not
what is the proper course, but what course does the majority
follow. The importance of what is called the principle of
deciding by the majority should not be denied here, but the
numerical consideration should not be the sole deciding factor.

Generally, the most effective foundation for moral educa
tion is religious education. Therefore social education,
especially religious education, has a rather important meaning
in our country, the reason being that religious education in
the home is insufficient. However, the crucial problem here
is the feasibility of effecting proper religious education
through the schools. In the case of mission schools or other
religious schools in which the definite educational aim is in
accord with a particular faith, the problem is not so great.
But difficult problems arise in the public schools, especially in
primary and secondary schools.

The situation in Japan is different from the countries of


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 59

Europe in that we have so many religions, denominations and
sects — between 400 and 500.

For reasons already explained in detail, to give instruction
in each religion, sect or denomination in the public schools is
extremely difficult. From an abstract point of view, religious
education in the public schools is desirable. However, from
a concrete point of view, it is rather impossible to accom
plish. But what about courses in religion, in religious senti
ment and experience, in the history of religion, and in the
lives of great religious leaders? Of course this is not a
simple thing, but it is not impossible and, one might even
say, desirable. However, we can hardly say that this neces
sarily constitutes true religious education.

The proponents, on the one hand, denounce the separation
of religion and state, even as they insist on the necessity of
religious education in the public schools. On the other hand,
they speak of Shinto thus: "It is, in religious terminology, a
national religion (or a racial religion). It enshrines our
Japanese ancestors who contributed to our national welfare.
It is a religion espoused only by the Japanese." At this point
they have already admitted that Shinto is indeed a religion —
the national religion of Japan. When we relate this to their
theory of religious education, their aim becomes more evident.
Although they do not openly say so, when they speak of
religious education in the public schools, which they openly
advocate, their intention is to make Shinto the basis of
religious education.

In my opinion, the religious education which these ad
vocates of nationalization are talking about is most certainly
not religious education based on Chritsianity. Neither can
it be religious education based on the teachings of a parti
cular sect of Buddhism. What they are advocating is religious
education based upon the fundamental thought of Shinto.

Here we are reminded of a textbook published in 1937
(Showa 12) by the Japanese government, entitled, "The


60 TODAY'S ISSUES

Principle of National Status." It expresses the fundamental
idea of Shinto thought. More precisely, the idea of the
divinity of the Emperor in its essential expression was found
in the Imperial Rescript on Education, promulgated by the
Imperial Constitution of 1890 (Meiji 23). It was read
ceremonially by the principal of every public school. Under
the present Constitution with its pillars of the sovereign
rights of the people, respect for civil rights and peace, what
kind of official textbooks, based on Shinto thought, would the
government publish?

XIII. SHINTO as a State Religion and Ultra-
Nationalism

When we consider the problem of this bill, it is very
important that we reflect on the era of narrow nationalism
which resulted in granting special status to Shrines. Gen
erally, the advocates of the Yasukuni nationalization seem to
be deficient when it comes to reflecting on the past. In
former times, Shinto ideology was expressed in the spirit of
Hakko Ichiu, (Literally, "eight worlds under one roof"),
which was the spiritual and psychological motivation of
national policy. Because this is absolute truth, all others
(nations) should accept it too, its advocates believed. Through
this teaching, a united world would be realized. However,
mankind does not conform to a single ideology. Therefore,
this is not in truth a global principle. This is actually
ultra-nationalism clothed in the garb of globalism (cosmo
politanism). Futher, this is not based on either true inter
nationalism or true nationalism. True nationalism exists, as
the preamble to the Constitution states: "Other countries must
not be ignored, while considering only the problems of our
own country." As J.G. Fichte says: "True nationalism is
realized when the mutual well being and prosperity of all
peoples is recognized." (cf. Frichte's Philosophy of Govern-


NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 61

ment, by Nanbara Shigeru, 2nd ed. vol. 3 p. 4).

One of the symbols of self-righteous "internationalism" at
that time was the building of shrines, one after another, in
countries occupied by the Japanese army. Not only Japanese,
but also the citizens of the occupied countries were compelled
to worship at these shrines. This was regarded by these
countries as an example of Japanese conceit, egoism, and as
absurdly old-fashioned. I remember one of my Chinese
friends severely criticizing Japanese shrine policy at that
time. Japanese policy for Asia, on this point too, indeed
had been a complete failure. The Shrines may insist: "At
that time, we were compelled to do this by the military
authorities and the Government, and we did not do so will
ingly." However, it is only natural that when a religion has
been given a privileged position by the state it will be con
trolled by the state's authority. No matter what kind of
dishonesty or error the government commits, when there
exists a real union of church and state, it is always convenient
to favor the government.

Accordingly it may seem severe to say that the real
responsibility for the errors of that day belongs to the shrines.
Rather the actual responsibility lies with the system of the
union of government and religion, and we should say that this
responsibility lies more with the undemocratic Emperor System
that made this possible.

After the war, Shinto lost its privileged position as the
state religion, and was recognized as an ordinary religion.
In a manner of speaking, Shinto was thrown, by one stroke,
into the movement toward religious freedom. Especially for
Yasukuni, which had been closely connected with military
force and war power, this was a painful and most awkward
position. But at the same time, the situation should have
been a heaven sent opportunity for Shinto to learn an invalu
able lesson. It should have taken this opportunity to make
a recovery. Nay, it is not too late even yet for them to


62 TODAY'S ISSUES

recover. But there is no other way to do this except by the
inner spiritual energy of the believers, and this must be based
on the principle of separation of religion and government.
This is the only way for Shinto to maintain its life in our
time. We know that there are some people in Shinto who
are wrestling seriously with this problem. These people are
endeavoring to relate the individual consciences of Shinto
believers to hereditary Shinto belief. "The modernization of
Shinto" must begin at this point.

Though a system of religion relying upon the protection
of government authority may seem to be a wonderful thing
at first glance, it eventually proves to be the way to power-
lessness and degeneration, and the way that leads to unde-
mocratization. The history of the relationship between reli
gion and the state shows this fact clearly. This acknowledg
ment is needed not only for Shinto, but also especially for
believers of all religions, including Christianity and Buddhism,
.and by all citizens as well.


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES


Robert Epp

No one questions the need to understand the 1970s or to
see in clearer perspective the thought and action of the
progressive forces. It is the Japanese Left, after all, which
promises to cause most of the trouble during the coming
decade. Unfortunately, too few realize that our attitudes
create a significant barrier to understanding either the
seventies or the Left. More precisely, Western values and
presuppositions as to what is right create a psychological
barrier which makes understanding difficult. This is espe
cially true for the American who too often imagines that
those who oppose his style of life and his political system
are inherently evil. Perhaps the most offending aspect of
this psychology is the tendency to think in rigid black-and-
white absolutes and, on the basis of these "eternal verities,"
to pronounce value judgments without considering the values
and assumptions made by the other fellow, in this case the
progressive. If what a Japanese radical says and does fails
to match our prearranged conceptions of what is economically
and politically good or bad, we tend to disparage him.

Three attitudes are especially insidious because they so
effectively interfere with or completely frustrate honest
attempts to understand the issues. We must face up to these
attitudes or at least be aware of them before we can hope
to fathom the progressive's thinking and his program. First
is the tendency to polarize political problems. We like to
think in terms of free/totalitarian, democratic/communist,
good/bad. Naturally, we are the free, the democratic and
the good. All who disagree with us are totalitarian, commu-


64 TODAY'S ISSUES

nist and bad. This assumption is not only demonic in itself,
it prevents us from seeing that political problems are virtu
ally always more complex than a simple either-or analysis
permits. Second is the inclination to be global evangelists
trying to peddle our values among the developing nations of
the world. Naturally, we want everyone else to share our
freedom, democracy and goodness. But we forget that
democracy and freedom "have never been ideologies. They
are a way of life that has slowly evolved . . . [and they] are
not commodities easily adaptable to foreign climes,"* espe
cially by force of arms or economic sanctions. A way of
life is difficult to transplant because rejection mechanisms in
the alien system are too powerful. Third is the proclivity
to think political change questionable and, as a result, to
decry any ideology opposed to the status quo as unadulterated
evil.

Does it not seem somewhat inconsistent that a people
famous for making revolutionary changes in economics and
technology insist on clinging to the political status quol It is
perhaps a greater inconsistency that Christians absolutely
shut their ears to appeals of humanists on the Left for justice
and for a return to ideals. They refuse to take seriously
those who demand political change, thinking that the respon
sibility for understanding appeals for justice rests upon the
progressive: he must conform to Western, conservative values
before we listen to him. He must convince us of his
sincerity, we think, and so our misunderstanding constantly
reaffirms and justifies itself. Perhaps the responsibility is
the other way around. At least what follows assumes that
it is our responsibility to reduce our ignorance of the pro
gressive's thought and to make sense out of his psychology.
Until we have a rudimentary insight into his values and
attitudes, we are not likely to view the scene with any per
spective or much wisdom.

Those who would understand the Japanese progressive


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 65

often find themselves in a situation which provides excellent
material for a cartoon. One very clever attempt to capture
the situation appeared some years ago in the Christian Science
Monitor and gives a hint as to the nature of what confronts
a person who would understand others. In this cartoon, two
animals in the foreground are talking to each other about an
elephant in the background. One is saying, "The distinguish
ing characteristic of the elephant is its short neck." What
kind of animal would make such an odd remark about an
elephant? Of course, only an animal with a long neck — a
giraffe. The giraffe saw the elephant in terms of his own,
not the elephant's, anatomy. In a sense, when we evaluate
Japanese Marxists and progressives we are like giraffes look
ing at an elephant, and we tend to make the same mistake
the giraffe did as we describe the "elephant" in terms of
our values and standards rather than in terms of his. No
wonder our statements are distorted and inaccurate. Thus
our first task is to realize that we project our "anatomical"
peculiarities, in this case our ideological presuppositions, on
those whom we judge. Our job, in a word, is to try to
understand the Japanese progressive as he is, not as we
prefer to look at him.

I. The Situation

The first requirement for those who would understand the
progressive is to grasp the environment in which he is operat
ing. One way to appreciate things as they stand on the eve
of the seventies is to see the differences between the situation
as it existed in 1960 and as it exists today. The first dif
ference is the significant change in the Left's opposition
tactics and, accordingly, a change in the nature of the
progressive challenge to the seventies. In 1960, it was neces
sary to ratify the security treaty. This necessity gave
opponents of the government three primary targets: the


66 TODAY'S ISSUES

process of ratification in the Diet, the site of that process
(i.e. the physical location of the Diet), and the symbol of
the entire process, the then Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi.
Once the treaty had been ratified, or rather rammed through
by the Kishi regime, and once the premier had resigned, the
opposition lost its targets and the movement collapsed like a
punctured balloon. "With the treaty ratified and Kishi's
resignation plans announced, the inflamed public mood shifted
abruptly from outrage to apathy."2

In 1970, by contrast, a similar collapse appears most
unlikely. One of the main reasons we can expect sustained
opposition is that progressive strategy is not limited to
targets which are easily removable. To begin with, there has
been no ratification and thus there is no parliamentary process
to attack. After June 23, 1970, when the initial ten-year
agreement officially ends, provisions of the treaty will go on
indefinitely unless either party desires otherwise. The idea
of "automatic extension" (jido encho) is expressed in Article X
of the mutual security treaty which stipulates that the agree
ment "shall remain in force until in the opinion of the
Governments of the United States of America and Japan
there shall have come into force such United Nations arrange
ments as will satisfactorily provide for the maintenance of
international peace and security in the Japan area." After
1970, however, the Article stipulates that "either Party may
give notice to the other Party of its intention to terminate
the Treaty, in which case the Treaty shall terminate one year
after such notice has been given."3

Without a parliamentary process or a building to attack,
the opposition has been forced to choose alternate targets:
Okinawa and American bases in Japan. Needless to say,
Prime Minister Eisaku Sato could as easily become the butt
of criticism as his elder brother, Kishi, was in 1960. Much
depends on how circumspectly he handles himself, although
in 1970 the premier has no parliamentary process during


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 67

which he can imitate Kishi's disastrous May 19, 1960, caper
and thus coalesce an otherwise fragmented opposition, even
within the Liberal Democratic Party.4 More important,
however, is the fact that the new targets promise to have a
good deal more staying power than those the opposition
chose in 1960. At the moment the focus is on Okinawa. But
Okinawa is not only a long distance away, it is remote to the
interests of the average Japanese. It is fair to say that,
despite considerable irredentist sentiment, there is much pre
judice against Okinawans, who in the past have often been
treated like second-rate citizens.5 Moreover, the possibility
exists that Washington will accede to Japanese demands that
the island be returned as soon as possible without the presence
of nuclear weapons. If so, one leg of the progressive program
would be shorn off.

The other leg, American bases in Japan, remains. While
Okinawa is distant the bases are near, they are visible, and
they are constant thorns in the side. With few exceptions,
American installations are in or near heavily populated areas
so that they are exposed to the public view. Their exposure
often generates considerable local opposition, especially when
an American plane crashes. Less spectacular reasons for
public outcry involve noise from jet planes and various
undesirable elements in the immediate neighborhood of bases
where "camp followers" congregate. A recent bill to include
zones around American military installations as "public
nuisance" (kogai) areas was defeated in the Diet. In any
event the bases can wait; presently the stress is on Okinawa.
The strategy may be to move from that which is far to that
which is near because, even if Okinawa is returned in the
near future, it seems inevitable that some American bases in
Japan will remain, at least for the immediate future. They
will be handy targets for the opposition, particularly for
rambunctious students, and issues over which public opinion
can easily be whipped up against the government's pro-


68 TODAY'S ISSUES

American policy.

The second general difference between 1960 and 1970 is
the intensity and the breadth of the mood of opposition to.
American policy in Asia. The mood has been fanned by
constant exposure in the mass media of incidents such as
Okinawa Day. But perhaps the potential of a long-term
persistence of the mood is best revealed in the way Okinawa
is being presented to elementary school children. Teachers
and radio broadcasts beamed to the upper grades introduce
children to the mood of opposition and reiterate the national
istic dimensions of the Okinawa problem. For example, a
regular Friday morning program on current events intended
for children of the upper grades repeatedly deals with
Okinawa: the huge American bases there, the fact that it is
Japanese territory and yet only American currency can be
used, the lamentable fact that a Japanese citizen cannot visit
the island without permission from the U.S. government, etc.
In a different context, a scholar complained that he was
fingerprinted like a common criminal before he could get
permission to lecture there.c April 25, the Friday before
Okinawa Day on the 28th, was of course a legitimate time to
remind children that Okinawa should be returned.? Constant
exposure confronts children regularly with the need to think
about and deal with the problem.

At least this particular broadcast is handled dispassionate
ly. Other material exposing youngsters to the Okinawa
problem is not necessarily presented in an objective manner.
More important, blatantly anti-American material will very
likely increase during the coming months. Many principals
and individual teachers frankly admit that they deal with
Okinawa in their classrooms. There is the possibility that
not only these teachers but all belonging to the Japan Teachers
Union (Nikkyoso) will have in their possession a book which
is often less than dispassionate and objective. Between
January 25 and 28, 1969, the Nikkyoso conducted a study


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 69

meeting at Kumamoto to explore possible reading materials
on Okinawa, and decided to recommend a supplementary
reader written and widely used by teachers on Okinawa:
Watashitaclii no Okinawa (Our Okinawa). In fact, Nikkyoso
representatives adopted a resolution to put a copy of the
book into the hands of each union member. They have
accordingly begun a movement to purchase 600,000 copies.8
Whether or not the Ministry of Education approves the
reader, it seems a foregone conclusion that the content of the
book will filter down to the children.

Watashitachi no Okinawa purports to be a straightforward
presentation of the facts. Some supporters, among them the
well-known young novelist Kenzaburo Oe, praise the book for
its lack of bias.9 True, the book presents objective data on
the economy and agriculture of the island, but it also devotes
much space to describing the missile sites, the large amount
of land requisitioned for American bases, the ominous B-52s
which fly to Vietnam, the nuclear submarines which frequent
Okinawan ports, etc., highly emotionally charged issues in
Japan. Quite apart from the incontrovertible truth of these
facts are their implications. It is difficult not to conclude
that the entire book is, in fact, calculated to incite children
against the allegedly unjust and undemocratic activities of
Americans on the island.

A human interest story illustrates the level of objectivity
characteristic of the book. The setting is the dawn of
February 24, 1955, when 300 armed Americans invaded
lejima, an island to the north of Okinawa proper. In battle
dress, with pistols, rifles and machine guns in hand, these
troops came to take over a village, heartlessly ignoring the
requests of the people to make a base elsewhere. The case of
a sixty-year-old farmer points up the people's lack of civil or
human rights under American rule. The old man weeps as
he pleads with the soldiers, "This land has been in my
family for generations. It is my life. If you take it I won't


70 TODAY'S ISSUES

be able to eat. Please ! Please, don't take my land. If you're
going to tear it up with that bulldozer, you'll have to kill me
first." Then he throws himself down in front of the bull
dozer, forcing armed Americans to wrap him up in a blanket
and take him away to Okinawa by helicopter.10 One need
not question that such events have happened. The issue is
rather that the descriptions are clearly anti-American and
that repeated exposure will have a long-range effect on the
children who read these stories. As with fish in a stream,
it is impossible for people to escape being swept along by
their environment, even while being conscious of the current.

The third difference between the situation in 1960 and that
on the eve of the seventies is the growing intensity of
nationalism. There can be no doubt that Watashitachi no
Okinawa has strong nationalistic appeal, or that nationalism
increasingly moves the "water" in which Japanese swim.
Doubtlessly related to Japan's expanding economic power and
her increasing wish to take a more active and positive role
in international affairs, the rise in nationalism is by no
means limited to progressives. At least as far back as 1961,
conservative Japanese businessmen have advocated what one
Japanese scholar calls "economic nationalism," "a principle
which demands that Japan act independently in international
economic competition. Practically speaking, it can be boiled
down to the desire to decrease our economic dependence on
America."11

One way in which this desire has manifested itself is the
demand for structural reform in the Japanese business world.
Nationalism sanctions radical adjustments in the name of
strengthening the economy vis-a-vis the United States. The
most obvious type of reform active at the moment is the
merger. The stated aim of amalgamations, which are almost
always concluded between large companies in order to make
an even larger entity, is the strengthening of the Japanese
economy against external pressures.12 Against the leviathan


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 71

of the West a strong position is a natural goal for business
men whose economy so utterly depends on trade; 80% of
Japan's industrial raw materials and 20% of her foodstuffs are
imported. Even if she produced enough edibles to feed her
population according to present-day dietary standards, Japan,
existing as she does by exporting finished goods, could not
survive long without the requisite raw materials. Structural
reformers are therefore busy planning measures to reduce
the vulnerability of Japan's economy and to overcome economic
pressures from abroad, especially from America. They believe
that merger is one such measure.

Growing nationalism, self-confidence and desire for in
dependence stimulate- increasing opposition to Japan's depen
dence on America. We see here an attitude which "comprises
two different factors operating together — the factor of
national pride, and [the factor of] aversion to involvement
in war as a result of military alliance with the United
States."is Structural reformers press for rationalization of
Japanese trade patterns, which means, among other things,
more trade with nearby nations, irrespective of political
systems, as well as increased autonomy to adopt diplomatic
policies directed toward Japanese rather than American
national interests. But antipathy to the "made in Washing
ton" label on Japanese foreign policy and fear of Japan's
anti-China containment and isolation policy are increasing,
perhaps in response to the rise in nationalism. Note, for
example, the growing number of voluntary organizations
formed among housewives and the like with the explicit pur
pose of supporting peace. One scholar writes, "On June 15,
1968, more than two hundred civic groups organized rallies
in various cities to protest against the war in Vietnam, and
thousands of persons participated in Tokyo, mobilized by a
number of tiny civic groups."i* This reaction indicates some
of the average citizen's intense concern over his nation's
attitude toward peace, nuclear weapons and American policy.


72 TODAY'S ISSUES

The growth of national pride, self-confidence, and this
concern give rise to a new situation. The mood on the eve
of 1970 is quite different from that on the eve of the 1960
security treaty crisis. Given the difference, moreover, in the
goals which the opposition has adopted for the seventies, we
must conclude that the "outs" have the potential to motivate
anti-American disturbances over a long term. The problem
is not just 1970 but the 1970s because the rising mood of
opposition and the substantive increase in nationalism inten
sify the possibility that the Left will be able to get control of
public opinion. Should they succeed, not only will they be
able to generate constant tension and cause innumerable
incidents, but (depending of course on their methods) a
considerable portion of the population might support the
progressive program. On the eve of the seventies we must
indeed face the sobering fact that the gathering storm seems
much more ominous than it did in 1960 and that small com
promises, half-hearted gestures, and temporizing concessions
will hardly calm the troubled seas.

II. Principles Behind the Progressive Program

Those who would understand what the elephant is really
like must grasp his "mental environment" by trying to
understand his psychology or mind-set. Needless to say, the
most important aspect of this "environment" is the rising
nationalism just described. If we keep that in mind, it will
be easier to refrain from the customary temptation to
polarize the political situation or to imagine that those who
disapprove of U.S. policies and diplomatic activities are ipso
facto communists or Marxists or enemies. In the case of
many Japanese progressives, their disapproval has a single
common denominator: nationalism. Many others may base
objections to America's "imperialistic" posture in Asia on
humanistic Marxist principles, but the way they state their


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 73

opposition inevitably reflects the deep-rooted concern that
Japan seek her own rather than American national interests.

One way to grasp the Left's mind-set is to be aware of
several principles underlying attempts by progressives to win
public support for their position on the security treaty. Two
closely related principles of radical thought are particularly
germane to the winning of public support: Utopian idealism
and pacifism. In one way or another, these ideals or their
variations appeal to many Japanese, and not just to those
on the far left. Utopian idealism probably has greater appeal
to the young than to the old, but there is a nearly universal
trend to pacifism in Japan. Pacifism, moreover, feeds and
overlaps with idealistic hopes for a Utopian order.

By Utopian idealism I mean simply the expectation the
average radical has that his ideals will be realized in a future
order, a Utopia free of the tensions, contradictions and
problems affecting modern society. Certainly we might sus
pect that the Utopian dreams of Japanese Marxists are what
one scholar calls the reaction of "traditional societies to the
strain placed upon [them] in the process of modernization."15
One aspect of modernization which provokes an irritated
reaction is the trend toward differentiation, whether this
manifests itself as specialization or as a balance of power
among members of the nuclear club. Rejecting the policy of
balance of power is a natural corollary of rejecting nearly
every peculiarly modern feature of present day society and
its powerful movement toward the alienation of human
beings. One of the most sinister causes of alienation, so
progressives believe, is attachment to the status quo. That
is why, almost without exception, radicals become quite upset
by those who support the status quo, whether that means
acknowledging the balance of power between the U.S.A. and
the U.S.S.R., or creating political stability based on demands
to be "realistic."

The progressive's uniform antipathy to "realism," which


74 TODAY'S ISSUES

more properly we might call "as-it-is-ism" (genjitsushugi) , is
rooted in a paradoxical assumption. On the one hand, the
progressive assumes that change has been bad: the change,
that is, from a time when men were not alienated from society,
to the modern age when men are inevitably estranged from
their essential humanity due to contradictions caused by
specialization and differentiation. On the other, he assumes
that change is good: meaning change from the alienated
present to a future (suspiciously like the distant past) where
there will be no alienation. It is possible to understand why
some elements of the Utopian idealism of the Japanese Left
appeal also to those of the Right if we keep this paradox in
mind. Stripped of the idea of radical change and revolution,
the Utopia the revolutionaries desire resembles certain ele
ments characteristic of pre-modern, traditional society before
industrialism alienated men and fragmented their culture.
Some of the ideals those revolutionaries strive for were
announced by Confucianists and Taoists more than two
millenia ago — they are ideas dear to the conservative heart.
Paradoxes aside, however, realism is anathema to the radical.
Of all realistic policies, the 19th century balance-of-power
concept is perhaps most suspect. Some idealists believe this
policy causes rather than prevents wars, and regard as
anathema America's China containment policy which appears
to be based completely on the notion of balancing power and
maintaining the status quo. This after all, could cause
Japan to become "the testing ground of a limited Sino-
American nuclear war."i6 A progressive detests so-called
"realistic policies" such as power balance and regards them
as the most unrealistic strategy imaginable. Washington's
China isolation policy is a case in point. Rather than
ameliorating, it exacerbates tension in East Asia and makes
China more frustrated, more justified in the conviction that
America is an imperialistic monster, more dangerous, and
hence more liable to cause trouble in Asia.


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 75

A saner and more realistic policy would be to involve
China in international politics by encouraging rather than
discouraging her activities in the international arena. Pro
gressives think that a policy which first creates tension and
then makes every effort to preserve that tension — one which,
in short, accepts and stresses the isness of the situation — is
unrealistic and erroneous. That is why many progressive
intellectuals prefer to stress the oughtness of the situation.
And that is why they ask whether the realist "is honestly
satisfied with Japan's present 'reality,' and whether he
conceives of this reality as an immutable absolute which man
must accept. . . ,"17 Naturally the progressive answer is
No, for man can and must change society. Progress and
development toward the ideal society are thus primary
values.

Of course, progressives do not believe that the government
party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), is interested in
ideals or committed to developing an ideal society. Out of
their negative evaluation come various acerbic criticisms of
Premier Sato's presumably anti-idealistic viewpoint. In
March, during examination of the 1970 budget, for example,
Mr. Sato was questioned on the extent of his adherence to
the three principles governing Japan's attitude toward
nuclear weapons (that is, not to manufacture them, not to use
them, not to allow them in the country). He failed to
respond satisfactorily to a question which probed his opinion
on allowing tactical, i.e. defensive, nuclear weapons in Japan.
The prime minister later tried to justify his equivocal answer
by saying that the Constitution does not seem to prohibit
the use of tactical nuclear weapons. But the damage had
been done. His idealistic opponents interpreted his statement
as a kind of political "Freudian slip" which disclosed a
nefarious plan to smuggle tactical nuclear weapons into
Okinawa, perhaps even onto the mainland. The official organ
of the Japan Communist Party, Akahata (Red Flag), was


76 TODAY'S ISSUES

especially vociferous,^ but even an editorial in the much more
level-headed Asahi expressed serious doubts about Sato's
sincerity.19 Such is the psychology of the Utopian idealist.

The progressives detect hypocrisy or deviousness even
where neither exists. They are perhaps as suspicious of
conservatives as the conservatives are of communists. No
wonder they mistrust a government dedicated to supporting
the status quo and opposed to development of an ideal society,
especially when status quo regimes include Batista's of Cuba,
Diem's of Vietnam, Park's of Korea, and Chiang's of Taiwan.
Rather than worshiping balance of power and inadvertently
becoming bedfellows with these "reactionary dictators," pro
gressives prefer to work with the concept of a balance of
virtue . . . the virtue of pacifism, the second principle underly
ing the thinking of radicals in Japan. As we know, pacifism
has a powerfully idealistic appeal in post-World War II
Japan.

The breadth of this appeal was clearly revealed in the
widespread popular opposition to the visit of the U.S.S.
Enterprise, a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier which visited
the port of Sasebo in January 1968. During its visit, the
Asahi received "8,163 letters (four times as many as ... in
an ordinary month) . . . among which 2,516 were concerned
with the issue of the 'Enterprise' alone."20 Many criticize
their government on moral and practical grounds for per
mitting such ships to call at Japanese ports. They think
that Japan, of all nations, should take a moral lead in the
anti-nuclear movement as the only nation that has suffered
from atomic bombs. On practical grounds, they believe that
the use of Japanese ports by such vessels constitutes a threat
to nearby China, aggravates Sino-American friction, and,
in the event of hostilities, could involve Japan. The same
concern for peace has spawned innumerable voluntary organi
zations, many formed by housewives who devote new-found
leisure to studying peace and organizing peace demonstra-


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 77

tions.

The urge for peace seeks further disengagement from the
American anticommunist treaty system. The ultimate aim of
this urge is unarmed neutrality. Certainly a more idealistic,
daring or novel solution to Japan's current problems would
be hard to imagine. And this ultimate aim is a clear illustra
tion of the close relation between the idealist's eschatological
hopes for a Utopian society and his hopes for peace. These
coincide in his absolute rejection of the status quo. "Neutral
ism is orientated toward the future, whereas participation in
the cold war means preoccupation with the past. As a way
of thinking, neutralism emphasizes the mutability and malle
ability of reality."21

Progressive scholars are not alone in urging the ideal of
unarmed neutrality as the sanest, most realistic route for
Japanese diplomacy to take. Letters to the editor of the
Asahi express the logic of this approach. A typical letter,
written by a fifty-year-old man and published on May 7, 1969,
argues, in support of unarmed neutrality, the impossibility of
protecting the nation by arms, and the persuasive advantage
of an unarmed country over an armed one in convincing others
of the need for peace. He says, "It is clear that the primary
deterrent against the use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam was
the existence of a worldwide commitment to peace which
makes possible the creation of a universal peace organization.
This has become possible thanks to the effect of the mass
media in contemporary society."

Belief that "unarmed neutrality is a kind of permanent
realism which makes possible a peaceful future built on the
noble ideal that we are universal men"22 perfectly reflects the
widespread aversion to war and nuclear weapons. And this
belief asserts the spirit of the Constitution which supports the
aversion. The preamble of the Constitution says that "We,
the Japanese people, desire peace for all time and are . . .
determined to preserve our security and existence, trusting


78 TODAY'S ISSUES

in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the
world." This assertion is powerfully supported by the blunt
rejection of war in Article IX: "Aspiring sincerely to inter
national peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people
forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the na
tion. . . ,"32

Events occurring in East Asia only confirm the Japanese
belief in the need for peace and the possibility that unarmed
neutrality is a viable means to its realization. Many cringe
every time they hear an American congressman say that
"the United States should pressure Japan into changing its
Constitution so that it could produce a greater military force
to defend itself."24 Such statements, they say, display a lack
of sensitivity to Japanese public opinion. Because of the
fear that China would dispatch volunteers, as she did to
Korea in 1950, and perhaps involve Japan in the hostilities,
many Japanese were utterly discouraged by U.S. escalation
of the war in Vietnam, notably the bombing of North Vietnam
which commenced in February 1965. In October 1964, a mere
four months before this escalation, China exploded her first
atomic device, giving notice of entry into the nuclear club and
of potential to strike an enemy in the Far East, i.e. U.S.
bases in Japan.

Peking's second round of nuclear tests in May 1965, con
tributed to the tension in Japan by reminding Japanese of
those jittery days five years earlier when, after the U-2
Incident, Defense Minister Malinovsky "ordered Soviet rocket
installation commanders to strike back at bases used by
planes that violated Soviet air space."25 As countless Japa
nese believed that U-2 pilot Francis Powers had flown from
.Japan, there was widespread hysteria, quite understandable
in view of the demonstration by the Soviets, several weeks
before, of their prowess in rocketry in the orbiting of a 4.5
ton spaceship. Clearly they could deliver their missiles to
;any target, and certainly to U.S. bases in Japan.


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 79

It is difficult to speak of concepts like Utopian idealism
and pacifism apart from the way they manifest themselves in
action, as opposed to abstract thought. There are many
means by which progressives articulate their ideas or transfer
them into action. Here I shall touch on but two such means
or principles of action: opposition and struggle. Related as
closely as idealism and pacifism, these appear to be logical
extensions of the two principles of thought just described.

Opposition to the government and to the status quo is the
primary means by which Japanese idealists hope to bring their
ideals and their hope for peace before the public. Members
of the Japan Socialist Party and the Japan Communist Party
exemplify progressives who are conscious of the frustrating
impotence of their minority status. They accordingly believe
that effective opposition to the majority party can be carried
on only outside parliamentary procedures. To date, at any
rate, the government party has been able to put through
whatever legislation it desires, often ignoring the "outs" and
arbitrarily trying to cut off debate on sensitive issues — thus
infuriating the Left. In fact, perpetual frustration has forced
the "outs" to imagine that they can defend democracy only
by working outside established structures. Their logic is that
because Tories control the structures, the institutions are no
longer really democratic. The result is that "democracy is
in peril if one party knows only how to govern and the others
only how to oppose."26 Students and intellectuals become
terribly cynical because they feel so politically impotent,27
and the greater their cynicism the more intense their oppo
sition to majority rule.

Opposition per se seems at times the very reason for
•existence of the "outs." The progressive is not a progressive
unless he opposes the conservative forces. He feels he must
criticize everything they do and damn everything they sug
gest. While those of the Left feel no responsibility to offer
concrete and workable plans in lieu of those they obliterate


80 TODAY'S ISSUES

by their criticisms, they regard their actions by no means as
purely negative because the principles of idealism and paci
fism lend meaning to their opposition. Much like an evangel
ist, the progressive is saying to the Tory, "Repent of your
evil works, cast off the devil, change your heart and pledge
yourself to the ideals of a new society and world peace."
Almost every radical is convinced that conservatives are
concerned primarily with selfish interests, and are against
ideals, peace, and the interest and happiness of the people.
This totally unfavorable appraisal prevents — almost precludes
— the development of a consensus, even on an issue as vital
as that of national defense. Lacking a consensus, Japan has
a kind of spiritual vulnerability which not even the American
nuclear umbrella can compensate for. And as long as oppo
sition expresses itself primarily in blind and inflexible
criticism, whether justified or not, Japan may never develop
a concept of the loyal opposition.

Irrational opposition for the sake of opposition appears to
inhibit the growth of a balanced democratic process, making
it difficult to overcome or transcend petty factional disputes.
The primitive tribal conviction that harmony is vital in our
ranks, but not between our camp and their camp, continues
to interfere with attempts to achieve unified action or to
agree on joint programs. But in this day of almost instan
taneous communication, changes must come if the parties are
to survive. If nothing else, perhaps nationalism may be
strong enough to overcome the narrow-minded resistance to
working with those outside "my tribe." Socialists and
communists recently had occasion to experience the pull of
nationalism when they considered holding a joint protest
meeting in Yoyogi Park on Okinawa Day, April 28. As late
as April 23, however, newspapers announced that the Japan
Socialist Party and the Japan Communist Party, failing to
reach agreement, had decided to hold separate meetings on
the seventeenth anniversary of Japan's pro forma independ-


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 81

ence, the day the San Francisco peace treaty went into
effect.

On Sunday, April 27, members of the Okinawa delegation
attempted to break the impasse and get the progressive
parties to cooperate. According to reports, the appeal was
frankly nationalistic. The Okinawans said that everyone on
the island wanted to return to the fatherland. There may be
some exaggeration in the claim, but the appeal effectively
accomplished its aim. Progressives had been told what they
already knew to be true: the issue was one on which they
must cooperate. Nevertheless, many failed to cooperate, and
refused to show up at Yoyogi or participate in the orderly
demonstration following the joint meeting. Among the dis
senters were radical students who regard the progressive
parties as part of the Establishment. These students spent
the evening clashing with riot police and tearing up Shinbashi
Station. But the Okinawans' nationalistic plea was able to
overcome entrenched tribal tendencies, at least for an evening.
Another principle behind the activities of the Left is the
idea of struggle (toso), a concept which also helps justify
opposition. There are many kinds of struggles, personal and
national, class and race. There are also struggles which
assume the use of force and those which do not. Progressives
in Japan, more often than not deeply influenced by Marxist
philosophy, usually have class struggle in mind. At least
the struggle between classes is somewhere in the progres
sive's knapsack of basic assumptions. Accordingly, he
believes that he must wage continual warfare against the
bourgeois exploiters of other social classes. Because the
bourgeois will never willingly surrender their base of power
or stop exploiting others, the progressive says the struggle
must be unrelenting and eternal. It is analogous to a
Christian's struggle against sin or the forces of evil. No
compromise can be made, no accommodations allowed, nor
can one ever let down his guard completely. Just as a


g2 TODAY'S ISSUES

Christian has outside help, however, so the progressive is
certain that he is not alone in his struggle. The forces of
history are on his side and eventually there will be justice
(i.e. defeat of the bourgeois view). The "people" -will come
out on top. But that does not mean the struggle will end.
It will merely be shifted to preventing the selfish bourgeois
mentality from infecting even the "elect." In a word, pro
gressives view struggle as a condition of true manhood, as a
state or an attitude supported by an eschatological hope.

Struggle thus includes faith in an imminent Utopia. More
than a mere hope, this faith appears to be a form of inten-
tionality, an expression of free will. That is, the progressive
believes he need not conform to social expectations or bour
geois psychology. He can dissociate himself from them,
criticize them, rise above them. He struggles not merely to
win a point here and a point there, but to push the processes
of history another step toward the final development of a
Utopia where men do not exploit other men. This is certainly
the ultimate expression of intentionality. Struggle therefore
has tremendous staying power, sustained as it is by a profound
eschatological hope. It is not easy to discourage those who
assent to the progressive ideology and believe in the inevita
bility of their victory.

Nor is it easy for the bourgeois to negotiate with people
dedicated to struggle. Those aiming at perfection are not
apt to satisfied with halfway measures. Compromises are
never made in order to save the status quo — that is regarded
as a cunning trick of the conservatives — but to move the
situation beyond the status quo. In a word, struggle is also
dialectical. The struggler makes demand "A". When the
conservative gives in on point "A", he is immediately con
fronted with demands for "B" and "C". The process continues
ad infinitum, ending only in Utopia where there are no
bourgeois power holders. Viewed secularly, this attitude may
seem completely inflexible and fanatic. Viewed religiously,


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 83

however, there is little which surprises us. After all, how
can one compromise with evil?

Religious people should not find it difficult, therefore, to
grasp the progressive's opposition-struggle syndrome, even
perhaps to sympathize with his ultimate aim of justice and
peace. Both the way scholars of the radical Left express
their hopes in an "eternal revolution" aimed at creating and
guaranteeing a society in which wars and selfishness cannot
exist, and the way they describe the Utopia they dream of,
remind the Christian of the prophets' dreams of a time and
place when the law of God will be written in the people's
hearts. This dream may be articulated in language some-
wrhat different from King James English, but substantively
it is remarkably similar to the anti-Establishment, revolu
tionary language of post-exilic prophets.

This dream is shared by practically every Japanese pro
gressive. But because we label such dreams Marxist, and
because the Marxist philosopher likes to act as though he
is dealing with objective, scientific, and universal verities —
the same qualities we claim for our dogma — we refuse to
listen. We forget in our counter rhetoric that, in the final
analysis, the eschatological hopes of the Left are not subject
to discussion or amenable to compromise. Until we realize
this fact, we will not understand that the problems facing us
during the 1970s are rooted in principles which are relatively
immovable and irrevocable, and which have a broad appeal.
Crudely put, this means that giving the noisy brat a lollipop
will not be enough to make him shut up or go away. It is
not that easy to deprive the progressive of his appeal.

The radical feels he has no choice but to struggle against
the bourgeois power holders. He wants no lollipop; he wants
justice. He does not want to shut up and go away; he wants
to stay around and contribute to the ultimate conservative
defeat. Almost everything which conservatives do intensifies
the radical's assurance that he must continually struggle


84 TODAY'S ISSUES

against the status quo. Not only does he think his govern
ment acts as though it is an arm of American policy, he finds
himself a member of an impotent minority in the Diet, "unable
to gain any results ... by parliamentary means. . . ." Pro
gressives are accordingly tempted to "abandon parliamentary
methods and resort to building up pressures by unparlia
mentary means which may succeed in moving their opponents
in the government to make some concessions."^ The frustrated
"outs" in Japan thus have good reason to agree with Marx
in labelling parliament "a committee of the bourgeois." They
also believe they are justified in charging conservatives with
operating the government for the selfish interest of preserving
private spheres of power.

Few frustrations are as intensely resented as those which
American military power forces on the progressives. A
recent experience supports the Left's constant iteration that
the U.S. occupation of Okinawa deprives the islanders of
their civil rights, and that there is no choice but eternal
struggle against the unjust, arbitrary methods of a militaristic
government. Okinawa labor unions decided on January 9,
1969, to hold a general strike on February 4, the first
anniversary of stationing B-52s on the island.^ These
bombers, offensive weapons in every sense of the term, are
capable of carrying nuclear weapons and symbolize American
intervention in the Vietnam civil war. U.S. officials on the
island countered the threat of a paralyzing strike in a way
which the Left regards as showing the customary American
disregard for the rights of others and for democratic pro
cedure. United States officials informed Okinawans on
January 11 that a Comprehensive Labor Ordinance would go
into effect on January 25. Announced unilaterally (i.e., the
Japanese civil government had not been consulted), the
ordinance banned strikes, picketing, rallies, demonstrations,
and "any other activities having either the object or effect
of interfering with the operation of military bases, designated


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 85

essential industries, or work performed on property under
U.S. Government control. . . ."30

Because Okinawa is literally a floating base (some claim
as much as one-third of the usable land on the island has been
preempted by U.S. forces), and because practically any dis
turbance can be interpreted as "interfering with military or
essential industry operations," Okinawans saw the ordinance
as a comprehensive ban on free speech and expression — a
reminder of Japan's prewar reactionary leaders who kept
similar laws on the books. The galling difference is that the
Japanese militarists did not claim to be democratic lovers of
freedom, as Americans do. The ordinance successfully forced
cancellation of the strike. After all, 33 per cent of all workers
in the Okinawa Prefecture Labor Unions, the sponsoring
organization, work for the military. When labor capitulated,
teachers took over leadership of the opposition campaign.
The Okinawa Teachers Union, some 12,000 strong, was able
to organize a series of demonstrations on February 4, the day
the general strike was scheduled. Teachers took the initiative
despite the defection of the union workers, despite the ordi
nance, and despite a steady rain. We might ascertain the
extent of opposition and the feeling of frustration the arbi
trary ordinance had generated by noting that an estimated
280,000 people participated in various protest meetings across
the island. That means some three per cent of Okinawa's
entire population turned out, eloquent testimony of the is
landers' disgust for the ordinance and conclusive proof of their
ardent wish to get rid of the B-52s.31

Gag rules like the Comprehensive Labor Ordinance force
progressives into an opposition-struggle syndrome. Perhaps
we can best appreciate the psychology informing the Left's
attitude if we identify this syndrome with the concept of sin.
By saying the bourgeois attitude that would protect its
interests at any cost resembles sin, we get a better sense of
what is involved. And we can also understand why it is that


86 TODAY'S ISSUES

many bitterly cynical statements made by radical members
of the opposition sound so very much like the prophet Elijah:
"I, even I only, remain a prophet of the Lord" (I Kings 18:22).
Describing the progressive in this way would not make him
especially happy, but it may help us understand the nature of
the passion which characterizes his opposition and struggle.

Thus far we have glanced at two principles which support
progressive thought and two which support progressive action.
It remains to describe one aspect of the total mind-set in
which these principles interact and are applied. One way to
describe this aspect is to focus on its functional properties
and to say that the progressive mind-set is conditioned by,
and in turn conditions, a situational matrix. This sounds
like a contradiction because the various principles described
above give the impression of inflexibility while a situational
ethic seems very flexible. Though the radical is in many
ways unbelievably inflexible, his extremely rigid principles
potentially can be applied in a flexible manner. On the other
hand, the existence of this particular aspect of his mind-set
can make his response to a given problem or situation less
predictable than one might imagine, on the assumed basis of
inflexible principles.

To understand the Japanese progressive's situational
orientation, we must first understand that it appears to be
a manifestation of Japanese character and its spatial orienta
tion — one which at root is quite different from the Westerner's
customary linear orientation. The American, at any rate,
generally thinks in terms of moving along a line from one
point to another. Notice the way street numbers are laid
out, or the stress on processes and progress, or the usual
plot development of a play or novel. Whenever an American
isolates a particular point in time or space, there is a good
chance that he will describe that point in a way wrhich
betrays his linear orientation. For example, what we call an
overpass or underpass is the point at which two linear ribbons


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 87

intersect. Our interest in the linearity of that junction is
betrayed by our calling it an underpass or an overpass. The
terminology stresses linear movement rather than the junction
itself and merely designates the way one ribbon intersects
with another.

Japanese by contrast tend to stress the junction, the point
at which the streets intersect. An underpass or overpass
is called a three-dimensional crossing (rittai kosa^ten']) ,
thereby revealing the Japanese propensity to deal with the
moment of a relationship, whether it is two highways or
two people. And, as anyone who has ever tried to find an
address in this country knows all too well, the community pat
tern is anything but grid or linear. It is spatial. It is cubic.
What is important about a machi is that it is a cubic space
in which houses and their numbers (even in the new system)
are laid out in a way which responds to and fills up available
space. This orientation might be described as stress on the
cubic moment. It is nowhere more obvious than in certain
types of Japanese literature, in most haiku, and in the major
ity of pre-modern plays. In none of these is there a basic
concern for linear development of the plot or an argument.
Many authors continue to write indeed as though they were
describing a series of cubic moments linked together somehow
by threads of feeling or sentiment, not by linear connectives.

Perhaps Yasunari Kawabata's Nobel Prize acceptance
speech is a pertinent example of this characteristic.32 But
the principle is stated much more positively and clearly in a
work written by Soseki Natsume in 1907, before he left to
study in England. Here the leading character, presumably
Soseki, describes his interest in the cubic moment: "Because
I am an artist I find any passage of a novel interesting even
when it is out of context. ... It is because we read novels
[in this way] . . . that we don't care about the plot. For
us it is interesting to flip open the book as impartially as if
we were drawing a sacred lot, and to read aimlessly at


88 TODAY'S ISSUES

wherever it falls open. "33 The statement, made by an artist
explaining why he does not get involved in linear development,
illustrates the paradoxical flexibility/inflexibility characteristic
of progressive thought and action. The principles informing
his reaction to a fluid moment remain uncompromisingly rigid
though, ironically, the very fluidity of the moment may mask
the principles, making them appear nonexistent.

The main implication of the cubic moment is that its ad
hoc, situational fluidity makes action difficult to predict. There
is a tendency for progressives, as for Japanese in general, to
evaluate each moment and respond appropriately. Though they
have subscribed to long-range goals, radicals often determine
a course of action at the very last moment or delay their de
cision until it is too late to react effectively to a given situa
tion. Thus they often emasculate their idealism and pacifism.
Seen in these terms, one cannot say that the principles have
been suspended. Quite to the contrary, they are confirmed in
the action ultimately taken. In any event, orientation to the
cubic moment combines with these and other principles of
thought and action to underwrite the progressive's opposition
and struggle. His is the commitment of a well-motivated
fighter who cannot be put off by tidbit concessions or half
hearted compromises.

In a nutshell, this is the shape of the elephant we giraffes
have been observing. His deeply religious motivation com
bines with commitment to certain principles of thought and
action, thus conditioning him for a long struggle. Given the
situation as it exists on the eve of the 1970s and given the
nature of the progressive forces, it should be clear why many
talk of a difficult decade, not just a difficult year. The most
effective countermeasure to meet the potential trouble the Left
will generate is to develop concrete programs which are
radically creative, yet capable of appealing to public opinion.
If the progressive approach is skillfully managed, it is quite
likely that the radical's principles might influence a significant


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 89

sector of public opinion. It may be impossible to prevent that
from happening because of the rising mood of opposition and
the resurgence of nationalism. One promising way to compete
with the progressives' appeal would be a course of action that
average Japanese can regard as right and just and wise. If
such action is backed with imaginative and visionary policies,
the 1970s may be less violent than anticipated.


Unfortunately the prognosis is not good, for truly creative
plans do not seem in the making. True, the Sato regime is
pessimistic about the possibility of avoiding widespread vio
lence and is drawing up long-range plans to control disorder.
Funds have been earmarked, for instance, to finance mobiliza
tion of 800,000 police, should anticipated riots demand a force
of that magnitude.34 And leaders of the government party are
considering possible use of the Self-Defense Force if the situa
tion gets out of hand.35 There are also positive plans afoot.
Conservatives think the maintenance of domestic order de
mands counter-measures which will assure public support; that
means policies to improve the schools, control university stu
dents, curb rising prices, alleviate popular anxieties, and
strengthen the economy in general. These negative and posi
tive measures to meet the possibility of violence are all right
as they go. But they are essentially deterrents rather than
truly creative attempts to put Japanese diplomacy "in orbit"
as it were — that is, to disengage it from Washington's apron
strings and allow Tokyo to assume leadership in working for
peace in East Asia.

This suggests that perhaps what Washington does is more
important than what Tokyo does, for to all appearances the
latter does little more than respond to the lead of the former.
Unfortunately, Premier Sato's foreign policy often does look
like a carbon copy of something made in Washington, B.C.,


90 TODAY'S ISSUES

and his cabinet officials often appear to go out of their way
to justify American policies in Asia.30 If the puppet myth
is to be laid to rest, however, the United States must take the
initiative and, with decisive and precedent-breaking action,
demonstrate her real power: the moral strength to overcome
inertia, rectify mistaken policies of the past, and insist on
Japanese autonomy.

A creative approach will demand, first of all, a major over
haul and reorientation of American foreign policy in Asia.
To begin with, U.S. leaders will have to readjust their thinking
and treat Japan as a bona fide ally, as an equal partner rather
than a lackey. This would mean letting Japan act in terms
of her national interests instead of pressuring her to act in
terms of American interests. Even more important, perhaps,
is the need to reexamine the primary source of tension in East
Asia: the China containment policy. There can be no final
solution to Okinawa or to American bases in Japan unless
American officials come to grips with the whole question of
U.S. power in Asia and the reasons it is there. Many scholars
and several legislators have urged reconsideration of our China
policy. In March 1969, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, a Demo
crat from Massachusetts, and Senator John S. Cooper, a
Republican from Kentucky, wrote articles suggesting that
revaluation of Washington's anti-China policies is long over
due.37 More and more, responsible people are beginning to
realize that peace in Asia is impossible without a peaceful
China, and a peaceful China is unlikely unless she is "brought
back into the international community and involved in such
international agreements as the proposed nonproliferation
treaty, which would, in any event, be meaningless without her
participation."38 There is no more opportune time for America
to announce the intention to change her China policy than in
1970 when the U.S.-Japan security treaty can be extended,
revised, or scrapped. At the same moment, Washington must
not only initiate a study of means to bring America's Asia


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 91

policy into line with the realities of the area but also confront
the problem of Okinawa and U.S. bases in Japan.

Confrontation means making a very painful adjustment.
We must stop thinking of Okinawa and U.S. bases in purely
military terms and consider them in political terms. Until we
do, long-term, effective solutions will escape us because military
logic will only further involve the United States in its un
popular and sterile containment policy. This is not to say that
we should ignore military and economic problems. We must
recognize especially the serious shock to the economy an
American withdrawal would mean to Okinawa.39 It is a
matter of perspective, and the political perspective must be
given preference.

Once we decide to think of these problems primarily in
political terms, we shall also be able to consider the long-range
national interests of Japan instead of concentrating exclusively
on our own. Asia will very soon be a place where we can no
longer unilaterally force people to think and act in our way.
The time is past due for us to work with Japan as an equal
partner, though that will probably mean making gestures and
suggesting bold alternatives to our present stagnant anti-
Chinese paranoia. We might, for instance, unilaterally decide
to move the preponderance of our military installations in
Japan and Okinawa to South Korea and Taiwan, areas these
bases are meant to defend.40 Generals Chung Hee Park and
Chiang Kai-shek have expressed apprehension over the loss
of Okinawa as an American bastion in the Pacific. Let them
provide a new bastion. Both run a police state where freedom
of expression is limited and thus a minimum of opposition to
the American presence would be expressed. We might also
announce that no more nuclear-powered vessels of any kind
will call at Japanese ports, except in an emergency or on the
explicit invitation of the Japanese government. Washington
could furthermore announce the intention to move reconnais
sance flights (and other intelligence-gathering activities which


92 TODAY'S ISSUES

approach hostile coasts) to bases outside the Japanese islands.
These actions would go a long way toward impressing the
Japanese people with our sincerity, thus postponing the day
when progressives might influence public opinion sufficiently
to support their programs. Perhaps Washington will take the
initiative and act while there is yet time. If not, progressive
forces will certainly be able to generate sufficient friction to
make the 1970s very warm indeed. In fact, many believe that
the Liberal Democratic Party may lose some of its power
during the coming decade, perhaps even be replaced by a coali
tion government led by the Japan Socialist Party. Should that
occur, it is possible that Japan might unilaterally end the
security treaty and ask American forces to leave. Paradoxical
ly, America's attitudes could be a factor in bringing about the
fall of a government anxious to please and ready to adapt to
U.S. policies. How much better to take the initiative and act
positively instead of always being forced to act defensively
and respond to challenges.

In the main, understanding the 1970s is a matter of gaining
perspective on the problems and principles of the progressives.
Prescribing remedies and countermeasures must be done on the
basis of a perspective which only understanding can give. We
should at least graduate from describing elephants as animals
with short necks and see the beasts as they are. Once we
learn to stop measuring Japanese progressives by our values,
we may come to understand them and find they are not quite
as bizarre as we first imagined.


Notes

Abbreviations used: JSPIJ for Journal of Social and Political
Ideas in Japan, and AS for Asahi Shim-
bun (Asahi Newspaper).

1. Shintaro Ryu, "Japan, the United States, and the World,"
JSPIJ, Vol. IV, No. 1 (April 1966), 76-77.


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 93

2. George R. Packard III, Protest in Tokyo: The Security
Treaty Crisis of 1960 (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1966), p. 303. Note also Masaru Ogawa, "Our
Times— Face of '1970'," The Japan Times, March 2, 1969,
pp. 1, 4; and see one source of Ogawa's remarks in Nori-
yoshi Wada, "Kokumin undo no bunkyokka: 'Okinawa'
'kichi' ga yato no hyoteki [Popular movement polarizes:
opposition parties' objectives are Okinawa and the bases],"
AS, January 28, 1969, p. 17.

3. George R. Packard, op. cit., pp. 366-367.

4. Note Packard, op. cit, pp. 237-242. For a detailed study
by a radical progressive, see Rokuro Hidaka, 1960nen
gogatsu jukunichi [May 19, 1960] (Tokyo: Iwanami Shin-
sho, No. 39, 1960).

5. Lawrence Olson, Dimensions of Japan (New York: Ameri
can Universities Field Staff, 1963), p. 362, points out that,
added to social discrimination by Japanese, U.S. grants in
aid did not apply to Okinawa. Innumerable Japanese
writers also acknowledge the Okinawan's second-rate
citizenship; see, for example, Keiichiro Ichino, "Okinawa
to kenpo [Okinawa and the Constitution]," AS, evening
edition, May 3, 1969, p. 7.

6. The scholar in question is Jiro Kamishima, Professor of
Political Science, Rikkyo University, who had been invited
to lecture at Ryukyu University on political theory; Kami
shima, "Okinawa no kokoro [The mind of Okinawa]," AS,
evening edition, March 6, 1969, p. 7. A journalist notes
a similar problem: "When you arrive [in Naha] you have
to show your identification card and entry permit . . . [To
take] a two and a half hour trip [by jet from Tokyo to
Naha] means waiting two weeks for a visa"; "Okinawa
hokoku [Okinawa report]," AS, May 20, 1969, p. 2.

7. The discussion — broadcast every Friday morning at 10:15
on NHK-2 (690 AM) and titled "Kono goro no dekigoto
[Recent events]" — is led by Teruhiko Shimizu.


94 TODAY'S ISSUES

8. "Hondo ni mo hamon: 'Okinawa' fukudokuhon [Reper
cussions on the mainland: the Okinawa supplementary
reader]," AS, evening edition, March 10, 1969, p. 7.

9. Kentaro Oe, "Okinawa to minshu shugi e no keiki — 'Wata-
shitachi no Okinawa' o yonde [Okinawa and the chance
for democracy: on reading Our Okinawa]" AS, evening
edition, March 10, 1969, p. 7.

10. Excerpts of the book appeared in AS, February 20, 1969,
p. 4.

11. Yuichiro Noguchi, "Economic Nationalism," JSPIJ, Vol.
LV, No. 2 (August 1966), 95.

12. See Yukichiro Noguchi, "Trends in Thought Among
Structural Reformists in Japanese Industry," JSPIJ, Vol.
V, No. 1 (April 1967), 11-23, especially pp. 14-15.

13. Takeshi Ishida, "Japanese Public Opinion and Foreign
Policy: Present Aspects and Future Outlook," Annals of
the Institute of Social Science, Tokyo University, No. 9
(1968), p. 33.

14. Takeshi Ishida, "Emerging or Eclipsing Citizenship? — A
Study of Changes in Political Attitudes in Postwar
Japan," The Developing Economies, Vol. VI, No. 4 (De
cember 1968), 421.

15. Robert N. Bellah, "Values and Social Change in Modern
Japan," Asian Cultural Studies 3 (Tokyo: International
Christian University, 1962), p. 24.

16. Hiroharu Seki, "Ajia no kincho to Okinawa henkan [Ten
sion in Asia and the return of Okinawa]," Ekonomisuto,
March 18, p. 67; see also Seki, "Systems of Power Balance
and the Preservation of Peace," JSPIJ, Vol. V, No. 1
(April 1967), 44-45.

17. Rokuro Hidaka, "The Precepts of History and the Dictate
of Reason," JSPIJ, Vol. LV, No. 2 (August 1966), 64.

18. Note, for example, "Anpo Okinawa mondai — Kyosanto
giindan no katsudo [Problems of Okinawa and the
security treaty: activities of Japan Communist Party


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 95

Diet members]," Akahata, April 1, 1969, p. 1.

19. Editorial, AS, March 13, 1969, p. 5.

20. Takeshi Ishida, "Emerging or Eclipsing Citizenship?",
loc. cit.

21. Shuichi Kato, "Twenty Years of Neutralism," JSPIJ, Vol.
IV, No. 1 (April 1966), 35.

22. A letter to the editor written by a white-collar worker
(age, 52) ; AS, May 21, 1969, p. 5.

23. Chitose Yanaga, Japanese People and Politics (New York:
John Wiley and Sons, 1956), pp. 383-384.

24. Stated by Representative John M. Murphy, Democrat from
New York; The Japan Times, May 24, 1969, p. 1.

25. Packard, op. cit., p. 233.

26. Robert A. Scalapino and Junnosuke Masumi, Parties and
Politics in Contemporary Japan (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1962), p. 152.

27. Yasumasa Kuroda, "The Political Cynicism of Law Stu
dents in Japan," Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. XXII, Nos.
1-2 (1967), 147-161, especially, p. 157.

28. Alice H. Cook, "Political Action and Trade Unions,"
Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. XXII, Nos. 1-2 (1967), 104.

29. For historical background on the stationing of B-52s on
Okinawa, see Moriteru Arasaki, Okinawa henkan to 70nen
anpo [Return of Okinawa and the security treaty in 1970]
(Tokyo: Gendai Hyoronsha, 1968), pp. 6-16.

30. "Trends and Topics: Okinawa Turmoil," Japan Quarterly,
Vol. XVI, No. 2 (April-June, 1969), 141.

31. Kamijima, "Okinawa no kokoro," loc. cit.

32. The original and Edward Seidensticker's translation ap
pear together in Utsukushii Nihon no Watakushi [Japan
the Beautiful and I] (Tokyo: Kodansha Shinsho, No. 180,
1969).

33. Natsume Soseki, The Three-Cornered World (Kusa-
makura), trans, by Alan Turney and Peter Owen (Tokyo:
Charles E. Tuttle, 1965), p. 124.


96 TODAY'S ISSUES

34. "70nen no chian taisaku [Policies for keeping domestic
order during 1970], AS, February 28, 1969, p. 2.

35. "Jieitai no chian shutsudo [Mobilizing Self Defense
Forces to keep domestic order]," AS, March 19, 1969, p. 2.
The primary problem facing those who would like to use
these forces to put down domestic disturbances is that the
current SDF law prohibits their use except to deter direct
or indirect aggression. Presumably, conservatives regard
disturbances instigated by radicals as "indirect aggres
sion." More closely related to the true function of the
SDF are its proposals for the defense of Okinawa after
American forces are removed from the island; this prob
lem is discussed in "Okinawa boei keikaku no kangaekata
[Plans for the defense of Okinawa]," AS, evening edition,
March 31, 1969, p. 1.

36. A complaint made by a self-employed businessman (60
years old) in a letter to the Asahi (April 19, 1969, p. 5),
lamented that Foreign Minister Aichi spent too much
time trying to defend U.S. activities despite the fact that
reconnaissance flights (of the EC-121 in this case) origi
nate in Japan and thus endanger national security.

37. Both essays are featured in the section, "Reassessing U.S.
Policy on China," The New Leader, March 3, 1969, pp.
12-16.

38. Kiichi Miyazawa, "Proposals for Improving Japanese-
American Relations," JSPIJ, Vol. IV, No. 2 (August
I960), 51.

39. The economic problem is being reviewed constantly from
various angles; one handy and fairly exhaustive reference
is Kaoru Inaizumi, "Okinawa keizai no genjo to shorai
[The present situation and future outlook of Okinawa's
economy]," in Nihon no Anzen Hosho Henshu linkai,
ed., Okinawa fukki e no michi [Toward the reversion of
Okinawa] (Tokyo: Kara Shobo, 1968), pp. 139-176. For
a general overview of internal problems on the island, see


UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 97

"Tonai sangyo no fuan [Apprehension re island indus
tries], in the series "Okinawa hokoku [Okinawa report],"
AS, May 30, 1969, p. 2.

40. David K. Willis, "U.S. Bases Pressed: Alternatives to
Japan and Okinawa Studied as Opposition Increases,"
Christian Science Monitor, April 10, 1969, p. 1.


PEACEMAKERS


L August 15,


PEACEMAKERS 99

I could not check my freely flowing tears, I wept not because
we had been defeated but because of the magnitude of our
loss in the war. Japan invaded China in 1937. then rushed
into the Pacific War as matters got out of control. I was sad
because of the tragedy of that past history, which had no
justification before the world.

But as one who believed in Christ, as one who had been
unable to utter a single word of protest against the wrongs
committed by our government but had to confess that on the
contrary I had compromised, I found my heart constricted
•when I saw the rejoicing of those foreign soldiers at the end
of the war.

There may be some who wonder why I. writing on "Chris
tians and the Security Treaty/' should have to start with that
day when the war ended. As Christians, when we consider
this problem, we cannot help recalling that historic moment.
Because of the war that we had started, two million Japanese
men had died on the battlefield, a million more had lost their
lives in air-raids which destroyed over three million houses.
For or.e who has been permitted to survive in the first country
to suffer the explosion of an atomic bomb, I must consider as
a Christian the problem of the Security Treaty from the past
of this bitter experience. Thus I feel I must examine the
problem in the context of the history since 194-5.

II. May 3, 1947

On this day "we received a new constitution. As everybody
knows, the Meiji Constitution was the constitution based on
the Emperor System. The Emperor was not simply the head
of state but was held "divine and inviolable," and had a
prerogative that was supreme. Under the system which had
the divine emperor at the summit, social position and family
lineage were considered all-important and only a perpendicular
relationship was possible. The Meiji Constitution was pro-


100 TODAY'S ISSUES

mulgated in the early Meiji period, but ideologically it com
pletely embodied the feudalism of the Tokugawa era.

However the new constitution made it clear that the people
were sovereign, that basic human rights were to be respected,
and through its spirit of permanent peace it was to be a con
stitution based on peace and democratic principles.

The special feature of the new constitution was to be found
in Article 9 which renounced war. The substance of this
could have been expressed only by a country which had ex
perienced the utter tragedy of war. It reads as follows:
"Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice
and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a
means of settling international disputes.

A declaration which renounced war as a sovereign right
of the nation was indeed a courageous statement, but we dared
to make it, and in doing so we hoped to occupy an honoured
place in the society of nations.

The day the constitution was promulgated, all editorials
in the press hailed its birth with felicitations and expressed
the earnest hope that it would be the invaluable pillar of sup
port for the spirit of the Japanese people, rising out of the
ashes of defeat.

Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida proclaimed: "The ex
ercise of the sovereign power of a nation to use, or threaten
the use of, force is the cause of war with other countries. In
order to renounce this, we shall not recognize the mainte
nance of land, naval or other military forces nor the right to
wage war as a means of settling disputes with other countries.
This is a great fundamental principle in the revised con
stitution. A decisive article like this has seldom been seen in
the constitution of any country till now.

"Thus in praying for everlasting peace, Japan has en
trusted both its future safety and survival to the fairness and
good faith of the peace-loving nations of the world. With
these lofty ideals, standing in the leadership of peace-loving


PEACEMAKERS 101

peoples, we make clear the firm determination of the funda
mental law of our people: to advance along the great road of
justice."

It is recorded that when he explained the bill for the con
stitution in the Diet, Yoshida received thunderous applause
from both government and opposition parties.

Kijuro Shidehara also, who was prime minister while the
constitution was being prepared and is said to have drafted
Article 9, has written in his "Fifty Years of Diplomacy":
"From the standpoint of Japan it is almost meaningless to
maintain even a small army. The unity and cooperation of
the people are more powerful than armaments. With this
even an unarmed people becomes one body and if they are knit
together in spirit, this is more powerful than an army. If all
the citizens of our country move forward with the conviction
that this policy is right, even though the country is unarmed,
they have nothing to fear. Therefore it is not the way of
armaments by which Japan must establish her true existence:
she must tread the great road of justice and appeal to the
people of the whole world. This, I believe, is the only way."

At that time the Japanese people received these expressions
of Mr. Shidehara with enthusiastic welcome. This was because
the ideal of the renunciation of war was regarded, not as a
dream or a vision, but as a practical reality. In other words,
it was believed that this was the only way for the Japanese
to live.

For Japan, which had started the war and left a stain on
the history of the world, there was only one way to make a
fresh start after the war. That was by confessing to the
whole world "Never again shall we make war." In this sense
I myself understood the peace constitution as a sort of written
confession.

The Christian church, agonizing throughout the imperialis
tic war, had produced a few resisters, but she had to confess
honestly that she had on the whole been the slave of national


102 TODAY'S ISSUES

authority. Consequently she displayed a determination to pre
serve the peace constitution. The Japan YWCA, desiring to
actualize the spirit of the constitution, stove toward the
democratization of Japan.

But a brief two years after its adoption, shadows began to
fall on the constitution which was born with such lofty aims
and lustre. This was not unrelated to the fact that America's
anti-communist policy began to be focused on Asia in ac
cordance with changes in the Asian situation, such as the
establishment of the People's Republic of Korea.

The year after the constitution was put into effect, U.S.
Secretary of the Army Royal made a speech on January 6.
saying that Japan should be made a totalitarian defense wall.
He took a serious view of developments in China and said
that the American policy towards Japan would be changed
from the early policy against rearmament to that of strength
ening Japan as a breakwater against communism.

As a response to this move on the part of the United States,.
there began to appear somewhat of a shift in the interpretation
of the peace clause, Article 9 of the Constitution, as a basic
renunciation of all instruments that could incite a war to one
that suggested that, short of what actually could be called
rearmament, armaments for the purpose of self-defense were
incumbent. It has come to be argued in the Diet that the
interpretation of the meaning of Article 9 could be broadened
without violating it.

III. June 25, 1950

At this time I was studying in America. I was startled
to read of the outbreak of the Korean War.

It was on September 9, 1948 that the official proclamation
was made dividing Korea along the 38th parallel, with com
munism as the basic system for the country north of it. South
Korea had proclaimed its establishment as a nation one month


PEACEMAKERS 103

before this.

I could not help but feel anxious about the complicated
situation whereby a country which had suffered from the im
perialistic policy of Japan now had to exist, split into two
parts. The news that fighting had broken out along the border
excited me. My friends, knowing the shortness of the distance
that separated Japan from Korea, felt as I did that Japan
might become a battlefield.

However the news from Japan, far from being filled with
the sense of tragedy, told rather of the boom created by spe
cial procurements. The economy received a camphor injection,
and the Korean War fetched an income for the year of
$800,000,000. Furthermore in the second week of the war
another important event took place: under a directive of Gen
eral MacArthur the Police Reserve was established with
75,000 men, and the Maritime Security Agency was increased
by 8,000 men.

I have mentioned that the possibility of maintaining self-
defence forces under Article 9 had been debated in the Diet.
On January 1 of that year, MacArthur had said in his New
Year message: "The Japanese constitution does not deny the
right of self-defence." On the 24th of the same month Pre
mier Yoshida in a policy speech in the Diet said: "To be intent
on renouncing war does not mean renouncing the right of
self-defence." From that time on the early lustre of Article 9
faded! Japan had become a country with an army.

Of course it was not called an army and it was given a
completely different image from the pre-war army, trained as
it was by the U.S. Army. Today what is called the Self-
Defence Force is the successor to the former Police Reserve
Force which came into being under the directive of General
MacArthur. That is why the Self-Defence Force is called a
"bastard of the Korean War."

At that time MacArthur's purpose, as a piece of indis
pensable strategy, was to establish a line of safety and order


104 TODAY'S ISSUES

in the rear of the front line where the U.S. army was fighting.
That was why the Police Reserve Force was set up under his
directive. But then this became the National Security Force
and then today the Self Defence Force, until at length it has
grown into an organization with the weight of an army. All
this time the government, in reply to criticisms that it was
violating the constitution, continued to insist that it was all
perfectly consistent with Article 9. "What the constitution
forbids is waging war by military power with another country.

Military force for the purpose of self-defence is not for
bidden." (Prime Minister Yoshida, March 6, 1952). "To main
tain a force not strong enough to wage war and use it as a
defence against aggression is not contrary to the constitu
tion." (Government statement, November 25, 1952). "Military
power means armaments and soldiers sufficient for modern
warfare." (Same date)

As for the cost to the national budget, the defence item
in the first stage was ¥200,000,000 for the Police Reserve
Force. In the first plan it was increased to ¥4,600,000,000, in
the second plan to ¥13,100,000,000, and in the third plan it
rose sharply to ¥23,400,000,000. According to the first plan its
aim was: "In accordance with the fundamental policy of de
fence, to provide the minimum necessary national defence in
keeping with the strength and condition of the nation." But
by the third plan this had changed to "Defence preparations
adequate to meet an invasion in less than a limited area
operated by weapons hitherto used."

However though this "national defence" or "self-defence"
as it was called, had begun to take definite shape under the
directive of General MacArthur, in the same year President
Truman had started negotiations for making a peace treaty
with Japan.

Along with the sense of disgrace which we had felt for a
long time was the sad feeling for us that we were not able to
make a peace treaty with the United States and other coun-


PEACEMAKERS 105

tries. Therefore, when Truman began negotiations for a peace
treaty with Japan, the joy of the Japanese people knew no
bounds. But as to the shaping of this peace treaty, regrettably
we could not give full support because it was a unilateral
peace-making with the U.S. chiefly, and those who went along
with the U.S., and not a general peace with all the countries
that had been at war with Japan.

It need not be said that, before the war between Japan and
the U.S. broke out, Japan had carried on a long and aggres
sive war with its neighbour China. But we became bogged
down in China, with the war extending to embroilment with
the U.S. as a result, and, in what became a world war, there
could be no real peace unless peace was made with China.

The Japan YWCA on the basis of its Christian faith,
maintaining that this inconsistency could not be ignored, ap
pealed to public opinion within Japan and beyond.

"The peace negotiations in question at present are not a
general peace negotiated with all the countries at war with
Japan, but a unilateral peace involving only some of the coun
tries. In determining the future destiny of Japan, and in
relation to the urgent problem of peace, this is pregnant with
problems of very great importance. We, the Japanese people,
must, by returning to the Potsdam Declaration, reconsider the
road a democratic Japan must take, and as we are orientated
along this road, we must thoroughly compare and consider
the various problems and conditions that the present unilateral
peace-making will bring forth." (Editorial, "Women's News
paper," Japan YWCA).

Rev. Tamaki Uemura, president of the Japan YWCA, and
Mrs. T. Gauntlett, president of the Japan Christian Women's
Temperance Society, sent to Secretary of State Dulles a state
ment "Concerning Demands of Japanese Women in Negotiat
ing Peace for an Unarmed Japan." In it was declared in the
strongest terms the determination to preserve the constitution
which had decreed disarmament; it made clear that a unilater-


106 TODAY'S ISSUES

al peace which hindered friendly relations with China could
not be supported, and requested that there be delay until a
general peace could be achieved. However, in spite of these
requests, the Japanese government steadily began to advance
along the way to a unilateral peace.

IV. September 4, 1951

On this day in San Francisco the Japanese peace treaty
was signed and with it the U.S.-Japan Security Pact which
today we hold in question. It was Russia which opposed the
unilateral peace. Russia opposed it because during the negotia
tions it saw the U.S.'s anti-communist policies being trans
ferred from Europe to Asia, Japan being made a pivot in the
anti-communist web and included in the Western anti-com
munist camp.

Evidence for this can be found in an article written by
George Kennan which appeared in the November 1964 "For
eign Affairs." "Up until about 1949 MacArthur thought it
was not necessary for the U.S. to maintain bases in Japan
permanently; that in order to guarantee Japan's security,
permanent neutrality would be most suitable. But in 1949 the
thinking in Washington suddenly changed and a policy of
making Japan a permanent U.S. military base was adopted."

From about 1949 the occupation policy of the Allied Powers
in the Far East, "a policy for the democratization of Japan,"
began to get under way. But the rise of the People's Republic
of China and the outbreak of the Korean War changed the
balance of forces, and with these changes the U.S. Far Eastern
policy altered.

Gradually the aim to place Allied occupation bases in Japan
and secure them as front line bases for the U.S. became clear.
It was with this premise that the "Peace Treaty" was linked
with the U.S.-Japan Security Pact which recognized the sta
tioning of U.S. forces in Japan.


PEACEMAKERS 107

That is, at the same time that the unilateral peace was
signed, the Security Pact ensured that Japan would have to
depend heavily on U.S. military power. This was the method
chosen of obtaining our country's security; under the Pact,
Japan was able to increase her own defense forces gradually.

This policy was strengthened by the Mutual Security
Agreement of 1954. The MSA Japan negotiations opened on
July 15, 1953. In October, Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda, in
conferring with Mr. Robertson, promised that, in order to>
make possible the rearmament of Japan and the amendment
of the constitution, he would by education create an atmosphere
favorable to rearmament. A month later on November 19
Vice-President Nixon in an official speech said: "The adoption
of a constitution which renounces war was a mistake."

This kind of statement encouraged the Japanese govern
ment, and, on Dec. 19 of that year, Prime Minister Hatoyama,
who had just succeeded Prime Minister Yoshida, said that
the Constitution, especially Article 9, needed to be revised.

In the midst of all this, things that were incompatible not
only with Article 9 but also with the fundamental spirit of
the democratic constitution arose. One of them had to do with
education. Since the war the keynote of Japan's education had
been a democratic spirit based on the Fundamental Law of
Education. This was born from the reflection that until then
militarism and nationalism had dragged Japan in the wrong
direction, and it could be said that the new law of education
in a certain sense was a guide-post for all the Japanese peo
ple. But five years after the signing of the peace treaty, in
February 1956, the Minister of Education at a meeting of the
Education Committee and the Cabinet Committee in the Diet,
made public the intention of amending the Fundamental Law
of Education. "The present education system is a product of
the occupation era and is not suitable. There are no moral
objectives in the present law. Nothing is said about fealty to
the Emperor or filial piety. It is necessary to reform it as


108 TODAY'S ISSUES

soon as possible."

The following year "The Promotion of Patriotism" was
presented in order to energize patriotism in education. What
concerned us Christians was that it was "patriotism" of a
vested interest and far from what we considered to be love
of country and mankind. It was the same nationalism which
had led Japan astray before.

About this time the Japan YWCA renewed the decision to
"preserve the constitution." It was an attempt to place a
block in the way of the government's maneuver to distort
the spirit of the constitution. Again in 1958 when the "Bill
for the Revision of the Police Ordinance" to broaden the
powers of the police and suppress freedom of thought was
presented to the Diet, the Japan YWCA, at its annual national
convention, passed a resolution opposing it. We felt uneasy
about the unilateral peace which might fetter the future of
Japan or, even more, becloud the peace of the whole world.
As we have entered the set-up under the Security Treaty,
our anxiety has increased all the more. At the same time,
amidst the happenings which were distorting the peace con
stitution, we confronted the year when the Mutual Security
Treaty was to be revised.

V. June 19, 1960

The situation in Japan became turbulent. Probably the
biggest riots in the country since the end of the war took
place. Many Christians took part in the demonstrations against
the government which, heedless of public criticism, was seeking
to strengthen the military alliance between the U.S. and Japan.
For several days the area around the Diet building was thick
with crowds; this was reported prominently in the papers.
There was tragedy also: a girl university student lost her
life because of police brutality.

The former Security Pact which was signed with the U.S.


PEACEMAKERS 109

in 1951 read: "In order to prevent the direct invasion of Japan
and indirect invasion which would include internal disorder,
even after the signing of the peace treaty Japan desires that
U.S. armed forces be stationed in Japan, and the U.S. accedes
to this." The text of this treaty includes no stated obligation
on the part of the U.S. to defend Japan. The treaty in es
sence was like administrative agreements for the loan of bases,
recognizing the stationing of American army units and offer
ing bases in Japan.

The maintenance of U.S. bases in Japan, along with U.S.
bases in Okinawa ensured by Article 3 of the Peace Treaty,
the various mutual defence treaties (U.S.-Philippines, U.S.
Korea, U.S.-Taiwan), and the network of U.S. bases, built up
by the collective security set-up in South East Asia, firmly
bound the U.S.-Japan security system into the U.S.'s Far
Eastern strategy.

As Japan's economy developed by leaps and bounds and her
self-defence forces gradually became stronger, the Kishi
cabinet drew attention to inequalities and unreasonable aspects
in the old security pact. By stimulating a desire for a "new
era between Japan and the U.S." whereby the U.S. and Japan
might be on an equal footing, the government opened negotia
tions in the autumn of 1958 for the revision of the treaty,
and pressed them in Washington until the current Security
Pact was signed in January 1960.

In regard to the new treaty the Kishi cabinet made the
following points:

1. Clarification of the obligation of the U.S. to defend Japan.

2. Prior consultations on the disposition, equipment and
movements for combat strategy of the U.S. armed forces.

3. Establishment of a period of 10 years for the treaty.
Drawing attention to the imperfections and faults of the

old treaty, it insisted that they had been improved and cor
rected so that the independence and equality of Japan was
guaranteed.


lO TODAY'S ISSUES

The opposition parties opposed the new treaty, maintain
ing that under the terms "independence" and "bilateralism"
the set-up would harden into a military alliance between Japan
and the U.S., and that, because of the clear obligations of
defence on the part of Japan if U.S. forces in Japan were
attacked, the danger of Japan's being drawn into war against
her will was greatly increased. They therefore insisted on
the denunciation of the treaty and neutrality for Japan.

The arguments on both sides were taken up with increas
ing vigor by the people, and day after day violent demon
strations took place. However, in spite of all this, the govern
ment, with the concurrence of only its own members, ap
proved the new treaty in a one-sided and high-handed way.

As a Christian and member of the YWCA, I took part in
the demonstrations day after day. I could not but grieve over
the loss of the very spirit of democracy, let alone the breach
of Article 9 of the peace constitution.

Because the defence of Japan had been entrusted to the
U.S. forces, we vividly saw the danger of making many
enemies in Asia. We also saw that fundamentally our con
stitution did not permit the defence of Japan by any other
country. By renouncing war we had deeply desired that our
country should take an honorable place in the society of na
tions. When we recalled the origins of it all, we could not but
oppose those in power and pray for them.

VI. May 31, 1966

The increasing tension of the Vietnam conflict made the
proximity of the tumult of war strongly felt in a Japan
which held U.S. bases. However, until the Tonking Bay affair
in 1964, many people believed that the Security Treaty, as its
name indicated, was a pact which would guarantee Japan's
security and there was nothing in it which would be the cause
of anything untoward happening to them. But as the bombing


PEACEMAKERS 111

of North Vietnam increased, they learned that under the
Security Treaty system Japan was becoming an unwilling
participant in the war.

When unprecedented incidents happened, such as American
military planes crashing on a university building or on civilian
areas, civilians were terrorized. Atomic powered submarines
visited our ports frequently, and each time they raised ques
tions about safety. It was only natural that we who had
suffered from atom bombs in the past should be concerned
and anxious.

Even if it were assumed that the submarines themselves
were not so dangerous, the smell of blood with which they
were associated made us uneasy.

The crashing of military planes, the atomic submarines
which called at our ports, the tank trucks with oil for U.S.
Teases which caught fire and temporarily blocked Tokyo traffic
— we were witnesses to all of these. Before the general public
were aware of it, the influence of the Vietnam war was making
Japan feel very insecure.

Let me give another example. J.M., a missile engineer,
after long service in Saigon, visited Tokyo on furlough. As
was to be expected, he enjoyed his first night in the peaceful
city, but the next day he suffered acute pains in the stomach
with diarrhea accompanied by a high fever. He was hos
pitalized; the doctors suspected cholera. When the Acute In
fectious Disease Prevention Section of the Welfare Ministry
was informed, the patient was hastily quarantined and his
fellow passengers on the plane were given a second examina
tion. Fortunately the illness did not prove to be cholera, but
incidents like this occurred frequently. According to informa
tion received by the Welfare Ministry from WHO, in 1965
there were 377 proven cases of bubonic plague in Vietnam,
with 2,067 genuine or suspected cases of cholera.

Under these circumstances we cannot help feeling anxious.
J.M. as a civilian is subject to control by the Immigration


112 TODAY'S ISSUES

Bureau, but sick and wounded American soldiers are trans
ported to bases in Japan in disregard of our Infectious Disease
Prevention Law and later transferred to U.S. military hos
pitals. Is it surprising that we are uneasy?

As a result of conferring with the U.S. authorities it was
agreed that (1) information to prevent infectious diseases
from spreading should be exchanged, (2) cases of infectious
disease subject to quarantine should be reported immediately.

Though this was settled, there arose the question of com
bat vehicles, especially tanks, with bits of human flesh ad
hering to them. Troop carriers and tanks damaged in Viet
nam arrive on naval vessels at Yokohama North Pier and
are transported from there to the U.S. Army Sagamihara
arms repair depot. In 1967 from January to the end of June
about 450 combat vehicles were brought to Japan from Viet
nam. Human flesh adhered to some of them and also they
contained unexploded shells. Protests were made by the
workers on the base to the U.S. Army about the offensive
smell and the dangers to workers of infectious disease. Facts
like these, things that were happening in Japan and Vietnam,
were publicized by newspapers, journalists and magazines.

A Christian news organ reported that a Christian institu
tion for feeble-minded children was making sandbags for use
by the army in Vietnam. The people who ran the institution
had sub-contracted from a bag factory, believing that the
work, suitable for their charges, was the manufacture of rice
bags. Of course the institution, when it learned that the
children were making bags for military purposes, stopped the
work. The point is that many Japanese firms are profiting
from special procurements for the war in Vietnam. Delight
ing in a repeat performance of the special procurements of
the Korean War, they are gorging on the profits of war.

For them the Security Pact is a heaven-sent blessing. When
they come to themselves, they should confess that they have
been waxing fat on the blood shed in Vietnam.


PEACEMAKERS 113

Then there was a small enterprise in downtown Tokyo
which contracted for the manufacture of wings for napalm
bombs. When the members of the trade union learned this,
they promptly objected and the proprietor had to drop it.
According to the newspapers, when the North Vietnam Trade
Union Federation heard of this, they sent a letter of thanks
and a souvenir to the trade union.

I am afraid that I have taken too much space telling about
Japan under the shadow of the Vietnam War — I could tell
much more — but I wanted to point out how all these things
have happened because of the Security Treaty set-up. Is it
surprising that we feel more and more convinced that it is
nothing less than a military pact?

Up until this time the government had explained that of
course there was no danger involved in the pact. It had
emphasized that we, the Japanese people, who had a peace
constitution, would always be able to preserve our neutrality
and live with our earnest desire for permanent peace.

However on May 31, 1966, Foreign Minister Shiina made
the following declaration at a meeting of the Foreign Affairs
Committee of the House of Councillors: "In regard to the
problem of Vietnam, our government is not altogether neutral.
Japan has made a security treaty with the U.S. and has a
special relationship to that country. The activities of U.S.
forces in Vietnam are for the maintenance of the security of
the Far East and therefore Japan has an obligation to provide
the U.S. forces with areas for special establishments."

Five days before this in the Foreign Affairs Committee of
the House of Representatives, a government spokesman said
for the first time, "The Japan-U.S. Security Treaty is a
military pact." Thus it was openly acknowledged in the Diet
that the pact was indeed a military pact.


114 TODAY'S ISSUES


VII. February 6, 1968

On January 23, 1968 the U.S.S. "Pueblo" was seized in
Korean waters and again we were filled with dismay. We were
oppressed by the thought, "Is the Vietnam War going to move
to Korea?" On February 6 the Minister for Forestry and
Agriculture, Mr. Kuraishi, expressed doubt in a Diet debate
about the fundamental nature of the constitution and raised
a furor. This was connected with the "Pueblo" incident, and
arose in connection with the safe operation of Japanese fishing
vessels in the Japan Sea. He said: "There are limits to
diplomacy without armed power. You have to have warships
and guns. The present constitution, with its dependence on
the forces of others, is hopeless." Then a statement was made
which could not be ignored. "I am a Christian, but I believe
that being struck on the right cheek and turning the other
is absolutely not applicable in the present circumstances."

When I read this in the morning paper I was aghast, and
then I felt the anger slowly rising in me. This is not com
parable to fashions, like, for instance cutting a long skirt
short when miniskirts come into fashion. If the truths of the
Bible are to be modified to fit human realities, it would have
to be re-written from generation to generation or, to put it
extremely, from moment to moment. There would be no point
in reading a Bible like that, and the Christian faith would
perish from the earth.

The question then would be, why were we baptized to be
come Christians? Did we not enter the faith solely because
we were convinced that God's truths are eternally unchang
ing? Did we not become Christians because we had learned
the meaning of true peace in the cross of Jesus? I believe
that we must agonize over the problem of people who cannot
turn the left cheek when they are struck on the right and also
over the problem of a society which is in the same quandary.


TODAY'S ISSUES 115

Not only Mr. Kuraishi but also some Christians take their
bearings from earthly authority. Because their eyes are
fastened only on this authority they are unable to do any
thing but affirm existing conditions. The idea that the con
stitution which renounces war is not suited to Japan is cognate
with that thinking.

To maintain armaments for defence is the commonsense
of the world, it is the way people think, but to affirm this
worldly commonsense means that peace in the world will never
be found.

Japan above all, which waged a long war and suffered the
experience of defeat, should feel this in her very flesh and
understand. Formerly Japan maintained an army, but not at
least nominally in order to invade other countries. She did
have an army, but only for defence in case of attack. When
she engaged the U.S. in war she spurred her people on by
calling it a "holy war." We have learned from the lessons
of history that imperialistic states which purpose aggression
cannot maintain armies only for defence.

Therefore I believe that the constitution makes clear that
we should not maintain an army which is related to war, and
that as many people as possible should learn the lessons of
defeat. I believe that the desire to turn in a direction which
will remove mankind's woes which spring from war is em
bedded in the peace constitution.

VIII. May 3, 1969

This is the holiday which commemorates the promulgation
of the constitution. On this day, the Japan YWCA held its
annual meeting for Christians to study the constitution. We
had met on this day for seven years, and the YWCA, which
on the basis of its faith had earlier decided to preserve the
constitution, could not but observe that the state was moving
in a direction indicative of its wish to bypass the constitution.


116 TODAY'S ISSUES

Each year this holiday had been spent for a national gather
ing to study ways and means of filling the gap created by
those in power.

This year's program began with a visit to the Tachikawa
base in the outskirts of Tokyo. Tachikawa is an air and
transport base for U.S. armed forces as provided for in the
Security Pact. It is a huge base with an area of over a
million square yards. Before the war it was used as a Japa
nese military base.

Near it is the town of Sunakawa. A majority of the
population is rural. Japan's defeat was to bring to the in
habitants the joy of being able at last to till their own fields;
but then it became a U.S. base, and thus a powerful movement
of opposition arose. The Sunakawa people were particularly
opposed to plans for enlarging the base. Some farmers, bow
ing to authority, quickly sold their land and moved away,
but others resisted and held their ground, sowing their wheat
in silence and harvesting their potatoes. There were 23 of
these families. Others secretly supported their quiet resistance
and from all over the country flags of encouragement were
sent. All sorts of flags flying from bamboo poles were scattered
through the fields.

Two years ago a single cross was erected among the flags.
This was the work of a young Christian who had moved to
join the farmers in resistance to the extension of the base.
Formerly he had worked in a Christian social service in
stitution for women, but he had continued to have doubts about
the shape of Japanese politics which maintained an inadequate
social welfare system. Though a law prohibiting licensed pro
stitution had been passed, he still saw conditions which led
women to prostitute their bodies. He was convinced that unless
society really lived by God's justice and unless the peace that
Jesus Christ proclaimed was born, man could not be saved
from his misery. Learning of Sunakawa, he had left a work
camp to come here to erect his cross and throw himself into.


PEACEMAKERS 117

the resistance movement. It was from hearing about what he
was doing that the YWCA visited Sunakawa.

About this time AVACO, in preparation for 1970, since
the time had come for Christians to think about the real
shape of peace, decided to make a film which would make them
really think about it. It happened that I was asked to write
the script of the film. I had just met this Christian youth,
was deeply impressed by him and decided to put him into the
story of the drama and call the film "The Cross among the
Flags." (There is an English version of the film; I hope
you can all see it).

I am not writing about the film to advertise myself. I wish
to write only about the fate of the cross planted near the
"base. At first the cross which he erected was only a poor
thing — two bamboo poles tied together in the shape of a cross.
But since it would only show up like toothpicks on the film,
all the AVACO staff decided that sturdy timbers, bound
around with silvery aluminum foil, should be erected. In the
midst of all this, from the other side of the wire fence, violent
abuse filled with hatred spilled over from the American sol
diers on the base and continued to the end.

But the cross had been planted. . . . That night at mid
night the young Christian heard strange noises. Taking his
flashlight he went out and saw two or three soldiers trying to
cut down the cross. The soldiers ran off immediately but the
next night a rope was thrown over the cross from the other
side of the fence and an attempt was made to pull it down.
However, as its base was buried deep in concrete, the effort
failed.

Through all this the shooting of the film proceeded. Then
a plane flew low over the cross, grazed it and broke off its
tip. In silence the young man repaired it and did not neglect
his morning and evening prayers.

I thought deeply about the sorrows in the hearts of the
young man who erected the cross and the young men who


118 TODAY'S ISSUES

would do anything to knock it down. Of course, when the
Japanese youth put up his cross, it was not an act of pro
vocation, it was a prayer for peace.

After the shooting of the film was finished, I was too
busy to visit the place for some months, but on May 3 of this
year I went again and saw the cross, still standing firm. The
young man led us to the foot of the cross. "Look," he said,
"see the marks of pistol shots. There were none until last
year. But there is something else which did not happen last
year. In the evening when we are at prayers, you can see black
soldiers on the other side of the fence, their caps off at prayers.
And there are soldiers who look up at the cross and make the
V sign."

He spoke with a quiet smile. Deep emotion overwhelmed
our spirits, for the knowledge that hearts that try to build
peace do cross national boundaries and, more than that, the
meaning of the cross of Jesus had never made itself felt so-
keenly within us.

But events moved on heedless of the prayers of the young
men seeking the peace of Japan and the U.S. Less than ten
days after we had visited Sunakawa, a morning paper reported
that the cross and all the flags at Sunakawa had been taken
down. A low-flying American plane had struck the top of one
of the flags, and, on the grounds that the plane had been
damaged, a protest had been made to the Self-Defense Agency.
The Agency had sent a squad to Sunakawa to cut down the-
forest of flags, tear out the cross from the concrete and throw
it away.

IX. June 23, 1970

I have already told how on June 23, 1960, In complete dis
regard of strongly expressed public opinion, the revised Se
curity Treaty was ratified. The treaty stipulates that, after
it has been in effect for ten years, if either of the signatory


PEACEMAKERS 119

powers declares that it wishes to terminate the pact, it comes
to an end a year later. Of course the Japanese government
intends to continue the pact and doubtless the U.S. government
is of the same mind.

But when we consider the past ten years or rather Japan
in the years before that, we feel that we have been long ex
posed to crisis. Of course it is not that we feel that, as long
as Japan is safe and at peace, this is all that matters.

We Christians, who recognize the permanent principles of
the peace constitution which we received as a hard fact of
defeat, naturally cannot help feeling suspicious and uneasy
about the Security Treaty.

As I have stated repeatedly, the U.S.-Japan security ar
rangement is clearly incompatible with Article 9 of the con
stitution, and the same can be said in respect of the sovereign
ty of the state and the sovereignty of the people. Apropos the
bases, for instance, I mentioned only Sunakawa, but the en
vironmental damage due to the 145 bases in Japan, not to
mention the 117 bases in Okinawa is a matter of the most
serious concern. We must see the presence of these bases in
Japan violates in fact the principle of the sovereignty of the
people and the state which is guaranteed by the constitution.
To be specific, though the administrative agreements contain
detailed rules for the use of the bases, in large there are the
following problems.

The whole country policy carries the possibility that, if it
were deemed necessary for the U.S. armed forces, the whole
of Japanese territory might become a base.

The purposes for which bases can be used are unlimited.

The U.S. armed forces are not limited quantitatively: — i.e.
any and all U.S. armed forces may use Japan as a base.

A foreign country in Japan means extraterritoriality.

Various privileges are granted the U.S. armed forces: tax
free commodities, priorities in traffic, flying rights, meteoro
logical administration, limitation of electric waves.


120 TODAY'S ISSUES

When all the above points are considered, the existence of
the bases means that Japan is in a subordinate position. Ob
viously, in the light of the constitution, this is a violation of
the sovereignty of state and people.

Similarly when basic human rights are remembered, it is
the same story.

1. Public Safety.

The violation of various articles in the constitution are
carried over as they were from the occupation set-up to the
Security Treaty set-up. I would like to point out that under
the form of strengthening the MSA mutual security agree
ments of 1954, measures for enforcing public security were
taken and the activities of the Public Security Supervision
Agency have been intensified. In August last year, in pre
paring for "law and order" for the year 1970, the point most
stressed was the increase of plainclothesmen and public se
curity judges — an increase of a thousand.

2. Educational Problems.

During the negotiations in 1953 for the MSA administra
tive agreements at the Robertson-Ikeda conference, it was
promised that, in order to make possible rearmament and the
amendment of the constitution, the proper supportive at
mosphere would be created through education. Since that time
reactionary sentiment supporting education to strengthen the
Security Pact system has suddenly increased.

3. Control of Mass Communications and Freedom of Speech.
Ten years ago at the time of the revised Security Treaty,

media of mass communication brilliantly reported the strug
gles against it. The reporting supplied the energy which
helped to swell the movement. Today, ten years later, as the
government takes steps to continue the pact, the media are
doing a very poor job of reporting. Nor is this all. The media
have softpedalled the opinions of people opposed to the pact,
even if they are persons of competence, unless there are spe-


PEACEMAKERS 121

cial circumstances. They feel restrained because of the gov
ernment, and at times the government has interfered openly
because of ideological tendencies.

In short when peace, the sovereignty of the people and
basic human rights, the three pillars of the constitution are
considered, it must be said that the Security Treaty is incom
patible with them all.

X. Epilogue

It has been my purpose to trace the problem of the Security
Treaty in the history of our time from the defeat till today.
Now, within a brief year, we are facing the time of decision —
to continue the pact or to abrogate it. Christians as citizens
are confronting the time when they must make their choice
between continuation of the Security Treaty system and estab
lishment of a system based on our constitution.

Japanese Christians of course hold various opinions. Some
say, "The pact is a military alliance and, as a Christian, I
cannot support it."

"Assuming, however, that it is abrogated, how would
Japan be defended? We might be attacked by China or Russia.
Would it be safe to be without defences? Would the Self-
Defence Forces have arms to equal those of the U.S. army?"

To them, I would ask, "Are you then saying that you do
not want to guard the peace constitution?"

"Don't be absurd. I am a Christian, you know. I believe
that the peace constitution of all things points the way that
our country should take. However you must remember that
our constitution was framed after the defeat, when we had
nothing, when chaos reigned. Aren't the times different now?
With the growth of our economy today everything is in plenti
ful supply. We can afford a certain degree of defence. Look
at the countries of the world. Isn't it natural to have de
fences?"


122 TODAY'S ISSUES

"But do you recognize the spirit of the constitution?"

"Naturally."

I would like to draw attention to certain contradictions
involved here. These contradictions, I imagine, are to be found
not only among some Japanese Christians but also in other
parts of the world.

One of them is the idea of protecting ourselves from com
munism. Peace will never be born from the sort of thinking
that says, "Since communism is demonic, let us protect our
selves from it by military power." Defence and war are closely
intertwined; what we must know is how defence and peace
are separated from each other. Through the painful experience
of defeat we have learned this logic.

To take a simple example, a hand that holds a pistol cannot
give a friendly handshake. I for one am sad that inter
course with the U.S. is being deepened by the sort of friendship
that comes from each party holding a pistol. That is not the
way we should be holding friendly hands with the U.S.

In these fantastic conditions of our time when nuclear
materials are not only possessed but have become common
place, I believe that the key to peace will be found when
somebody is ready to be the first to throw away his pistol.

At present the world seems to be looking questioningly at
the People's Republic of China. Though the way the U.S. and
Russia regard China is somewhat different, they both seem
to be eyeing her as a dangerous country that is not working
for the peace of the world. But this sort of thinking is often
prejudiced. Prejudice arises in many cases from a hostile
attitude that existed before an attempt was made to under
stand.

There is the fact, of course, that China is a closed country
and understanding cannot be achieved even though desired.
But one should first remember what it was that made China a
closed country.

Unfortunately Japan has not yet reached the stage where


PEACEMAKERS 123;

she can make peace with China. It is strange that Japan,
which waged an aggressive war with China, does not seem
inclined to have a painful conscience. At present it appears
that there is no hope that Japan, enclosed in the defence sys
tem of the U.S., which has as its chief object the containment
of communism, will be able to make peace with China and
resume normal relationships with her. I visited China last
year and found the people most friendly, with a tremendous
determination neither to be invaded nor to invade, and a desire
for peace.

Once again I think of the uprooted cross at Sunakawa and
of the difficulty of bearing witness in our day to Jesus Christ.
And yet this is all the more reason why we must do it. It is
we Japanese Christians of all people, we who, by our failure
to witness and by our compromise, caused the death of our
country, the death of countless of the world's young men and
the loss of human values, we who must rouse ourselves, drop
our pistols, raise high the cross in the world, and in so doing
establish peace on earth. This is my heart's desire.

May 30, 1969.

References

Reference Material on the Mutual Security Treaty: Published'

by Japan YWCA.
These Japanese Islands: Edited by the Home News Section,

Kyodo News Agency.
The Mutual Security and the Self-Defence Forces: Mainichi

Press.
Reiko Matsuoka: dramatist, Vice-President of the Japan

YWCA and Tokyo YMCA, member of Komazawa Church.


Keiji Kuniyasu


Figures cited in the "White Paper on Youth," published by
the Prime Minister's Office, reflect some distinct tendencies in
the Japanese student population. The "baby boom" of the
late 1940's had perhaps the biggest single impact on the size
of enrollment, resulting in a record high for the postwar years
in 1958 for elementary school, and again in 1962 for junior
high school. By 1967, elementary school enrollment had drop
ped by 30% to 9,450,000, while junior high schools saw a 28%
decline and only 5,270,000 students, a total enrollment of
14,720,000 in compulsory education. A drop occurred in high
school enrollments also, from well over five million in 1965 to
4,780,000 in 1967.

The continuation rate of those going on to high school from
junior high has been increasing annually, coming to roughly
74% at present. That figure will most probably continue to
rise for some years, but it does not mean that actual numbers
in the high schools are going up; the number of junior high
school graduates having declined, net enrollment in high school
has levelled off. This has been a rapid development, and has
been accompanied by another indication of the increased desire
and possibility for more education, the enrollment in night
schools. In 1953, 23% of all high school students, or 578,000,
were enrolled in night school; by 1967, these students made
•up only 10% of the total, but numbered 480,000.

What has happened, of course, is that the baby boom is
now pushing into the colleges, having made its first big assault


STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 125

in 1966. In that year, college students had already numbered
more than one million; by 1967, that number was 1,160,000.
Adding the 230,000 junior college students of 1967, the total
was 1,380,000. It is worth noting here that 1969 enrollments
in four-year colleges came to 1,211,068, despite the fact that
several major universities took no new students this year on
account of difficulties in these institutions. The percentage of
high school students wishing to continue on to college is also
steadily increasing. The year 1967 saw 520,000 applicants for
four-year and junior colleges, making up 34% of the high
school graduates of that year. If the 155,000 ronin (high
school graduates, who having failed on the first try, have spent
at least a year preparing for entrance exams) are added to
other college entrance examinees, the 1967 competition clearly
made the exams particularly difficult to pass.

Total college applications for 1967, taking into account the
multiple applications submitted by individuals, amounted to
1,770,000 or 17% higher than the previous year. The rate of
success in passing the exams was one to every 5.7, or 310,000.
For junior colleges, out of 250,000 applicants, 120,000 passed,
making a rough ratio of one to two. A total of 260,000 ap
plicants failed in 1967, meaning that the numbers of ronin
will probably increase, and that the percentage of students
entering college will necessarily continue to rise.

Along with the modernization of industry and progress in
science and technology, the demand for technicians has grown
enormously. This is reflected in the numbers enrolled in
natural science courses, and in a rather special, very rapid
development of five-year technical high schools. In 1962 when
that system began, there were only 3,375 students enrolled,
while by 1967 that number had increased to 33,998. Here also
the signs point to a decided increase in enrollment for the
future. For the past ten years, the technical courses in high
school have more than doubled their size, leaving the social
sciences and humanities behind. Similarly in universities,


126 TODAY'S ISSUES

enrollment in humanities and social sciences has about doubled,
but that of natural sciences has increased by 2.3 times.

II

The above figures show that the percentage of students
continuing from high school to college is 34% and those going
on to high school from junior high has reached 74%. In other
words, one out of four college-age students is actually en
rolled in college. It goes without saying, then, that a major
contributing factor to the university disturbances recently has
been increased enrollments with resulting overcrowding and
concurrently, failure to keep up in curriculum, facilities and
staff. There are sixty-five universities now involved in such
disputes.

Putting aside the long-range causes of student unrest, im
mediate beginnings of the so-called "university problem" lie
in the protest by the students in Tokyo Medical School, a
reform movement which began in January, 1968. The dispute
widened finally to include the entire university without first
settling the problems in the Medical School. Protests began
in the private universities when, in Nihon University, rumors
of "bad management" by the administration gave way to
further talk that perhaps the university was guilty of tax
evasion. The movement gathered steam, focusing on a variety
of causes, and reached the missionary schools last fall. Such
institutions as Meiji Gakuin, Kwansei Gakuin, Kanto Gakuin
and Aoyama Gakuin also had a taste of crises of their own.
The basic question posed by students in these schools was,
"What is a Christian university?"

This year, in an attempt to settle the dispute, the Ministry
of Education put before the Diet the "University Normaliza
tion Bill" which met with almost universal opposition from
universities, whether public or private. In fact, the submis
sion of the bill has in itself constituted a new cause, or excuse,


STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 127

for protest. It has merely added fuel to the fire.

Before 1965, the student movement was concerned with
political issues that were outside the university itself, such as
the 1960 revision of the Mutual Security Treaty. Since 1965,
however, the issues that have come into the center of student
concerns are within the university; specific problems are taken
to represent the whole, and blanket, radical reforms are de
manded. What they are really asking, however, is what the
university ought to be. This basic query gives rise to others:
"What is academic freedom?" "What does university autonomy
mean?" "What is the relation between the university and so
ciety, between the university and the state?" "What are the
realities of the thing we call 'state' today?" "How, concretely,
can the university fulfill its function as an impartial critic of
the government?" These are the questions heard more and
more frequently.

Students claim that the university, if it has any social
role at all, must be a place where man can restore his human
ity, to step aside from the society that has alienated so many
and try to understand it, and himself, better. It should be a
place apart from the almost inhuman control exerted by the
state and always under the surface of Japan's economic pros
perity. The movement to revive the true university and re
store its function as social and political critic has divided
students into two main groups: the communist-led Yoyogi
group and the Anti- Yoyogi Zengakuren and its various fac
tions. The Yoyogi group has operated steadily through political
strategies. The Anti- Yoyogi followers, being more radical and
possibly more idealist, are uncompromising; they usually try
to carry out a given plan or ideology to the bitter end rather
than give way through compromise.

Most Christian students belong to the latter group. Among
them, in some Christian universities, there has been formed
the "League of Fighting Christians" which has been involved
in radical activities at these schools. Their movement centers


128 TODAY'S ISSUES

on the theme, "What is the essence of true Christianity?
What do we believe as Christians, and what are we, what are
our professors, as Christians? Are any of us really Chris
tians?" The dynamics of the movement in thought and action,
however, have depended on the leadership. The divinity stu
dents at Aoyama Gakuin, Kwansei Gakuin and Doshisha Uni
versities have so far taken the lead in activating the protest
on their campuses. Divinity students see the problem as part
of the whole question of what constitutes the essence of true
Christian belief. To them, it concerns the entire university,
and the nature of Christian faith. How does the university
regard Christianity, and how, they ask, can it claim to be
Christian if it continues to operate in what they consider an
unchristian way?

Along with university students, young people in church
groups and parishes are beginning to question the church
itself as an institution. Activists in universities are protesting
in some churches as well, often finding themselves treated as
deviants or misfits as a result. The Japanese church, admitted
ly conservative, is not blameless. Failure to accept radical
students into the heart of the church communities often means
rejection and alienation.

The United Church, at its General Assembly, while voting
not to participate in Expo 70 decided instead to give "moral
support" to the event. This occasion gave church-affiliated
students a fresh reason to revolt against the Christian estab
lishment on the grounds that their efforts were directed to
long-run church reform. They want to change the basic nature
of the Japanese church so that it may become more truly
representative of essential Christianity. The older members
of the church look upon these activities as too sweeping, per
haps overstated generalization. Young people, on the other
hand, see most issues as related to the Mutual Security Treaty.
Opposition to the nationalization of Yasukuni Shrine and to
the University Normalization Bill, for example, are protests


STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 129

against state power in general. Understanding their inter
relationship makes it possible to understand the university
problem as well. The students say to their elders that if you
oppose one, you must oppose them all; they want to be
thorough in living up to their fundamental ideas.

At the regular convention of the Kyoto and Hyogo meet
ings of the United Church, divinity students of Kwansei
Gakuin and Doshisha, using the Yasukuni issue and Expo 70
as a starting point, began to question the stand of the church.
Later in two Kyoto churches, services were obstructed by
protesting students. Such occurrences were perhaps less be
cause of student radicalism than because of church rigidity.
Our church does not have the flexibility needed to absorb the
energies of the students, and ultimately, the gospel may be
come increasingly irrelevant to students of this generation.

Ill

The United Church decided in 1968 to abolish its special
committee on youth, as one result of re-structuring, and pre
parations have been under way since last spring to hold a
conference in October, 1969, the "National Church Youth Con
ference on Mission." Its purpose is to consider how youth can
become an evangelistic force, on the understanding that youth
is no longer an object of evangelism, but should, and can be an
agent. Since 1966 the youth committee has assembled, each
January, representatives from all over the country for a train
ing seminar. This year marks the fourth of these. As many
as 150 young people were present, from many different
parishes. In 1966-67 the subject of discussion was "The
Church as Mover of History," and in 1968-69 it was "The
Church Living Today."

For the past decade it was hoped that the seminars might
help young Christians live full and honest lives and that the
church .might become an active force in history. Seminar


130 TODAY'S ISSUES

participants openly agreed that to accomplish that much, our
church must critically examine itself, expecially in relation to
its stand during the Pacific war, and its unification. Re
thinking and understanding ourselves were regarded as crucial
to the confession of our faith. Such reflection is more than
a historical glance; it must be a total reappraisal of past mis
takes in order that they should not be repeated. Only on a
foundation of honest awareness can the church begin to reas
sess itself and form a true confession of its faith.

Our youth is determined to take on the role of the light in
the darkness, the salt of the earth. Young people want the
responsibility, as members of a problem-riddled society, to live
through their faith. These were the themes and the motives
behind the seminar discussions. It was apparent that the
young representatives had a strong desire and initiative to
revitalize, to reform the church. The coming conference will
be held with these facts, this awareness in mind. Plans for
the conference were drawn up early in 1968 with preliminary
work beginning almost immediately. Significantly, the young
people themselves are making most of the preparations. A
subtitle of the theme "The Church Living Today" is "How
Should We Respond to 1970?" In addition there are two
slogans: "To Do God's Will," and "Together We Bear the
Cross." Christian young people are not necessarily destructive
or completely negative in their attitudes towards the church
today. Granted, a small number of services have been ob
structed, but such events are probably the result of specific
provocations rather than antipathy toward the entire church
body.

Youth has indicated its demand that the church be re
formed. A great many young people, however, have also ex
emplified in their conference preparations a very positive out
look. They are determined to develop the United Church, to
see it grow into a more truly Christian body, into an evangel
ical church that embodies their faith. Our hopes are with


STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 131

these young people. If their behavior is radical, we must
remember that their intentions are sincere. If the church
will take them seriously it will benefit in its efforts to become
a "living" church.

From the fall of this year through 1970, this country
faces a tremendous number of problems, one of the biggest
being the political issue posed by the Mutual Security Treaty.
This particular issue may well determine the future of Japan.
It is a big problem in itself, but the ramifications it will
undoubtedly produce are unimaginable. The way the Oki
nawa reversion issue and the American military base problem
is being handled gives some idea of the serious difficulties
that are going to arise in connection with the treaty.

With the approach of 1970, youth movements are going
to become more and more radical, heated and possibly danger
ous. Under these circumstances, Christians have got to con
front the dilemma of state power versus Christianity. It is a
subject that reaches way beyond Japan to every part of the
world. It is necessary now, more than ever, to deepen com
munication with others in the U.S.A. and elsewhere, not just
for the church institution, but for many aspects of social and
political life with which the church is so closely bound.


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY

- An Analysis of "Christians" during Three Eras —

Toshikazu Takao

Man's consciousness and mode of behavior are deeply con
ditioned by the age in which he lives. Therefore the same
consciousness or mode of existence cannot exist through all
ages. So, too general a description presupposing such a con
sciousness or mode is often a very serious obstacle to the true
understanding of things. The description of "Christians" is
one of those things. And today the univocal meanings of such
descriptions are being questioned and the "existence" thus
described is being examined radically. So, I would like to
search for the necessary direction of our consciousness and
behavior by analysing some typical descriptions that we have
been using since the time of Meiji Era.

"Yaso" of Meiji

A typical description for Christians during Meiji Era
was Yaso. (Yaso is a Japanese reading of German "Jesus.")
The description Yaso carries a fundamentally different nuance
from such descriptions as Kurisuchan and Kirisuto-sha (both
meaning Christians). Historically speaking, most Yaso came
from ill-fated lower samurai families during the last years of
the Tokugawa Shogunate. They were looking for a new ethic
for a new age and found it in Yaso-kyo (teachings of Jesus =
Christianity). They saw in Yaso-kyo the very best of Con
fucian ethics in an elevated and purified form demanding
freedom, equality and justice. Something like an encounter


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 133

took place between puritan-soldier-like missionaries and sons
of samurai. And this laid the foundation for the influence on
later civil-rights movements and new literature, the resistance
against the newly rising nationalism and the inclination to
ward socialism. Though detailed description and analysis
must be omitted here, Yaso were leaders of the age with such
a historically conditioned spirtual structure and they attacked
retrogressive or anachronistic people. They committed them
selves to an aggressive evangelism against Confucianism and
Buddhism by preaching equality of man in the love of the
heavenly Father and thus proclaimed their passion and zeal
with naive confidence and resolution. Once I heard an old
story of a Yaso who visited a Zen temple to convert the priest
therein and was engaged in a hot debate for several hours.
Finally the Zen priest perceived that the course of debate
would lead nowhere. Loudly he declared, "No more debate
necessary!" and turned to the wall to meditate. The Yaso
immediately stood up, placing one of his hands on the bald
head of the priest and, holding the other hand high, loudly
prayed, "Heavenly Father, forgive this sinner," and left the
temple. This story carries such a Meiji atmosphere that one
must smile.

"Kurisuchan" of the Taisho and Showa Eras

By the time when Japanese Imperialism laid firm founda
tions after the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars and
further enjoyed feigned prosperity after World War I modern
capitalism was firmly established. Decadent petit-bourgeois-
ism expanded and the common people's life was hard. Thus
the mood of prostration deepened. An effort to overcome
this spiritual crisis can be seen in Uchimura's Second Ad
vent Movement, and an immanent criticism of the prevailing
poverty can be seen in Kagawa's Slum Evangelization.
Trends of thought dug into an ever deepening crisis and


134 TODAY'S ISSUES

agony. They took the directions represented by such men as
Takeo Arishima and Hyakuzo Kurata. The age was influenced
by such trends as Taisho democracy and Taisho culturism.
There was no wild spirit of resistance any more. On the
contrary the concept of the learned and refined aesthetic-
romantic self with a strong culturistic inclination and political
indifference extensively expanded. Christianity, too, as an
object of such a culture, began to have strongly academic
features. Many young members of the church became "modern"
lovers of literature and philosophy growing into so-called "good
Christian gentlemen and ladies." A poem of Jukichi Yagi
criticized this kind of trend severely:

What kind of caricature
That a dignified professor
In a newly tailed frockcoat
On a platform of a class-room
Delivers a lecture on the "Bible"!?

If now, right now

The fire of Elijah

Falls here aflame,

Perhaps

A more fearful fire

Falls on dressed-up ladies

And high-hatted gentlemen

Gathering in the church.

Maybe

The end of the world is here

Yea, in this world where "doctors of theology"

Do exist.

Such Christians naturally could not properly respond to
the social movements which were rising. Since they under-


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 135

stood faith as an object of culture, they fled into their
"inwardness." Content to be "building up the church", they
could not effectively resist the ever rising trend toward na
tionalism. Their relationship with society was nothing more
than "charity" and self-satisfying "service-ism." Therefore
they could not properly understand the problem raised by
Marxism. As a result, those who became awakened to social
problems had to leave the church.

Those Kurisuchan could have neither power nor inclina
tion to resist the rapidly growing nationalism and the more
firmly established Tenno-ism and militarism in the early
Showa Era. Particularly after (SCM) the Student Christian
Movement was destroyed by state power in the early years
of Showa, "crisis" was mainly turned into "inward crisis,"
and the church had to take the direction of protecting and
prolonging its own life, always speaking of "evangelism."
Thus the Japanese church as a whole, though some sporadic
resistance movement and emotional or subjective resentment
were observed, cooperated with Japanese Imperialism. This
is evident in the fact that the Japanese church gave ideo
logical support to the suppression of Korean people. The
notorious "Apostolic Epistle to Christian Believers in the
Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere" offers further evi
dence. The church that deteriorated into a solitary island of
personal inward meaning and consolation without realizing
true identity, no matter how purely 'evangelically it grew by
inviting non-drinking and non-smoking good-hearted believers,
could not finally fulfill its prophetic function. It had to drop
out of the total front of politics, thought and culture.

Post-war "Kirisuto-sha"

For most Kurisuchan who had been cooperating with the
war, believing somehow in the final victory, the defeat was a
serious shock. Yet we cannot say that this shock was deepened


136 TODAY'S ISSUES

into a serious sense of guilt. Rather, many of them became a
privileged group, again leading the age, making the most of
the suddenly given American democracy. Conscious of the
spiritual vacuum of Japanese people in the midst of prostration
and dismay and adhering to the policies of the Occupation
Forces, they concentrated on acquiring believers by means of
mass conversion. This was clearly shown in the "Christian
Movement to Construct New Japan", eager to "save three
million souls". How many Kurisuchan pursued materialistic,
mammonistic and colonialistic evangelism conglutinated with
Americanism as symbolized by LARA goods? Instead of the
propaganda during the war of "American and British demons",
which was nothing but an unhealthy expression in a distorted
form of the earlier sense of inferiority to Western culture,
now naked and flattering "Praise America" filled the air. It
was really a proud and high time for the Christian Church
and Christian schools which have been contributing to Cau-
casianization of the Japanese since the Meiji Era. How many
Kurisuchan were re-converted as the champions of de
mocracy under the overwhelming material control of Ameri
can missionaries! Yet they were somewhat like "Pan-pan"
(prostitutes), concealing inside them a deep sense of humilia
tion and despising "frivolous" Americans from behind, yet
repeating "hello" and "thank you".

Of course, not all of them degenerated in this way. There
were many pastors and believers who tried to respond sincerely
to many young people who were seeking something funda
mental to support their lives while facing serious nihilistic
consciousness. Kierkegaard and Dostoyevski were being read
among them with new and deep passion. This corresponded
also to existentialism in the post-war world of thought. Out
of this trend were born profound Christian existentialists.


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 137


a. Confessional "Kirisuto-sha"

These post-war patterns retained features that could be
classified as "Kurisuchan" in both good and bad senses. What
I call post-war "Kirisuto-sha" appears as a pattern that has
different consciousness and behavior from that of "Kurisu
chan". One of the motives for this pattern was the encounter
with the "Church Struggle" of German Confessional Churches
that persistently resisted the Nazi regime. The knowledge
about German Confessional Churches which developed bold
resistance against the arrogant myth of blood and soil born
of their evangelical understanding of the essence of the
church as expressed in the "Barmen Declaration", demanded
serious reflexion and self-criticism in Japanese Churches.
Here were born those who conscientiously sought the true
"confession". I believe it was in those days that the descrip
tion Kirisuto-sha became general. I do not know exactly
when and by whom this description was first used, but I be
lieve that the connotation of such a culturalistic and inward-
seeking description as Kurisuchan demanded this new
description, Kirisuto-sha. These Kirisuto-sha, in the pro
cess of seeking for the true "confession", felt deeply guilty
over the war upon sincere reflexion and criticism of their own
attitudes during the war. This direction was publicly expres
sed when Rev. Masahisa Suzuki, the late moderator of the
Kyodan, announced the "Kyodan's confession of its guilt for
the war." Of course, the very fact that this confession was
not made until 20 years after the end of the war shows how
irresponsible many of the post-war Japanese churches were
with regard to the problem of their guilt for the war.. Furth
ermore, the fact that this confession was made only by the
Ky5dan, and that even within the Kyodan there was much
opposition to it, shows clearly the nature of many churches
in Japan. When (too late) this Confession was made public,


138 TODAY'S ISSUES

there were many pastors who had shared a deep sense of
guilt. At the same time, I can not forget that an old pastor
murmured to me over the phone, "How can anybody expect us
now to bow down before the Chinese (Chankoro) and dirty
Koreans?" In fact a certain theologian criticized the con
fession as infantile. As long as there are those individu
als who have not altered their constitution even a bit, the
words and actions of confessional Kirisuto-sha still have
great necessity and significance for today.

b. Resisting "Kirisuto-sha"

However, the features of the post-war Kirisuto-sha have
a wider range that can not be grasped in terms of the Bar
men Declaration alone. This is symbolically shown by the
Christian Association for Peace (Kirisuto-sha Heiwa no
Kai) which was born in response to the rapid postwar trend
in which radical and acute democratization assumed an anti-
communism nature, in alignment with U.S. policies in the
Far East. Of course, many Kirisuto-sha who joined this
stream overlap with the above-mentioned confessional Kiri
suto-sha. At the same time, they tried to develop their move
ments not only from the theological-confessional view-point
but also from that of social science. This naturally led them
to reflexion on how great their fallacies were due to the lack
of their social-scientific knowledge before and during the war,
regardless of their subjective sincerity, and demanded a seri
ous and humble response to Marxism. In this way, often
gravely misleading socialistic Kirisuto-sha came on the stage.
Of course, to what extent and in what form social-science
(and Marxism) can be regulative for the consciousness and
actions of Kirisuto-sha is a difficult problem that can not be
answered in a simple way. The question of how confession
and social-science can be united contained so great a difficulty
that it led the Christian Association for Peace to a schism.


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 139

This offered an occasion for the birth of a new kind of Kiri
suto-sha, which I will describe later. At any rate, these re-
eisting Kirisuto-sha were different in that they thought not
only in terms of ethical-theological perspectives, but also in
terms of social-scientific-perspectives.

Contemporary Kirisuto-sha

As the post-war Japanese monopolistic capital, revived by
the Korean War, made up the structure established by the
San Francisco Peace Treaty which seemingly assures the
nation's independence, and, participating in the US policies of
containing the communist bloc by means of the old US-Japan
Security Treaty, kept following the course of re-armament
from MSA to the new US-Japan Security Treaty, and as the
course of making all Japan including Okinawa into bases
against the communist bloc (corresponding to the expansion
of the American war in Vietnam and the US strategical sys
tem in Asia) became apparent, the essential crisis of our
nation also became apparent. In particular the sense of defeat
that had spread among the progressive camp after the "Ampo
Struggle" in 1960 and the fact that progressive parties and
labor unions became luke warm (having been woven into the
given order along with the sense of disillusionment about the
parliamentary democracy due to repeated one-sided votings as
in the case of the Japan-Korean Treaty) necessitated more
radical knowledge and actions. Education, too, in the course
of a more and more reactionary inclination in politics, had
steadily become rightist and has been attacked gradually on
many counts like: "The Ideal Image of Man" prepared by the
Central Education Commission, the authorization of text books,
establishing the system to appoint Education Committee Mem
bers, aptitude tests, evaluation of teachers' ability and work,
the bill to control universities, and others. On the other hand,
industry-university cooperation is being promoted responding


140 TODAY'S ISSUES

to the high growth rate policies and thus a reactionary re
organization of higher education is being carried out. Besides,
there are such ideological attacks as National Founding
Day and the National Administration of Yasukuni Shrine.
It is apparent that we should have more and more total knowl
edge now that we face such widespread pressure by the state
power. Under these circumstances, university struggles in
evitably occurred in early 1968.

Both at Tokyo University and Nihon University, struggles
broke out in demand of students' rights in archaic university
structures. But the fact that the school authorities suppressed
the students authoritatively not only made the struggles sever
er but also led the students to interpret the nature of university
struggles today in a larger dimension. That is to say, the
struggles demanding students' rights at individual universities
led them to an overall interpretation of the society or regime
that regulates universities in general, and thus all that sup
ports such a regime became objects of their criticism, and
finally led the students to envisage themselves as "assailants"
who function as important elements of such a society. In this
way, the struggles deepened and developed into a struggle
that demands the negation of the structure of the present
regime including all the ideologies that support it and the
total negation of that which exists now totally and the nega
tion of themselves radically. This is truly a radical criticism.
"Radical" does not mean merely "acutely progressive" but
"fundamental" "to the very root". It is, so to speak, a move
ment that demands of all those who encounter it a radical and
total recognition of themselves and of the reality that deter
mines them, and a return to the true "original point" holding
the principle of thoroughgoing self-negation. I described in
one of my articles, how much this kind of demand exposes
egoism in ourselves and others, how much naked self-pro
tection and self-justification have been exposed, and how


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 141

severe opposition and hatred have resulted. In any case, the
questions raised by the Zenkyoto (All Campus Joint Strug
gle Committee) students since January, 1968 have become un
avoidable questions for all those who think seriously. The
questions they raised are not concerned merely with politics
and economy, but also with the knowledge of ourselves and
with the very ground of our way of living, and therefore
demand whole-personal self criticism. For example, as the
Association of Young Doctors of Tokyo University kept deep
ening their criticism of the present medical structure, they
came to perceive the nature of Tokyo University itself as
being conglutinated with the regime, and therefore came to
question medical education at Tokyo University. They ad
vanced further to negate their own existence, as Todai students
realizing that they themselves belong to the group of "assai
lants." They had to make up their minds that, without dis
missing such a group of assailants, real recovery of true
humanity is not possible. There such important questions as
"What is a university, what is learning, what is freedom,
what am I, what is life, and what is hope?," are being asked
demanding a radical and total viewpoint.

a. Solidarist Incognito

It is only natural that these radical and total questions
are asked responsibly also by Christian students. Here the
distinction between Christians and non-Christians is no longer
essential. For what counts most here is not some kind of
creed; rather the essential issue is whether one meets those
radical and total questions responsibly or not. In that sense,
the very name All Campus United Struggle Front (Zenkyoto)
is symbolic. For, even though they are all united at the one
point of being anti-Yoyogi, there are various sects that severe
ly oppose each other in their analyses and developments, and
there are non-sectarian radicals of each department, and they


142 TODAY'S ISSUES

are all united in their concrete struggles. There the central
issue is not whether they have different world-views or faith,
but whether or not one gazes into the essence of things un-
egoistically and whether or not one concretely participates in
the struggle. It is no wonder then that many Kirisuto-sha
students join this struggle, and it is only natural that the
number of Kirisuto-sha students who join the struggle is
increasing, for the question raised by the Zenkyoto at Tokyo
University is a universal one, particularly now that the strug
gles have spread nation-wide and their nature has intensified
since the police force attacked the Zenkyoto at Yasuda Audi
torium on January, 18 and l!J, 196i). Now, it is no longer an
important question whether one is called Kirisuto-sha or not.
Rather, facing such fundamental questions, the very essence
of being a Kirisuto-sha is re-examined and schism and de
bate among Kirisuto-sha are taking place. For example,
this is clearly observed in the situation of the SCM in the
midst of university struggles. The SCM includes some non-
christian stsudents. At any rate, the SCM cannot have a
united opinion when faced with the question raised by Zen
kyoto and therefore cannot participate in the struggle re
sponsibly. Rather the very unity of the SCM itself was en
dangered and debate among its members became impossible.
Thus each individual Kirisuto-sha participates or does not
participate in the struggle according to his own responsible
decision. Those Kirisuto-sha students who join Zenkyoto
reject the designation of Kirisuto-sha. At least they reject
the peculiarity and privilege of Kirisuto-sha in the whole
course of the struggle. They can no longer be called "con
fessional" Kirisuto-sha or "resisting" Kirisuto-sha. I would
rather call them "solidarists incognito." They no longer
understand themselves as a privileged elite, but rather as
persons commonly guilty for the maintenance of various
powers and institutions that dehumanize and alienate humani
ty. Therefore they understand themselves not as victims but


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 143

as assailants who ought to sense their own guilt. Thus they
seek to destroy those "evil" powers and institutions by negat
ing themselves radically. They live in solidarity, and therefore
see that the strong individual guilt consciousness is alive
among those comrade students who responsibly participate in
the struggle whether they are Christians or not. The radicality
of their understanding is so throughgoing that they say
"Even when 99 people are happy, as long as one unhappy man
exists, we make him the very original point of our knowledge."
When this kind of guilt consciousness, this form of self nega
tion and this way of returning to the original point become
real, why does the outward distinction of whether one is
Christian or not become an important problem? Rather we can
say that this sense of values is basically very Christian. So,
when many Kurisuchan stand on the side of oppression,
being conglutinated with the regime and only hoping to
maintain their present positions, the guilt consciousness among
"solidarist incognito" becomes even deeper than that of all
others. When too much Pharisaic persecution, Sadducean re
proach, legalistic distortion and even Pilate-like suppression
are being practiced in the name of Christ, these solidarists
incognito cannot lightly utter the name of Christ if they
really cherish Christ. Rather they see the principle of Christ
in those non-religious friends who, conscious of their guilt,
are negating themselves radically and trying hard to return
to the "original point." Perhaps there is no consciousness or
intention of being incognito. If there is any consciousness
or intention, it is derived from consciousness of guilt. As
they sincerely try to live in solidarity, they become incognito
without intending to do so.

b. Struggling Kirisuto-sha

It was inevitable that the struggles of Zenkyoto, with this
kind of pattern of consciousness and action, should extend to


144 TODAY'S ISSUES

more than 100 colleges and universities. For, as long as the
universities today are organized in accordance with the pre
sent system of order and have been changed into factories for
producing goods called labor power, the questions Zenkyoto
raises have a universal impact. The same thing can be
applied to all state universities and private universities
though peculiar phenomena in individual schools must not be
forgotten. Old imperial universities, among which Tokyo
University ranks at the top, can be described as factories
producing high-class bureaucratic elite, while state and public
universities in the smaller cities and private universities
can be described generally as factories producing middle-
class leaders. In the case of private universities, administra
tors have to face financial difficulties, and conglutination with
capital power often becomes more apparent than other cases.
Therefore the school authorities have a stronger desire to
maintain the present system. The whole course of struggles
at Nihon University shows this clearly.* Furthermore when
many private universities, by appealing to their so-called
founding spirit, try to avoid revealing their essence as
enterprises, the situation becomes more deceptive and some
times very gloomy. The situation gets worse when the found
ing spirit has the content of an anti-regime or a criticizing
regime. This becomes especially apparent at Christian univer
sities.

Today the founding spirit of Christian universities has
become skeletonized and hollow everywhere. Most of them
became universities or colleges after the war when the new
school system was introduced. At this time, most of them did
not have any theory about the essence of a university, but
rather had such vague mottoes as "cultivation of personality


* Editor's note — The administration of Nihon University
was accused by the students of embezzlement and mis
management.


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 145

with rich sentiments" or "a society member with full culture
and spirit of service" etc., and the real content of their educa
tion has been production of middle-class people who conform
to the demands of the regime. Though some resistance move
ments were seen among them during the war, as a whole they
have functioned like subcontractors, secondary supplementary
organs and ideological reinforcement organs of state univer
sities. Especially in recent years they have depended upon
the logic of management only and followed the course of
"industry-university cooperation" in response to the "man-
making policy" demanded by capital. Comparatively eco
nomical departments such as economics and departments of
technology which match the needs of the age have been es
tablished. But because of the difficulty of hiring good teachers
in those fields, most faculty members are non-Christian. Thus
in reality the founding spirit has become empty cant. Furth
ermore, since the Christian administration do not understand
that the Christian university is impossible in principle, they
have an emotional block to the natural trend of secularization
and try to maintain unreasonable structural control (e.g. re
gulations that only Christians should occupy important posi
tions). Therefore they cannot secure really able men and, as a
result, hidden discord grows among office workers. Then dis
trust spreads among students. In such cases the founding
spirit becomes the "Imperial standard" for the status quo or
maintenance of power, and authoritarianism and "label-ism"
prevail on the campus. The longer and the stronger the luke
warm tradition is, the worse the queer clique-strife gets.
A typical case of this can be seen in the scale of importance at
Tohoku Gakuin University:- 1. Christian Tohoku Gakuin
graduate, 2. non-Christian Tohoku Gakuin graduate, 3. other
Christians, 4. other non-Christians. Some people add as the
5th rank resisting Kirisuto-sha, and if that is true, it is
very symbolic. Furthermore love, spirit of tolerance and
the spirit of service are overly propagandized. As a result


146 TODAY'S ISSUES

legitimate demands for fundamental rights or justice are
frowned upon, and in some cases even a labor union is con
sidered to be a rebellion against the school authorities. Wor
ship and courses of introduction to Christianity are compulsory
while freedom of faith is propagated. Their content has fal
len into a stress on modes of behaviour and can not bear
scientific criticism. Thus "Christian spirit" reinforces the
illusory community consciousness and functions to conceal
corruption in reality. . When reality is such, no matter how
often and loudly "Christian spirit" is preached at chapel time
and ceremonies, and how fervently prayers are offered at
public meetings, only resentment grows among conscientious
people. Much more is this so when Christians holding im
portant positions try to gain money by using their privileges.
Such excuses as "Even Christians are nothing but ordinary
people" are useless. As long as there are many Kurisuchan
teachers and workers who talk beautifully of love, self-denial
and inward peace and take a seemingly progressive pose but
enjoy fully the stable petit-bourgeois life, avoiding concrete
political and economic problems and never participating in
anti-regime movements, such banter as "If you want to lose
your faith, go to a Christian school" is no exaggeration.

It should be unnecessary to explain in detail how great an
impact the radical and total questions raised by Zenkyoto have
under such circumstances. It has become apparent that, once
these fundamental questions are raised, the struggle escalates
to very radical confrontation. Here I see the inevitable cause
for the birth of struggling Kirisuto-sha. The more firmly the
school authorities bolster their self protecting authoritarian
ism, and sometimes contrarily their conciliatory policies, with
"Christian spirit," the more severely should so called Chris
tianity be examined. The more seriously they take themselves
as Kirisuto-sha, the more sternly their criticism becomes a
categorical imperative accompanied by a deep sense of guilt.
The more often the school authorities avoid true dialogue and


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 147

reformation in the name of Christ, the more severely the
students appeal and demand also in the name of Christ. The
longer the Christian tradition of the school is and the less
total and radical the knowledge of the school authorities is,
the severer the situation gets. Therefore we see today that
the Struggle Association of Christian Students (Kirisuto-sha
Tokido) and theology students are taking the leadership at
such universities as Doshisha, Meiji-Gakuin, Aoyama, Kansei-
Gakuin that have long traditions. Therefore, if the school
authorities define these student movements only as the agita
tion of a few violent students, not facing the fundamental
problems raised by them, avoiding sincere dialogue with the
students and trying to solve the strife by the seemingly
easy method of introducing police force, it is certain that
they cannot solve the strife and that they only contradict
the founding spirit which they themselves propagate. This
is borne out by the fact that at Kansei-Gakuin and Meiji-
Gakuin universities, where fundamental errors have been com
mitted, buildings of the theology department and chapel build
ings have been blockaded by those students.

At Kanto-Gakuin University such questions as 1). the pos
sibility of the Christian university, 2). the meaning of wor
ship on the campus, 3). the meaning of the department of
theology, 4). the meaning of having chaplains, 5). the mean
ing of compulsory introduction to Christianity courses are
being presented by the Tokido to the faculty of each de
partment. If the school administrators of Christian universi
ties do not try to answer them sincerely and concretely, no
true solution is possible. Further, the Tokido students de
mand that the faculty of the theology department make public
its stand on the Yasukuni shrine problem, the war in Vietnam,
our guilt for World War II and the measures taken by Meiji-
Gakuin and Jochi University. Tokido students are now block
ading the buildings of the theology department, claiming that
the board of trustees and chaplains do not even try to answer


148 TODAY'S ISSUES

the above mentioned questions, and that the faculty of the
theology department has lost its prophetic spirit, since it does
not criticize the profit-seeking policies of the school authori
ties or show real concern about such important problems as
the revision of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty in 1970 and the
global competition in nuclear armament. These are problems
we cannot dodge. Thus they accuse us of our "criminality" in
that we have been uncritically engaged in a process of educa
tion which cannot be called education. Mere composition of a
beautiful statement will not improve the situation.

We have to admit honestly that we have not dealt with
those problems seriously until we were confronted by the
students. And we must sincerely scrutinize the real nature
of faculty, which has a certain prestige in the present re
gime, and effect a really necessary change toward a true uni
versity. We must radically deepen our knowledge to realize
that we are perpetrators and not merely sufferers in the
present regime. And we must start anew having a total and
radical view-point. In that sense, we must face the reality
that such movements as Tokido had to appear in Christian
universities, and therein hear the severe voice of God's judg
ment.

At the same time, I hope that Zenkyoto students and
especially Tokido students realize that the really total and
radical nature of the questions they have raised should de
mand severe criticism of themselves as well. They also are
open to the human inclination to self-justification, self-ab-
solutization and self-rationalization. I hope that they too, nay,
they more than anyone else, will deepen their self-criticirm
and self-examination. Without thoroughgoing logicality and
morality their barricades corrupt into idol worship and mere
violence. If those who have demanded truly radical and total
self-negation, in an effort to show the way to return to the
"original point," sit comfortably and boast, while guilty of the
fundamental sin of self-absolutization and self-justification, we'


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 149

see nothing but hollow and empty caricature.

The Church of Today and Tomorrow

I have so far described in somewhat too formal classifica
tion the Yaso in Meiji, the Kurisuchan in Taisho and the
post-war Kirisuto-sha, and I have classified Kirisutosha
as confessional, resisting, struggling and solidarist incog
nito. In the church today we have all these Christians
mingled and thrown together. Therefore we see oppositions,
debates and even schisms everywhere. And yet, at the same
time, all these Christians sometimes live peacefully together
in what I call evangelical abstraction. Lukewarm compro
mise under the guise of reconciliation, vague illogicality un
der the guise of love and self-deceiving fellowship under the
guise of communion are being repeated. In such a situation
everything is superficial and camouflaged. Administrators of
big industries, organized labourers of big enterprises, man
agers of small enterprises, unorganized labourers of poor sub
contract factories, university professors and students — some
radical and some non-political — , teachers of various kinds,
high school students suffering in the "hell" of entrance ex
amination, leisured and idle ladies, and widows receiving
social welfare — how can all these people, in their different
inclinations as Yaso, Kurisuchan and Kirisuto-sha, have a
common and uniting fellowship? And if all these peo
ple are equally given "peace of mind" through the Gospel,
being soaked in pious feelings for a short time on Sunday
mornings, and propagate in the name of evangelism noth
ing more than expansion of their kin and defense-territory,
how can they be called "those who have turned the world
upside down" as the early Christians were described? To
those who escape into inwardness through private cultivation
and are sunk in an isolated island of personal meaning and
consolation, listening to comfortable sermons delivered by


150 TODAY'S ISSUES

pastors who enjoy their stable petit-bourgeois life while-
engaged in evangelism, driving privately owned cars, and
indulging in sophisticated, academic theology and literary
criticism, how barbarous such movements as Zenkyoto must
appear! We should not mistake the attachment to gorgeous
church buildings for the zeal to evangelize. We should not be
drunk on the ecstasy of the church service suffused with
solemn pipe-organ music, and we should not confuse the self-
consoling fellowship of kinsmen with the recovery of our
identity. The church today faces a serious crisis. There are
theological confusions about the essence of the Gospel from
within, and the waves of secularization and radical change
are sweeping in from without. Pastors and lay members can
not and should not ignore the impact of those radical and
total questions raised by Zenkyoto. We should radically re-
examine our own confession, the mode of our existence, the
structure of our consciousness and our relationship with
others. No church life of mere inertia is permissible. Paul
gave us a grave warning a long time ago. (II Cor. 10:7)*
(II Cor. 13:5)**

The problem of church buildings, the position of pastors,
and the form of worship — all need radical and total examina
tion and criticism. In short, the true identity of the church
is being questioned. A certain Zenkyoto student at Kyoto
University said something to this effect: "It is all right that
such a place as a university exists. It is good that it is a
quiet place. It is better if it has many good books. But
there should never exist anyone who makes a living out of it."
Cannot this saying be sharply applied to the church? With
what kind of people and with what class of people do we want


* "Look at what is before your eyes."

** "Examine yourselves, to see whether you are hold ing to
your faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus
Christ is in you? — unless indeed you fail to meet the test!"


TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 151

to identify ourselves? Can we recover our identity without
identifying ourselves with those who are being threatened by
famine and poverty, suppression and exploitation? The un
committed attitude of knowledge for knowledge's sake is of
illusory value. If the church maintains a stable condition on
the basis of uncommitted neutrality, she will lose her true
identity and her function as the salt of the earth and light
of the world. A deceptive kind of unity must be broken in
search for true freedom, just as Paul says.*** Only when
we responsibly bear such pain, shall we be elevated unto such
total integration as "The Lord is one, the faith is one, the
hope is one."

Thus, our radical and total view-point should finally de
velop into that of eschatological perspective. We must carry
on our participation in the pleroma (fullness) of the divine
righteousness, life, freedom and rule with our identity and
true solidarity founded on the hope that never leads to dis
appointment.


*** "for there must be factions among you in order that
those who are genuine among you may be recognized."
(I Cor. 11:19)


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY
IN JAPAN


Peter Takashi Sakamoto

1) Fundamental Consideration of the Problem

It is always very difficult to foresee the future of society.
This difficulty is caused, on the one hand, by the great com
plexity of the innumerable factors in the concrete situation,
and, on the other hand, by the weakness of our limited in
telligence as creatures. However this difficulty does not mean
impossibility.

A human being then must try to foresee the future as
much as he can, for the future of his society is very im
portant for his happiness and existence.

The university has today a significant role to play in the
whole of society, since she has the duty to be aware of the
needs and difficulties of modern society and to serve the
human race as it strives to build a better world. The ex
istence and development of human society need the true uni
versity, which forms people capable of advancing the creative
reform of the world and of fostering true progress and the
advancement of culture through scientific research. It is safe
to say that the future of the human race deeply depends
upon the future of the university in society.

However, we take up here the difficult question about the
future of the Christian universities in Japan: "What will be
the role of university in Japan?" In order to solve this prob
lem, we must consider it from several different standpoints:
historical, political and social, cultural, philosophical and


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 153

pedagogical, and theological.

a) Historical approach: history of the university in the
world and in Japan : present state of the university.

b) Political and social approach: the situation of Japan
in Asia between the Free World and the Communist
World.

c) Cultural approach: Japanese traditional Asian culture
and foreign European-American culture; older spiritual
culture and new technological industrial culture.

d) Philosophical and pedagogical approach: fundamental
concept of the university in general; fundamental con
cept of the Christian university in Japan.

e) Theological approach: mission and Christian univer
sity, science and Christianity, theological faculty and
Christian university.

Actually there are many diverse opinions about the future
of the Christian universities in Japan according to different
professors working and teaching in them. On the one side,
some professors say that the Christian universities in Japan
do not need to change their fundamental goals and structure,
but only to strengthen the authority and control of the Chris
tian administrators over the guidance of the university and
the preservation of order on the campus. On the contrary,
other professors assert that the Christian universities must,
like other national, municipal and private universities, change
their fundamental goals and structure because of the radical
and rapid changes in Japanese society and because of the
change in the mentality of students today.

In my personal opinion, there are very few professors in
Japan who would completely deny that changes must be made
in the Christian universities to adapt to the radical transi
tions in Japanese society. Considering the real changes in
Japanese society and mentality, one cannot deny that the


154 TODAY'S ISSUES

Christian universities must be transformed, although the
extent of these changes may be discussed.

The second group, those who demand the reformation of
the Christian university, divide into two groups: radical and
moderate.

Prof. Toshikazu Takao of Kanto University is an in
fluential leader of the radical group. Concerning the Christian
universities in Japan, his sharp and censorious assertions
were recently published in his book "Kiristokyo-shugi Dai-
gaku no Shi to Saisei (Death and Resurrection of the Chris
tian University)."

In this book he seems fundamentally to deny the viability
of the conventional concept of a Christian university in
Japan. He explains his conclusion in the following way.
The university as institute must be, by nature, perfectly
universal, open, public and liberal. The fundamental ideas
upon which a university is founded must not come from a
particular ideology, "Weltanschauung" or religion — even in
a private university, since it also has the character of a
public institution. Consequently it is conceptually and in
practice impossible for a Christian university to become a
true university. In short, there is a contradictory opposition
between the university and its Christianity.

As regards the mission of Christianity, Prof. Takao
does not deny that witness to Christianity can and must be
given in the university, but this cannot be done by the uni
versity as a public institution.

For these reasons Prof. Takao demands a fundamental
change in the Christian universities as they exist today in
Japan, because they are not true universities to his way of
thinking. Changes must be carried out in the following
points:

A) Abrogation of the rule that the president of the univer
sity must be a Christian, (p. 73)

B) Freedom in attending community religious services (p.


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 155

74). Liberty to elect the course usually entitled "Kiristokyo-
gairon" (general Christian doctrine) (p. 75), abolition of
the traditional theological faculty (p. 76). Moreover he ac
cuses the Christian university of formalism and authoritarian
ism, and thus justifies the revolutionary acts of the radical
Christian students (pp. 37-41).

As mentioned, Prof. Takao demands changes which are
very fundamental and, in a certain sense, revolutionary. It
is significant that he does not want to destroy the Christian
university, but he is rather afraid that she will crumble
because of her out-of-date ideas and structures. He explicitly
declares that he does not wish the downfall of the Christian
university, but desires her changes and growth so that she
more truly and richly gives witness to Christ (pp. 72-73).

While fully appreciating Prof. Takao's keenness, studi-
ousness, and devotion for the reform of the Christian univer
sity in Japan, we can raise the question of whether such
radical and total change, "death and resurrection," is really
the only solution to the difficulties of the Christian university
in Japan? Is there no other solution promising a bright
future to the Christian university?

Here we must try to find a moderate way for the real
change of the Christian university in Japan. Real change
always implies a destruction of an existing part of the being,
but it does not mean death, the total loss of life.

Prof. Takao called this real, radical change of the
Christian university death and resurrection. However, as
mentioned, he does not deny the true and real life of Chris
tianity in the university. He really wishes not death but
resurrection, in which the Christian university will continue
in new forms and with new concepts.


156 TODAY'S ISSUES


2) The Historical Background and Present
Situation of the University

Many universities have existed in different ages and na
tions in the world. Plato seems to have founded the Academy
in the fourth century near the sanctuary of the hero
Academus. This academy may rightly be called the first
European university, where not only philosophy but also
auxiliary sciences like mathematics and the physical sciences
were taught. Plato was convinced that his Academy was
not merely for practical training, but rather for the study
of science for its own sake. In Plato's tradition, Aristotle
built his school at the Lyceum, the precincts of Apollo Lyceus,
in the city of Athens. This school was in effect a university
or scientific institute, complete with library and professors,
in which lectures were regularly given. These ancient uni
versities, however, were not called by the name of univer
sity.

The name university goes back to the Christian uni
versity of the Middle Ages. The Christian university system
made one of the greatest contributions in medieval times to
the development of European civilization and culture. In the
twelfth century the schools of Bologna, Paris, Oxford, etc.
formed centers of studies (universities), and received a de
finitive charter from the pope, emperor, or later, from kings.
These universities had considerable privileges, of which the
two most important were those of internal jurisdiction and
the power to grant degrees. They were largely independent
corporations which maintained their privileges against church
and state alike. University activity naturally found an in
tellectual and academic expression. In the thirteenth century
the university of Paris achieved an international character
which, with its importance in the intellectual spheres, na
turally made it responsible for maintaining religious ortho-


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 157

doxy.

The Christian universities of the Middle Ages maintained
the doctrine of the Christian church as the criterion for
their teaching. This was quite natural, because the univer
sities in medieval times formed a part of the Christian Euro
pean society of that era. Moreover, the universities of the
Middle Ages were the most democratic society of that age,
the rector being elected by professors and students who thus
participated in the governmental arrangement of the univer
sity.

After the Reformation the Christian universities were
put directly under the government of each district, and thus
they lost, little by little, their independence and autonomy.

The social, economical, and industrial development of
Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries changed
the European universities, which needed a new idea of educa
tion. One was provided by the so-called "Humboldt doctrine"
which reflects German idealism and is supported by an elabo
rate theory and transcendental ethics. According to this
doctrine of Karl Wilhelm von Humboldt, the famous German
diplomat-scholar, the duty of the modern university consists
principally in the research of the professors who also educate
students in the specialized sciences which are necessary and
useful for the state. In this activity the university has au
tonomy and academic freedom. This idea of Humboldt
dominates the modern universities in Germany and other
nations and has greatly influenced modern society.

Let us briefly consider the history of the Japanese uni
versity. Before European influence reached the East, Japan
had the Buddhistic schools for higher education, which could,
in a wide sense, be called universities.

However, after the Meiji revolution, Japanese universities
embodied the influence and doctrines of the European-Ameri
can civilization. Before World War II, Japanese universities
were heavily influenced by the so-called Humboldt doctrine,


158 TODAY'S ISSUES

which still dominated postwar Japanese universities and pro-
fesors. This idea holds that the university is an ivory
tower existing for the sole purpose of educating a small,
select number of the social elite. After the war, Japan in
troduced a new educational system in which a four-year uni
versity carries out higher education. The introduction of the
American university system has increased the number of
universities (two-year junior colleges excluded) from 48 to
377. There are now more than 1,500,000 university students
in Japan.

In order to say something relevant regarding the future
of the Christian university in Japan, a short review of its
past history will be necessary.

When, in the beginning of the Meiji Era, Japan opened
its door again to the Western world, Christian missions also
could start their work afresh. In this work of the propagation
of the Christian faith, Christian schools, especially univer
sities, played an important part.

Already in 1859, the first Protestant missionaries arrived
in Japan. Although Christianity was still prohibited, they
opened a small school to teach English and preach the Gospel.
By 1888 there were already 14 Protestant schools of theology
and 101 other Christian schools. All of these schools put
worship and Bible study at the center of their curriculum
and enforced rigid standards of Christian morality in their
guidance of students.

When, in 1918, the new University Law was promulgated,
Doshisha, Rikkyo and Kansei Gakuin were recognized as
universities.

The first Catholic university came long after these Pro
testant schools. In 1911 Jochi Gakuin (Sophia School of
Higher Learning) was founded and, in 1928, elevated to the
status of a university. After the Second World War, Nanzan,
Seishin, Seisen, and Eichi and other Catholic universities were
founded in quick succession. At present, in 1969, the number


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 159

of Protestant universities has grown to 32, whereas that of
Catholic universities stands at 11.

However, can the growing number of Christian univer
sities be a measurement of Christian progress in Japan?

Compared to the fast expansion of Christian schools, the
increase in number of baptized has been very modest. Chris
tian universities were not excluded when campus struggles
started and brought academic life to a near standstill. At
present, 8 Protestant universities (Aoyama Gakuin, Meiji
Gakuin, Tokyo Joshi, Kokusai Kiristokyo (ICU), Kanto
Gakuin, Doshisha Gakuin, Momoyama Gakuin) and one
Catholic university, Jochi university, are torn by student
revolts. Thus, Christian universities are confronted with
many questions of university education, and their solution
will be the key determining their future road.

Considering their history as well as their present state,
the Christian universities of Japan no doubt have seen a big
external development in both range and numbers. Whether
this progress extends as well to their educational content, or
whether in this respect there is retrogression rather than
progress, is a question of utmost importance which, at this
juncture, must be considered with deep insight and cool re
flection in order to arrive at an objective conclusion.

3) Political and Social Observations

What moves modern Japanese youth and students are
words like "PEACE" and "FREEDOM". Students of Chris
tian universities are no exception.

What first of all draws the attention of these Japanese
students are apprehensions concerning the politico-social
state of the present-day world, a profound aversion to the
real and cruel war fought in Vietnam, and a strong assertion
of their own political and social freedom.

Japan became a defeated nation in the Second World War.


160 TODAY'S ISSUES

She was the victim of the first atom bomb. As a result, she
developed a strong hostile feeling towards all war. In addi
tion, Japan is placed between the two super-powers, America
and Russia, and hence is affected by the continuous tension
between them. Further, there is Communist China, whose
political advance has placed Japan in the center of three
countries possessing the atom bomb. This state of affairs
cannot but have an effect on politically sensitive youths. Japa
nese students who are seriously concerned with politico-
social questions must naturally become involved in such a
state of world tension and disunion.

If, in addition, we cast a glance at the political and social
situation inside the country, it is clear that universities were
called upon to play an important part in the reconstruction
of the ruined economy by training intellectual workers and
technicians necessary for that task. It was a task similar to
that of the pre-war university which trained the intellectuals
and technicians needed for Japan to catch up with the more
advanced Western nations. There can be no doubt that such
a politico-social situation had a somewhat deforming effect
on the development of university education. The idea of the
university as a place for the quest of truth and for the
formation of personality became a mere phrase, and instead,
the training of specialists and salarymen became the main
objective.

Considered from the point of view of management, this
applied even more to the private universities than to the
state or municipal schools. Financially, these private in
stitutions were incomparably inferior to government-run
schools. They received only a minimum of public assistance
and had to rely wholly on their own resources. That is why
they had to be run on business lines, keeping research funds
to a bare minimum, taking in far more students than they
were supposed to, and continually raising their fees. Faced
with such financial difficulties, and encouraged by the rapid


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 161

industrialization of Japan, private universities, through re
organization and enlargement, more and more became places
not for the quest of truth for truth's sake, but for the forma
tion of efficient businessmen and technicians, according to
the most advanced American models.

Prof. Michio Nagai, in his book "The Japanese Univer
sity", attributes the present turmoil to the fact that Japanese
universities have severed their traditional ties to the spirit
of their foundation. He thinks that this is due to the fast
growing Japanese capitalism, which demands university
graduates in large numbers. Private schools, in order to
comply with this demand, have tried to elevate their status
to university rank, increasing their number of students in a
disproportionate manner, he believes (p. 20). In short, the
university failed to preserve its identity in the midst of
social change.

Prof. Nagai, in conclusion, describes the present state
of the Japanese university as follows: "Considering this, it
becomes clear that the Japanese university merely adapts it
self as best it can to the needs of society. Specialization,
by which each university has its own way of combining
research with professional and general education, laying
stress either on natural sciences or literary and cultural
achievement, is poor. In short, each individual university is
lacking in the endeavor to construct a university of rich
individuality" (p. 24).

The Christian university, too, having become dissociated
from its tradition and having lost its original spirit as a
Christian university, is experiencing present student turmoil
on its campus as a result.

But why did it lose its original spirit? Among the
principles ruling its university education, this spirit is still
clearly stated. Has this statement become a dead letter or
has it lost its vivid appeal to modern students?

In order to find out this reason it is necessary to get be-


162 TODAY'S ISSUES

hind the surface of appearances and search into the deep
foundation of the Christian university. That is to say, while
admitting that the phenomenal growth of the universities
and their emphasis on professional education in the wake of
fast expanding capitalism is one reason for the above stated
phenomenon, the influence that modern cultural trends have
exercised on the Japanese student must be specially considered.

4) Some Reflections on Cultural Trends Influencing
Japanese University Students

Prof. Takeshi Umehara writes some philosophical ob
servations on this point in the 1968 winter issue of the
magazine "Ushio." He holds that the present crisis and
collapse of Japanese university education is due to a deep-
seated ideological malady which has its roots in the very
civilization which formed the present type of university.
This type of university originated from a medieval civiliza
tion which was an amalgamation of Christian and Greek
culture and which put reason uppermost. The civilization,
however, which today governs Europe is a different one,
based on natural science and technical skill, and it is this
civilization which has gained world-wide acceptance. The
fundamental aim of this civilization is to know nature in
order to rule and use it.

The European university, which had been the seat and
domain of wisdom, thus little by little shifted its emphasis
from theology to philosophy and from there to science and
technical skill. The university, therefore, considered as the
domain of reason and learning, now pursues reason and
learning, not as a means to wisdom in the theological and
philosophical sense, but rather as a practical way of knowing
nature in order to master it (i.e. material civilization as
distinguished from spiritual culture).

What Japan imported from Europe was chiefly this


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 163

material civilization based on science and technical skill, pro
mising to enhance material wealth and national power. Thus
Japan imported an ailing one-sided material civilization from
Europe, and itself became a country with a civilization de
ficient in true wisdom and spiritual values, dominated mainly
by material instincts and desires. Prof. Umehara, after
thus diagnosing the present university turmoil as a symptom
of a deep-seated malady in civilization, suggests that a re
medy is to be found, not in Christianity, which is not that
influential here in the East, but in Buddhism, which is a
thoroughly Eastern tradition and may better supply this
need of a spiritual foundation.

Considering the future of the Christian university, it
might be good to ponder these observations of Prof. Umehara.
If his reasoning is right, it would mean that in our country
the Christian university, far from becoming a guiding in
fluence in tRe rebuilding of our ailing university system, has
no future at all.

However, this judgment of Prof. Umehara is based
on the clearly stated assumption that within Christianity
there are two conflicting and mutually antagonistic elements,
namely Greek philosophy and Jewish ideology (pp. 61-62).
We are called upon to examine whether these assumptions
are correct, and as present-day Christians, what are their
implications for us.

First of all, Christianity, by its nature, should be against
all strife and attack. Christ warned against the spirit of
revenge and war, and commanded absolute love. According
to St. Matthew (5:43 f.), He said: "You have heard that it
was said: Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and shalt hate thy
enemy. But I say to you who are listening: Love your
enemies, do good to those who hate you. Bless those who
curse you, pray for those who calumniate you." According
to St. Paul (Rom. 13:9-10; John 4:20), all other command
ments are contained in this one: Thou shalt love thy neigh-


164 TODAY'S ISSUES

hour as thyself. The perfection of law is love. That is,
love constitutes the very nature of Christianity. The passion
and death of Christ was the very execution of this immense
absolute love. Forbidding his disciples all resistance, He let
himself be chained and sentenced to death in the most unjust
court proceedings. He bore his cross and was nailed to it
without a murmur, asking forgiveness for those who crucified
him. Thus, by unending love, He redeemed mankind and
gave an example to his disciples in all ages.

Prof. Umehara overlooks the fact that the Christian
Church has striven for 2000 years to tame the unchristian,
quarrelsome and belligerent traits in European civilization,
and is still doing so. As far as the present-day Christian
university is concerned, it will have to institute a strict self-
examination as to whether it has really striven with all its
might to put into practice Christianity as the Religion of
Love, and whether it has been, in this sense, truly a witness
to Christ-
Is the present-day Christian university, as Prof. Ume
hara asserts, really dominated by scientific and technical
reason? Has it been wanting in showing forth the real
nature of the Christian religion by the practice of love? Has
it forgotten its task of building a human brotherhood on love
and justice, and instead, in self-centered egotism, allowed itself
to be absorbed by its own ambition? Instead of sacrificing
itself like Christ in the cause of peace and the salvation of
men, has it neglected the urgent cry of people suffering from
war and hunger?

When we look back over the history of Christianity in
Europe and America, and when we consider the history of
the Christian university in Japan, have we, Christians, been
wanting in the fulfilment of this commandment of perfect
love to such a degree that people like Prof. Umehara can
mistakenly put the nature of the Christian religion in re
venge and war rather than in perfect love of one's neighbor?


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 165

The governing idea of a Christian university should be
neither the intellectuality of Greek philosophy nor the spirit
of revenge and conquest so often prevalent in the Old Testa
ment, but it should always be conscious of what Christ taught
by word and deed and what constitutes the essence of His
Church — true love of our neighbor.

Together with Shintoism, Buddhism has nourished the
spiritual culture of Japan to the present day. The Buddhist
world-view, its religious tolerance, its nature-view, etc., could
become a strong stimulus for the Christian university, in
fected as it is with Greek intellectualism and the European
scientific and technical spirit, to form a pure Christian
idea of a Christian university. In this way, the Christian
university, firmly rooted in the ancient Japanese cultural
soil, could bestow its treasures on Japan and shed new light
on the solution of the present problems of university educa
tion. And by this it could constitute a vital link connecting
Eastern and Western culture.

What the Christian university should give Japan is a
genuine Christian spirit and its realization. The Second
Vatican Council asserted: "As the Church has always held
and continues to hold, Christ in His boundless love freely
underwent His passion and death because of the sins of all
men, so that all might attain salvation. It is, therefore, the
duty of the Church's preaching to proclaim the cross of
Christ as the sign of God's all-embracing love and as the
fountain from which every grace flows. We cannot in truth
fulness call upon that God who is the Father of all, if we
refuse to act in a brotherly way towards certain men, created
though they be in God's image. A man's relationship with
God the Father and his relationship with his brother men
are so linked together that Scripture says: 'He who does
not love does not know God'" (1 John 4:8).


166 TODAY'S ISSUES


5) Reflections from the Point of View of
Educational Philosophy

University education is part of human education. If the
object of education consists in the formation of man, this
naturally presupposes the existence of man and contains
certain educational principles and techniques.

Enquiring into the future of the Christian university, we
have to dig down to the principles that govern its education.
The basis of all Christian education is a Christian humanism,
according to which it tries to form a more perfect man.
However, university education, in so far as it completes the
school education of the young man, is different from all other
education in kindergarten, elementary, middle and high school.
In what follows, a few points will be brought forward which
would seem to be important if Christian university education
is to contribute towards the solution of the present university
problem.

A) Christianity — The Christian university, based upon the
principles of Christianity, has as its foremost aim the estab
lishment of a community of men dedicated to truth and
justice, who in the spirit of freedom and charity engage in
the search for truths and values and in the formation of
man. Thereby it intends to serve the welfare of society and
the creative progress of the human race.

Christian principles, as applied to the university proper,
include the recognition of all men as brothers under solidarity
with one Father and therefore equal, which fosters a sense
of the human family and love toward it; a striving for an
order which reflects this solidarity and a respect for it; and
a constant dialogue with humanity concerning its problems,
towards whose solutions the university cooperates in its own
unique way.


THE FUTURE OP THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 167

In the midst of the present rapidly changing world, all
members of the Christian university share in the hopes and
sufferings of the human race. Therefore, this university has
the duty not to stand aloof, but to be keenly aware of the
realities of the present world, and to clarify their meaning
and complexity with an open and critical mind. We must
realize that this university seeks not to be served but to
serve the human race in its process of striving to build a
better world.

B) Study and the formation of man — To fulfill its mission,
the university requires that students, teaching staff and ad
ministrators grow in mutual respect and in the strong sense
of solidarity, expressed in a responsible participation, each
according to his role. Thus, they should think, judge and act
both as a corporate body and as individuals with all their
strength in the spirit of responsible freedom. This is neces
sary also to prepare the student for his later place in society.
In this spirit, interpersonal relationships and a true dialogue
can occur on both the individual and the group levels, bringing
into existence a genuine community.

Through such a dialogue, the teacher will communicate to
the student the spiritual and intellectual treasures of the
past, while augmenting them through his own personal re
search. Also, in guiding his students he will take positive
initiative in introducing present problems for cooperative
research in a spirit of respect for objective reality and de
tached scientific inquiry, attempting to deepen in his students
the consciousness of these problems.

The role of the student is not restricted to his own indi
vidual study. With his more sensitive consciousness of pres
ent realities, his role includes developing new insights through
personal and cooperative effort. In so doing, he collaborates
equally toward his own self-formation and the formation of
, society.


168 TODAY'S ISSUES

Thus, all will join forces in building the new and better
world toward which all humanity is striving.

C) Academic freedom and autonomy of the university — As
a university, the Christian university respects the plurality
of philosophies, and indeed encourages their objective study.
Further, respecting the intellectual freedom of its members,
it has no intention of forcing a particular world view upon
any student or teacher. Rather it seeks to aid its members
in acquiring sharp discernment, mature judgment, and a
sincere mental attitude, so as to enable them to form their
own view of basic human problems within the widest possible
frame of reference. This it does as a community of learning,
and not as a center of indoctrination.

At the same time, the Christian University in Japan affords
to all who desire the facilities for research into the world view
and culture of Christianity. This formation of responsible
human persons, to be fruitful, must be carried out in an
atmosphere of freedom. Thus, this university must enjoy
autonomy: namely it must be free from all coercion from
ideological, political or other forces, whether from any of its
members or from pressures external to the university.

6) Theological Considerations

Stimulated by the Second Vatican Council, a new theo
logical movement has arisen in the Catholic Church which,
on account of the strong ecumenical trend of the time, has
had a strong influence on Protestant and Eastern theology
and thus on the whole Christian Church. The main effect of
this movement was to foster dialogue inside the Church, to
open the Church wide to the present world and to adapt the
Church to the needs of the time.

This kind of "dialogue and freedom", "modernization and
progress," is exactly what present-day society demands, and


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 169

the Christian university too is being shaken by this thought
wave. Protestants and Catholics are affected in the same
way. They both have their progressives and traditionalists
opposing each other. In all denominations, theology students
and others are in critical opposition to the old-style univer
sity and its management. In this respect, Protestants are
more advanced than Catholics. At any rate, this movement
of adapting Christianity and its universities to modern times
will grow in intensity and depth.

Admitting that the essence of the Christian religion is
unchangeable, its changeable parts have always to be inter
preted anew and adapted by theologians to the changing de
mands and situations of the time. Theological faculties have
to express the unchanging essence of Christianity in ever new
forms according to the thought and language of modern man,
and not only to hand on a system of scholastic thought, how
ever much that may have been fitting in its time.

It seems that in the Protestant universities of Japan,
theological faculties are confronted with great difficulties. A
significant symptom of this is, for example, the fact that
Kanto Gakuin University has closed down its theological
faculty altogether, and that in Doshisha and Kansei Gakuin
universities, rebelling students have occupied and closed the
faculty buildings of the theological departments.

The important question henceforth will be: how is the
general aim of the university as an institution for learning,
education and research to be combined and harmonized with
the specific task of the Christian university to transmit
Christian religion and culture.

7) In Conclusion

Surely, the way into the future will not be easy for the
Christian university. However, a way will be opened to her
if she really lives up to the spirit of the Gospel. In conclu-


170 TODAY'S ISSUES

sion, a few points may be mentioned which would seem to be
of great importance towards this end.

A) A new, specifically Christian educational method has to
be discovered. — The success and failure of university educa
tion will largely depend on whether the basic education has
been good or not. The student on entering the university
already possesses a direction in which to build his personality.
In my opinion, herein lies a general educational problem for
the Christian university, as for the other universities.

The famous Catholic educator of modern times, Maria
Montessori, has described the education of man as a single
process from infancy to adult age. (Cf. Maria Montessori,
Uber die Bildung des Menschen. Herder V., Freiburg 1966,
p. 16). Man's personality and all his capabilities are basically
determined during infancy. They cannot fundamentally be
changed by university education. The important point of the
Montessori educational method is: to give the infant a train
ing which elicits and forms the bodily and spiritual potentiali
ties hidden in the infant, so as to form his personality by
developing his faculties of self-determination, freedom and
sense of responsibility. In "The Discovery of the Child",
Maria Montessori describes how the infant has been given by
his Creator mysterious faculties varying according to each
person. Among them are so-called "supernatural" ones which
direct the young person towards his Creator and which are
the reason for the innate religious sense that is to be de
veloped by education.

This new Catholic educational method is, Montessori as
serts, at the same time scientific, psychological and religious.
Given this basic education, the university will receive students
who are capable of developing their individual faculties in
freedom and responsible self-determination. Thus, the solu
tion to present unviersity problems is largely a question of
this earlier basic education. With this in mind, the Christian
university is called upon to form its genuinely Christian


THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 171

educational policy and renew its educational system. As
with Maria Montessori's method, it might become a worth
while discovery.

E. M. Standing, writing in his "The Montessori Revolu
tion in Education", puts it as follows: "For these it repre
sents the beginning of a great new social revolution based on
the releasing of hitherto unknown potentialities in childhood.
We are not thinking of children simply as individuals to be
educated, but taken collectively as a creative force to be used
for the re-creation of civilization — a force which has hitherto
never been fully implemented and, when it is, will usher in
a new world for a new man" (p. 201).

B) The problem of universal knowledge and the Christian
spirit at the Christian university. — Regarding this point,
Prof. Takao contends that there exists in the Christian
university an inner contradiction, which has created within
the university an undeniably strong tension. In order to
resolve this, it would be natural for a university to give its
students full freedom to attend, or not to attend, Christian
lectures and worship. This, however, demands all the more
that the Christian university become a center for research
and transmission of a truly Christian world-view and culture.
It becomes of paramount importance for the Christian uni
versity, while acknowledging perfect freedom of learning, to
show forth the value of Christian teaching and culture. If
this is done only in the narrow compass of a theological de
partment, it will hardly attract students of the young genera
tion. Christianity and the whole ambit of its cultural ramifi
cations must become the object of intense research, from
which will come forth a new, progressive concept of Christian
education, which will in turn contribute positively to the
solution of the present difficulties.

In this way, new Christian cultural research institutes
should be created in all Christian universities. They should


172 TODAY'S ISSUES

keep close contact with one another. They should become
rallying points for unity among the various Christian de
nominations, and, above all, bring forth by their diligent
united research the new concept of Christian education.

C) To build up Christian universities with clear specifica
tions and a strong individuality — With regard to this point,
Tamagawa University is of special interest. When in 1968
the General Meeting of Christian Schools was held there,
the president, Dr. Ohara, in setting forth the spirit of
university education, drew the attention of his audience by
explaining that education must comprise the whole man from
infancy to adult age, that it must foster the harmonious
development of mind, heart and will. The means to this end
which he suggested — learning by working, self-teaching, self-
governing, respect for the individuality of the pupil, the
fusion of opposites, respect for nature, international-minded-
ness, etc. — come close to what Montessori suggested. They
are noteworthy for all Christian universities trying to build
for the future.

In conclusion, according to the proverb: "God helps those
who help themselves," the building of the new Christian uni
versity is not a thing which just happens, but requires
the concerted effort of all concerned. The great theologian
and philosopher at the time of the Renaissance, Nicolaus
Cusanus, had a profound confidence in the creative power
God has given to man. The twentieth century's great educator,
Maria Montessori, discovered it in the child. If the Christian
university can muster this creative power and potentiality
hidden in man, and develop it into a new education for man,
it can lead the way to the renewal and reform of university
life in general. Furthermore, it can contribute to the estab
lishment of a peaceful Japanese society, thus showing forth
the spiritual and real worth of the Christian religion. More
over, it would thus become a treasure to Christ Himself.


THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL
MOVEMENT IN JAPAN


Chitose Kishi

The head of the Church is Christ, and the Church is the
body of Christ. Therefore, all that is said of Christ can also
be said of the Church. Just as Christ is the only holy Lord,
so the Church is the universal Church transmitted by the
Apostles.

In this sense, the Church of Christ cannot but be one.
However, the Church now has a certain aspect. Namely,
the Church, as the body of Christ, has many members. As
Paul says: "For just as the body is one and has many
members, and all the members of the body, though many, are
one body, so it is with Christ" (I Cor. 12:12). Of Christ
Himself, we can say that He will never change. But it would
be difficult to maintain that those people who are members
of the body of Christ, even though they participate in the
death and resurrection of Christ, can unite themselves per
fectly to the mind of God. In the first letter to the Corin
thians, Paul urges harmony among the many members of
the one body, but by this very fact it is clear that he re
alizes the existence of some disharmony among the members.

The history of the Church covers some two thousand
years. During that time the Church has never forgotten that
she is one. However, that divisions have occurred in every
period of her history is no exaggeration. Even if we leave
aside the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches
and the divisions of the Reformation period which have had
a great impact on the entire Christian world, the number of


174 TODAY'S ISSUES

divisions within the different denominations is considerable.

While we recognize the unity of the Church, we admit to
divisions within the Church. However, parallel to this dis
unity among the members of the Church, there always has
existed a movement within the Church towards the unity
of all her members.

In the beginning of this century, at the instigation of
Dr. J. R. Mott, the World Missionary Council came together
at Edinburgh in 1910. Later it became the International
Missionary Council, which held meetings at Jerusalem in 1928
and at Madras in 1938, promoting the ecumenical movement.

The ecumenical movement was stimulated by World War
I. In 1919, the year after the end of the war, together with
the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Orthodox Church, Archbishop
Soderblom of Sweden appealed for the cooperation of all the
churches of the world in matters pertaining to the social
ethics in life and work. Their initiative stimulated the
establishment of the World Council for Life and Work, which
held meetings at Stockholm in 1925 and at Oxford in 1937.

Again, Bishop C. R. Brent, greatly moved by the Edin
burgh World Missionary Council of 1910, sought to promote
a world church movement in relation to faith and order. His
efforts led to the establishment of the World Council for
Faith and Order which organized meetings at Lausanne in
1927 and at Edinburgh in 1937.

Since ecumenical efforts unavoidably affect race questions,
political systems, and economical structures, arguments both
for and against this movement were raised. Despite criticism
and opposition, a number of inspired leaders bravely con
tinued to promote the movement. Among them, Archbishop
William Temple deserves mention.

The first General Meeting of the World Council of
Churches was held at Amsterdam after World War II in
1948. This meeting was successfully convened through the
cooperation of those men who, trusting in the guidance of


THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 175

the Holy Spirit, moved towards the realization of their
vision.

The Second General Meeting was held in Evanston in
1954, the third in New Delhi in 1961, and the fourth in
Uppsala in 1968.

The World Council for Faith and Order, too, worked
vigorously and held its third meeting in Lundt in 1952, its
fourth in Montreal in 1963 and its fifth in London in 1968.

We cannot overlook the ecumenical movement within the
Catholic Church which culminated in the Second Vatican
Council.

Just three months after his election on October 28, 1958,
Pope John XXIII surprised the world with his decision to
convene Vatican Council II on the following January 25.
Visiting the Church of St. Paul, Pope John announced his
intention to the assembled cardinals. His aim, he said, was
to search for solutions to the many problems facing the
Roman Catholic Church.

"Aggiornamento" was his purpose — a "self-reform" of
the Church. It soon caused widespread repercussions both
within and without the Church. The Second Vatican Council
took up the problem of worldwide Christian unity, a problem
which neither the Council of Trent nor the First Vatican
Council had been able to consider. This required courage
on Pope John's part, and for this reason, Christians will
always gratefully remember his determination born out of
love. Further, the fact that the Pope also sought improved
relations with other religions and called for the unity of
the whole human race, clearly indicates that Christ is the
Lord of the universe, who teaches the fundamental attitude
of Christians towards other religions.

That the Catholic Church took up the problem of ecumen
ism was an epoch-making event which greatly stimulated
the churches of the world. This does not mean that Catholic
Church progress in ecumenism has reached a culmination


176 TODAY'S ISSUES

which satisfies all the churches of the world. Yet it is very
meaningful that the Catholic Church manifested an aware
ness of the problem and began to deal with it directly. Within
Protestantism too, there are groups still completely closed to
this problem. One should know that no problem is solved
only by attacking other people. Ecumenism is based on self-
reform through the Holy Spirit.

The Second Vatican Council, convened by Pope John XXIII
and continued by Pope Paul VI, knew four sessions from
October 11, 1962, to December 8, 1965. This council will be
well-remembered in the history of the Church.

Since the end of World War II, the Christian churches
of the whole world have understood the distress wrought by
the lack of unity among the churches and have earnestly
sought for a solution. This can be seen from what we have
said above. It need not be stressed that this movement is
deeply influencing the Church in Japan.

After World War II, some of the Protestant denomina
tions separated from the United Church of Christ in Japan.
This phenomenon, however, was not in contradiction to the
ecumenical spirit. Rather, the realization of this spirit looks
for a new start in a unity of minds which is not centered
upon organizations. Of course, among the separated de
nominations there may be some which intended a complete
separation of their denomination both in organization and
in spirit.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer, in his Life Together, wrote very clearly
about this point: "In Christian brotherhood everything de
pends upon its being clear right from the beginning, first,
that Christian brotherhood is not an ideal, but a divine re
ality. Second, that Christian brotherhood is a spiritual and
not a psychic reality." Bonhoeffer further explains the
presence of this reality as related to the existence of the
individual Christian: "Christianity means community through
Jesus Christ and in Jesus Christ. . . . We belong to one an-


THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 177

other only through and in Jesus Christ. What does this
mean? It means, first, that a Christian needs others because
of Jesus Christ. It means, second, that a Christian comes to
others only through Jesus Christ. It means, third, that in
Jesus Christ we have been chosen from eternity, accepted in
time, and united for eternity."

Having experienced the oppression of the Church during
the war, Japanese Christians have learned that the individual
Christian has need of other Christians, and that he can have
fellowship with other Christians through the mediation of
Jesus Christ. The wartime experience fostered the realiza
tion that the consciousness of brotherhood in Christ is
stronger than that of denomination. The conscious and un
conscious recollection of the wartime experience constitutes
an important contributing factor to the ecumenical move
ment in Japan.

After the war, the ecumenical movement witnessed de
velopment under several forms. A number of leaders of the
movement have been given opportunities for special studies
in the field of ecumenism, at Bossey and elsewhere. Suzuki
Mitsutake's The Understanding and Realization of the
Ecumenical Movement (Sekai Kyokai Undo no rikai to jissen)
is one example of what the ecumenical movement in Japan
has produced. Other materials for a deeper understanding of
the movement are the publications of the World Council of
Churches and of the Faith and Order Commission. Reports
on the dialogue between denominations, and the detailed
commentaries on the Second Vatican Council are others.

The National Christian Council of Japan has established
an institute for religious studies, the United Church of Christ
in Japan an institute for missionary studies, and some de
nominations have organized committees for Faith and Order.
Within the Catholic Church, there are the Episcopal Com
mission for Ecumenism and the Oriens Institute for Religious
Research. Moreover, there are some fifty groups throughout


178 TODAY'S ISSUES

the nation which, in different ways, foster the ecumenical
movement.

Positive promotion of this trend by the World Council of
Churches and by Vatican Council II is a causal factor in the
trend. So, too, is the awareness of difficulties facing Church
members who desire to live as Christians in today's turbulent
society.

Until quite recently, the ecumenical movement functioned
through semi-official or official agencies. Consequently, it was
fettered in many respects by the teachings and regulations
of the churches and denominations. For this reason too, it
was difficult to discuss problems at the grassroots level and to
search for truth through free discussions. As a result, a great
many reports were published, but they did not lead to any
substantial change. Many theorists came to the fore, but
there have been rather few instances where theory was put
into practice. The weakness of the ecumenical movement in
Japan is that, from the beginning, its basic unit was not the
individual Christian, but rather the organizations to which
they belong. With the individual Christian as the basic unit,
each participating Christian is united with the others, being
united with Christ, the head of the Church, through Christ's
mediation and the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Thus there
is no distinction either according to one's status in the Church
or to sex. For Christ, there are no Greeks nor Jews. Christ
has no prejudices.

Viewed against this background, it appears that the
ecumenical movement in Japan must alter this basic notion.
Instead of starting from the level of denominations or or
ganizations as was done in the past, it should change methods
and start from the level of individual Christians. This does
not mean that denominations or organizations are to be
ignored. Rather, it emphasizes that individuals are to be
taken seriously, and that there is a fuller understanding of
the fellowship which is the essence of the Church. The indi-


THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 179

vidual Christian does not disappear in the word "Church."
Even the most humble ones have their place as members of
the body of Christ. Through the mediation of Christ they
share in a dynamic bond with the other members. Here
appears a fellowship in the Lord which excels all human
organizations.

In Japan, discussions were held from early 1968 on the
possibility of implementing this new emphasis. The persons
who met did so in a purely private capacity and could freely
express their opinions. Scholars, ministers, missionaries and
leaders of both the Protestant and the Catholic Church par
ticipated actively.

Meetings were held at the Apostolic Internuntiature, at
the office of the Tokyo diocese of the Anglican Church, at
!0riens Institute for Religious Research, at St. Anthony's
Seminary, at the Japan Bible Association and elsewhere. At
every place the atmosphere was that of a free, informal meet
ing of free men.

The discussions covered subjects ranging from the prob
lems of missionary work in Japan to Japanese Christian as
sistance in overseas projects, such as help for the suffering
people of Biafra. Problems of liturgy, missionary planning
'On a national scale, publications for the masses, common study
of ecumenism, dialogue with leaders of other religions, and
ecumenical contacts among women, youth and students were
•discussed.

The ecumenical movement is not just another movement.
It is a movement which aims fundamentally at the restoration
of all men before God through the living and working gospel
of Christ. Countless matters relevant to the movement re
ceive attention. However, to facilitate discussing them, they
are categorized and seriously studied by men who are spe
cialists in their respective fields. Here, again, appear both
the unity of the members, as united with the body of Christ,
-and their diversity. Within the fellowship of this warm


180 TODAY'S ISSUES

community, work is divided but frequent contact kept with
one another. "That there may be no discord in the body,
but that the members may have the same care for one an
other. If one member suffers, all suffer together, if one mem
ber is honoured, all rejoice together" (I Cor. 12:25-27).
When these words are realized within us, the ecumenical
movement fulfills its role of healing our disunity.

On May 24, 1969, the opening session of the Japan
Ecumenical Association was held at Oriens Institute for Re
ligious Research. This Association originated with the vision
outlined above. As the Association tries to promote a creative
ecumenical movement, its activities call for attention.

Since it has evoked wide interest as a new activity ex
hibiting creative imagination within the ecumenical movement
in Japan, I include here the prospectus and statutes published
on the occasion of the opening session.

The Japan Ecumenical Association

The Church, aware that she must witness to the Gospel
of Christ in our times of rapid change, feels the need for
self-renewal.

We Christians who believe in God, our Father, and in His
Son whom He sent into this world for our salvation, are con
scious of the issues which divide us. We hope, however, with
the help of God, to overcome our divisions and reach that
unity for which the Lord prayed.

As Christians of Japan we realize that we are but few
in the midst of a vast number of compatriots who do not
yet know Christ. We pray that the Holy Spirit may unite
us so that we may give better witness to God's Kingdom and
proclaim the Good Tidings to many brethren.

To that effect we wish to examine what divides us that
it may be eliminated, and to investigate what unites us that
it may be strengthened.


THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 181

As Christians particularly interested in the solution of
these problems and basing ourselves upon the common heritage
of faith, we acutely felt the need to discuss them with one
another and to search for their solution in fraternal col
laboration. It seems to us that the task ahead can be
expressed in the following points:

1. To promote whatever might foster in this country the
unity of the Church through contact, dialogue and co
operation ;

2. To study from the ecumenical point of view all prob
lems which we face in our proclamation of Christ's
Gospel to this nation;

3. To promote contact, dialogue and cooperation with the
other religions in Japan and with the leaders of Japa
nese society;

4. To establish contact and friendly relations with similar
organizations here and abroad.

These goals call for a permanent organization, such as
does not yet exist within the Church of Japan. Hence a
group of interested people met and decided to establish The
Japan Ecumenical Association.

These persons intend to participate in the work of the
Association, not in the name of the Church to which they be
long nor as representatives of that Church, but in a personal
and private capacity, on their own initiative and borne by
their sense of faith and by their desire to engage in dialogue
and cooperation with one another.

It is their fervent wish and prayer that this initiative
may bring increased vigor to the Church and signal the ad
vent of a new era of missionary proclamation in Japan.


182 TODAY'S ISSUES

Tokyo, May 24, 1969 The Promoters, JEA


Statutes of the Japan Ecumenical Association


Name:

Article 1:

Offices :
Article 2 :


Purpose :
Article 3 :


Activities :
Article 4 :


The Association is called "The Japan Ecu
menical Association" (JEA).

At present, JEA has two offices. One is
located in the Nihon-Seisho-Shingakko, 492,
1-chome, Shimoochiai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. The
other is at Oriens Institute for Religious Re
search, 2-28-5, Matsubara, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo.

JEA consists of group of Christians who, on
the basis of their common faith and aware of
their present divisions, intend to overcome
them mainly through the study of whatever
could lead to that unity for which Christ has.
prayed. Hence they wish:

1. To foster all contact, dialogue and co
operation contributing to Church unity;

2. To study, from the ecumenical point of
view, a missionary approach to Japanese
society ;

3. To promote contact, dialogue and coopera
tion with non-Christians in Japan and
with the leading circles of Japanese so
ciety ;

4. To maintain liaison with similar organs
here and abroad.

Toward the achievement of these goals, the
Association intends to undertake the following
activities :


THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT


183


Membership :
Article 5 :


1. Studies and inquiries related to ecumenism;

2. Conferences and meetings for research and
mutual consultation, retreats, and contact
with branch organizations;

3. Publication of ecumenical news and other
material relevant to ecumenism;

4. Liaison with similar organizations here and
abroad ;

5. Other activities congenial to the purpose of
the Association.

JEA has two kinds of members:

1. Regular members: Those who share the
purpose and activities of the Association;

2. Associate members: Those who, upon re
quest of the directorate, give assistance to
the Association.


Organization :
Article 6 :


JEA organizes a general meeting every year.
At this meeting, reports are read on activities,
plans and finances; officers are elected and
business is conducted as called for by the pur
pose of the Association.
Article 7: JEA has the following officers:

1. Several directors.

2. Several executive secretaries.

Tenure is for a period of two years; officers
can be re-elected.

Ar-ticle 8: The directors constitute the directorate. They
govern the Association according to the de
cisions of the general meeting. The president
of the board of directors unifies and repre
sents the Association. The executive secre
taries carry out their duties according to the
instructions of the directorate.


184 TODAY'S ISSUES

Article 9: If need be, JEA may set up branches as well

as sectional committees.
Finances:

Article 10: 1. JEA expenditures are defrayed by mem
bership fees, revenue and donations.
2. Membership fees are as follows: regular
members: ¥1000 per annum; associate mem
bers: amount determinated by the member
himself.
Supplementary rules:

Article 11: The statutes of the Association may be
changed by a two-thirds majority vote at the
general meeting.
Article 12: The above statutes take effect on May 24, 1969.

In conclusion, I cite the prayer read by Rev. Isamu Omura
at the opening session :

"O God, Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ who is the head
of the Church, you reign over heaven and earth and you guide
the world of man.

Humbly gathered here before you, and guided by the Holy
Spirit to organize a group in the Lord working for the pro
motion of Church unity, all of us give thanks for the estab
lishment of the Japan Ecumenical Association.

Shortly before our Lord Christ left this world, he prayed:
"I in them and thou in me, that they may be perfectly one,
so that the world may know that thou hast sent me and hast
loved them even as thou hast loved me" (John, 17:23).

The Church, which is the body of Christ, has long been
divided. All parts have worked to make their respective
histories permanent and to strengthen their individual struc
tures. However, the Holy Spirit has not confirmed this trend,
and has guided the right-minded servants of the Lord, giving
them a desire for unity.

In today's world, violent opposition and contention among


THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 185

states, races, clases and age groups continue. A sense of
security is lacking because of heterogeneous ideologies and
activities. Notwithstanding the development of knowledge
and technology since the beginning of history, there is a feel
ing of danger for the future of humanity. We Christians,
called to give witness to the world of the Gospel of Christ,
the Lord of the world and its light, intend to overlook our
differences of the past. In order to show to all our brethren
in the world the fruits of reconciliation and unity, we intend
to work earnestly on our own reform. We give thanks to the
Holy Spirit who gave the gift of this sign to the worldwide
Church.

The members of the association being organized here begin
this undertaking in a spirit of humility. Make us able to
answer the prayer of Our Lord: "Father, that they also
whom thou hast given me, may be with me where I am"
(John 17:24).

Help us, therefore, that we may forsake all worldly glory
and pride, that we may forget past differences, that we may
earnestly follow the Spirit of the Lord, that we may humbly
respect each other and live the fellowship of believers, that we
may clearly perceive the impediments to unity and straight
forwardly discuss them.

May this association be blessed by the Lord, serve all
churches in our land, promote the spirit of unity and coopera
tion and give glory to God.

We pray in The Holy Name of Jesus Christ. Amen".


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND
JAPAN'S FUTURE

Chosei Kabira

As a layman of the Okinawan church that has just be
come one district of the United Church of Christ in Japan
and as one involved in mass media, I consider it an honor
and a blessing to be able to speak to you.

First of all I want to report on Okinawa's present situa
tion. But in speaking of the past which has brought us to the
present, I cannot avoid speaking of the long state of aliena
tion between Okinawa and the mainland. 1 hope to clarify
what this alienation has been and how it has led to the
present situation. Then I want to speak of the hopes and
dreams we, caught in the present situation in Okinawa, hold
for Japan's future.

I speak of alienation, but this alienation may be deepened
by the fact that the church does not talk about its own, does
not speak of the church in Japan. We tend to speak of
Calvin but not of Uchimura Kanzo, of Bonhoeffer but not of
Japan's wartime martyrs, we speak of Luther but not of
Uemura Masahisa (who, by the way, came to Okinawa as an
evangelist). In this respect this union is a very meaningful
step toward healing the postwar alienation between the United
Church on the mainland and the United Church in Okinawa.

Now I would like to take a look at the path Okinawa has
travelled from its unhappy past to the present.


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 187


The Unfortunate Past

The Source of Prejudice — Satsuma Domination

Okinawa has a history as the monarchy of Okinawa,,
sometimes called the monarchy of Ryukyu. From the early
part of the fifth century it maintained itself as an inde
pendent nation while paying homage to China, and after
being subjugated by Shimazu of the Satsuma province in
southern Kyushu in 1609, it existed as a dependent colonial
state.

Shimazu got permission from the feudal government to
exempt the monarchy of Ryukyu from its closed door policy
and reaped profits from its trade with China. In order to
heighten the impression that Okinawan people were not
Japanese but foreigners, the Satsuma government forced
envoys from Okinawa to wear Chinese clothing as they
travelled the Tokaido road to Edo (the seat of Japanese
government). History tells us that this happened 17 times
by the end of the feudal period. Of course, from the Ryu-
kyuan side there were motives of maintaining its appearance
as a monarchy and a sense of indebtedness to China, but it
cannot be denied that they went along with the feudal lord's
policy for self-protection also.

One little-known result of this situation was that the
Satsuma government recovered financial stability and through
indirect contact with various foreign countries gained new
knowledge. This financial strength and knowledge con
tributed to the Meiji Restoration.

Incidentally, one of the first Japanese translations (Oki
nawan) of the Bible was done by Dr. Bettelheim, an English
missionary to Okinawa.

The Beginning of Discrimination — Meiji Restoration

Thus, with the profits achieved through Ryukyu, Satsuma


188 TODAY'S ISSUES

contributed to the Restoration and gained an influential posi-
in the central government. Although Okinawa was estab
lished as a territorial prefecture, administration continued
in the hands of a Kagoshima (former Satsuma) clique in
the Okinawa prefectural government. The old ruling class
of Okinawa emotionally rejected and resisted this administra
tion and were reluctant to adopt new systems. The result
of this was a deeper prejudice and discrimination against
Okinawa.

As shown in Figure 1, the abolition of feudal government
and the forcible establishment of a territorial prefecture was
eight years behind mainland Japan. The establishment of
public education was also delayed eight years. Military con
scription was delayed 24 years, and many people reportedly
moved to Okinawa for that reason. Land taxation reform
was delayed 30 years. A special city and township system
was established 29 years after the mainland, and it was 42
years before the mainland system was adopted. Likewise, a
special prefectural administrative system was established
after a 32 year lag, and the mainland system was adopted 41
years later. There is much discussion now about participa
tion in the National Diet, but the law originally allowing
representatives to be elected from all of Okinawa prefecture
— the Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama island groups — was
passed in 1920, 31 years after a general election law was
passed for the rest of the country. For this reason the U.S.
Civil Administration officials can chide, "You complain that
you are finally going to be allowed to send observers to the
National Diet 24 years after the war, but you waited 31 years
before the war, didn't you. You can wait a little longer."

Because of this lag in the establishment of various systems
in Okinawa, the development and training of local personnel
was limited, and government funds expended in Okinawa
were scarce. More was paid in taxes than was received in
subsidy. One who takes a materialistic view of history would


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 189

say that there has been continual exploitation.

In education, the government established a policy of
assimilation, which meant that primary school education
(pre-war compulsory Japanese education of eight years) was
extensively established. However the establishment of middle
schools was late. And with the exception of a teachers' train
ing school, there was not one school of higher education for
technical or professional training.

The Battle of Okinawa — Sacrificed for the Mainland

We move to the battle of Okinawa. The attack by Amer
ican forces began in earnest on March 23, 1945 and on June
23 General Ushijima, the commander of the Japanese forces,
took his own life. Organized resistance ended. For 90 days,
fierce fighting raged in a land area just 70% that of Tokyo
and within a distance equal to that from Tokyo to Numazu
(about 70 miles). Okinawa was cast into the crucible to save
the mainland from a similar fate. It is said that 12,000
American troops, more than 90,000 Japanese troops, and
150,000 non-combatant civilians were sacrificed, though these
numbers still cannot be confirmed. Because of the policy of
forced evacuation, it is said that the population was down to
450,000 at the time of the battle. Thus about one-third of
these civilians lost their lives. It is reported that 290,000
civilians were killed in mainland Japan during the war (from
a 1949 survey by the Government of Japan), but more than
half that many were sacrificed in Okinawa prefecture alone.
The civilians expected protection from the Japanese soldiers,
but instead they were driven out of shelters, their food was
taken away, and in some cases entire communities were
forced to commit mass suicide. One survivor of such a mass
suicide is the Rev. Shigeaki Kinjo, vice-chairman of the Oki
nawa District of the United Church. Rev. Sadao Matsuda,
chairman of the district, took part in the battle. I, myself,,
was in Taiwan at that time.


190 TODAY'S ISSUES

When defeat became inevitable, many cruel acts took
place. Local people were shot as spies, and people who came
to report the surrender were beheaded on the spot. \Ve have
heard that such savage acts were not limited to Okinawa,
of course. In this respect we were deeply moved by the con
fession of war guilt recently made by the United Church of
Christ in Japan. Compared to such savage acts by our own
friendly forces, the humane acts of Americans are still talked
about.

Postwar Sacrifice


American Occupation — Keystone of the Pacific

Thus Okinawa was sacrificed for the defense of the main
land, and by the end of the war it was completely occupied by
American forces and had become a base for launching an
attack against the mainland. Two thousand air strikes were
carried out against Kyushu from here.

Then came August 15, 1945, and unconditional surrender.
The Okinawan people did not continue to suffer the disgrace
of becoming prisoners of war which they had feared so much.
In many respects the Americans appeared as liberators for
whom we were thankful. As time passed, many Okinawans
had contact with the humanism of Americans. However, those
men who were trying to democratize Okinawan society were
gradually removed from Okinawa and, quite different from
the policy of democratization in the mainland, the policy here
became one that placed first importance on the military bases.
In Okinawa there was no purge of public officials who had
cooperated with the Japanese military effort.

The reversion movement began in 1946. The leader at that
time was Ryoko Nakayoshi, then mayor of Shuri, who led
Prof. Antei Hiyane, who is here with us this evening, into
Christian faith. On May 3, 1947, the Japanese Constitution


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 191

was promulgated. For the first time, people in Okinawa knew
of human rights, freedom, and peace. However it cannot be
denied that the Okinawan people still placed high hopes in
prosperous and democratic America, and had many questions
about the democratization of Japan. I should go on to men
tion that even though the Japanese Constitution does not
apply to Okinawa, May 3 (Constitution Day in Japan) is a
public holiday and celebrated as Constitution Day in Okinawa
also.

In September 1949, it was learned that the Soviet Union
had the atomic bomb. In October the People's Republic of
China was established, and the military installations in Oki
nawa were rapidly expanded. The outbreak of the Korean
war in June 1950 spurred expansion, and in November, with
the elections of district governors, the governments of the
four island groups — Okinawa, Amami, Miyako, and Yaeyama
— were established. In regard to the Japan-America Peace
Treaty, Secretary of State Dulles expressed the opinion that
Okinawa should be administered by the U.S. until placed
under a United Nations trusteeship, and this brought forth
a reaction calling for affiliation with the homeland. In De
cember 1950, the military government's name was changed to
U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR).
General MacArthur was the first governor. The deputy-gov
ernor was in Okinawa with administrative responsibilities.
At that time the elected Okinawan assembly passed its first
resolution calling for return to Japan. A Reversion Council
was established and 72% of the eligible voters of the Oki
nawa Island District signed a petition addressed to Prime
Minister Yoshida and Secretary of State Dulles. But the
peace treaty was signed, completely ignoring the will of the
people.

On April 28, Okinawa was separated from the mainland.
In April 1952, the Government of the Ryukyu Islands (GRI)
was established. With this, the four island district governors,


192 TODAY'S ISSUES

who had been elected to four-year terms, were removed from
from office after serving less than a year and a half. A chief
executive was appointed by USCAR and, at the same time,
an elective Ryukyuan legislative body was established.

Reversion Movement Gains Momentum

Thus from 1952 to the present day, the political structure
has been a Ryukyuan government under the U.S. Civil Ad
ministration acting for the U.S. High Commissioner. These
17 years might well be called a struggle for human rights
revolving around the axis of the reversion movement. It can
also be said that we have moved from the dark ages to in
creasing self-government.

In the area of economic development, USCAR has not just
folded its arms. It has worked at the problem in its own
way, though neither the authorities on the scene nor the gov
ernment in Washington have always understood what has
been happening. At the same time, the people of Okinawa
gained an increased awareness that the democratization in
Japan was genuine. In 1955 the International Commission on
Human Rights made a study of the Okinawa situation and
the human rights issue was raised. I think you are all aware
that the occasion for this was an article written in 1954 for
the Christian Century by the Rev. Otis Bell, a missionary to
the United Church in Okinawa, criticizing the military land
policy.

As we went through the military land struggle in 195G,
the conversion to U.S. dollar currency in 1958, and the U.S.
Japan Security Pact struggle in 1960, the Okinawa Pre
fecture Reversion Council was organized. The chairman is
Shin-ei Kyan, who has received notice by the newspapers
lately for his appearances before the Diet. The reversion
struggle as an organized movement was launched, but because
of certain steps which bordered on suppression, only 3,000
people attended the first mass rally. Then in 1963 under the


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 193

Kennedy policy, it was first officially admitted that Okinawa
was a part of Japan, and we entered the era of Japan-Amer
ica cooperation regarding Okinawa. Some people refer to
this as the era of Japan-America joint supervision of Oki
nawa. Then last year, in 1968, we saw the first public elec
tion of the chief executive. Chobyo Yara was elected by a
vote of 230,000 out of 400,000 votes cast. He ran on only one
platform — immediate, unconditional, complete reversion to
Japan.

In the meantime, Japan has advanced to become the third
industrial power in the world. This has been achieved be
cause of the low defense budget, and that low budget is at the
expense of Okinawa. Seemingly unaware of this, Japan acts
as if she were a completely independent, self-determining na
tion and is even trying to become a permanent member of
the United Nations Security Council. It is 24 years since
the occupation of Okinawa began. It is 17 years since the
peace treaty became effective. It is 14 years since Japan
became a member of the United Nations. During all this
time, Okinawa has been left out of the prosperity of the
mainland. Because of this, many problems have arisen. Some
desirable things have developed, but they are outnumbered
by the undesirable. The gap between Okinawa and the main
land has widened.

The Current Situation in Okinawa

The Legal System — Paradox Breeds Paradox

The legal system in Okinawa, which is the basis of the
administrative system, is extremely complicated. The laws
applying to Okinawa include laws of America itself, ordi
nances and regulations laid down by USCAR, laws passed
by GRI, old laws that existed under the pre-war Japanese
Imperial Constitution, and laws based on the new Japanese
Constitution. For example, one issue raised in connection


194 TODAY'S ISSUES

with the union of our two churches was that the old pre
war Eeligious Organizations Law is still in effect in Okinawa,
so that legally the government can disband any religious or
ganization. (A new Religious Bodies Law, similar to that in
Japan, was presented to the legislature by the chief executive
on March 10.) Also, since the old penal and civil codes are
still in effect, a law punishing blasphemy of the Emperor,
and adultery laws, still technically apply.

The Presidential Executive Order of the U.S. takes the
place of a constitution in Okinawa. True, this states that
basic liberties must be guaranteed, including protection
against deprivation of life, liberty and property without due
process of law. It calls for protection against unreasonable
search. But it does not describe in detail the legal procedures
of search and arrest that Article 35 of the Japanese Con
stitution stipulates when it states that search and arrest
cannot take place without a warrant from a responsible legal
authority. The American Civil Liberties Union has pointed
out that allowing the high commissioner to exercise all
authority in the name of security is even a violation of the
American Constitution. Thus, even though he has not yet
exercised it directly, the high commissioner has authority to
veto any civil law or to promulgate any law he wishes.

The greatest problem is that of human rights. The pro
tection provided for the rights of Okinawa people regarding
accidents and crimes by the U.S. military is very weak. For
example, the Okinawan police have the right to arrest Amer
ican military personnel caught in the act of committing a
crime, but they have no authority to investigate a crime. Thus
the hands of the Okinawan police are virtually tied as regards
the crimes committed by soldiers returned from Vietnam.

The Social Welfare System — Government Financial Poverty
The people of Okinawa desire to come under the Japanese
Constitution as soon as possible. The preamble of that con-


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 195

stitution states, "We recognize that all peoples of the world
have the right to live in peace, free from fear and want."
This means that social welfare is seen not as a gift but as an
expression of the right to life itself.

I doubt that there is any place where the constitution is
read as avidly as in Okinawa. Interest is high because we
experience daily what it means to live without a constitution.
I wonder how many of you here have read the Japanese Con
stitution in its entirety. If you have not, I invite you to
Okinawa. You will read it then.

Let us look at one area of social security (Figure 4).
The Welfare Law was passed three years later than in the
mainland. The number on the relief roles in Okinawa is 24
per 1,000 as compared with 16 in the mainland. It is true
that our ratio is lower than so-called comparable prefectures
of Kochi with 43 and Kagoshima with 31. However, the
problem is that, due to the government financial poverty,
welfare payments are quite low. In the mainland, the amount
is ¥3,450 ($9.58); in Okinawa it is ¥1,300 ($3.60). Laws
covering poverty relief, child welfare, special aid for handi
capped children, and the physically handicapped have been
passed. However there is still no Children's Allowance Law,
Mentally Retarded Welfare Law, Mother and Child Welfare
Law, nor Mother and Child Protection Law.

The number receiving welfare aid in Okinawa is gradually
decreasing each year. Sickness of the primary wage earner
in the family is the usual reason a family becomes a welfare
case. This is the reason for 75% of the new welfare cases.

Social Security — Extreme Delay

The next issue is social security. This is one of the areas
of greatest lag. In the mainland there are 13 laws dealing
with social security, but in Okinawa only six have been passed
since 1958 (Diagram 5). Among these is the long-awaited
Medical Insurance Law which was finally passed in 1965 and


196 TODAY'S ISSUES

took effect in 1967. However, because there is no National
Health Insurance Law, only half of the population is re
ceiving the benefits of the law. This Medical Insurance Law
is different from that of the mainland in that cash refunds
are made. In other words, when a person visits a doctor and
receives an examination or treatment, he pays the bill in full.
Then he applies for a refund. In a month or two he receives
a 70% refund. However, because the amount is sometimes
small or because of the inconvenience, many people do not
apply for refunds. Therefore, our Medical Insurance program
is not in the red as it is in the mainland. In fact, it has a
large balance. I hear that there are some who would like to
see this system adopted in the mainland, but in Okinawa there
is now a movement to adopt the system of direct medical
benefits such as you have here.

Public Health and Sanitation — America's Strong Cooperation
Next is the area of Public Health and Sanitation which is
rather well established (Diagram 6). A few minutes ago the
chairman of the Japan National Christian Council said, in
his congratulatory message, that the shortage of doctors «is a
big problem. It is true that the ratio of doctors to population
is less than half that of the mainland. This means that a
doctor in Okinawa cares for about three times the number of
patients as in the mainland. From the standpoint of income,
it is called a doctor's paradise. If you go to Okinawa, you
will see that most doctors have fine buildings; however, I
think this could be called their reward for extremely heavy
work. The mainland government is sending about 25 doctors
per year to work in isolated areas.

We have received much aid from the mainland for public
health and sanitation so that the death rate from tuber
culosis, for instance, is actually lower than that of the main
land. However, because of the military bases and tourist
trade, the venereal disease rate is 20 times that of the main-


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 197

land. There is no anti-prostitution law in Okinawa (which
is said to be one reason for the high tourism), and it is
estimated that one in fifty women in Okinawa is engaged in
prostitution. For this reason venereal disease has invaded
the homes. Due to the unusual circumstances and tensions in
Okinawan society, people suffering from mental and nervous
diseases are 2.6% of the population, or twice the ratio of the
mainland. Hansen's Disease is 20 times the mainland ratio.

In public sanitation, the American military has been active
in the program to prevent infectious diseases, as they have
a direct interest. Particularly in providing sewage facilities,
America has invested more than $30 million, so we have a
sewage system that surpasses anything in the mainland. Be
cause of the military presence, these and other public utilities
are good and the people of Okinawa benefit thereby.

Social Compensation — An Example of Application of the
Mainland Law

There is only one aspect in which Japanese Law is applied
to Okinawa — that of social compensation. As I stated earlier,
Okinawa was the only actual battleground on Japanese soil.
Combatant and non-combatant lives lost totaled 200,000. Be
cause of that, one-fourth of the Okinawa households lost
family members in the battle. (Thus, in Okinawa it would
be more effective to appeal for something to replace Yasukuni
Shrine to the war dead rather than oppose government sup
port of it.)

Even though the American military administers Okinawa,
it approved the application of Japanese law in this one in
stance, so that compensation for war dead and wounded and
pensions for former government employees and soldiers were
paid. From the time this was effected in 1953 to 1967
$102,930,000 was paid out. ¥41 billion ($11,390,000) enters
Okinawa annually by this route. This is Okinawa's third
largest source of outside income, following sugar and pine-


198 TODAY'S ISSUES

apple. This indicates how many people were sacrificed in
Okinawa and how many are financially dependent on such
compensation.

Special Characteristics of Okinawa's Education Law

As in the mainland there is an Education Law in Oki
nawa, passed in 1953. Let us compare it with the Japanese
Education Law of 1947. (The underlined portions of the
Japanese Law are replaced in Okinawa by the portion in
parentheses.)

"We, having established the constitution of Japan (as
Japanese people basing our acts upon the universal
principles of mankind), must contribute to world peace
and to the welfare of humanity by building a democratic
and cultural nation (state and society). The realization
of this ideal depends fundamentally on the power of
education.

We shall respect individual dignity and endeavor to
bring up people who love truth and peace, while diffusing
an education aimed at creating a culture that is both
general and rich in individuality.

We hereby enact this law (legislation),* in accordance
with the spirit of the constitution of Japan (the above
ideal), in order to clarify the aim of education and to
establish the basis of education for the new Japan
(omitted in Okinawan version)."

As you will immediately notice, Okinawa's education law
says, "As Japanese people basing our acts on the universal
principles of mankind," whereas the mainland law says,


* Rather than horitsu the word rippo is used for laws
passed in Okinawa to indicate the provisional nature of
the GRI.


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 199

"having established the constitution of Japan." Elsewhere
"for the new Japan" must be deleted. In accordance with the
saying, "The farther from Rome the deeper the patriotism,"
we who are separated from the mainland and under foreign
administration give special emphasis to the fact that we are
Japanese people. The strong educational desire expressed
here is given concrete expression in an education system and
administration thereof that is more democratic than the
centralized system in the mainland.

Since the economic support of our education system is
poor, there is a wide gap between Okinawa and the mainland
in facilities, teachers' salaries, and welfare for children and
students. This is an undesirable characteristic of our educa
tion system.

Comparatively speaking, school buildings and basic educa
tional facilities come to 60% of the mainland standards. Even
within Okinawa, as one moves south from the main island
to far-off Miyako and Yaeyama, the situation becomes worse.
The level of general educational equipment in Okinawa is only
two-thirds that of Kagoshima prefecture. However, both the
Japanese and American governments are placing emphasis on
education in their aid programs. Three-fifths of the USCAR
financial aid goes for education facilities, equipment, and
teachers' salaries. Furthermore, since 1962, aid from the
mainland government has been increasing; and since 1966,
in the spirit of the Compulsory Education National Aid Law,
half of the teachers' salaries is being borne by the Japan
National Treasury. Therefore more than half the education
program's expenses is being borne by aid from the Japanese
and American governments. We say half, but in other pre
fectures in the mainland, 70% is borne by the national
treasury.

Educational Administrative System — Public Election Upheld
The educational administration system is patterned after


200 TODAY'S ISSUES

the American system of boards of education, so there is an
independent administrative body that is not under the
guidance and supervision of the Chief Executive. There is a
director of the Department of Education in GRI, but he is
appointed by the Chief Executive upon the recommendation
of the Central Board of Education. The eleven-man Central
Board of Education is selected by the local boards of educa
tion in the six electoral districts of Okinawa. The local boards
of education in turn are selected by popular vote just like
the town and city councilmen.

In the mainland, in accordance with the Education Com
mittee Law of 1956, members of the Committee are appointed.

The University of the Ryukyus was established by USCAR
and is now under the jurisdiction of GRI, but there is a
special committee which has responsibility for its operation.
The Department of Education director and one member of
the Central Board of Education are ex-officio members, and
the other members are appointed by the chief executive with
the consent of the legislature. This committee independently
supervises the university, chooses the president, and decides
the budget. This system whereby the government does not
have direct influence on the university is quite different from
the mainland.

Another aspect in which Okinawa is said to be better off
than the mainland is the system for scholastic encourage
ment. Particularly noteworthy is the system whereby high
school graduates enter mainland universities. The Japanese
Ministry of Education acts as mediator so that tests are
given in Okinawa and then students are recommended to
government or private universities. Some students go at
government expense and some at personal expense. Since
1953, 1,300 students have received government scholarships.
Besides those attending under this system, there are students
of both extremes — those who have much confidence in their
ability and those who have little confidence in their ability —


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 201

who go to the mainland to take entrance examinations there.
There is said to be a difference in the ability of students who
enter Tokyo University with a government scholarship and
recommendation, and those who enter on their own. On the
one hand, a student enters by government recommendation
and receives a scholarship; on the other he competes on an
equal basis with students in the mainland. Then there is the
student who enters by recommendation but pays his own ex
penses. So there are three systems — government recom
mendation with scholarship, government recommendation for
entrance without scholarship, and entrance by personal com
petition and expense. Under these three systems, more than
4,000 young people from Okinawa are now studying in main
land universities. This shows how strong the thirst for educa
tion has become.

Besides this, 6 to 80 students are sent each year by USCAR
to study in America. Since this program began, about 1,000
students have studied abroad. Most of them are graduates of
Japanese universities and have earned master's or doctor's
degrees. This is one way in which the education level of
teachers in Okinawa is being raised.

So in certain respects Okinawa's educational level is good,
but the general financial poverty and the inequality among
different areas are serious problems.

Vast American Military Bases — Keystone of the Pacific

Then there is the problem of the American military bases
here. It is often said, "There are not bases in Okinawa;
Okinawa is in the bases." There are 140 bases in all of the
mainland, but in Okinawa prefecture alone, with an area
comparable to Kanagawa prefecture, there are 117 bases,
99% of which are on the main island of Okinawa.

Bases occupy 20% of the land area of the main island of
Okinawa. Excluding mountain land, the bases occupy an area
equal to 48% of the residential and farm land — about one


202 TODAY'S ISSUES

half. There are 59 cities and townships in Okinawa, but only
15 have no bases in them. Most of the bases are in Central
Okinawa, where the famous Kadena Airbase is located, and
occupy 42% of the actual land area there. For instance, in
Kadena township where the airbase is located, 88% of the
land area is taken by bases, and 15,000 people live on the
remainder. The population density there is 8,343 persons per
square kilometre. The average for the mainland is 1,629 per
sons. Population density for all of Okinawa is very high,
2,000 per square kilometre. According to a report made in
the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee in
September 1967, America spent $1.5 billion in building
facilities in Okinawa to that time. It is quite properly called
the keystone to America's commitments in Asia, which in
clude the Philippine-America Mutual Defense Pact, the
ANZUS Treaty, the Japan-America Mutual Security Pact,
the Korea-America Mutual Defense Pact, SEATO, and the
Taiwan-America Mutual Defense Pact.

There are approximately 50,000 Army, Navy, Air Force,
and Marine Corps personnel stationed at these bases. It is
reported that if family members and military employees are
included, the number becomes 75,000. If one adds to this the
50,000 enlisted men who are usually passing through on their
way to or from Vietnam and Southeast Asia, there are always
approximately 120,000 military personnel, family members,
and employees in Okinawa.

The American bases can largely be divided into four cate
gories — training, tactical, supply and communications. They
are said to be defensive or deterrent bases, but B-52 bombers,
Mace-B missile, Nike-Hercules and such weapons capable of
carrying nuclear devices are there. The American military
neither confirms nor denies that there are nuclear weapons,
but common sense would say that there ai'e.

The massive bases in Okinawa have had a strong influence
on the people living here, but perhaps the strongest has been


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 203

the complete change in the economy. When reversion takes
pleace, this economic problem will probably be the most dif
ficult one.

Okinawan Economic Dependence on the Bases

Okinawa was originally an agricultural prefecture. How
ever, arable land is scarce, and before the war the average
farm family's field area was 170 tsubo (approximately 680
square yards). After the war, land was taken for bases so
that this average has now dropped to less than 100 tsubo
(400 square yards). Even though rent comes in from land
in military use, it is not sufficient income. So our people
work on the bases, with the result that we are drawn into an
economy dependent on the bases. The working population in
Okinawa is 400,000. Some 100,000, or one-fourth, are working
directly or indirectly for the military. Their earnings of
$200 million represent one fifth of the gross national product
and 60% of the foreign income.

Furthermore, from 1960 to 19G2 about $40 million was
paid for land, and $22 million was paid as indemnity for the
period from the beginning of the occupation until the peace
treaty was signed. One High Commissioner stated, "Bases
are Okinawa's primary product."

Because of this situation, 70% of the working population
is engaged in service industries. Its annual per capita income
is $1,400 as compared to the overall average of $657. Next
are the manufacturing industries with 16% of the population
and a per capita income of $1,047. The primary industries of
farming, lumbering and fishing employ 34% of the popula
tion whose per capita annual income is $385 — far less than
the overall average of $657.

For comparison, the number of Christians in Okinawa,
Catholic and Protestant, is 17,300 (Far East Broadcasting
Company figures). If we superimpose this number on the
working population figures, it means that 70% of them, or


204 TODAY'S ISSUES

over 10,000, are working for the military either directly or
indirectly.

The rural population is decreasing and people are flowing
to the cities in Okinawa just as in the mainland. Those who
go to the city become highly dependent on the American mili
tary bases, and the farmers are supported by the mainland
government's protective policies for sugar and pineapple which
represent 70-75% of Okinawa exports. This is similar to
rice price supports in the mainland. Okinawa sells raw sugar
high and buys refined white sugar cheap. This is the con
tinuing situation. However, whereas the mainland farmer's
annual income is now over one million yen, in Okinawa it does
not even come to one-seventh of that amount, as indicated
above.

Farmers producing sugar face the threat of relaxation of
trade barriers, so we can foresee many problems in the future.
Because sugar brought a good price, the land in rice culture
decreased by half from 1961 to 1965. However, rice in
Okinawa is almost a free market so that we can buy good
quality California rice for 40-50% less than you pay for rice
in the mainland. I think this too will become a problem
with reversion.

Overall economic growth in Okinawa during the past 13
years has shown an astounding annual average increase of
12.3% as compared to the mainland average of around 10%.
I think the reason has been the increased income from the
bases and the expansion of exports and capital investments.
However, when we look at this from the perspective of na
tional income, we see that the gap is continuing to widen.

The per capita income in Okinawa, however, is higher than
that in Kagoshima prefecture. In the past, Okinawa was the
lowest of the 47 prefectures, but now Kagoshima is lowest
and Okinawa is next above it. One reason Kagoshima is now
lowest is that the Amami Islands, which were formerly ad
ministered by America as part of the Ryukyus, were returned


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 205

in 1954 and, with their very low per capita income, have
been a burden on Kagoshima prefecture. The fear is often
expressed that when Okinawa reverts, we may become like
Amami. Because of Amami, Okinawa is now above Kago
shima in per capita income.

At the same time the cost of living in Okinawa shows a
continual rise. Up until ten years ago, the annual rise was
only 2-3%, but recently it averages 5%. Fresh foodstuff and
daily necessities show a constant rise of 7-8%.

We should take note here of our export-import relation
ship to the mainland which influences Okinawa greatly. The
trade balance is in favor of the mainland in the amount of
$200 million annually. Exports to Okinawa amount to two
per cent of the mainland's total exports. Among Southeast
Asia purchasers, Okinawa accounts for 10% of the main
land's exports in terms of dollar income. Economically, Oki
nawa is contributing to the mainland. Furthermore, the
mainland government is applying the same preferential tax
and monetary regulations to expoi'ts to Okinawa as to other
countries. Exporters to Okinawa have the advantage of al
ways receiving payment in cash credit so that they can
sell a bit cheaply and still make money. On the other hand,
when a business starts up in Okinawa that threatens to com
pete with mainland businesses, there are immediate reactions
by the mainland government. Some oil companies will soon
be built in Okinawa with $77 million American capital, but
there have been many objections from the mainland. In
response to such, Okinawa has applied an excise tax similar
to the import duty of an independent country to raise the
prices of mainland manufactured goods and protect Okinawan
made products — particularly foodstuffs. I think Okinawa
should not be criticized for this. Even though Japan itself is
one of the advanced nations, it places import restrictions on
121 items, including 73 food items, so Okinawa is acting as
just a small version of the mainland.


206 TODAY'S ISSUES

When reversion finally happens, this economic problem
will affect the people directly, and it cannot be considered
separately from the bases. If economic development is con
sidered apart from the bases, naturally some new industry
must be created to replace the base economy. Certainly in
preparation for reversion, the mainland government's positive
help in the economic area is necessary. Attention also should
be given to roads, harbors, long-term loans, labor force im
provement, price stabilization and so forth.

Speaking of the labor force, the mainland has an appeal
for people in Okinawa, and there was a period when group
employment in the mainland was quite widespread. How
ever Okinawa itself now has a labor shortage and plans for
group employment are not easily realized. Still, young people
feel a desire to go to the mainland, and many continue to
leave Okinawa.

The Government Budget — 70% Borne Locally

This economic gap means that the Ryukyu government's
financial situation is extremely tight. Let's take a look at
the budget for 1969. (Figure 8).

The total of ¥52.43 billion is larger than that of the
comparable prefectures of Kagawa (1968 budget, ¥31.7 bil
lion) or Kochi (¥41.8 billion). However, Okinawa has fin
ancial responsibilities of a national scope as well as a prefec-
tural scope, which fact accounts in part for the large budget.
Eight billion yen goes for these "national" operations, items
which under ordinary circumstances would be borne by the
mainland government.

The problem, however, is the amount of the budget borne
by the local residents. In the mainland, as the terms "30%
autonomous", or "40% autonomous" indicate, the national
treasury's share of a prefectural budget is much larger than
the local share. In Okinawa, the local residents bear 70%
themselves. Petitions are being made to the mainland govern-


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 207

ment to provide the same kind of aid to Okinawa that is
provided other prefectures. Of course in such a case, Oki
nawa would pay taxes to the mainland government and that
amount needs to be taken into consideration.

If the amount of aid that should come to Okinawa is
figured on the same basis as other prefectures, it would come
to ¥45 billion. If the ¥30 billion that would be paid in na
tional taxes is subtracted and the ¥8 billion spent on national
operations is added, the net result is ¥23 billion. This means
that aid from the mainland national treasury to Okinawa
should be twice the present level of ¥11.5 billion. (In the
Japan national budget beginning in April this year, aid for
Okinawa is ¥22.7 billion with an additional ¥5.7 billion
capital investment planned.)

There is a strong opinion in Okinawa that in order to
make up for the 23 years during which Okinawa did not
receive its appropriate share of aid, and in order to close the
development gap that resulted from this, there is a need for
at least ¥30 billion per year, over a minimum three year
period, in a program similar to the Hokkaido Development
Agency.

The Unbalance Between Commodity Tax and High Income Tax
Under the name of the Ryukyu Government, an admin
istrative system similar to a national government is establish
ed, and since the amount of outside aid is small, the local
residents bear a heavy burden. The income tax rate is
gradually reduced yearly, but the rate of reduction lags be
hind the mainland, so the gap continues to widen.

I come to Tokyo and read in the papers that you are
"gasping under heavy taxes," but if these are heavy taxes,
Okinawa is "gasping under brutal taxes." A simple compar
ison of income taxes can be made. An average foreign family
with a monthly income of $250 pays no tax. The tax on this
$250 income in the mainland would be $4.92 at present rates.


208 TODAY'S ISSUES

On the same income, a person in Okinawa must pay $14.06
income tax. On a $500 salary, Okinawa residents pay
$152.38. At the mainland rates it would be $80. Foreigners
pay $23. (One ironic thing is that if you ministers having
mainland citizenship were to go to Okinawa, you would be
treated as a foreigner and your tax rate would be low. In
other words, USCAR considers foreigners' living expenses
that high. Foreigners include mainland residents, too.)

Of course if you come to serve as a minister in Okinawa,
we would not be able to pay you enough to be subject to taxes
anyhow. We have to work on raising the level of ministers'
salaries in Okinawa district just as Mr. Tamotsu Hasegawa,
chairman of the laymen's association, is doing in the main
land.

Getting back to taxes, there are various indirect taxes. If
gasoline taxes, commodity taxes, amusement taxes, and so
forth were applied to Okinawa at the same rate as in the
mainland, the total tax burden would average out to 13% of
the national income as compared to 18% in the mainland.
The statistical average works out that way. However, if in
come taxes were reduced to the mainland level, salaried work
ers would benefit greatly. Out of consideration for foreigners
and tourists, the commodity tax on luxury items, especially
jewelry, imported cars, imported whiskey and such, is quite
low. For instance among the popular tourist shopping items
are watches and jewelry on which the commodity tax is only
5%. If you buy the same items in the mainland, you must
pay a 50% tax.

So for a man who likes foreign whiskey, drives a foreign
car and likes to play golf, Okinawa is a good place to live.
For this reason, there are those who want to be transferred to
their company's Okinawa branch where they can also enjoy
the benefits of low income tax for foreigners. Whiskey is
cheap, golf clubs are cheap and you can buy a foreign car
with only 20% tax (I hear it is 50% in the mainland).


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 209

Gasoline is also cheap, so in these respects Okinawa is a good
place to live. However, taxes on foodstuffs and daily neces
sities are not low, so the average man finds the burden very
heavy.

Expectations For the Future of Japan

As stated above, there are some good features to Oki
nawa's situation after 24 years of separation from the main
land. However, the bad features are much greater, and the
gap is widening and producing even more undersirable fea
tures. I would like to make some comments on Japan's future
from my standpoint as a journalist living in Okinawa. This
is not a prediction but rather my expectation or hope for
Japan.

It is not possible to talk about the Security Pact or Japan-
America relations without talking about Okinawa. Prime
Minister Sato said, "Until the Okinawa issue is settled, the
post-war period has not ended." We must ask whether Japan
is now really a free, peace-loving nation? Can it be called a
really independent, free nation? I think not, because it is still
leaving Okinawa in its present situation. For that reason, I
do not think my comments from Okinawa are arrogant or
haughty.

From Okinawa we look at our mother country, Japan,
which has become the third greatest economic nation in the
world, and feel she is strong and dependable. This is
evidenced in the fact that Japanese government aid to Oki
nawa since 1967 is almost twice the American amount. On
the other hand, it is true that a feeling of distrust toward
the mainland is growing. As seen in the present Diet debates,
Okinawa is being treated as a "thing" or an "issue." Much
debate is heard about nuclear weapons and the use of the
bases, but not much is heard about returning administrative
rights, recovery of human rights, and matters directly
related to the 960,000 people who live there. Furthermore,


210 TODAY'S ISSUES

debate is divided into two extremes. On the one side are
those who follow the American line. On the other side are
those who wave slogans about imperialism and view America
as the enemy. Okinawa is caught in between these two sides
and fought over like a football. Particularly in the Budgetary
Committee of the Diet, discussion and questions about con
crete issues like the appropriateness of the amount of aid to
Okinawa or social welfare and social security are not heard.

You, here in the mainland, talk about far off North Korea
and South Korea, North Vietnam and South Vietnam, or
East Germany and West Germany, but how keenly are you
aware that Japan is divided into North Japan and South
Japan by the twenty-seventh parallel? A part of your nation
is still occupied. From Okinawa we look at our mother
country, Japan, and it seems that she is unaware of the fact
that she is being humiliated. There are even some who ac
cept this situation.

When talking about how Okinawa should be returned
to Japan in order for her to become a really independent na
tion, we do not talk about "restoration," but "reversion."
(Here today we have witnessed the United Church of Christ
in Japan and the United Church of Christ in Okinawa ex
change an agreement of union, but when will we witness such
a stirring scene for all of Okinawa and the mainland?) The
ideal is "immediate, unconditional, complete reversion."* At
the same time we recognize the need for a certain amount of
time and certain conditions to prepare for reversion so that
there will be a minimum of confusion in the economic, politi
cal, and social areas. With that in mind, many voices are
calling for the return of administrative rights as the next
possible step and as a high priority move for the recovery of
human rights.


(The slogan of the reversion movement, meaning imme
diate complete withdrawal of all bases).


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 211

This would force us in Okinawa to make a weighty choice
concerning the status of the American military bases. If
worst conies to worst, we must not rule out the possibility of
allowing continued free use of the bases and storage of
nuclear weapons. There are positions ranging from "free use
with nuclear weapons" to "equal status with mainland
bases" to "abolition of the security pact and removal of all
bases, including those on the mainland."

Of course, most people want removal of nuclear weapons
with bases under the same status as those on the mainland.
The movement opposing nuclear bases is active and will con
tinue. But if it developed that Okinawa could return to
Japanese administration only under the condition of free use
of nuclear bases, the people of Okinawa would probably choose
that. I know there is opposition and fear in the mainland to
this "Okinawanization of the mainland." From our point of
view this looks like "mainland egoism." The people of Oki
nawa have lived for 24 years with nuclear bases and without
constitutional rights. People in the mainland have no posi
tion from which to criticize us even if we should choose that
road.

Though the percentage is small, there are some in Okinawa
who feel a growing danger in the manipulation of public
opinion in the mainland toward a national defense awareness
which might result in amendment of the Peace Constitution.
Therefore they would continue to work with mainland groups
in opposition to nuclear bases and wait for reversion as long
as necessary until Okinawa can be received gladly by the
mainland with bases at least under mainland status. They
would accept continued sacrifice in order to protect the Jap
anese Peace Constitution. (Some voices are calling for a
referendum to determine the will of the mainland people in
this respect.)

Then there are some who would just wait until the day
America volunteers to return Okinawa. The idea of an


212 TODAY'S ISSUES

independent Okinawa, however, is no longer taken seriously.

Here I would like to report briefly on how my talk was
prepared. Under the auspices of the United Church's Oki
nawa District Social Action Committee a "Committee to
Study the Okinawa Issue" was organized for the purpose of
preparing a report and appeal to the mainland. The com
mittee met several times, and I was made chairman and
given the responsibility of drawing up the report. I want to
acknowledge the work of Asamu Taira, president of Okinawa
Christian Institute Junior College, who covered the education
field; William M. Elder, missionary of the United Church,
and Katsusuke Takazato, director of the Christian Student
Center, who covered the area of social welfare.

I gave a rehearsal presentation before the district officials,
social committee chairman, and chairman of the laymen's
association. At that rehearsal they expressed special agree
ment with one point in my presentation, and I would like to
present it, in conclusion, to you of the United Church of
Christ in Japan as our sincere desire for the future of Japan.

Our mother country, Japan, has become the third weal
thiest nation in the world and is strongly emphasizing re
spect for the United Nations. We feel she should now in
stigate measures to relieve tensions in the world, especially
in Southeast Asia. We hope that the opportunity will be
seized to make use of Okinawa and her 960,000 people to
contribute to reconciliation in Asia and the world.

Japan's prosperity is admired, and in Southeast Asia she
is a trade rival with America. Her national interests are
closely related to stability and peace from the Pacific to the
Indian Ocean, from the Persian Gulf to the Straits of Ma
lacca.

Okinawa's existence as a military base holds a central posi
tion in this area. Its traditional ties with China are such
that some people in China still think it is Chinese territory.
That being the case, would not removal of the bases, which


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA JAPAN'S FUTURE 213

are part of the Japan-America policy of containing China,
be a step toward reconciliation with China, particularly main
land China? Should not Japan work toward this end?

Then with China returned to the scene of international
diplomacy, could Japan not work for a reconciliation between
America and China, or Russia and China, similar to the
present America-Soviet relations? The vast China mainland
with a population of 750 million has a national income one-
tenth that of Japan. If Japan with its residual sovereignty
of Okinawa would openly express its visible sovereignty and
request the return of Okinawa from America, this
could be an opening to reduce the threat and tensions in
Southeast Asia. Further, it might be a chance to regain the
trust and friendship of Southeast Asian countries that tend
to see Japan as a nation of "economic animals" interested only
in their own profit. In a similar way, we Christians are apt
to forget contact with the many Christians in China, North
Korea, North Vietnam and other communist countries. Through
the invisible channel of relationships we are hoping that
Japan will act not to use Asia selfishly but to eliminate the
tension and fear in Asia.

To that end it is our prayer that this autumn when
Prime Minister Sato meets with President Nixon, who stated
when visiting Okinawa, "We will hold Okinawa as long as
tensions and threats continue," Mr. Sato will put forth the
ideal request of immediate, unconditional, complete reversion.

We pray, moreover, that he will begin realistic negotia
tions, in accord with the response from the other side,
in order that Okinawa may recover her proper status and
that the people of Okinawa may regain their rights.

(Editor's note: The foregoing was delivered as the main
address on the occasion of the service of union of the United
Church of Christ in Japan and the United Church of Christ
in Okinawa, held at Ginza Church, Tokyo, on February 25,
1969.)


TODAY'S ISSUES


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PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN'S FUTURE 215

Fig. 3


U.S. President


Dept. of Defense


GRi


Chief Executive


USCAR
High Commissioner


Civil Administrator


Legislative Administration Judiciary


Fig. 4
Public Aid and Social Welfare Laws

Years
Mainland Okinawa Lag


Poverty Relief Act 1950 1953

Child Welfare Act 1947 1953

Child Allowance Act 1961 None

Special Child Allowance 1964 1967

Disabled Persons Welfare

and Protection 1949 1953

Mentally Retarded Welfare

and Protection I960 None

Mother and Child Welfare 1964 None

Mother and Child Protection 1965 None


216


TODAY'S ISSUES


Fig. 5
Social Security


Health Insurance Law

(Medical Insurance Law)
Day Laborer's Health Insurance
National Health Insurance
Unemployment Insurance

Workmen's Accident Compensation
Insurance

Seamen's Insurance

Civil Servants' Mutual Benefit Assoc

Public Works Employees' Mutual
Benefit Assoc.

District Civil Servants' Mutual
Benefit Assoc.
(Civil Servants' Severance and

Retirement Pay)
(Public School Teachers' Mutual

Benefit Assoc.)

Private School Teachers' Union Act

Farming, Lumbering, and Fishing
Employees Mutual Benefit Assoc.

Social Welfare Insurance

National Old Age Pension

(Provisional Old Age Pension)


Mainland
1922

Yeai'S
Okinawa Lag

1965 43

1953

None

1958

None

1947

1958

11

1947

1963

16

1940

None

:. 1948

1956

1962

1954

1956
1941
1959


1965

1967
None

None
None

None
1966


17
20


Fig. 6
Public Sanitation


(Postwar)
Mainland Okinawa Years Lag


Communicable Disease Control

Act

Venereal Disease Control Act
Preventive Vaccination Act
Mental Hygiene Act
Turberculosis Control Act

Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
Control Act

Eugenic Protection Act


1897
1948
1948
1950
1951

1953
1948


1967
1962
1964
1960
1956

1961
None


22
14
16
10
5


PRESENT DAY OKINAWA JAPAN'S FUTURE


217


Fig. 7

Industrial Organizations and the Income Gap
(1966 Statistics)

Labor
Force
(1,000
unit)


Primary Industry
(Lumbering,
farming, fishing)

Secondary Industy
( Manufacturing )

Tertiary Industry
(Services)

Total


National

Income

($1 mil.

unit)

53.5


Pei-

Capita Differ-

Income ential

(Dollars) (Percent)


(13.4%)

67.0
(16.8%)

277.5
(69.8%)

398.0
(100%)


139


385


100


(34.7%)

64 1,047 271.9

(16%)

199 1,402 364.2

(49.3%)

402

(100%)

(GRI Bureau of Statistics)


Fig. 8
Government of the Ryukyu Islands 1969 Budget

Government of Japan Aid $ 31,974,000 21.9%

U.S. Government Aid 12,223,000 8.3%

Borne locally 111,432,000 69.8%

Total $145,629,000 100.0%


THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO '70


Paul Pfister

Surely the most important among recent ecumenical de
velopments in Japan was the decision of the major Christian
churches to cooperate in erecting a Christian Pavilion at the
World Exposition in Osaka in 1970.

The Japan World Exposition (EXPO '70) offers the
Christians in this country a unique occasion to witness to
their common faith and to the mission of Christianity in
today's society. Since this is the first time that the World
Exposition will be held in an Asian country where Christians
are a small minority, Japan's Christians have a special
awareness of their common responsibility to make the best
possible use of this occasion.

While each World Exposition exhibits human achieve
ment and progress in science, technology and culture, it also
endeavors to spotlight the highest values of humanity and to
promote mutual understanding and cooperation among all
men of good will.

After the long interruption caused by World War II, the
sequnce of World Expositions was continued in Brussels in
1958. There, the importance of the human being in the midst
of scientific progress in the atomic age was stressed. In New
York in 1964, "Peace Through Understanding" was the
theme of the World Exposition. In Montreal in 1967, it was
"Man and His World".

"Progress and Harmony of Mankind" is the main theme

of EXPO '70 in Osaka. Four sjib-themes further illustrate its

S meaning: 1) "Toward Fuller Enrichment of Life", 2)

"Toward Fuller Utilization of Nature", 3) "Toward Fuller


THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO '70 219>

Management of Our Environment" and 4) "Toward Better
Understanding of One Another."

Contemplating these themes in the light of the Gospel,
Christians felt impelled to bring to the expositions the "un
fathomable riches of Christ". Consequently, Christian
churches erected pavilions at various expositions. But over
the years they came to realize that, standing amid the im
pressive display of human activity and progress, their witness
would prove a fruitful sign of unity only if given in common
by all of them. At the World Exposition in Montreal, this
awareness resulted in the construction of but one Christian
pavilion, the cooperative effort of eight churches in Canada.

The Preparatory Committee of the Montreal pavilion, in
a statement issued in December, 1964, explained its intentions.

Joined together through their baptism in a same faith in
Jesus Christ and in a same hope, the Christians of Canada,
on the occasion of the 1967 Exhibition of Montreal, wish
to express their love to their fellowmen throughout the
world and to alleviate the anxieties and fulfill the expecta
tions of our century by a common proclamation of the
Gospel. Beyond the cleavages imposed by history, the
Christians of the whole world will rejoice at the news of
the following decision that we have reached as a result of
many months of meeting and exchange of views. We will
erect a Christian Pavilion capable of showing the world
that God was made flesh among us and that he is present
in all that is happening concerning "Man and His World".
In spite of those things that separate us, we believe we can
and must humbly bear witness together to our faith in Jesus
Christ and to our intent to be, like him, servants to our
fellow men. Before God we wish to carry out this work to
gether, in order to implore the perfect Christian unity
which his divine grace can give us."


220 TODAY'S ISSUES

Montreal provided inspiration and encouragement to the
Christians of Japan for a similar ecumenical project at Osa
ka's EXPO '70. Several Japanese Christians had visited the
Montreal Exposition and gathered valuable information con
cerning the Christian Pavilion. Here in Japan, the Japan
Association for the 1970 World Exposition expressed a de-ire
that Christianity be represented at EXPO '70 and contribute
to the development of its theme.

In the fall of 1967, Christians of various denominations
joined in informal discussions on the feasibility of a Christian
Pavilion for EXPO '70. Initial contacts were made between
the National Christian Council (NCC) and the Roman
Catholic Church. From the start there was general agree
ment that, if Christian churches were to participate in
EXPO '70, the example of Montreal should be followed. One,
not several Christian pavilions, should be erected.

The Catholic Bishops' Conference approved this project
at its meeting in January, 1968, and the NCC gave approval
at its general meeting in March, 1968. A Central Committee
for the Christian Pavilion at the Japan World Exposition
was established. Anglican Bishop Hinsuke Yashiro was
named chairman. Roman Catholic Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi
of Osaka and NCC Chairman Isamu Omura were named
vice-chairmen, along with several other Christian leaders.

Mr. Shiro Nishimura, prominent Christian layman from
Osaka, was appointed secretary general, with an office at the
Christian Center in Osaka. Rev. Atsushi Hayashi of the
Roman Catholic diocese of Osaka was appointed to assist him.

Besides the Osaka headquarters, two branch offices were
opened in Tokyo: one in the headquarters of the NCC at
Ginza 4-2 under the direction of Rev. Kentaro Buma, the
other in the headquarters of the National Catholic Commit
tee, Chiyoda-ku 6-10, under the direction of Rev. Tadayoshi
Tamura.

On May 20, 1968, the Central Committee met in Tokyo to


THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO '70 221

draw up concrete plans. From the start the Committee ac
knowledged that the Pavilion's theme must be worked out in
harmony with the general theme of EXPO '70. A Theme
Commission was established. It was jointly chaired by Prof.
Kazo Kitamori of Tokyo Union Theological Seminary and
Prof. Mutsuo Yanase of Sophia University. The Central Com
mittee also discussed the financing of the Pavilion. Deciding
on a budget of 100 million yen, it proposed that the Roman
Catholic and Protestant representations should contribute 35
million yen each. The remaining 30 million yen, the Com
mittee decided, could be raised outside of Japan.

The Theme Commission set to work immediately. After
long and frequent deliberation, it submitted its proposals to
the Central Committee, which accepted them at its general
meeting on August 18 in Tokyo. Accordingly, the main
theme of the Christian Pavilion became "Eye and Hand"..
Two sub-themes are "Reconciliation" and "Creation".

The Eye of the Christian faith discovers, amid the great
achievements of human activity, the real dignity and destiny
of man, and finds in Christ's work of reconciliation and new
creation the harmony so much needed by the modern progress
of humanity. The Hand symbolizes the Church praying for
and serving humanity in accordance with Christ's teaching
and example. It symbolizes the Church in Japan and the
Church in foreign countries spiritually united and in a con
tinuing cordial relationship.

The architect who had been contracted to design the Chris
tian Pavilion, Prof. Akira Inadomi, received the approved
theme. Assisted by the Construction Commission, whose chair
man is Prof. Tadao Tanaka, Prof. Inadomi applied himself,
with deep understanding and great perseverance, to the faith
ful visual expression of the theme.

He has also the collaboration of three well-known, out
standing Christian laymen, enlisted by the Central Commit
tee, to act as producers in the overall conception of the


222 TODAY'S ISSUES

Pavilion, its interior design and displays, and the programs
to be presented during the six months of the Exposition.
These three men are Messrs. Shusaku Endo, Simon Miura
and Hiroo Sakada. They consented readily to the Central
Committee's request, and have devoted much time and energy
to the creative fulfillment of this task.

In the meantime, a number of governments which had as
yet made no commitment to participate in EXPO '70 received
ofiicial invitations to do so. The Vatican was among these.
The invitation left Vatican authorities with a new and some
what complicated problem. There had been a pavilion of the
"Vatican in Brussels in 1958, and again in New \ork in 1964.
In the latter instance, thanks to an extraordinary concession
made by Pope John XXIII to Francis Cardinal Spellman,
Michelangelo's "Pieta" was exhibited. For EXPO '70, even
prior to the decision of the Japanese churches to participate,
the Holy See replied affirmatively to requests from Japan
that it loan Raphael tapestries for display. Subsequent to
the decision of the Japanese churches to build a common
pavilion, the Holy See promised assistance to the Roman
Catholic bishops of Japan in their participation. But without
an explicit invitation from the EXPO '70 Association, the
Vatican had made no plans for official participation.

Upon receipt of an invitation, however, and though
willing to comply with the wishes of the association, the
Vatican deemed it unfitting to erect a pavilion of the Vatican
independent of that to be erected by the Christian churches
of Japan. Official participation by the Vatican at EXPO '70
seemed now possible only through cooperative participation
in the endeavor of the Christians in Japan. In December,
1968, Pope Paul VI gave his approval to this participation.
The ecumenical character of the pavilion was thereby
strengthened. The Vatican, for the first time, entered actively
into an ecumenical project of this kind.

The Christian Pavilion is therefore sponsored jointly by


THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO '70 22.'3

the Christian churches of Japan and by the Holy See. On
February 19, 1969, the contract with the Japan Association
for the 1970 World Exposition was signed jointly by Bishop
Hinsuke Yashiro, chairman of the Central Committee for the
Christian Pavilion of the Churches in Japan, and by Papal
Pro-Nuncio Bruno Wuestenberg, representative of the Holy
See. Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi of Osaka was appointed the
Vatican's commissioner general for the exposition.

Detailed decisions of design and of the most suitable dis
play of the Raphael tapestries could now be worked out.
Architect, producers and official representatives gave patient
study and deliberation to these details. By the end of March,
plans were finalized and received the approval of the Central
Committee and of the Vatican.

On AprilJB, 1969, the ground-breaking ceremony was held.
Participants included Archbishop Wuestenberg, Bishop Yashi
ro and other personalities involved in the pavilion's planning.
Government representatives, local authorities and several
hundred Christians of various denominations also attended.
The program of the ceremony, mutually agreed upon, took
the form of an ecumenical service of prayers, Scripture read
ings and hymns. It was itself an impressive reminder of the
ecumenical character and mission of the Christian Pavilion.

Guests included Mr. John Taylor, emissary from the World
Council of Churches headquarters in Geneva. Mr. Taylor
offered valuable suggestions on the Pavilion displays, having
had extensive experience in planning for the exposition at
Montreal and elsewhere. Dr. Richard von Weizsaecker of
Germany and other distinguished visitors gave assurance of
the interest shown by the WCC and its member-churches,
manifesting a readiness to cooperate in the endeavor and
expressing a wish for its complete success.

With the ground-breaking ceremony, the point of focus
shifted to Osaka. On a 1,034 square meter plot on the ex
position site in the Senri Hills, the Christian Pavilion was


224 TODAY'S ISSUES

approaching realization. The building itself would occupy
785 square meters.

Upon the Pavilion's completion, the visitor will enter one
of two descending passageways illuminated by soft, incidental
light from hollow shafts in the ceiling. From here he enters
the subterranean rooms where exhibits are displayed. Three
of Raphael's tapestries — two of them portraying the Savior
with the Apostles, and the third, St. Paul preaching in
Athens — hang on a wall in the main room. Photographs,
motion pictures and art of past and present depict the Church
in the midst of human society, and direct the visitor's mind
to the Pavilion's theme.

Passage through the exhibit rooms is intended to prepare
the visitor for his transfer from the overwhelming, manifold
impressions received in the other pavilions to a quieter, more
spiritual experience. The visitor may content himself with
having seen the exhibits and leave through a broad exit. Or
he may proceed to the main hall on the ground floor.

In the main hall, in what Prof. Inadomi calls its "holy
emptiness", the visitor will come to full experience of the
pavilion's theme. The hall is a place of encounter with God,
a place of spiritual rest. Besides a pipe organ, the room will
contain only two symbols sacred to all Christians: one of the
word of God and one of the sacraments. The hall is meant
for meditation, but also for musical and dramatic perform
ances. The producers are preparing a program of these for
the six months of the exposition. Christian musicians,
choruses and famous actors from Japan and abroad are
expected to participate. The main hall will be a place of
vivid witness to the Pavilion's theme and to its ecumenical
mission.

The pavilion building, a curvilinear wooden structure, will
be modes! in appearance among the numerous gigantic and
ultramodern buildings of EXPO '70. But it will express the
Christian message of God's fatherly love of mankind, of


THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO '70 225

Christ's salvation and reconciliation, of human dignity, peace
and hope. Precisely this is its contribution to EXPO '70.

Due to political unrest and ideological strife expected to
manifest themselves during 1970 in Japan, some criticism
and fears were expressed, among Christians also, concerning
first, the advisability of opening the World Exposition in
Osaka, and secondly, the advisability of formal participation
on the part of the Christian churches. Such have not hindered
the EXPO '70 preparations, which are proceeding on schedule
to meet the March 15, 1970, opening date. More than 70
nations of differing ideologies and social structures eagerly
anticipate a successful exposition.

The Christian churches in Japan, relying on the under
standing and help of their congregations throughout the
country, are grateful in the successful realization of a truly
ecumenical, truly Christian pavilion. They are eager that
this project of Christian witness further the continuing efforts
at mutual understanding. They cherish the hope that it will
become a landmark on the road of Christian witness and
ecumenical cooperation in Japan. They hear, as addressed to
themselves, the words of St. Paul: "Therefore, my beloved
brothers, stand firm and immovable, and work for the Lord
always, work without limit, since you know that in the Lord
your labor cannot be lost." (1 Cor., 15:58)

(Editor's note: Events in the Japanese church since the
writing of this article have thrown additional sidelights on
the Christian Pavilion project. Groups of militant students
in the Kyodan-related theological seminaries, supported by
a number of young pastors and church members, have staged
vehement protests in various church committees and assemblies
against the erection of the Christian Pavilion, condemning it
as an unjustifiable extravagance and a compromising identifi
cation with the government sponsored Expo, of which it is a
part, and which the students repudiate on various grounds.
The United Church of Christ (Kyodan) is divided on this


226 TODAY'S ISSUES

issue between those who continue to support the project, those
who oppose it, and those who waver between the two positions.
For an up-to-date acquaintance with the problem, the reader
is advised to consult the various news reports appearing in
the press and the Japan Christian Activity News, in which
detailed accounts are given of the protest activities and the
arguments being advanced through them.)


PART II


I. CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


Advent Christian Mission, Ja
pan

(Nippon Adobento Kirisuto

Kyodan)

Shijo Nawate Gakuin, 1201-

14, Okayama, Shijo Nawate-

cho, Kita Kawachi-gun, Osa-

ka-ku 575

Tel. 0720-76-0580

Dir.: Floyd Powers


Tel. 03-400-2314
Chm. of the House of Bi
shops: Hinsuke Yashiro


(575)

TO 1201-14 m%m&fa

n 0720-76-0580
ft£ F • X 7 - X

Amen Kyodan

181 Higashi Mitsuda-machi,
Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken 737
Tel. 0823-21-6763
Dir.: Hachiro Itoh


(737) EAm^rU
n 0823-21-6763


Anglican Episcopal Church of
Japan

{Nippon Seikokai)
4-21, 1-chome, Higashi, Shi-
buya-ku, Tokyo 150


(150)

4-21


Anglican Episcopal Church of
Okinawa

(Okinawa Seikokai)
238-3, Yoko-Takehara, Mi-
natogaw^a, Urazoemura, Oki
nawa

Tel. Okinawa 097-3510
Bishop: Edmond L. Brown
ing


233-3


Aomoriken Fukuin Kirisuto
Kyokai Kyogikai

30-11, Chayamachi, Aomori-

shi 030

Tel. 01772-5-3710

Mod.: Takeya Furukawa

y ^

(030) 30-11

n 01772-5-3710


097-3510


230


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Apostolic Christian Church of
Japan

(Nihon Shito Kirisuto Kyo-
kai)

1384, Kaneko-machi, Chofu-

shi, Tokyo 182

Tel. 0424-82-4344

Dir.: Willis R. Ehnle


1384


Apostolic Faith Mission

(Shito no Shinko Dendodan)
1017-1, Kugahara-cho, Ohta-
ku, Tokyo 145
Tel. 03-751-4211
Dir.: Hidehiro Ouchi


(182)

m 0424-82-4344


(145)

1017-1

m 03-751-4211


Assemblies of God Church of
Japan

(Nihon Assenburi Kyodan)
15-20, 3-chome, Komagome,
Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170
Tel. 03-918-5935
Supt.: Kiyoma Yumiyama


-20'


(170)

m 03-918-5935


(277) =f ^

m 0471-67-6790


Baptist Association, Japan

(Nihon Baputesuto Rengo)
8-34, 3-chome, Higashi, Ka
shiwa-shi, Chiba-ken 277
Tel. 0471-67-6790
Chr.: Misao Amari


3-8-34


Baptist Bible Fellowship of
Japan

137-1, Tendai-cho, Chiba-

shi 280

Tel. 0472-52-1621

Pres.: Koki Sugiura

0 $ /\* -? f X h • ^M 7 fr • 7 x

O -> -y 7��

(280) =f ^TfJ^^HT 137-1
m 0472-52-1621


Baptist Church Association,
Japan

(Nippon Baputesuto Kyokai
Rengo)

1-8, Yoshi-cho, Nihonbashi,

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103

Tel. 03-669-9327

Chr.: Takeshi Yokoyama


(103)

1-8


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


231


03-669-9327


Baptist Convention, Japan

(Nihon Baputesuto Renmei)
2-350, Nishi Okubo, Shinju-
ku, Tokyo 160
Tel. 03-351-2166
Chr.: Noboru Arase


(160)
2-350
m 03-351-2166


Baptist General Conference
Japan Mission

(Nippon Kirisuto Baputesuto
Rengo Senkyodan)

6-11, Zenmyoji, Wakayama-

shi 640

Dir.: Francis B. Sorley

* h •


(640)


P . B


6-11
v - y -


Baptist Mid-Missions in Japan

(Zen Nippon Baputesuto Mid-
Mission Senkyodan)

17-20, Kasuga-cho, Fukushi-

ma-shi 960

Tel. 0245-34-8504

Dir.: Dan M. Bishop

h • < K < y i> a >H


(960) ^^rtJ
n 0245-34-8504


Baptist Union, Japan

(Nihon Baputesuto Domei)
3-9, 1-chome, Misaki-cho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 103
Tel. 03-291-9445
Chr.: Takaaki Aikawa


(103)
1-3-9
m 03-291-9445


Bible Study Circle

(Seisho Kenkyu Kai)
9 Tokiwa Shimoda-machi,
Ukyo-ku, Kyoto 616
Tel. 075-861-2619
Dir.: Tasaburo Muraoka


(616)
9

m 075-861-2619


Brethren in Christ Mission,
Japan

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Keiteidan)
4-228, Nukui Minami-cho,
Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184
Tel. 0423-83-1086
Dir.: John Graybill


4-228


(184)


232


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


)423-83-1086j;
t v s > • ?*


Christ Shinshu Kyodan

6802 Shimo Yoshida, Fuji

Yoshida-shi, Yamanashi-ken

403

Tel. 0555-2-0367

Chr. : Yoshinobu Kawai


(403) S��
m 0555-2-0367


6802


Christian Brotherhood Church

(Kirisuto Kyodai Dan)
448, Tabata-cho, Kita-ku,
Tokyo 114
Tel. 03-821-0210
Dir.: Denzo Shimura


448


Christian Canaan Church

(Kirisutokyo Kanan Kyodan)
1-36 Higashi, Kushiya-ma-
chi, Sakai-shi, Osaka 590
Tel. 0722-2-3345
Dir.: Seibei Morita


1-36


(114)

m 03-821-0210


Christian Evangelistic Church

(Kirisuto Dendo-dan)
56 Horikawa-cho, Fukuoka-
shi 810

Tel. 092-52-8813
Supt.: Muneo Ide

(810) M^TfJiBJIIfflT 56
a 092-52-8813


Christian Holy Convention

(Kirisuto Seikyodan)
20-5, 1-chome, Tsubakimori,
Chiba-shi 280
Tel. 0472-51-8510
Bishop: Hiromi Yanaka

(280) =f 1-20-5

m 0472-51-8510


(590)

m, 0722-2-3345


Christian Oriental Salvation

(Kirisutokyo Toyo Kyureidan)
4-27, Izumi-dori, Nada-ku,
Kobe 657
Tel. 078-86-2462
Dir.: Tokushutsu Cho


4-27


Christian Science First Church


(657)

m 078-86-2462


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


233


(Kirisutokyo Kagaku Daiichi
Kyokai)

10-2, 1-chome, Nagata-cho,

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100

Tel. 03-581-0521

Chr.: T. M. Hague

(100) |CmtPWfflK7l<ffl(HT

1-10-2

m 03-581-0521

gilpjl T • M • s\ - ?

Church of Christ

(Kirisuto no Kyokai)
Ibaraki Christian College,
Kujimachi, Hitachi-shi, Iba-
raki-ken 319-12
Tel. 029452-3215
Supt.: B. M. Smith

(319-12)


029452-3215
B . M • ^


Church of Christ in Japan

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai)
14-10, 3-chome, Tsurumaki,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154
Tel. 03-420-7047
Mod.: Tatsuya Saito


(154)

3-14-10

m 03-420-7047


Church of God

4-21 Naka Saiwai-cho, Ka-

wasaki-shi, Kanagawa-ken

210

Tel. 044-51-0641

Pres.: Eaymond Shelhorn

?• * - ^ - # y' • 3y K

p3j 4-21


Kyo-


(210)

m 044-51-0641

US is 4 ^ > K • -> x ji

Church of God, Japan

(Nihon Church of God
dan)

22 Tsuoka-cho, Hodogaya-

ku, Yokohama-shi 241

Tel. 045-951-2074

Dir.: Edward Call


045-951-2074


22


Church of God Remmei

(Nihon Kami no Kyokai Rem
mei)

3-93 Tamagawa Okuzawa-

machi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo

158

Tel. 03-702-4141

Chr.: Shigetoshi Taniguchi


(158)

HI 3-93

m 03-702-4141


234


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Church of Jesus Christ, Japan

(Nihon lesu Kirisuto Kyodan)
1-22, 1-chome, Takamaru,
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 655
Tel. 078-76-5689
Chr.: Akira Nakajima


1-1-22


(655)

n 078-76-5689


Church of Jesus Christ of Lat
ter Day Saints

(Matsujitsu Seito lesu Kiri
suto Kyokai)

8-10, 5-chome, Minami Aza-

bu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106

Tel. 03-442-7438

Pres.: Adney Y. Komatsu


5-8-10


(106)

m 03-442-7438


Church of The Nazarene, Ja
pan District

(Nihon Nazaren Kyodan)
589-2, 8-chome, Kami Me-
guro-ku, Tokyo 153
Tel. 03-466-2416
Pres.: Takichi Funagoshi


(153) Jf
8-589-2


03-466-2416


Church of The Resurrected
Christ

(Fukkatsu no Kirisuto Kyo
dan)

c/o Kantoku Gakuin, Ojoji,
Nagano-shi 380
Tel. 02622-3-3066
Dir.: Sukenori Makiuchi


02622-3-3066


Conservative Baptist Associa
tion of Churches

(Hoshu Baputesuto Domei)
3-26, 2-chome, Higashihara-
cho, Yamagata-shi 990
Tel. 02362-2-4789
Mod.: Shoichi Kakizaki


2-3-26


Cumberland Presbyterian
Church

(Kanbarando Choro Kyokai)
14-1, 2-chome, Minamirin-
kan, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa-
ken 242
Te 01. k.G,:,
Tel. 0462-61-4371


(990)

m 62362-2-4789


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


235


Dir.: Melvin Stott


(242) W

2-14-1

« 0462-61-4371


E


Eiko No Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo-
kai

Uchinomaki, Asomachi, Ago-
gun, Kumamoto-ken 869-23
Tel. Aso 2-0303
Dir.: Kotaro Sugita


(869-23)


Evangelical Alliance Mission

(Nihon Domei Kirisuto Kyo-
dan)

15-15, 3-chome, Daisawa,

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 155

Tel. 03-413-2345

Dir.: Nakaichi Ando


(155)

3-15-15

m 03-413-2345


dan)

9-24, Honcho, Nakagawa,

Takaoka-shi, Toyama-ken

933

Tel. 0766-23-6655

Dir.: F. L. Pickering


(933) giij

9-24

m 0766-23-6655

tt^f F. L.


Evangelical Christian Church^
Japan

(Nihon Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo-

dan)

1-1, 3-chome, Fujimi-cho,
Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182
Tel. 0424-83-8941
Chr.: Keiichi Hiraide


3-1-1


Evangelical Covenant Church
of Japan

(Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyo-
dan)

17-8, 5-chome, Naka Megu-

ro, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153

Tel. 03-712-8746

Chr.: Melbourne Metcalf


(Wl

m 0424-83-8941


Evangelical Baptist Missions

(Fukuin Baputesuto Senkyo-


(153)

5-17-8


236


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


03-712-8746 Dir.: Rollin S. Reasoner

^#-7 mm^-t-^w.

(221) :|gjft7p$)HJIIK6^ Hi
m 045-491-9016~7


Evangelical Free Church in
Japan

(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai)

33-2, Higashi Ohno-machi, Free Methodist Church of

Koyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi Japan

603 (Nihon Jiyu Mesojisuto Kyo-

Tel. 075-451-4961 dan)

Chr.: Yosuke Furuyama 3.51, 1-chome, Maruyama-

H^^ilf gfitfcz* dori, Abeno-ku, Osaka-shi

(603) HilSrlJjfcK/^Uj^fcSFfflT 545

33-2 Tel. 06-652-2091

075-451-4961 Mod-. Takesaburo Uzaki


Evangelical Orient Mission

(Toyo Fukuin Senkyokai)
2-54, Higashi, Yotsukura-
machi, Iwaki-shi, Fukushi-
ma-ken 979-02
Tel. 024632-2735
Chr.: Frank Kongstein

KrH 2-54


(979-02)

m 0246-32-2735

F • a i/


Far Eastern Gospel Crusade

<Kyokuto Fukuin Juji Gun)
111, Hakuraku, Kanagawa-
ku, Yokohama-shi 221
Tel. 045-491-9016/7


(545)

1-3-61

m 06-652-2091


Free Religious Association,
Japan

(Nihon Jiyu Shukyo Renmei)
Seisoku High School, 24 Shi-
ba Park, Minato-ku, Tokyo
105

Tel. 03-431-0914
Chr.: Shinichiro Imaoka


(105)


03^31-0914


24


Free Will Baptist Mission,


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


237


Japan

(Fukuin Baputesuto Kyodan)
3-chome, Nishi 2-jo, Tsuki-
sappu, Sapporo-shi 062
Tel. 0122-88-8601
Dir.: Wesley Calvary


(062)

W

m 0122-88-8601

ftS^t W


Fukuin Dendo Kyodan

4-4, 2-chome, Hiyoshi-machi,

Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken

371

Tel. 0272-31-8222

Mod.: Seiichi Kobayashi


(371) BiJ

m 0272-31-8222


2-4-4


G


German Alliance Mission

(Domei Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo-
kai)

211, Takehana-cho, Hajima-

shi, Gifu-ken 501-62

Tel. 0583-91-4055

Dir.: Walter Werner


(501-62) lK^m

211

m 0583-91-4055


W- *

Gospel Church, Japan

(Nippon Fukuin Kyodan)
5-2209, Kemigawa-machi,
Chiba-shi 280
Tel. 0472-71-7849
Mod.: Katsuei Yoshino


5-2209


(280) =f

m 0472-71-7849


Gospel Fellowship, Japan

(Fukuin Koyu Kai)
1-63, Hamadera Showama-
chi, Sakai-shi, Osaka 592
Dir.: Mitsuo Kondo


(592)


Gospel Fellowship Mission,
Japan

(Nihon Fukuin Koyu Mission)
3785-3364 Shimada Kuroishi,
Tempaku-cho, Showa-ku,
Nagoya-shi 468
Mgr.: Leslie Frazier


(468)


3785-3364


Gospel Hall Plymouth Bre
thren

(Kirisuto Shinto no Shukai)


238


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


(167)

m 03-391-6727


21-3, 1-chome, Kamiogi, Su-
ginami-ku, Tokyo 167
Tel. 03-391-6727
Mgr.: Tamezo Yamanaka


1-21-3


Gospel League, Japan

56 Koyama Itakura-cho, Ki-
ta-ku, Kyoto-shi 603
Dir.: Edward G. Hanson
is v '•? > • :/;*. "? )\> • 'J — y

(603) JscusrfcibK/huiigSHr 56

£^;£ x K 7 - K • G . /N > y


H


Hokkaido Fukuin Kyokai Kyo-
gikai

632 Kitago, Shiraishi-cho,

Sapporo 062

Tel. 0122-87-7862

Chr.: Tetsuto Hatakeyoma

632


(062)

m 0122-87-^862


Holiness Church, Japan

^Nihon Horinesu Kyodan)
1-1477, Mawarita-machi, Hi-
gashi Murayama-shi, Tokyo


189

Tel. 0423-91-3075

Chr.: Zenjiro Kongo


(189)

ft 0423-91-3075


1-1477


Holy Jesus Society

(Sei lesu Kai)

3-880, Totsuka-machi, Shin-
juku-ku, Tokyo 160
Tel. 03-368-8278
Dir.: Takeji Otsuki


(160)

m 03-368-8278


iHT 3-880


I


Immanuel General Mission

(Imanueru Sogo Dendo Dan)
9th Floor, Shin Kokusai
Bldg., 3-4 Marunouchi, Chi-
yoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Tel. 03-211-2789
Pres.: David Tsutada


(100) m

&4mmmx»

m 03-211-2789


International Church of The
Foursquare Gospecl


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


. ^239


(Kokusai Foursquare Fukuin

Kyodan)

10-8, Minami Sumiyoshi,

Tokorozawa-shi, Saitama-

ken 359

Tel. 0429-22-7716

Chr.: Walter H. Mussen


(359)

m 0429-22-7716


10-8


International Christian Body

(Kokusai Kirisuto Kyodan)
1-29, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku,
Tokyo 151
Tel. 03-370-0571
Pres.: Yoshie Yoshimoto


1-29


(151)

m 03-370-0571

*ff* •g&m*

—I— P3 P4 tJ ^r^^T^lf


Japan Alliance Church

(Nihon Araiansu Kyodan)
255, Itsukaichi-cho, Saeki-
gun, Hiroshima-ken 738
Tel. 0829-21-2514
Chr.: Suteichi Oe


(738) £

IB 0829-21-2514


Japan Evangelical Band

(Nihon Dendotai)
6-11, 6-chome, Sumaura-dori,
Suma-ku, Kobe-shi 654
Tel. 078-71-5651
Dir.: E. W. Gosden


(654)

6-6-11

m 078-71-5651

=£<g E • W


Japan Evangelical Lutheran
Church

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyo-
kai)

303-3, Hyakunin-cho, Shin-

juku-ku, Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-362-6604

Mod.: Sueaki Uchiumi


(160)
3-303
IB 03-362-6604

ft»&

Japan Evangelical Mission

(Nihon Dendo Fukuin Kyo
dan)

292-8, 1-chome, Kami Naka-

jima, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-

ken 940

Chr.: Katsuji Kasuga


1-292-8


(940)


240


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Japan United Pentecostal
Church

(Nihon Unaito Pentecosute
Kyodan)

365 Kamigamo Honzan, Ki-

ta-ku, Kyoto-shi 603

Tel. 075-791^887

Supt.: Norman Zeno


(603)

« 075-791-4887


-i-ASfte^T*. iA ^r* -VL.

iff? TOS $6

Jiyu Christian Crusade

(Jiyu Kurischan Dendodan)
25-22, 11-chome, Tahara,
Fukui-shi 910
Tel. 0776-22-6315
Dir.: A. J. Hemmingby


11-25-22


Japan Yearly Meeting of The K

Religious Society of Friends

(Kirisuto Tomo no Kai Nen- Kassui Christ Kyodan
kai)

8-19, 4-chome, Mita, Minato-

ku, Tokyo 108

Tel. 03-451-7002

Mod.: Kikue Kurama


(Kassui Kirisuto Kyodan)
587 Ogikubo, Odawara-shi,
Kanagawa-ken 250
Tel. 0465-34-2525
Dir.: Daisuke Abe


(108)


Hffl 4-8-19


03-451-7002


(250) /JNffl

m 0465-34-2525


Jesus Gospel Church

(lesu Fukuin Kyodan)
15-26, 1-chome, Hibarigaoka,
Hoya-shi, Tokyo 188
Tel. 0424-61-9847
Dir.: Yutaka Akichika


(188)

1-15-26

B 0424-61-9847


587


Kinki Evangelical Lutheran
Church

(Kinki Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai)
19 Kotaro-cho, Nara-shi 630
Tel. 0742-23-7951
Mod.: Koji Matsumoto


19


(630)

H 0742-23-7951


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


241


Kiyome Church of Oriental H 0985-2-4009
Missionary Society Sl:ft Ht.£\{QljL

(Toyo Senkyokai Kiyome Kyo- [
kai) M

4-971, Kashiwagi, Shinjuku- !

ku, Tokyo 160 ! Mennonite Brethren Confer-

Tel. 03-369-6646 ence, Japan

Dir.: Kyoichi Ozaki (Nihon Menonaito Burezaren

Kyodan)

4-971 6-17, 1-chome, Shoen, Ikeda-

shi, Osaka 563
Mod.: Yu Arita


(160) 3iJ£

n Og-369-6646


Korean Christian Church in
Japan

(Zainichi Daikan Kirisuto
Kyokai)

24 Wakamiya-cho, Shinjuku-

ku, Tokyo 162

Tel. 03-269-2909

Chr.: Oh Yun Tai


(563)


(162)

m, 03-269-2909


24


I Mennonite Church Conference,
Japan

(Nihon Menonaito Kyokai
Kyogikai)

13 Tsurugadai, Kushiro-shi,

Hokkaido 085

Chr.: Takio Tanase


(085)


Kyushu Mennonite Christian
Church

(Kyushu Menonaito Kirisuto
Kyokai Kaigi)


13


Mission Covenant Church in
Japan


(Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyo-
3-50, Yodogawa-cho, Miyaza- dan)

ki-shi 880 360 Amihama, Okayama-shi

Tel. 0985-2-4009 700

Mod.: Hiroshi Yanada Tel. 0862-72-0004

' •)- 4 j, . 4 \) _x h tfc^^il ' Mod. : Takeshi Matsukuma
(880) 'gi&SiriJStJIIfflr 3-50


242


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


(700) mmmfc 360
m 0862-72-0004


N


(150) jp[J5C

IB 03-466-3414


o


1-25-6


Next Towns Crusade in Japan Open Bible Church, Japan


(Nihon Next Towns Crusade)
Fuse Fukuin Kyokai, 1-19,
Chodo, Higashi Osaka-shi
577

Tel. 06-782-2765
Dir.: Tsutomu Moritani

0 -fc^V 7.
- K
(577)


1-19


IB 06-782-2765

&® ®

Nihon Shinyaku Kyodan

16-1, 3-chome, Higashi Ome,

Ome-shi, Tokyo 198

Tel. 0428-2-0634

Mod.: Takashi Amemiya


3-16-1


(198)

IB 0428-2-0634


Nipppon Kirisuto Kai

25-6, 1-chome, Shoto,
buya-ku, Tokyo 150
Tel. 03-466-3414
Mod.: Toyokichi Mori


Shi-


15-28, 5-chome, Koshien-
guchi, Nishinomiya-shi,

Hyogo-ken 662
Tel. 0798-67-3896
Dir.: Jukei Wada


5-15-28


Orebro Mission

254 Hiraoka, Sakai-shi, Osa-

ka-fu 593

Tel. 0722-71-0367

Field Repr.: Helge Jansson


(662) ffi

IB 0798-67-3996


(593) TO¥N 254
IB 0722-71-0367


Oriental Deaf Christ Evange

listic Church

(Toyo Rowa Kirisuto Dendo

Kyokai)

1132-1, Ichiba, Moroyama-

cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama-

ken 350-04

Dir.: Isamu Umezaki


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


243


(350-04)


1132-1


Original Gospel Movement

(Genshi Fukuin)
5-35, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku,
Tokyo 151
Tel. 03-466-1558
Dir.: Ikuo Tejima


5-35


(151)

m 03^66-1558


Pentecost Church of God In
Japan

(Nihon Pentecosute Kami No
Kyokai Kyodan)

1580, Ajimashinyama, Ku-

sunoki-cho, Kita-ku, Nagoya

462

Tel. 052-901-8280

Dir.: T. V. Dawson

**is

(462)

Uj 1580

m 052-901-8280


Pentecost Gospel Group, Japan

< Nihon Pentecosute Fukuin
Group)

4-64, Akasaki-machi, Chi-


kusa-ku, Nagoya-shi 464
Tel. 052-721-7831
Gen. Sec.: M. Fast


7. T-

(464) ^S

4-64

1g 052-721-7831

M • 7 r - X h

Pentecoste, Japan

(Nihon Pentecosute Kyodan)
Tawaraguchi, Ikoma-cho,
Ikoma-gun, Nara-ken 630-02
Tel. 07437-3-6424
Dir.: David Copp


(630-02)
p

m 0737-3-6424


Philadephia Mission

205, Honmoku Ozato-cho,
Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 231
Tel. 045-621-0888/9
Chr.: H. N. Hestekind


(231)

IS 045-621-0888


Presbyterian Church in Japan

(Nihon Kirisuto Choro Kyo
kai)

1-273, Horinouchi, Sugina-

mi-ku, Tokyo 166


244


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 03-312-3071
Mod.: Susumu Kobata

(166) jffMtP^KiS'ft 1-273
m 03-312-3071


R


Reformed Church in Japan

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikakuha
Kyodkai)

5-20, Shimo-dori, Shibuya-

ku, Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-461-4614

Mod.: Shoji Yanai


5-20


Reformed Presbyterian Chris
tian Church of Japan

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikaku

Choro Kyokai)

9-1, Umenoya, Okamoto, Mo-
toyama-cho, Higashinada-
ku, Kobe-shi 657-01
Tel. 078-41-3175
Chr.: Gene W. Spear


(150)

m 03-461-4616


(657-01)

& 9-1

078-41-3175


Rural Mission, Japan

(Nihon Chiho Dendodan)
2640, Jonan-ku, Saeki-shi,.
Oita-ken 876
Tel. 09722-2-2238
Dir.: J. P. Visser


2640


(876)

It 09722-2-2238

S-P-V


Salvation Army Territorial
Headquarters, Japan

(Kyusei Gun Nippon Honei)
2-17, Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chi-
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101
Tel. 03-263-7311/5
Comm.: D. A. Smith


~ > • W


(101) mM
BJ 2-17

m 03-263-7311-5
D • A • ^ <


Sanbi Kyodan

14-8, Kako-machi, Hiroshl-

ma-shi 733

Tel. 0822-41-8957

Pres.: Kyo Kurokawa


14-8


(733) m

m 0822-41-8957
iUII ^


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


245


Seventh-Day Adventists, Ja
pan Union Mission of

(Seventh-day Adventist Nip
pon Rengo Dendo Bukai)

846 Kami Kawai-cho, Hodo-

gaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 241

Tel. 045-951-2421

Pres.: C. B. Watts


h 0


(241)

fflT 846

n 045-951-2421


Spirit of Jesus Church

(lesu no Mitama Kyokai Kyo-
dan)

3-152, Ogikubo, Suginami-

ku, Tokyo 167

Tel. 03-391-5925

Supt.: Jun Murai


3-152


Swedish Alliance Mission in
Japan

(Zainichi Sweden Kirisutokyo
Domei Senkyoshi Dan)

34-44, 4-chome, Kamoe-cho,

Hamamatsu-shi 430

Tel. 0534-53-5051

Field Repr.: Ake Lonander


(167) m

m 03-391-5925


(430)
m 0534-53-5051
0


4-34-44


Swedish Evangelical Mission
in Japan

(Zainichi Sweden Fukuin Sen-

kyodan)

273-33, Raiba, Noboribetsu-
machi, Horobetsu-gun, Hok
kaido 059-03
Tel. 014382-2310
Field Rep.: Paul Eriksson


^ - T-

(059-03)

J�� 273-33

m 014382-2310


Swedish Evangelical Orient
Mission

(Sweden Toyo Fukuin Dendo-
dan)

149, Taira-machi, Numazu-

shi, Shizuoka-ken 410

Tel. 0559-63-2065

Chr.: Eric Malm


(410) S^TtT^HT 149
m 0559-63-2065

x 'j ^ . v ;i/ A

Swedish Free Mission

(Sweden Jiyu Dendodan)


246


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


2-122, Iwama-cho, Hodoga-
ya-ku, Yokohama-shi 240
Tel. 045-331-0643
Field Rep.: Bo Johnson


(240)
2-122
m 045-331-0643

ft;^^" B • i/ 3


True Church of Jesus in Japan

(Shin lesu Kyokai Nihon So-

kai)

1-15, Naka Kagaya-cho, Su-
miyoshi-ku, Osaka-shi 558
Gen. Sec.: Seiki Suda


(558)
1-15


U


United Church of Christ in
Japan

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan)
5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-
ku, Tokyo 104
Tel. 03-561-6131/5
Mod.: Kiyoshi li

B#»g(H

& 4-5-1


Unitarian Universalist Asso
ciation

(Kirisutokyo Dojin Shadan)
10-9, 3-chome, MejirodaL.
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112
Tel. 03-943-1879
Chr.: Chugoro Ono


(112)

3-10-9

m 03-943-1879


Universal Evangelical Church

(Bankoku Fukuin Kyodan)
3-17, 2-chome, Chuo, Matsu-
moto-shi, Nagano-ken 390
Tel. 02634-2-2347
Dir.: Hiroshi Nakazawa


(390)

m 02634-2-2347


Victor Jesus Church

(Shorisha lesu Kyodan)
2163, Karuizawa-machi, Ki-
ta Saku-gun, Nagano-kern
389-01

Tel. 02674-2-2302
Dir.: Earl F. Tygert


03-561-6131


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


247


(389-01) &mm&ti&M
6#iRST 2163
m 02674-2-2302


w

Walworth Road Baptist
Church Missionary Society

(Walworth Road Baputesuto
Kyokai Dendo Kyokai)

467, Yasutake, Ibaraki-shi,

Osaka-fu 567

Tel. 0726^3-6979

Field Rep.: Florence E.

Penny


Barry


(567)

n 0726-43-6979

ft^^t 7

E - ^^~


Watch Tower Bible and Tract
Society

(Monomi no Toh Seisho Sas-
shi Kyokai)

5-8, 5-chome, Mita, Minato-

ku, Tokyo 108

Tel. 03-453-0404

Branch Servant: William L.


(108)


:HH 5-5-8


03-453-0404


Lu-


West Japan Evangelical
theran Church

(Nishi Nippon Fukuin Ruteru
Kyokai)

2-8, Nakajima-dori, Fukiai-

ku, Kobe-shi 651

Tel. 078-22-9706

Mod.: Taizo Taniguchi


2-8]


Worldwide Evangelization

Crusade

(Sekai Fukuin Dendodan)
569 Kondo, Gokasomachi,
Kanzaki-gun, Shiga-ken 529-
14

Tel. Ishizuka 47
Dir.: K. S. Roundhill


(651)

m 078-22-9706


(529-14)


569

47


S - 5 !» K t ^


II. CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS

Universities and Junior Colleges


Aoyama Gakuin University

4-25, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi-
buya-ku, Tokyo 150
Tel. 03^09-8111
Pres.: Zengo Ohira


4-4-25


6-106, Honcho, Toyonaka-
shi, Osaka 560
Tel. 068-52-0001
Pres.: Iwao Kamatani


6-106


(560)


(150)


Aoyama Gakuin Woman's Ju
nior College

Pres.: Saburo Koda


Baiko Jogakuin College

Umegatoge, Soto Toyoura-
cho, Shimonoseki-shi, Yama-
guchi-ken 752
Tel. Toyoura 596
Pres.: Shinjiro Hirotsu


(751)


596


Baika Women's College

171 Yadohisasho, Toyokawa, \ Baiko Jogakuin Junior College


Ibaragi-shi, Osaka 567
Tel. 0726-43-6221
Pres. : Shinichi Ono


(567)

171


Baika Women's Junior College !


1-1, 1-chome, Koyo-cho, Shi

monoseki-shi, Yamaguchi-

ken 751

Tel. 0832-23-7271

Pres.: Shinjiro Hirotsu


-1-1


(751)

« 0832-23-7271


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS


249


Chinzei Gakuin Junior College

1057, Sakaeda-cho, Isahaya-

shi, Nagasaki 854

Tel. 09572-2-2072

Pres.: Moritaka Samejima

(854) SflfmHWOTW 1057
1g 09572-2-2072


College of Dairy Agriculture

582, Nishinotsuboro, Ebetsu-
shi, Hokkaido 069-01
Tel. 012848-2541
Pres.: Mitsugu Sato


(069-01)

582

n 012848-2541

Junior College of Dairy Agri
culture

Pres.: Mitsugu Sato


D


Tel. 075-211-2311
Pres.: Etsuji Sumiya

IPflifetfc

(602) m»-hMK^
601


Doshisha Women's College

Genbu-cho, Teramachi Ni-
shiiru, Imadegawadori, Ka-
migyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 602
Tel. 07-5211-2311
Pres.: Fumio Ochi
Tel. 075-211-2311


(602) m
HA
075-211-2311


Ferris College for Women

178 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku,
Yokohama-shi 231
Tel. 045-641-0243
Pres.: Hidenobu Kuwada


178


(231)

m 045-641-0245


Doshisha University

601, Genbu-cho, Karasuma- Ferris Junior College

ru Higashiiru, Imadegawa- Pres.: Hidenobu Kuwada

dori, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto-shi

602


250


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Fukuoka Jo Gakuin Junior
College

35, Kamiosa, Fukuoka-shi

816

Tel. 092-58-1492

Pres.: Aiko Enomoto


35


m 075-441-0135

^5 m#®=

Hirosaki Gakuin Junior Col
lege

5 Sakamoto-cho, Hirosaki-
shi, Aomori-ken 036
Tel. 01722-2-8768
Pres.: Yasushi Akagi


(036)

m 01722-2-8768


(816)

m 092-58-1492

G


Gifu Saibi Gakuin Jnior Col-
Hiroshima Jogakuin

Mukaiyama, Kurachi, Seki- , 72Q Ushidamachi

shi, Gifu-ken 501-32
Tel. 05752-2^211
Pres.: Ko Katagiri

(501-32) Hrfi
m 05752-2^211


Hiroshi-


ma-shi 730

Tel. 0822-28-0386

Pres.: Hamako Hirose


H


Heian Jogakuin Junior College

Gochome-machi, Karasuma-

ru Nishiiru, Shimo Tachiuri-

dori, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto-shi

602

Tel. 075-441-9135

Pres.: Kenzo Sakai


(602)


(730)


720


Hiroshima Jogakuin Junior
College

Pres.: Takao Kuwata


¥S

Hokuriku Gakuin Junior Col
lege

11, 1, Koushi-machi, Kana-

sawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken 920-

13

Tel. 0762-42-3990/3845


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS

Pres.: Tetsuo Bansho 9, 029452-3215


251


(920-13)

n 0762-42-3990, 3845

¥&


11


Hokusei Gakuen College

828, Oyaji, Shiraishi-cho,
Sapporo-shi 061-01
Tel. 0122-89-2731/3
Pres.: Sadatoshi Shukegawa

(060) MrfJQOT^M 828
m 0122-89-2731/3


Hokusei Gakuen Woman's Ju
nior College

17-1319, Nishi, Minami Go-
jo, Sapporo-shi 060
Tel. 0122-56-7156
Pres.: Torao Tejima


(060)

n 0122-56-7156


Ibaraki Christian College

4048, Kuji-machi, Hitachi-
shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-12
Tel. 029452-3215
Pres.: B. M. Smith


4048


Ibaraki Christian Junior Col
lege

Pres.: Hiroshi Takiguchi


Izumi Junior College

2-21, Tamagawa Nakamachi,,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158
Tel. 03-701-3616, 702-9309
Pres.: Takeo Nakajima


(158)

2-21

m 701-3616, 702-9309


Japan Christian Junior College

90-3, Kobuke-cho, Chiba-shi

284

Tel. 0472-82-2428

Pres.: Harrison Davis


90-3


(284)

m 0472-82-2428


(319-12)


Joshi Sei Gakuin Junior Col
lege

3-347, Nisshin-machi, Omi-
ya-shi, Saitama-ken 330


252


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel.: 0486-43-1234
Prin.: Nobuto Oda


(330) ^TUaiifflT 3-357
n 0486-43-1234


K


Kanto Gakuin University

4834 Mutsuura-cho, Kana-
zawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 236
Tel. 045-781-2001
Pres.: Toshiharu Takano

(236) ^rU^zRK^W 4834
m 045-781-2001


Kanto Gakuin Woman's Junior
College

Pres.: Juzo Hayashi


Kagawa Nutrition College

3-422, Komagome, Toshima-
ku, Tokyo 170
Tel. 03-918-6511/8
Pres.: Aya Kagawa


3-422


(170)

m 918-6511-8

®& mm m


Kagawa Nutrition Junior Col-


lege

Pres.: Aya Kagawa


Keisen Jogakuen Junior Col
lege

1090, Funabashi-machi, Se-
tagaya-ku, Tokyo 156
Tel. 03-303-2111/5
Pres.: Jiro Shimizu


(156)

1090

m 303-2111-5


Kinjo Gakuin University

4-2, Shirakabe-cho, Higashi-
ku, Nagoya-shi 461
Tel. 052-941-6236
Pres.: Chikataro Togari


4-2


Kinjo Gakuin Junior College

Pres.: Nabuchika Watanabe


(461)

M 052-941-6236


Kobe College

65 Okadayama, Nishonomi-
ya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662
Tel. 0798-51-0955


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS

Pres.: Tetsutaro Ariga


253:


M


(662)


65


0798-51-0955


Kushiro Women's Junior Col
lege

16, Midorigaoka, Kushiro-

shi, Hokkaido 085

Tel. 0154-4-9431

Pres.: Nobukatsu Maruge


16


Matsuyama Shinonome Gakuen
Junior College

64 Kuwahara-cho, Matsu-
yama-shi, Ehime-ken 790
Tel. 0899-31-6211
Pres.: Genbe Ninomiya

(790) ^UjrU^JgBT 64
m 0899-31-6211


(085)

1g 0154-4-9431


Rwansei Gakuin University

1-2, Kamigahara, Nishino-
miya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662
Tel. 0798-51-0912/8
Pres.: Takeshiro Kodera

(662) m%lti��4-m 1-2
m 0798-51-0912-S


Meiji Gakuin University

42, Imasato-cho, Shirogane,
Minato-ku, Tokyo 108
Tel. 03-^43-8231
Pres.: Shoei Wada


(108)

m 03^43-5231


Kwassui Gakuin Junior College

13, Higashi Yamate-cho,

Nagasaki-shi 850

Tel. 0958-22-4107

Pres.: Elizabeth J. Clarke


13


Miyagi Gakuin Women's Col
lege

166 Sanban-cho, Higashi,
Sendai-shi 980
Tel. 0222-21-6211/5
Pres.: Shinji Oda

(980) fln&TpjjCHgnr 166
m 0222-21-6211-5


(850)

m 0958-22^107


Miyagi Gakuin Women's Jun
ior College


254 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

Pres.: Katsuyo Sakata % 052-721-5271


Momoyama Gakuin University

(St. Andrew's University)
1-64, 3-chome, Showa-cho,
Abeno-ku, Osaka 545
Tel. 06-621-1181
Pres.: Masami Takeuchi


(545)

3-1-64

n 06-621-1181

¥& W3IEB

N

Nagasaki Junior College of
Foreign Studies

243, Izumi-cho, Nagasaki-shi

852

Tel. 0958-44-1682, 0512

Pres.: Takeo Aoyama

(852) Sflf If HfflJ 243
m, 0958-44-1682-0512


Nagoya Gakuin University

1350 Kami Shinanomachi,
Seto-shi, Aichi-ken 480-12
Tel. 0561^1-1281
Pres.: Keitaro Fukuda

(461) £$M7UJ|CK:*:W 10-7


Obirin College

3758, Tokiwa-machi, Machi-
da-shi, Tokyo 194-02
Tel. 0427-23-6661
Pres.: Yasuzo Shimizu


(194-02)

3758

1g 0427-23-6661


Obirin Junior College

Pres.: Yasuzo Shimizu


Orio Woman's Junior College
of Economics

819, Kusunoki, Orio-machi,

Yahata-ku, Kitakyushu-shi

807

Tel. 093-69-2100

Pres.: Takashi Masuda


(807)

819

093-69-2100


Osaka Jogakuin Junior College

2-200, Shinonome-cho, Higa-


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS


255


shi-ku, Osaka 540

Tel. 06-761-4113

Pres.: Keiichi Okushima


2-200


(540)

m 06-761-4113


Osaka Christian Junior Col
lege

3-61, 1-chome, Maruyama-
dori, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545
Tel. 06-652-2091
Pres.: Elmer E. Parsons


(545)

1-3-61

m 06-652-2091

^H X;l/v— • E


— V


Poole Gakuin Junior College

5-5844, Katsuyama-dori, Iku-
no-ku, Osaka 544
Tel. 06-731-3190
Pres.: Eleanor M. Foss


(544)

5-5844

m 06-731-3190

^ft E. M. 7 ^ 7.

R

Rikkyo University

(St. Paul's University)


34-1, 3-chome, Nishi Ike-

bukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo

171

Tel. 03-983-0111

Pres.: Kiyoshi Osuga

tfc3*K

(171)

3-34-1

m 03-983-0111


Rikkyo Jogakuin Junior Col
lege

3-123, Kugayama, Sugina-
mi-ku, Tokyo 167
Tel. 03-398-5101/6
Pres.: Makoto Sako


Oj 3-123


Ryujo Woman's Junior Col
lege

2-54, Myugetsu-cho, Showa-
ku, Nagoya-shi 466
Tel. 052-841-2635
Pres.: Kiku Bando


(167)

1g 03-398-5101/6


(466)

2-54

« 052-841-2635


St. Luke's College of Nursing


256


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


10-1, Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, ' Pres.: Eiichi Funagoshi
Tokyo 104 Sit^

Tel. 03-541-5151 (814) S(53rfJHffTO" 189-3

Pres.: Hirotoshi Hashimoto fj 092-82-0031

^ *&S*-

(104) KsvSEft'&KWSfflr 10-1

— 541-5151 Seinan Gakuin Woman's Jun-

« !ior College

Pres.: Hiroshi Nakamura
Sakushin Gakuin Junior Col
lege

503, Ichinosawa-machi, Utsu-

nomiya-shi, Tochigi-ken 320 Seinan Jogakuin Junior Col-
Tel. 0286-3-8141 IeSe
Pres.: Naka Funada 491 Nakai, Kokura-ku, Kita-

I kyushu-shi 803

no Tel. 093-56-2631

wo

Pres.: Shigeru Nakajima


(320) ^H$^iU
n 0286-3-8141


Col


(803)

n 093-56-2631


491


Seikatsu Gakuen Junior

lege ^:g Ffq^ gg

77 Yajikashira, Kuriyagawa, j

Morioka-shi, Iwate-ken 020- j Seiwa Woman's College
Q-^ 1 Okadayama, Nishinomiya-

Tel. 0196-47-1123 shi> Hyogo-ken 662

Pres.: Yasuko Hosokawa Tel- 0798-51-0725

Pres.: Michiko Yamakawa


(02o-oi)

« 0196-47-1120


Seinan Gakuin University

189-3, Nishi Shinmachi, Fu-
kuoka-shi 814
Tel. 092-82-0031


(662)

n 0798-51-0724


Seiwa Woman's Junior College

Pres.: Michiko Yamakawa


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS

m 078-34-2477 • 2865


257


Shikoku Gakuin University

953 Kami Yoshidamachi, j Shokei Jogakuin Junior Col-

Zentsuji-shi, Kagawa-ken lege


765

Tel. 08776-2-2111

Pres.: Shintaro Tokunaga


(765) ��J[|i

953

m 08776-2-2111


2 Nakajima-cho, Sendai-shi

980

Tel. 0222-25-8746

Prin.: Hisayoshi Saito


(980) fili

M 0222-25-8746


Shikoku Gakuin Junior College „,

Shoin Women


Pres.: Shintaro Tokunaga


Shizuoka Eiwa Jogakuin Jun
ior College

1769 Ikeda, Shizuoka-shi 420
Tel. 0452-85-9021
Pres.: Chuzo Yamada


's University,

Hinokura, Tamon-cho, Taru-

mi-ku, Kobe 655

Tel. 078-76-0001

Pres.: Yukichi Shimohodo


3"4"47


(657)

m 078-86-1105-7


(420) mm^mm 1769
m 0452-85-9201


Shoei Junior College

6-36, Yamate-dori, Ikuta-ku,
Kobe Shi 650
Tel. 078-34-2477, 2865
Pres.: Eizaburo Yokota


(650)
6-36


Shoin Junior College

1-10, Nakanoshima-dori, Fu-
kuai-ku, Kobe 651
Tel. 078-22-5980
Pres.: Kazuo Ohta


1-10


Shukugawa Gakuin Junior Col
lege


078-22-5980


258


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


12 Kamizono-cho, Nishino-
miya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662
Tel. 0798-26-5061
Pres.: Toshizo Takagi


12


(662)

m 0798-26-5061


^M /hffl£*

Tokyo Woman's Christian Col
lege

6-1, 2-chome, Zenpukuji,
Suginami-ku, Tokyo 167
Tel. 03-399-1151
Pres.: Takenosuke Miyamoto


F 2-6-1


(167)

n 03-399-1151


Tamagawa University

11-1, 6-chome, Tamagawa Junior College Division

Gakuen, Machida-shi, Tokyo 4-3, Mure, Mitaka-shi, To-

194 kyo 181

Tel. 0427-32-9111 Tel. 0422-45-4145

Pres.: Kuniyoshi Obara Pres.: Teruko Komyo


(194)

m 0427-32-9111


6-1-1


(181)

n 0422-45-4145


Tamagawa Woman's Junior
College

Pres.: Kuniyoshi Obara


Tohoku Gakuin University

1, Minama Rokkencho, Sen-

dai-shi 980

Tel. 0222-21-3521

Pres.: Tadao Oda


4-3


Toyo Eiwa Jogakuin Junior
College

14-40, 5-chome, Roppongi,
Minato-ku, Tokyo 106
Tel. 03-583-5478
Pres.: Wataru Nagano


-14-40


(980)

« 0222-21-3521


(106)

m 583-5478


Yamanashi Eiwa Junior Col-


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS


259


lege

112 Atago-cho, Kofu-shi,
Yamanashi-ken 400
Tel. 0552-33-7890
Pres.: Motoo Yamada


(400)

n 0552-33-7890


Yashiro Gakuin College

333 Iguchigadaira, Tamon-

cho, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi

655

Tel. 078-76-3237

Pres.: Seiichiro Mitsube


(655)

333
078-76-3237


Yokohama Woman's Junior
College

4-221, Nakamura-cho, Mina-
mi-ku, Yokohama-shi 232
Tel. 045-251-3351
Pres.: Wataru Hirano


4-221


(232)

n 045-251-3351


III. HEADQUARTERS OF PROTESTANT
MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN


ABA American Baptist Association

Field Repr.: Rev. Bonnie J. McWha
Box 3, Dazaifu-cho, Fukuoka-ken

ABFMS American Baptist Foreign Mission Society

(Nihon Baptist Domei)

Field Repr.: Rev. Glenn G. Gano

3-9 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101

(03) 291-3115/9996

ABWE Association of Baptists for World Evangelism

Field Repr. : Rev. Gerald Winters
1551 Oaza Nata, Fukuoka-shi

ACC The Apostolic Christian Church of America

(Nihon Shito Kirisuto Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Mr. Willis R. Ehnle

692 Shioda, Ichimiya-cho, Higashi Yatsushiro-

gun, Yamanashi-ken 409-14 (05534) 7-1177

ACOP Apostolic Church of Pentecost of Canada

(Japan Gospel Pentecostal Church)

Field Repr.: Rev. D. G. Wallace

Unuma, Kagamihara-shi, Gifu-ken 509-01

(0583) 84-0650

AGM Amazing Grace Missions

Field Repr.: Rev. David L. Pickel (on furlough

from Aug. 69-Aug. 70)
P.O. Box 83 (mail)
5 Suehiro-cho, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 261

AG General Council of the Assemblies of God

(Nippon Assemblies of God Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Harry J. Petersen

430-1 Komagome, 3-chome, Toshima-ku, Tokyo

170 (03) 915-1551

ALC The American Lutheran Church — Japan Mission

(Nippon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Oliver Bergh

30-10 Sengoku, 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112

AWM American Wesleyan Mission in Japan

(Immanuel Sogo Dendo Dan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Barry Loss

11 Nakamura-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 174

(03) 955-5401/957-4011

BBF Baptist Bible Fellowship

(Nihon Baputesuto Baiburu Fueroshippu)
Field Repr.: Rev. Koki Sugiura
1-3-11 Matsunami, Chiba-shi 280
(0472) 51-2929

BGC Baptist General Conference, Japan Mission

(Nihon Kirisuto Baputesuto Rengo Senkyodan)
Field Repr.: Rev. Francis B. Sorley
832-1, Yoshihara, Minami-machi, Hidaka-gun,
Wakayama-ken (07382) 2134

BIC Brethren in Christ Mission

(Kirisutokyo Keitei Dan Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Mr. John Graybill

228 Nukui Minami-cho, 4-chome, Koganei-shi,

Tokyo 184 (0423) 81-9975

BIMI Baptist International Missions, Inc.


262 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

Field Repr.: Rev. Lowell David Marcum
P.O. Box 3, Akashi 673 (0798) 74-0570

BMA(IND) Bethany Missionary Association

Field Repr.: Rev. D. J. Copp
Ikoma, Nara-ken

BMMJ Baptist Mid-Missions in Japan

Field Repr.:

17-20 Kasuga-cho, Fukushima-shi, Fukushima-

ken 960 (0245) 34-8504


cc


Bible Protestant Missions

Field Repr.: Rev. Dale Oxley

1033 Shiromoto-machi, Hitoyoshi-shi,

to-ken 868 (099662) 2-2589


Kumamo-


Church of Christ

(Kirisuto no Kyokai)

Field Repr. : Mr. Billy M. Smith

c/o Ibaraki Christian College

4048 Kuji-machi, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-12

(0284) 52-2251


CCC Christian Catholic Church

(Kirisuto Kodo Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Clark B. Offner

2-21 Tsukigaoka, 2-chome, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-

shi 464 (052) 711-9654

CCI Child Care, Inc.

(Nippon Fukuin Kyodan)
Field Repr.: Mr. Paul W. Benedict
10-37 Kugenuma Kaigan, 2-chome, Fujisawa-
shi, Kanagawa-ken 251 (0466) 2-1507


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN


263


CEF Child Evangelism Fellowship of Japan, Inc.

(Nihon Jido Fukuin Dendo Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Mr. Kenneth N. Attaway

1599 Higashikubo, Kamiarai, Tokorozawa-shi,

Saitama-ken 359 (0429) 22-4076

CG Church of God, Missionary Board

(Kami no Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Mr. Arthur Eikamp

2252-66 Aza Takamaru Kuga, Nishi Tarumi-cho,

Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken 655

(078) 76-0552

CLC Christian Literature Crusade

(Christian Bunsho Dendo Dan)

Field Repr.: Mr. Robert Gerry

2-1 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101

(03) 294-0775/6

C&MA The Christian and Missionary Alliance Japan

Mission

(Nippon Araiansu Kyodan)
Chairman: Rev. Jack Davidson
Naka P.O. Box 70, Hiroshima-shi
11-20 Kako-machi, Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-
ken 733 (0822) 41-6450

CMCJ Convenant Missionary Committee of Japan

(Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Leonard M. Peterson

17-8 Nakameguro, 5-chome, Meguro-ku, Tokyo

153 (03) 712-8746

CMS Church Missionary Society

(Nippon Sei Ko Kai)
n Field Repr.: Rev. David M. Wood-Robinson


264 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

Shoin Junior College, 1-chome, Nakajima-dori,
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken 651
(078) 24-5980

Church of the Nazarene, Japan Mission

(Nippon Nazarene Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Merril Bennett

18-3 Okamoto, 2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157

(03) 700-6795

CnC Churches of Christ

(Christian Churches)

Reporter: Mr. Andrew Patton

7-8 Higashinakano, 3-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo

164 (03) 361-0533

CoG Church of God (Independent Holiness)

Field Repr.: Mr. Raymond Shelhorn
4-21, Naka Saiwai-cho, Kawasaki-shi, Kana-
gawa-ken 210 (044) 51-0641, 23-3648

CPC Cumberland Presbyterian Church

(Kambarando Choro Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Tadao Yoshizaki

4-5-15, Minami Rinkan, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa-

ken 242

(0464) 74-1371 (Office)

(0462) 74-6350 (Home)

CRJM Christian Reformed Japan Mission

(Kirisuto Kaikakuha Nihon Dendo Kai)
Field Sec'y: Rev. Henry Bruinooge
Student Christian Center, 304, 1, 2-chome, Suru-
gadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 (03) 291-2595

EFCM Japan Evangelical Free Church Mission


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN


265


(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai)

Field Repr. : Rev. Stan Conrad

1 Sakuragaoka Yatomi-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nago-

ya-shi 467

EOM Evangelical Orient Mission

(Tokyo Fukuin Senkyo Kai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Frank Kongstein

24 Kitagawa, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 318

(02932) 3088

Free Christian Mission

(Jiyu Christian Dendo Dan)

25-22, 2-chome, Tawara, Fukui-shi, Fukui-ken

910 (0776) 22-6315

Far East Apostolic Mission, Inc.

(Nippon Pentacoste Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Leonard W. Coote

Ikoma, Nara-ken 3821

Far East Broadcasting Company, Inc.

(Kyokuto Hoso)

Director: Mr. David M. Wilkinson
C.P.O. Box 1055, Tokyo (03) 291-0364

Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches in
Canada

(Nihon Fukuin Baputesuto Senkyo Dan)

9-24 Nakagawa, Honmachi, Takaoka-shi, Toya-

ma-ken 933 (0766) 23-6655

FEGC Far Eastern Gospel Crusade

(Kyokuto Fukuin Jujigun)
Field Repr.: Rev. Rollin Reasoner
111 Hakuraku, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi,


FCM


FEAM


FEBC


FEBCC


266 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

Kanagawa-ken 221 (045) 491-9016/7

FKK Fukuin Koyu Kai

(Japan Gospel Fellowship)

Field Repr.: Miss Esther S. Bower

63-1 Showa-cho, Hamadera, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu

592 (0722) 61-0019

FWBM Japan Free Will Baptist Mission

(Fukuin Baputesuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Mr. Wesley Calvery

Nishi 2-jo, 3-chome, Tsukisappu, Sapporo-shi

062 (0122) 86-8601

Home Office: Box 4, Sayama-shi, Saitama-ken

GAM German Alliance Mission

(Domei Fukuin Kirisuto Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Mr. Siegfried Stolz

22 Miyamachi, Kochino, Konan-shi, Aichi-ken

483

GCMM General Conference Mennonite Mission

(Kyushu Menonaito Kirisuto Kyodan)
Field Repr.: Rev. Peter Derksen
19 Kumi, Nakatsuru, Oita-shi, Oita-ken 870
(09752) 8-7861

GEAM German East Asia Mission

(Doitsu Toa Dendokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Guenter Dressier

17-37, 2-chome, Koishikawa, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo

112 (03) 811-2862

GFM Japan Gospel Fellowship Association

(Gospel Fellowship Mission)
(Nihon Fukuin Koyu Mission)


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 267

Field Repr.: Dr. Leslie M. Frazier

3785-3364 Shimada Kuroishi, Tempaku-cho, Sho-

\va-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 468

GMM German Midnight Mission

Field Repr.: Miss Dora Mundinger
c/o Nozomi no Mon Gakuen, 1436 Kawana-
Futtsu-machi, Kimitsu-gun, Chiba-ken 299-13
(04788) 7-2218

GYF Go- Ye Fellowship

Field Repr.: Mrs. Ferae Borgman
3384-3 Usuku-cho, Kagoshima-shi 890

HSEF High School Evangelism Fellowship, Inc.

Field Repr. : Mr. Kenneth W. Clark

Hi-B.A. Center, 22-16, Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-

ku, Tokyo 150 (03) 409-5072

IBC Interboard Committee for Christian Work in

Japan

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Committee Sec'y : Rev. Alden E. Matthews

Protestant Christian Center, 5-1 Ginza 4-chome,

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104

Interboard Field Treat*.: Mr. George M. Bragg

(03) 567-2501
PCUS (Associate Member) Presbyterian

in the United States

RCA The Reformed Church in America

UCBWM United Church of Christ
UCC-BWM The United Church of Canada
UCMS The Christian Churches (Disciples

of Christ)

UMC The United Methodist Church

UPC The United Presbyterian Church

in the United States of America


268 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

IBC Independent Bible Church

Field Repr.: Rev. Wilbur Lingle

112 Aza Obari, Oaza Takabari, Itaka-cho, Chi-

kusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 465

(052) 701-1072

IFG International Church of Foursquare Gospel

(Kokusai Fosukuea Kyodan Oizumi Fukuin

Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Walter Mussen

806 Higashi Oizumi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177

(03) 924-0520

IM International Missions

(Megumi Fukuin Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Vincent Gizzi

Nishi P.O. Box 10 Iwakuni-shi, Yamaguchi-ken

740 (0827) 8-0797

JACM Japan Advent Christian Mission

(Nippon Adobento Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Supt.: Mr. David G. Osborne

14-2 Kayashima Honmachi, Neyagawa-shi, Osa-

ka-fu 572 (0720) 21-0545

JCBM Japan Conservative Baptist Mission

(Japan Konsabatibu Baputesuto Mission)
Field Repr.: Rev. Ansel C. Mullins, Jr.
14-51 Tsutsumi, Aza Asahigaoka, Sendai 980
(0222) 33-5253

JCCG Japan Campus Crusade for Christ

Director: Rev. Sam Arai

2-1-3, Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101

(03) 292-0791


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 269

JCG Japan Church of God

(Nihon Church of God Kyodan)

Director: Rev. Edward E. Call

22 Tsuoka-cho, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama-shi

241 (045) 951-2074

JEB Japan Evangelistic Band

(Nihon Dendo Tai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Eric W. Gosden

11 of 6, Sumauradori, 6-chome, Suma-ku, Kobe-

shi 654 (078) 71-5651

JECC The Evangelical Church of Christ

(Nihon Kirisuto Sen Kyodan)

Field Repr. : Mr. Birger Stenf elt

382-11 Minemachi, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi-ken

320 (0286) 4-5884

JEF Japan Evangelistic Fellowship

Director: Rev. John H. Rhoads
Office: 1-2 Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, To
kyo 101 (03) 294-6319

Home: 13-34 Honcho, 4-chome, Kurume-machi,
Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 188 (0424) 71-1527

JEFCM Japan Evangelical Free Church Mission

(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai)
Field Repr.: Rev. Lea Little
33-2 Higashi Ono-cho, Koyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto

(Headquarters 603)

294-6 Tsuboi, Tomoyuki, Amagasaki-shi, Hyogo-

ken 661 (Home address)

JEM Japan Evangelical Mission

(Nihon Dendo Mission)

Field Director: Mr. William Friesen


270

Oaza Kujiranami 565, Kashiwazaki-shi, Niigata-
ken 945 (02572) 2-5843

JEMS Japanese Evangelical Missionary Society

Field Repr.: Rev. Akira Hatori

10-8, 3-chome, Umegaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo

154 (03) 429-2932

JFDM Japan Fellowship Deaconry Mission

Field Repr. : Deaconess Karoline Steinhoff
133-4 Aza Nishi Matsumoto, Nishi-Hirano, Mi-
kage-cho, Higashi-Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 658
(078) 85-0146

JFM Japan Faith Mission

(Kashihara Christian Center)

Director: Miss Alice Lowman

c/o Mr. Shibazaki

Horinouchi 3-13-4, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 166

JGC Jesus' Gospel Church, Inc.

(lesu Fukuin Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Yutaka Akichika

24-15, 1-chome, Hibarigaoka, Hoya-shi, Tokyo

(0424) 61-9847

JGL Japan Gospel League

Field Repr.: Mrs. Edward G. Hanson

56 Itakura-cho, Koyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi 603

JIM Japan Inland Mission

(Nippon Kaitaku Dendo Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Mr. Hugh Kennedy

3 Higashi Hon Machi, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku,

Kyoto-shi 606 (075) 791-0050


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN


271


JLC Japan Lutheran Church

(Nihon Ruteru Kyodan)

President: Rev. Kosaku Nao

c/o Tokyo Lutheran Center

2-32, 1-chome, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102

(03) 261-5266/69

JMHE Japan Mission for Hospital Evangelism

Field Repr.: Mr. Neil (C.J.) Verwey

242-3, Hanyuno, Habikino-shi, Osaka-fu 583

(0729) 55-1348

JMM Japan Mennonite Mission

(Nihon Menonaito Kyokai)
Field Chm,: Rev. Charles Shenk
1-13, 8-chome, Odori, Tottori, Kushiro, Hokkai
do 084 (0154) 51-2447
Field Sec.: Rev. Ralph Buckwalter
Nishi 7 jo, Minami 17-chome, Obihiro, Hokkai
do 080 (01552) 4-3282

JPM Japan Christian Presbyterian Mission

(Nippon Kirisuto Choro Dendokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Philip R. Foxwell

8-15, 1-chome, Hikawadai, Kurume-machi, Kita-

tama-gun, Tokyo 188 (0424) 71-2905

JREF Japan Rural Evangelism Fellowship

Field Sec.: Rev. R. G. Pontius
W-145, Tachikawa West Court, Nakagami-
machi, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 196
(0425) 41-0585

JRM Japan Rural Mission

(Nippon Chiho Dendo Dan)
Director: Rev. J. P. Visser


272 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

P.O. Box 16, Saiki-shi, Oita-ken 876
(09722) 2-2238

LB Lutheran Brethren Mission of Japan

(Ruteru Doho Kyokai)

Chairman : Rev. Morris Larsen

Minami-dori, Tsukiji 1339, Akita-shi, Akita-ken

LCA Japan Lutheran Missionaries Association of the

Lutheran Church in America

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai)

Pres.: Rev. Kenneth Dale

29-53, Mitsuzawa Shimo-cho, Kanagawa-ku,

Yokohama-shi (045) 491-3252

LEAF Lutheran Evangelical Association of Finland

Field Repr.: Rev. Paavo Savolainen
2-23-2, Kobinata, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112

LFCN Lutheran Free Church of Norway, Japan Mission

(Kinki Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Per Kivle

48 Takigatani, Shioya-cho, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi

655 (078) 77-3187

LM Liebenzeller Mission

(Liebenzeller Nihon Dendo Kai)

Field Chm.: Mr. Arthur Kunz

1933 Nakanoshima, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa-

ken 214 (044) 91-2334

LMI Life Ministries, Inc.

(Shori Sha lesu Kyodan)
Field Repr.: Rev. Kenneth P. Morey
2163 Karuizawa-machi, Nagano-ken 389-01
(02674) 2-2302/3969


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 273

MBM Mennonite Brethren Mission

(Nihon Mennonite Brethren Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Sam Krause

60 4-chome, Yamasaka-cho, Higashi Sumiyoshi-

ku, Osaka 546 (06) 692-2325

MCCS Mission Covenant Church of Sweden

(Nippon Seiyaku Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Josef Rojas

88-2 Kitase, Fukuda-cho, Kurashiki-shi, Oka-

yama-ken (0864) 55-8783

MJO Mission to Japan, Inc.

(Mission to Japan Orphanage)

Field Repr.: Mr. Willis R. Hoffman

40, 5-chome, Tokugawa-cho, Higashi-ku, Nago-

ya-shi 461 (052) 941-4694

MM Mino Mission

Supt.: Miss Elizabeth A. Whewell

Mino Mission, Tomidahama, Yokkaichi-shi, Mie-

ken 512 (0593) 96-0096

MS Missions to Seamen

(Nippon Seikokai)

Chaplain: Rev. John Berg

194, Yamashita-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 231

(045) 681-4654/5

Missionary Society of the Anglican Church of
Canada

(Nippon Seiko Kai)

Field Repr.: Rev. R. B. Mutch

Nagoya Student Center, 260 Miyahigashi-cho,

Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi (052) 781-0165


274 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

MTJ Missions to Japan, Inc.

(Kure Revival Center)

Field Repr.: Rev. Ray Pedigo

Box 8, Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken 21-8904

NAB North American Baptist General Mission in

Japan

(Zai Nippon Hokubei Baputesuto Sogo Senkyo-

dan)

Field Rcpr.: Rev. Fred G. Moore

7-1, 1-chome, Koda, Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu 563

(0727) 51-7533

NABA North American Baptist Association

Field Repr.: Rev. Z. J. Rankin
2-1405 Owada, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192
(0426) 42-4401

NAV The Navigators

(Kokusai Navigators)

Regional Director: Rev. Robert R. Boardman

(Furlough to August 1970)
Temp. Repr.: Mr. Daryl Mason
Toshima P.O. Box 121, Tokyo (Mail)
1-31, Higashi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo
170-91

NGM North German Mission

(Nihon Fukuin Lutheran Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Miss Hanna Henschel

217, Shimorenjaku, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181

(0422) 43-3914

NLL New Life League

(Shinsei Undo Kyorokukai)
Field Repr.: Dr. Fred D. Jarvis


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 275

1736 Katayama, Niiza-machi, Kita Adachi-gun,
Saitama-ken (0424) 71-1625

NLM Norwegian Lutheran Mission

(Nishi Nippon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai)
Field Repr. : Rev. Magnus Sorhus
8, 2-chome, Nakajima-dori, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi
651 (078) 22-3601

NMA The Norwegian Mission Alliance

Field Repr.: Mr. Abraham Vereide

19-20, 2-chome, Shinden-cho, Ichikawa-shi, Chiba-

ken 272

NMS Norwegian Missionary Society

Field Repr.: Leif N. Salomonsen
30 Takabane Teraguchi-machi, Nada-ku, Kobe-
shi (078) 85-2878

NTC Next Towns Crusade

Field Repr.: Rev. Archie L. Alderson
Minami leki, leki Kyoku Kunai, Mie-ken

OBSF The Oriental Bible Study Fellowship

Field Repr.: Mr. Marvin L. Fieldhouse
3704, Karuizawa-machi, Nagano-ken 389-01

OMF Overseas Missionary Fellowship

(Kokusai Fukuin Senkyodan)

Field Repr.: Mr. David E. Hayman

Kita 22, Higashi 6, Sapporo, Hokkaido 065

(0122) 71-3607

OMJ The Orebro Mission Japan

Field Repr.: Rev. Helge Jansson

254 Hiraoka-cho, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu (0722) 71-

0367


276 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

OMS The Oriental Missionary Society

(Toyo Senkyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Arthur T. Shelton

From Aug. 1970: Rev. Wesley L. Wildermuth

1477, 1-chome, Megurita, Higashi Murayama-

shi, Tokyo 189 (0423) 91-3071/2

OPC Orthodox Presbyterian Church

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikakuha Kyokai)
Chairman: Rev. R. Heber Mcllwaine
5-16, Shinhama-cho, Fukushima-shi 960
(0245) 34-0587

PCC The Presbyterian Church in Canada

(Zainichi Daikan Kirisuto Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. J. H. Mclntosh

30, 8-chome, Higashi Ikaino, Ikuno-ku, Osaka 544

PCGJ Pentecostal Church of God in Japan

(Nihon Pentakosute Kami no Kyokai Kyodan)
Field Repr.: Rev. R. A. Meenk
P.O. Box 16, Hanno-shi, Saitama-ken
(04297) 6500

PCM Philadelphia Church Mission

(Fuiraderufia Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Rev. James G. Larson

205 Osato-cho, Honmoku, Naka-ku, Yokohama-

shi 231 (045) 621-0888

PCUS Japan Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the

United States

Associate Member of the Interboard Committee
for Christian Work in Japan
(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan and Nihon Kirisuto
Kaikakuha Kyokai)


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN


277


Mission Sec.: Mr. John H. Brady, Jr.

41 Kumochi-cho, 1-chome, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi

651 (078) 23-8563

Field Repr. for IBC: Walter P. Baldwin, Nagoya

1-31 Maruya-cho 4-chome, Showa-ku, Nagaya-shi

466 (052) 841-4170

PEC Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.

(Nippon Sei Ko Kai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Kenneth E. Heim, D.D.

24-1 Minami Aoyama 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo

107 (03) 408-3435/6

RCA (IBC) Board of World Missions of the Reformed Church
in America

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Rev. Russell Norden

29-53 Mitsuzawa Shimo-cho Kanagawa-ku, Yoko-

hama-shi 221 (045) 491-3252

RF Revival Fellowship

Field Repr.: Rev. William E. Schubert
2163 Karuizawa-machi, Nagano-ken 389-01
(02674) 2-3969

RPM The Reformed Presbyterian Mission in Japan

(Nippon Kaikaku Choro Kyokai)

Chairman: Rev. James C. Pennington

R. P. Mission, P.O. Box 589, Kobe Port 651-01

(078) 41-3175 (Home)

(078) 22-8386 (Office)

RSF Japan Committee of the Philadelphia Yearly

Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends

(Kirisuto Yukai Nippon Nenkai)

Friends Center 8-19, 4-chome, Mita, Minato-ku,


278 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

Tokyo 108 (03) 451-0804

SA The Salvation Army

(Kyusei Gun)

Territorial Commander: being appointed in Sept/

69

Territorial Counsellor: Commissioner Koshi Ha-

segawa 17, 2-chome, Kanda Jimbo-cho, Chiyoda-

ku, Tokyo 101 (03) 263-7311/5

SAM Swiss Alliance Mission

Field Repr.: Mr. Paul Schar

Chigusa, Kanai-machi, Sado-gun, Niigata-ken

952-12 (025963) 2777

SAMJ Swedish Alliance Mission in Japan

(Nippon Domei Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Mr. Ake Lonander

12-139 Aza Ikeda, Yahagi-cho, Okazaki-shi, Aichi-

ken (0564) 22-7270

Southern Baptist Convention Foreign Mission
Board

(Nippon Baputesuto Senkyodan)

Chairman: Dr. Curtis Askew

Treasurer: Rev. Charles Whaley

350, 2-chome, Nishi Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo

160 (03) 351-2166

SBM Swedish Baptist Mission

(Nihon Baputesuto Domei)

Field Repr.: Mrs. Thora Thoong

93-11 Shimoikeda-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku,

Kyoto-shi 606 (075) 791-7482

SCD Scandinavian Christian Doyukai


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN


279


SDA


SEAM


SEMJ


SEOM


SFM


SSJE


(Nippon Kirisuto Doyukai)

Field Repr.: Rev. Aasulv Lande

5914-367, Yamazaki, Fukuroi-shi, Shizuoka-ken

437-13 (053801) 119

Japan Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventists

(Nippon Rengo Dendo Bukai)

President: Mr. C. B. Watts

Box 7, Hodogaya-Nishi, Yokohama-shi ; Office:

(045) 951-2421; Home: (045) 951-2224

Swiss East Asia Mission

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Dr. Werner Kohler

10 Shogoin Higashimachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (075)

771-2347

Swedish Evangelical Mission in Japan

Field Repr.: Mr. Paul Eriksson

232, 2-chome, Osawa-cho, Muroran, Hokkaido 050

(0143) 4-0634


Swedish Evangelical Orient Mission

Field Repr.: Rev. Eric Malm

30-7 Motoshiro-cho, Fujinomiya-shi,

ken 418 (05442) 6-4556


Shizuoka-


Swedish Free Mission

(Jun Fukuin Kyokai)
Field Repr.: Mr. Bo Johnson

122, 2-chome, Iwama-cho, Hodogaya-ku, Yokoha
ma-shi (045) 331-0643

Society of St. John the Evangelist

(Nippon Seikokai)

Provincial Superior: Rev. David E. Allen


280


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

St. Michael's Monastery 2569, Higashi Shimada,

Oyama-shi Tochigi-ken 323

Superior: Rt. Rev. Kenneth A. Viall

St. John's House 7-12, 2-chome, Hikawadai, Ku-

rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 188

(0424) 71-0175


TBC Tokyo Bible Center (Baptist)

(Tokyo Seisho Senta)

Field Repr.: Timothy Pietsch

9-9, 2-chome, Yakumo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152

Meguro P.O. Box 20, Tokyo (Mail

(03) 717-0746/5147

TEAM The Evangelical Alliance Mission

(Nippon Domei Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Sam Archer

15-15, 3-chome, Daizawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 155

(03) 413-2345


TEC Tokyo Evangelistic Center

(Tokyo Fukuin Senta)
Field Repr.: Dr. Charles Corwin
2-30, 6-chome, Higashi Fushimi, Hoya-shi, To
kyo (0424) 61-4620

UCBWM United Church Board for World Ministries
(IBC) (Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. Herbert J. Beecken
Interboard hostel 3-50, Osawa 6-chome, Mitaka-
shi, Tokyo 181 (0422) 45-3853

UCC-BWM Board of World Mission of the United Church
(IBC) of Canada


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN


281


(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Miss Enid M. Horning

Ryogoku, Tomisato-mura, Imba-gun, Chiba-ken

286-02 (047634) 55

UCMS Division of World Mission of the United Chris-

(IBC) tian Mission Society (Disciples of Christ)

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Miss Daisy Edgerton

6-15, Oji Honcho 1-chome, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114

(03) 900-5262 (Home)

(03) 917-2277 (School)

UMC(IBC) The Board of Mission of the Methodist Church,
Division of World Missions

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Field Repr.: Rev. William Elder

96 Katsuragi-cho, Chiba-shi 280 (0472) 22-3586

UPC Commission on Ecumenical Mission & Relations

(IBC) of the United Presbyterian Church in the United

States of America

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan)

Commission Correspondent: Dr. James M. Phil
lips

12-27, Osawa 1-chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181
(0422) 43-6194

UPCM United Pentecostal Church Missionaries

(Unaito Pentecosute Kyokai)

Superintendent: Rev. Norman Zeno

671, 5-chome, Nukui, Kita-machi, Koganei-shi,

Tokyo

USPG United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

(Nippon Seikokai)


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

Field Repr.: Rev. David M. Chamberlain

206 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi, 231

(045) 641-4405

WEC World Evangelization Crusade

(Sekai Fukuin Dendo Dan)

Field Repr.: Mr. Kenneth S. Roundhill

1-57, Maruyama, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyo-

to-shi 606 (075) 78-6524

WELS Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod

(Japan Mission)

Field Repr.: Rev. Richard A. Poetter
4022 Ishikawa-cho, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken 310
(0292) 51-5204

WFJCM Worldwide Fellowship with Jesus Christ Mission

(lesu Kirisuto ni Majiwari Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Miss Susie Thomas

4399 Noikura, Ariake-cho, Soo-gun, Kagoshima-

ken 899-74 (Ariake-cho) 33

WGM World Gospel Mission

Field Repr.: Rev. Richard Barker

20 Nakamura-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173

(03) 955-5497

WMC World Missions to Children

(Kirisuto Fukuin Kyokai)

Field Repr.: Phares Huggins

850 Tenjin-cho, Sasebo-shi, Nagasaki-ken 857-11

(09562) 2-6909

WMF Wiedenest Missionary Fellowship

Field Repr.: Mr. Samuel Pfeifer


MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 283

7 Ken-machi, Ibi-Gawa-cho, Gifu-ken 501-06
(05852) 2-0857
WO World Outreach

(Akashi Gospel Center)

Field Repr.: Mr. Kinichiro James Endo

Box 790, CPO Tokyo (03) 252-6778

WRBCMS WTal worth Road Baptist Church Missionary
Society

Field Repr.: Miss Florence E. Penny
467 Oaza Ai, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka-fu 567
(0726) 43-6979

WRPL World Revival Prayer League, Inc.

(Megumi Fukuin Kyokai)

Director: Rev. Mrs. Margaret K. Ross

5-7, 1-chome, Azumabashi, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130

(03) 622-5248

WUMS Woman's Union Missionary Society

Field Repr.: Miss Catherine Powell

221 Yamate, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 231

(045) 641-3993

WV World Vision International

Field Repr.: Rev. Joe Gooden

C.P.O. Box 405, Tokyo

Student Center, Room 303, 2-1 Surugadai, Chiyo-

da-ku, Tokyo 101 (03) 292-7604/5


IV. CHRISTIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK


Child's Evangelism Fellowship,
Inc.

(Nihon Jido Fukuin Dendo

Kyokai)

1599 Higashikubo, Kami
Arai, Tokorozawa-shi, Sai-
tama-ken 359
Tel. 0429-22-4076
Dir.: Kenneth Attaway


1599


(359)

3 0429-22-4976


Girl Scouts of Japan

(Girl Scout Nihon Renmei)
Seishonen Sogo Center, 346,
Sanya-cho, Yoyogi, Shibuya-
ku, Tokyo 151
Tel. 03-460-0701
Dir.; Kimiko Hamada


(151)


346


fg 03-460-0701

Japan Episcopal Church Hok
kaido University Center

Nishi 5-chome, Kita 15-jo,


Sapporo-shi 060
Tel. 0122-71-3554
Sec.: W. D. Eddy


(060)

m 0122-71-3554

irif W-D. *T-*


Japan Evangelical Lutheran
Church Kongo Student Center

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai
Kongo Gakusei Senta)

5-13, 6-chome, Kongo, Bun-

kyo-ku, Tokyo 113

Tel. 03-814-0766/7

Sec.: Lyle Larson


(113)

m 03-814-0766/


*SP 6-5-13


Nagoya Student Center of The
Anglican Episcopal Church

(Nippon Seikokai Nagoya Ga
kusei Senta)

260 Miyahigashi-cho, Showa-

ku, Nagoya-shi 466

Tel. 052-781-0165

Dir.: Bruce Mutch


(466)


CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK 285

052-781-0165 Dir.: Ivan Dornon


National Association of Boy
Scouts of Nippon

(Boy Scout Nippon Renmei)
7-8, 5-chome, Kachidoki,
Chuo-ku, 104
Tel. 03-842-6051
Chief Scout: Hidesaburo
Kurushima


- >f * * $ h B

(104) ^

« 03-842-6051


5-7-8


Ochanomizu Student Christian
Center

(Ochanomizu Gakusei Kiri-
sutokyo Kaikan)

2-1, Kanda Surugadai, Chi-

yoda-ku, Tokyo 101

Tel. 03-291-1512

Dir. : John C. Bonson


(101)

i?fijj£- 2-1

m 03-291-1512


Sendai Student Center of The
United Church of Christ

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan Sen
dai Gakusei Senta)

126 Tsuchitoi, Sendai-shi 980

Tel. 0222-22-0992


(980) {|Ij^?ti��|i 126

H 0222-22-0992

£|f 7 -i ^ > • K — ^ >

Student Christian Fellowship

(Gakusei Kirisutokyo Yuai
Kai)

30 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-

ku, Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-351-2432

Dir. : Yoshiyasu Kami


(160) 30

n 03-351-2432


Student Labor Seminar

(Gakusei Rodo Zeminaru)
3-20, Koraibashi, Higashi-
ku, Osaka-shi 541
Tel. 06-231-4951
Chr.: Hiroshi Miyoshi


(541)

ffi 06-231-4951

Tokyo Baptist Student Center

(Tokyo Baputesuto Gakusei
Senta)

1-18, 1-chome, Otsuka, Bun-

kyo-ku, Tokyo 112

Tel. 03-941-4868

Dir.: Moto Yokote


286


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Gen. Sec.: Namio Fuse


(112)

m 03-941-4868


Tokyo Student Center

(Tokyo Gakusei Senta)
1-1, Sadohara, Ichigaya,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-269-0609
Chr.: Yoshikazu Miura


(162) If[

&��& 1-1

fg 03-269-0609

H«.?P

Tomisaka Seminar House

17-40. 2-chome, Koishikawa,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112
Tel. 03-813-8936
Dir. ; Guenther Dressier,
Keiji Kuniyasu


(112)

2-17-40

^ 813-8936


Waseda Hoshien Christian
Student Center

1-550, Totsukamachi, Shin

juku-ku, Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-341-3687, 03-202-

6040


(160) m^fPff^K^^Bj 1-550
m 03-341-3687, 202-6040


Xara

2 Tsunofuri-cho, Nara-shi
630

Tel. 0742-22-0559
Gen. Sec.: Kunikazu Takaya
Sa YMCA

(630) SUTOMfflT 2
n 0742-22-0559

Ohmihachiman

12 Ishinchonaka, Omihachi-
man-shi, Shiga-ken 523
Tel. 07483-2-2420
Gen. Sec.: Kazuo Nishikawa
SaZAlf YMCA

(523) ££Aif$r?m^fflT4i 12
. m 07483-2-2420


Okayama

c/o Okayama Laundry, 25
Uchiyamashita, Okayama-
shi 700
Chr.: Yoshio Sarai

YMCA
(700) ^[IjrtraajT 25
> K'J -ra


CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK


287


Okinawa

173, Matsuo, Naha-shi, Oki
nawa

Gen. Sec.: Ichiro Chinen
YMCA

SBETfr&g 173


Osaka

2-12, Tosabori-dori, Nishi-

ku, Osaka-shi 550

Tel. 06-441-0892

Gen. Sec.: Tsunegoro Nara

YMCA (��&m*m, Hfgu
sun)

(550) *BgrjmK��fefflffl 2-12
n 06-441-0892

5S&


Toyonaka Branch

6-12, Sakurazuka-moto-

machi Toyonaka-shi, Osaka

560

Tel. 068-52-6130

Sec.: Kazuo Morimoto


6-12


Sapporo

Nishi 11-chome, Minami 11-

jo, Sapporo-shi 060

Tel. 0122-56-5217

Gen. Sec.: Yoshimichi Ebi-

sawa


(560)

H 068-52-6130


YMCA

(060) ttia^m 11

n 0122-56-5217


UTI


Sendai

57 Motoyanagi-cho, Sendai-
shi 980

Tel. 0222-22-7533
Gen. Sec.: Kazuya Atarashi
{|ij£ YMCA
(980) f[Ir£rtJ7n$DBr 57
m 0222-22-7533

Takehara

Honkawa-ku, Takehara-cho,
Takehara-shi 725
Chr.: Tsuyoshi Serata
ftm YMCA


(725)


[T^tt«mr*;iiK


Tokyo

7 Kanda Mitoshiro-cho, Chi-
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101
Tel. 03-293-1911
Gen. Sec.: Tatsuo Hoshino
JiCjjC YMCA


03-293-1911


Tokyo Chuo Branch

7 Kanda Mitoshiro-cho,
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101


Chi-


288


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 03-293-1911

Gen. Sec.: Koreyoshi Sato


03-293-1911


Tokyo Kotoh Branch

3-15 Ishijima, Kotoh-ku, To

kyo 135

Tel. 03-645-7171

Sec.: Sachio Konishi


3-15


(135)

m 03-645-7171


(152)

n 03-718-6277


Tokyo Meguro Center

2-8, 2-chome, Yakumo, Me-
guro-ku, Tokyo 152
Tel. 03-718-6277
Sec.: Tatsuo Honma


g 2-8-2


Tokyo Musashino Branch

10-7, 3-chome, Nishikubo,
Musashino-shi 180
Tel. 0422-51-4786
Sec.: Fusae Saito


3-10-7


(180) ^

m 0422-51-4786

£*


Tokyo Setagaya Branch

1123 Funabashi-cho, Seta-

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156

Tel. 03-303-2103

Sec.: Tsuneyoshi Tsuneto


(156) m

1123

« 03-303-2103


Origin Electric Co.

1-195, Takada Minami-cho,
Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171
Tel. 03-983-7111
Chairman: Yasutaro Goto
^>fB5 YMCA '


1-195

m 03-983-7111


Tokyo Taiwan YMCA

c/o Ma Chao Mo, 4-17, 4-
chome, lidabashi, Chiyoda-
ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-261-4286
Pres.: Ma Chao Mo
llCm-a^ YMCA

(102) mmfPTOHMfflfi
4-4-17 .^I^Sc ~fi
m 03-261-4286

£* %, 18 m

Toyama

2-1, Momoi-cho, Toyama-shi
930


288A


AOYAMA GAKUIN UNIVERSITY


— the university division of Aoyama Gakuin, a Christian institution
for all levels of education : Graduate School, University, Woman's
Junior College, Senior High School, Junior High School, Elementary
School, Kindergarten

Founded in 1874 by US Methodist Missionaries

Dr. Kinjiro Ohki: Chancellor, Aoyama Gakuin
Dr. Zengo Ohhira : President, Aoyama Gakuin University

Organization of the University
Graduate School

Courses for Master's and Doctor's Degrees :

Biblical Theology, Education, Psychology, English and American
Literature, French Language and Literature, Economics, Economic
Policy, Commerce, Private Law, Public Law, Science and Engineering.
Undergraduate School

College of Literature (day) College of Literature (night)

College of Economics (day) College of Economics (night)

College of Law (day) College of Business Administration

College of Business Administration (day) (night)

College of Science and Engineering (day)

Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Tel. (409) 8111


288 B


MEIJI GAKUIN

Chancellor: Rev. Tomio Muto


Graduate School

Course for Doctor's Degree : English Literature
Courses for Master's Degrees : English Literature, Economics,
Social Work and Sociology

Undergraduate Courses

College of Liberal Arts : English Literature and French Literature
College of Economics: Economics and Commerce
College of Social Work and Sociology : Social Work and Sociology
College of Law: Law

Senior High School

Higashi-Murayama Senior High School

Junior High School

Meiji Gakuin owes its inception to the United Presbyterian

Church in the U. S. A. and the Reformed Church in America. It

was founded in 1877, and its long history has displayed the Christian

purposes of its founders, Dr. James C. Hepburn, Dr. S. R. Brown

and Dr. G. Verbeck.


Shirokane, Tokyo


Phone: (443) 8231


288 C


The educational task of ICU is the formulation of
a person who is an integrated man of scholarly
perception and inquiry, a free man, a social man,
and a world-minded man.


College of Liberal Arts/Graduate Schools of Education & Public
Administration/ Institutes of Educational Research and Service,
Social Science Research, Asian Cultural Studies, & Christianity
and Culture

10-2, Osawa 3-chome, Mitaka-Shi, Tokyo Tel. 0422-43-3131


288 D


KWANSEI GAKUIN


FOUNDED IN 1889


GRADUATE
UNIVERSITY, UNDERGRADUATE


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL


NISHINOM1YA, JAPAN Phone 0798-51-0912


288 E


MOMOYAMA GAKUIN


Founded in 1884 by Rev. J. Dunn of the Church
Missionary Society. Affiliated with Nippon Seiko
Kai (The Protestant Episcopal Church in Japan)

Chairman of Board of Trustees :

The Most Rev. Hinsuke Michael Yashiro, D. D.

ST. ANDREW'S UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

MOMOYAMA GAKUIN HIGH SCHOOL
MOMOYAMA GAKUIN MIDDLE SCHOOL
THE INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

Address : Showa-cho, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan


288 F


Founded in 1918
President : Dr. Takenosuke Miyamoto


College of Arts and
Sciences :


Philosophy, Japanese Literature,
English and American Literature,
History, Sociology, Psychology,
Mathematics

Junior College: English, Liberal Arts

Tokyo Joshi Daigaku is a church-related college
founded upon the principles of Christianity. The
aim and mission of the College, both in its
academic and its spiritual life, are shown in its
motto QUAECUNQUE SUNT VERA (Philippians
iv: 8) and its badge, a cross-shaped SS standing
for Sacrifice and Service.

Junior College Campus:

4-3-1 Mure, Mitaka-chi, Tokyo, Japan
Telephone : 0422-45-4145

TOKYO WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN COLLEGE

(Tokyo Joshi Daigaku)

Zempukuji 2-chome, Tokyo, Japan
Telephone: 395-1211


288 G


[ TAMAGAWA GAKUEN


Founded in 1929
President: Dr. KUNIYOSHI OBARA

-

TAMAGAWA UNIVERSITY

School of Technology

Course of Mechanical Engineering for

Master's Degree
Course of Electronics for

Master's Degree
Department of Literature
Faculty of Education

Faculty of English and American Literature
Faculty of Arts
Department of Agriculture
Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Agricultural

Chemistry

Department of Technology
Faculty of Mechanical

Engineering
Faculty of Electronics
Faculty of Industrial

Administration
Woman's Junior College
Correspondence Education
Senior High School
Junior High School
Elementary School
Kindergarten

Machida City, Tokyo, Japan
Tel. (0427-32) 9111


288 H


OBIRIN GAKUEN

* University:

College of Literature

Department of English Language and Literature
Department of Chinese Language and Literature

College of Economics

* Women's Jr. College:

Division of English Language and Literature
Division of Home Economics

* Hi»h School: president , Dr Yasuzo Shimizu

* Jr. High School: D- D' (0bcrlin College' Oberlin' Ohi0' U'S'A)

Chairman of the Bd. of Trustees: Dr. Michio Kozaki

# Kindergarten : (Ex-Chairman of the United Church in Christ in Japan)

Obirin (iakuen was founded in 1916 by Mr. and Mrs. Yasuzo Shimizu


MIYAGI GAKUIN Chancellor Shinshi Oda LLD
MIYAGI GAKUIN Women's College

President: Katsuzo Sakata

Miyagi Gakuin was founded on September 18, 1886 by missionaries of
the Reformed Church in America (now United Church of Christ). The
purpose of the school: To introduce Christian ideas and to lift the
level of women's education in the Tohoku so that these two things will
work to improve the total society as well as the total individual.
Senior College: English Literature

(pioneer in English language teaching for women)
Music (long the only music school north of Tokyo)
Japanese Literature

(leader in the study of modern Japanese literature)
Home Economics (vital to the women of the Tohoku)
Junior College : Home Economics
Cultural Training
Kindergarten Teacher's Training
(chief source of teachers for Tohoku church
kindergartens)

Senior High School Junior High School Kindergarten
166, Higashi 3 ban-cho, Sendai Tel.: (21) 6211-5


2881

TOKYO UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

(Tokyo Shingaku Daigaku)

10-30, Osawa 3-Chome, Mitaka, Tokyo

Phone Musashino (0422) 45-4185

Established in 1943 by the UNITED CHURCH OF
CHRIST IN JAPAN to prepare men and women for city,
rural, and overseas ministry.

A four-year Liberal Arts College majoring in theology
witha two-year graduate theology course for B. D. ; also
courses leading to the doctor's degree, fully accredited by
the Ministry of Education.

The new Campus is located next to the ICU campus.
i

800 graduates in active service today as ministers or teachers


JAPAN CHRISTIAN JUNIOR COLLEGE

90-3 Kobuke-cho, Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken Tel. Chiba (0472) 82-2234, 2428

Department of English Department of Religion

— Junior High Teacher's — Seminary Preparation

Credential or Preparation Course and Christian Worker's

for Business Training

An Educational Institution of the Church of the Nazarene

A Balanced International Faculty

An Evangelical Christian Environment


Hearken to My Word


288 J


IZUMI JUNIOR COLLEGE


This college is the sole educational institution in Japan which is engaged
in train'ng the specialists in child welfare. If receives the inter
national support from the Christian Children's Fund in the United States.
Brsed on rich cultural background, the students are here trained in
theory and practice of nursing and upbring unhappy children.

Child Welfare Department (Women)

* 2 -year course Fully accredited by
Ministry of education

* Admissioy on recommendation is pos
sible. Foreign students are also ad
mitted.

* The college issues certificates for day-
nursery and kindergarten teachers.

* The students' dormitry is available.
Ask for further information

5-1O-17 Nakamachi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo.
Phone: 7C 1-36 16, 7O2-93O9


SEIWA WOMAN'S COLLEGE
FOR CHRISTIAN WORKERS

Senior College : Christian Education

Kindergarten Teacher Education
Junior College : Kindergarten Teacher Education

89 years of service to the Church in Japan
President : Miss Michiko Yamakawa


7_54_1 OKADAYAMA

NISHINOMIYA

CITY


288 K


JAPAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN

EVANGELISM FOR THE BLIND

-MOfJW DENDO KYOGIKAI-

Office: 4-18-11 Miyamae, Suginami-ku, Tokyo (^167)

This organization was established by the cooperation of NCC, the
United Church of Christ in Japan, etc.


Chairman

Rev. Kozo Kashiwai
V ice-Chairman

Rev. Yoshinaga Omura
Secretary

Rev. Stanley L. Manierre
Executive-Secretary

Rev. Yasushige Imakoma


JOSHI GAKUIN

Founded in 1870 by the Northern Presbyterian Church in
United States of America

Girls' Junior and Senior
HIGH SCHOOL


Chairman of Board
of Trustees :

Hikaru Watanabe
Honorary Principal : Tsuchi Yamamoto
Principal : Koiti Oosima

10-22 Ichibancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Tel: (03) 263-1711


288 L


KEISEN JOGAKUEN \

Founded by MICHI KAWAI

President: JIRO SHIMIZU 1


JUNIOR COLLEGE— English Department

*, Horticulture Department <

> Senior High School Junior High School <j

Separate Dormitories for High School and Junior College c"

i For further information, write to t5

;. 5-8-1 Funabashi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo <

S Tel. (303) 2111 <


V


FUKUOKA JO GAKUIN


JUNIOR COLLEGE— English Department

Home Economics Department

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL— Regular Course & Music Course

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

KINDERGARTEN


Chairman of the Board of Directors Katsura Yasunaga

Chancellor of Gakuin, and \

Principal, Junior-Senior High School f Miss Aiko Enomoto

Kindergarten

President of Junior College Miss Aiko Enomoto

35 Kamiosa, Fukuoka Tel. (58) 1492


288M


HIROSHIMA JOGAKUIN

Founded in 1886

Founder

Miss N. B. Gaines

Rev. Teikichi Sunamoto
President

Dr. Hamako Hirose

College : Faculty of Literature (Japanese Lit,

English & American Lit.)
Junior College : Domestic Science
Kindergarten

720 Ushita-machi, Hiroshima-City Tel. (0822) 28-0386


High Schools: Senior and Junior
11-32 Kaminobori-cho (S)
12-39 Kaminobori-cho (J)'

Tel. (0822) 28-4131


Hiroshima-City


PALMORE INSTITUTE


I/


8 Kitanagasodori 4-chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe
Tel : Kobe 078 33-2961, 2949

Bible, English, Typewriting, and Shorthand


Morse T. Saito

Chairman
Board of Trustees

Bunroku Takeda

Principal


288 N

ST. MICHAEL'S
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

5, Nakayamate-dori 3 Chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe
For boys & girls ages 5 to 1 5
Prepares for Senior High School
(TEL 23-8985)

ST. MICHAEL'S ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL

4 classes for adults . . . mornings
The Advanced Class specializes in preparing

men & women for going abroad
Founder : Bishop M. H. Yashiro, D. D.
Headmistress : Miss L. E. Lea, B. A.


YOKOHAMA KYORITSU GAKUEN

(Doremus Memorial School)

Founded in 1871 by The Woman's Union Missionary
Society of America


Girl's Junior High School
Girl's Senior High School

Principal : Mr. KATSUYO JIMBO
Address : 212 Bluff, Naka-ku, Yokohama
Telephone: (641) 3785^7


KINJO GAKUIN

Founded 1889


UNIVERSITY
JUNIOR COLLEGE
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL


President: Dr. Chikalaro Togari


HEAD OFFICE

2 Shirakabe-cho 4-chome Higashi-ku Nagoya
Tel. Nagoya (052) 941-6236


TAMAGAWA
SEIGAKUIN

JUNIOR AND SENIOR
HIGH SCHOOL

OF THE
CHURCH OF GOD

Day School for Girls


11-22, 7-chome, Okusawa

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo

Tel. 702-4141


BAIKA GAKUEN

106 6-chome, Honmachi.
Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

Kindergarten
Junior & Senior High
Institutions : School

Junior College
4-Year College

The President is Dr. Tetsu
Katagiri.

History

Established in 1878 by the Rev.
Paul Sawayama with the co-opera
tion of two Congregational
Churches as the first Christian
high school for girls in Osaka
area. Now it has 3600 students.

The llnited Church Board for
World Ministries has sent missio
naries to the school, among whom
are Miss Judith Newton and Miss
Constance Kimos. Other Missio
naries also help the school.


288 P


, .•••.^•-•^••••_«"v/'"«,»"*»»*™«,«*'*<.»«"«,»"v»*™«^«"v/""».«"v«*'v.'"v/^-«.»~


A Training Center for Christian Rural Workers
in Asia

TSURUKAWA RURAL INSTITUTE

United Church of Christ in Japan

A Christian Community consisting of 5 departments:

— Rural Seminary

- Kindergarten Teachers Training
- Agricultural Training
- Research Laboratory

- South East Asian Leaders Training
(instruction in English language)

(School Farm provides educational experience and self-help)


Write to: Tsurukawa Rural Institute
2024 Nozuta, Machida Shi
Tokyo, Japan


Phone: (0427) 35-2430
(0427) 32-8775
Cable :
SEACOURSE MACHIDA


KYORITSU BIBLE SCHOOL
FOR WOMEN


Offers training in :

Study of the Word
Teaching methods
Evangelism
Organ and choir

Woman's Union
Missionary Society

221 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku

Yokohama
Tel. 641-3993


SOEN GAKUEN (Incorporated) I

3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo S

Tel. (953) 4016, 5278

President and Chairman : Hatsue Sato l)


Soen High Nursery School

Training of Christian educators of

children (night school)
Qualification for admission : Graduate

of high school
School terms : 2 years
License issued : No. 2 ordinary license

of kindergarten teacher
Further information on request at :
3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo
Tel. (953) 4016, 5278
Soen Kindergarten

Superintendent : Namie Miyoshi

Farther information on request at :
3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo
Tel. (953) 1401


288 Q


FOUNDED by CONGREGATION DE NOTRE DAME


SAKURA NO SEIBO GAKUIN,


Schod INC.


-6 HANAZONO-CHO, FUKUSHIMA-SHI

Phone Fukushima 34- 7 1 3 7

• KINDERGARTEN phone 35-1301

• ELEMENTARY SCHOOL " 35-1301

• JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL " 34-2993

• SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL " 34-2993

• JUNIOR COLLEGE 34 -7 1 3 7


Principal and President


SISTER FRANCES KIRWAN C. N. D


960


34-7137


1 ST. MICHAEL'S SCHOOL

920, Nikaido, Kamakura-shi,
Kanagawa Pref, Japan


An Institute under The South Tokyo Diocese
of THE NIPPON SEIKOKAI

(The Episcopal Church)


HIGH SCHOOL
MIDDLE SCHOOL

Chairman of Directors :
Rt. Rev. S. K. Iwai

Principal: A. T. Aiyoshi


DOSHISHA
KORI

HIGH SCHOOL
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Principal : Kichizo Ekusima


328 Mii, Neyagawa-shi,

Osaka -fu

TEL. 0720-31-0285-9


288 R


'"•^•"•.•"•«'™«..«"«.»~«»»""«.«"«.«"»^,*"»»^""«


NIPPON ROWA GAKKO

—A Center for Children with Impaired Hearing—

Nozuta-machi, Machida-shi, Tokyo
Tel. (0427) (35) 2361

Founded in 1920, by Dr. & Mrs. A. K. Reischauer,
the parents of the former U. S. Ambassador
Reischauer, and Miss Lois F. Kramer, an EUB
missionary.

Intensive Auditory Training.

Early Education . . . from under 6 months of age

High Academic Standard . . . same level as hearing students


Rev. Michio Kozaki,
Oosima-Isao


Board Chairman,
Principal


(Founded in 1884)


JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
S. H. EVENING SCHOOL
POST GRADUATE COURSE
JUNIOR COLLEGE
EVE. ENG. CONVERSATION
SCHOOL


200 2-chome Shinonome-cho,
Higashi-ku, Osaka, (540)

JAPAN
TEL. (761) 4113~5


HEIAN JOGAKUIN

(ST. AGNES SCHOOL)

Karasumaru Nishi Iru, Shimotachiuri Dori
Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto


Principal : Kenzo Sakai

Junior College : Nome Economics,
English Literature, Kindergarten
Teachers Training and Theology

Senior High School Junior High School
Kindergarten


In 1 875 founded by Rt. Rev. Channing M.
Williams, US Protestant Episcopal Bishop
and the first Protestant missionary to
Japan, and since then in close connec
tion with the US Protestant Episcopal
Church and her organizations.


288 S


SEI KEI SHIN GAKKO

(COVENANT SEMINARY)

Established in 1952 by the Covenant Missionary Society of
Japan, now owned by the Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyodan
(Japan Covenant Christian Church), and serving several
evangelical denominations and fellowships in the training
of pastors and evangelists.


3 YEAR SEMINARY COURSE
FOR UNIVERSITY GRADUATES

(A one year pre-seminary course is also
provided for students who have not
completed university)

2 YEAR BIBLE SCHOOL COURSE


Director
Dean.


Leonard M. Peterson
Taketoshi Oyama

17-8 Nakameguro, 5-Chomc,Meguro-liu, Tokyo. 153
(Phone) 712-8746


SHOKEI JOGAKUIN

(Girls' School Founded in 1892)
SENDAI, JAPAN

Principal: Rev. Hisayoshi Saito

JUNIOR COLLEGE

Courses :
Home Economics
Kindergarten Teachers Training
English Literature

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
KINDERGARTEN

2 Nakajima-cho, Sendai, Japan
Telephone: (0222) 25-8746


KORAN JOGAKKO

(St. Hilda's School for Girls)

Junior High School
Senior High School
Special English Course

21-22 — 6 chome, Hatanodai
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan

(782) 0227


Anglican Mission School foundedby Bishop
Bickersteth in 1888. On the staff there are
always several English teachers sent by
the U. S.P.G. in England. To keep the
number small is a special feature. Whole
school attend morning and evening pray
ers in the hall.


288T


THE JAPANESE AMERICAN CONVERSATION INSTITUTE


0-


(A Division of the International Education Center)


TEACHING METHOD :
LENGTH OF STUDY:
REGISTRATION:


Oral approach method
Six months to two years
In March and September


The Japanese American Conversation Institute was established
in 1945 for the purpose of training young public servants in
spoken English as well as in democratizing their thinking and
broadening their viewpoints. Now the Institute is open to the
general public. JACI also offers Secretarial Course, Gregg
Shorthand Course, English Typing Course, Japanese Course and
Simulfaneous Interpretation Course.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE WRITE TO:

T160 21 Yotsuya 1-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Tel.: 359-9621—5)


SHOIN JOSHI GAKUIN

Shoin Junior College
Shoin High School
Shoin Middle School

Chairman Board of
Trustees & Director :

Hinsuke Yashiro
President : Kazuo Ota
Principal : Akio Yasui


Aotani-cho 3-chome, Nada-ku,

Kobe

Tel: (86) 1105—6

(22) 5980 (Junior College)


KYUSHU JOGAKUIN

Lutheran School for Girls

300 Murozono, Shimizu-machi, Kumamoto
Tel. (66) 3246, 3247, 3248

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
KINDERGARTEN

Principal : Rev. Yasuzumi Efo


288 U


YOKOHAMA SCHOOL OF THE JAPANESE
LANGUAGE


u-


Principal: Mr. Hisato Niwa


CLASSES


SMALL CLASSES ONLY
MORNING MON— FRI. 9:00—12:00

AFTERNOON MON —FRI. 1 : 30— 3 : 30
COURSES: FALL, WINTER, SPRING AND
SUMMER COURSES

NAGANUMA'S JAPANESE LANGUAGE
BOOKS

Yokohama Y. M. C. A.

Tokiwa-cho, Naka-Ku, Yokohama Tel. (681) 7061


TEXTS:


KOBE SCHOOL

OF
THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE


New Location
16-8 Maeda-cho, Ashiya-shi

Hyogo-Ken
TEL: (0797) 22-0062

Principal Rev. Y. Hyakumoto

Class or Individual Lessons

Monday- Friday

Morning, Afternoon and

Evening Lessons


POOLE

GAKUIN

(Founded in 1&79)

JUNIOR COLLEGE

(Eng. Dept.)

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

5844-5-Chome, Katsuyama-dori,
Ikuno-ku, Osaka. (544)
Tel: College 731-3190

School 741-7005-6


288V


THE BOARD OF PUBLICATIONS

THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN

publishes for churches in Japan

The Layman's Bible Commentary,
Bible Dictionaries, Theological
Books, Devotional Books, Biographic
Books, A Series for Ladies, A Series
for Youth, A Series of Biblical
Studies, and Christian Educational
Books.

KOKORO NO TOMO

No doubt in usefulness
for evangelism

Price ¥ 10 per copy
¥120 a year

SHINTO NO TOMO

Most widely read

among Christian lay people

Price ¥ 90 per copy
¥1,080 a year

KYODAN SHIMPO

—The Kyodan Times — (weekly)

For the misistry and deaconry
News, Comment, Review.


Our catalog ('70) will be sent on
request.


GINZA 4-5-1, CHUO-KU, TOKYO
TEL 561-6131


% Theological Texts
& Commentaries

# Bible Study Aids

Correspondence School

# Follow-up courses

# Bible Study

Write or call us for datails.


Tel. (0222)23-1458
Box 66 Sendai


288 X


si:nti YSIIA

Publishers and Booksellers

Layman's Bible Commentary
Luther's Works
Evangelistic Tracts
Gospel News
Daily Devotion


Our Catalog will be sent on request

Bookroom

9 a. m. — 5 p. m. Monday to Friday

9 a. m. — Noon Saturday at Shin-Ogawamachi Shinjuku-ku Tokyo
Noon — 4 p. m. Sunday

10 a. m.— 6 p. m. Monday to Friday at Lutheran Center in Tokyo

Lutheran Literature Society in Japan

16/3-chome Shin-Ogawamachi Shinjuku-ku Tokyo Tel. (O3) 269-7751


THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE CENTER

FOUNDATION

— Commission on Christian Literature of N. C. C. —

JOINT WORK CENTER ON

STOCKING

INFORMATION

PROMOTION

of all Christian Literatures

DISTRIBUTION 0|| over Japan

TRAINING Editors. Writers

Distributors, Book Sellers


1, 3-Chome, Shinogawa-Machi, Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo, Japan
Tel: (260) 6520


288Y


KIRISUTO SHIMBUN


(The Christ Weekly in Japanese)

This is only one Christian News Paper of Protestants
in Japan. Price ¥20 a copy, ¥1,000 a year, post paid.

In America $6.00 a year, post paid.
Founder : Dr. Kagawa President: T. Muto


|> The Christian Year Book in Japanese 1970 ; List of
churches, pastors, missionaries and perfect statistics of
Christian Works in Japan. Price: ¥1,850
^> New Dictionary of the Bible (one volume — in
Japanese) will be published in May, 1970. The work
of more than 100 skilled writers. (182mm x 257mm 1.450
pages, Price; ¥13,900). For the minister it is a ready
all-purpose resource work for every biblical inquiry.
For Church and Sunday-School teachers it will quicken
the study and use of the Bible. For educators and
students it is a comprehensive reference.

KIRISUTO SHIMBUNSHA

3-1, Shin-Ogawa-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162
Tel. 260-6445, Postal Transfer: Tokyo 196016


(oncordia

\J


PUBLISHING DEPT. OF JAPAN MISSION OF
THE LUTHERAN CHURCH - MISSOURI SYNOD


CONCORDIA C. S. QUARTERLY
*SEISHO MONOGATARI (leaflet), ¥35.
*SEISHO NO BENKYO (booklet), ¥50.
*KYOSHI NO TEBIKI (teacher's guide), ¥150

<FREE SAMPLES AVAILABLE>


Published by the CONCORDIA SHA

2-32, 1 chome, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo

Distributed by the SEIBUN SHA
3-16, Shin-ogawa-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo


288 Z


NIPPON SEIKOKAI

Nippon Seikokai was founded in 1859 by Rev. C. M. Williams, a
missionary of The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States.
Then churches were established in many places by the activities of
two missions, CMS and SPG, which started activities in Japan.
Nippon Seikokai was formally inaugurated in 1887 by these three
missions. The diocese system was adopted in 1968 at the 29th
General Convention and Rev. Michael Hinsuke Yashiro was elected
Primate. The structure of the National Council of Nippon Seikokai
was revised to the present form. There are 10 dioceses, 321
churches, 368 clergymen and 49,638 believes (church members).


Primate Michael Hinsuke Yashiro
Bishops of Diocese

(Hokkaido) Masanao Watanabe

(Tohoku) Masamichi Imai

(Kita Kanto) NaohikoOkubo

(Tokyo) Makoto Goto

(Yokohama) Katsuhiko Iwai

(Chubu) Shigeji Ogawawara

(Kyoto) Yuzuru Mori

(Osaka) Toshio Koike

(Kobe) Hinsuke Yashiro

(Kyushu) Toyohiko Kubobuchi

National Council of Nippon Seikokai
Executive Secretary Jo Yamada

Secretary Toshiro Ono

General Affairs: Chairman Yasuo Tazaki
Evangelism: Chairman Jo Yamada

External Relations: Chairman Makoto Goto
Finance: Chairman Takeo Iwata

Publishing: Chairman Atsushi Sasaki

1-4-21 Higashi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo
Tel. 03(400)2314


288 A'


CATHOLIC PRESS CENTER

Yotsuya 1-5, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo
Tel : 359-5427 (Furikae) Tokyo-62233

Publishes in Japanese:

THE CATHOLIC WEEKLY

1 year subscription ¥1,000

SEIKI (monthly for intellectuals)
1 year subscription ¥12,000

KATEI NO TOMO (monthly for families)

1 year subscription ¥780 (Furikae) Tokyo-101420

Holy Bible, Prayer Books, Catechism-Apologetic, Theology-
Philosophy, Moral-Meditation-Spiritual Education, Agio-
graphy-History, Sociology, Christian Literature, Juvenile
Literature, Religious Articles and Church Goods. *)

. ':


(nu&aae


PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS OF
CHRISTIAN BOOKS AND TRACTS


ENGLISH MAIL ORDER AND MAIN OFFICE:
TOKYO: 2, 1-3 Surugadai. Chiyoda-Ku. Tel. 294-0776

BRANCH STORES AND BOOKMOBILE CENTERS:
SAPPORO: Fuji Daimaru Store, 3rd Floor 26-9551
NAGOYA: Nagoya Station, Sout Arcade 581-1961
KYOTO: Teramachi-Dori, Imadegawa Sagaru 231-3967
OKAYAMA: Kinshu Kaikan, 18 Uchi-Sange 24-1859
HIROSHIMA: 8 Otemachi, 2-chorne 47-9966
KUMAMOTO: 391 Yamamuro, Shimizu-Cho 54-7256


288 Z


NIPPON SEIKOKAI

Nippon Seikokai was founded in 1859 by Rev. C. M. Williams, a
missionary of The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States.
Then churches were established in many places by the activities of
two missions, CMS and SPG, which started activities in Japan.
Nippon Seikokai was formally inaugurated in 1887 by these three
missions. The diocese system was adopted in 1968 at the 29th
General Convention and Rev. Michael Hinsuke Yashiro was elected
Primate. The structure of the National Council of Nippon Seikokai
was revised to the present form. There are 10 dioceses, 321
churches, 368 clergymen and 49,638 believes (church members).


Primate Michael Hinsuke Yashiro
Bishops of Diocese

(Hokkaido) Masanao Watanabe

(Tohoku) Masamichi Imai

(Kita Kanto) NaohikoOkubo

(Tokyo) Makoto Goto

(Yokohama) Katsuhiko Iwai

(Chubu) Shigeji Ogawawara

(Kyoto) Yuzuru Mori

(Osaka) Toshio Koike

(Kobe) Hinsuke Yashiro

(Kyushu) Toyohiko Kubobuchi

National Council of Nippon Seikokai
Executive Secretary Jo Yamada

Secretary Toshiro Ono

General Affairs: Chairman Yasuo Tazaki
Evangelism : Chairman Jo Yamada

External Relations: Chairman Makoto Goto
Finance: Chairman Takeo Iwata

Publishing: Chairman Atsushi Sasaki

1-4-21 Higashi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo
Tel. 03 (400)2314


288 A'


CATHOLIC PRESS CENTER )

Yotsuya 1-5, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo ')

Tel : 359-5427 (Furikae) Tokyo-62233 )

Publishes in Japanese: <

THE CATHOLIC WEEKLY

1 year subscription ¥1,000


SEIKI (monthly for intellectuals)
1 year subscription ¥12,000

KATEI NO TOMO (monthly for families)

1 year subscription ¥780 (Furikae) Tokyo-101420 '•

Holy Bible, Prayer Books, Catechism-Apologetic, Theology- •:

Philosophy, Moral-Meditation-Spiritual Education, Agio- \

graphy-History, Sociology, Christian Literature, Juvenile '•:

Literature, Religious Articles and Church Goods. }


PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS OF
CHRISTIAN BOOKS AND TRACTS

r|«Hi'TH«4HWH?^^

ENGLISH MAIL ORDER AND MAIN OFFICE:
TOKYO: 2, 1-3 Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku. Tel. 294-0776

BRANCH STORES AND BOOKMOBILE CENTERS:
SAPPORO: Fuji Daimaru Store. 3rd Floor 26-9551
NAGOYA: Nagoya Station. Sout Arcade 581-1961
KYOTO: Teramachi-Dori. Imadegawa Sagaru 231-3967
OKAYAMA: Kinshu Kaikan, 18 Uchi-Sange 24-1859
HIROSHIMA: 8 Otemachi, 2-chorne 47-9966
KUMAMOTO: 391 Yamamuro, Shimizu-Cho 54-7256


288 B'


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MARUZEN


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Booksellers, Subscription Agency,
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HEAD OFFICE :


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BRANCHES : TOKYO • NAGOYA • KYOTO • OSAKA • KOBE
HIMEJI • OKAYAMA • HIROSHIMA-FUKUOKA* NAGASAKI
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(•*f-6 El) ¥ 1,700

Collection Issue (^2 It!]; ¥3.300

Playboy (flTfl) ¥ 400
Popular Photography Annual (^IIUJ)

B^uSWJttf-J- ¥ 700

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L


380 Reader's Digest Chinese 'Ed. (

English Ed. (;lfl))

700 French Ed. OJ-fi])

500 German Ed. (rjTIJ)

350 Italian Ed. (JJ-flJ)

450 Spanish Ed. OMHI)

450 Road & Track (>j|lj)

600 Seventeen I JJ P] )

450 16 Magazine UJM) U ^ ,;,'!«.,« fj-

120 Surfing < F« H TU)

250 Time OH PI)

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288 C'


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288 D'


Forward/ Following christ into the world.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Moderator Rev. Duck Sung Kim Fukuoka
Vice-Moderator Rev. Wenehi Kim Nishinari
Recording Secretary Rev. Duck Sam Kiin Kumamoto
Vice-Secretary Mr. S. J. Yu Kyoto
Treasurar Nr. Kwang Soo Kim Nagoya
Vice-Treasurer Mr. Hon Pil Kim Niehiarai
Departments Chairman
Evangelism Rev. I. S. Chong Hirano
Christian Education Rev. K. C. Kim Kobe
Young People's Rev. C. H. Maeng Funabashi
Welfare Mr. C. S. Kim Kyoto

THE KOREAN CHRIST

General Affairs Office
24 Wakamiya- cho. Shir

Mission Study Rev. K. S. Cheh Mukcgawa
Examination Dr. Yoon Tai Oh Tokyo
Diecipline Rev. Duck Sung Kim Fukuoka
Committees
Christian Literature Rev. I. S. Chong Hirano
K.C.C. Mr. C.U.Kim Kyoto
Building Mr. S. J. Yu Kyoto
Scholarship Mr. C. T. Kim Chikko
Decade of Development Dr. Yoon Tai Oh Tokyo
Finance Mr. Han Pil Kim Nishiarai
Executive Secretary Rev. Y. P. Chun KvotolReffred)

IAN CHURCH IN JAPAN

Tel. 269-2909
ijuku-ku TOKYO Japan

CHRISTIAN FEDERATION

OF

CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

President: Hatsue Sato

Vice-President : Gertrud E. Kuecklich
Kyoko Hirasawa

17-11, 3 Chome, Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo Tel. (953) 5163


NAKATOMI RESTAURANT CHAIN

4- TOKYO YMCA RESTAURANT

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+ OZASHIKI NAKATOMI

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TOKYO, SHIBUYA, NEAR AOYAMA GAKUIN UNIV.
TEL. 400-6281


COVENANTER
BOOK ROOM

39, 1-chome, Nakayamate-
dori, Ikuta-ku, Kobe
Furikae: Kobe 25708
Tel. 22-8386


* BIBLES

* COMMENTARIES

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* RELIGIOUS BOOKS

* MISSIONARY BOOKS

* S. S. SUPPLIES
L_


Japan
W C T U

Nineteen district Unions with
130 local Unions

PLACE

3-360 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku,

Tokyo
TEL (361) 0934

CHIEF DIRECTORS

President :

Mrs. Ochimi Kubushiro
Vice President : Mrs. Kyo Sakata
Coresponding Secretary

Mrs. Sumi Ono
Recording Secretary

Mrs. Sumi Ono
Treasurer : Miss Tame Obata


288 F'


MENTHOLATUM / AIR- WICK JAPAN LICENSEE

THEOMIBROTMOOD.ITG

V

Vw^


CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK


289


Tel. 0764-41-6926

Gen. Sec.: Masakazu Yama-

shita

OJ YMCA

(930) g|IjrfJ$;#!HT 2-1

S 0764-41-6926


Yamanashi

32-9, 2-chome, Marunouchi,
Kofu-shi 400
Tel. 0552-22-4738
Gen. Sec.: Eiji Osawa
Ujjg YMCA

(400) EpJffTfcftOft 2-32-9
m 0552-22-4738


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Tel. 045-681-7062

Gen. Sec.: Shiro Takahashi

m& YMCA
(231) g$&m#Kmainr 1-7

m 045-681-7062


YMCA National Committee of
Japan

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Seinenkai
Domei)

2nd Kosuga Bldg., 30 Ryo-

goku, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku,

Tokyo 103

Tel. 03-861-7836/9


Gen. Sec.: Arata Ikeda
$ YMCA (B#4 V x M%


(103)

30 £gmn ;* #'f;i

S 03-861-7836-9


CITY YMCA
Fukuoka

c/o Kyushu Bible Center,
3160 Ochaya-atomachi, Ha-
kozaki, Fukuoka 812
Tel. 092-64-1888
Chr.: Baichi Kataoka
��HtPm YMCA

mm YMCA
(812)

3160

® 092-63-1888


Hikone

6 Sotobaba-cho, Hikone-shi,
Shiga-ken 522
Tel. 07492-2-1714
Sec.: Isamu Nishimura
mm YMCA

(522) m&ftftBs,®® 6
n 07492-2-17-14


Himeji,

440-2, Aza-Tegarayama, Ni-
shi Nobusue, Himeji-shi
Hyogo-ken 670


290


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 0792-22-6515

Gen. Sec.: Tadashi Kane-

matsu

YMCA

440-2

m 0792-22-6515

Hiroshima

7-11 Hacchobori, Hiroshima-
shi 730

Tel. 0822-28-2266
Gen. Sec.: Kazumitsu Aihara
£i, YMCA

(730) £ am A TIB 7-11

m 0822-28-2266
Hs��V ffiiCM

Kamakura

2-233, Yuigahama, Kama-
kura-shi, Kanagawa-ken 248
Tel. 0467-22-1346
Chr.: Akira Takada

MlH YMCA

(248) ^JlrfJftit^ 2-233
m 0467-22-1346

Kitakyushu

c/o Toyokawa Bldg., 10
Osaka-cho, Kokura-ku, Ki-
takyushu-shi 802
Tel. 093-52-3869
Gen. Sec.: Shinji Fujimoto
YMCA


(802)

S/lltOi/f*]

S 093-52-3869


10


Kobe

2-75, Naka Yamate-dori,
Ikuta-ku, Kobe-shi 650
Tel. 078-33-0123
Gen. Sec.: Shizuo Imai

YMCA

(650) ftJ5rfJ£ffl [X
2-75
1g 078-33-0123


Nishi Branch

3-5, 1-chome, Mizukasa-dori,
Nagata-ku, Kobe-shi 653
Tel. 078-69-0888
Sec.: Yoshihiro Shinohara


-3-5


(653)

M 078-69-0888

^m


Korean YMCA in Japan

2-4, Sarugaku-cho, Kanda,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101
Tel. 03-291-1511
Gen. Sec.: Oak Moon Suk

I YMCA
(101) J

2-4
03-291-1511


CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK


291


Kumamoto

3-1, 1-chome, Shinmachi,

Kumamoto-shi 860

Tel. 0963-53-6391

Gen. Sec.: Kyoji Yoshimura

YMCA

(860) J&£iU if HI 1-3-1
it 0963-53-6391


Kyoto

Yanagibaba, Sanjo, Naka-
kyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 604
Tel. 075-231-4388
Gen. Sec.: Yoshiyuki Kuroda

YMCA

(604) MtprUif jSKH»i|ii
n 075-231-4388


mm YMCA

(371) MMitJ^fflT 2-2-6
m 0272-21-8549


Kyoto Fukuchiyama

27 Aza-Kyomachi, Fukuchi-
yama-shi, Kyoto 620
Tel. 077-32-2262
Chr.: Shigemi Sato

Ig^flOj YMCA

(620) JlftiajitmCHT 27

m 077-32-2262

£g

Maebashi

2-6, 2-chome, Omotemachi,

Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken

371

Tel. 0272-21-8549

Sec.: Yasunaga Isobe


Nagasaki

7-13, Manzai-cho, Nagasaki-

shi 852

Tel. 09582-2-5987

Gen. Sec.: Noboru Arimura

YMCA

(852) MW^W 7-13
m 09582-2-5987


Nagoya

5-33, Nishi Kawabata-cho,
Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi 460
Tel. 052-331-3116
Gen. Sec.: Takeji Suzuki

YMCA

(460) rg

5-33

M 052-331-3116


1-6 YOKOHAMA
YWCA of Japan

(Nippon Kirisutokyo Joshi
Seinenkai)

8-8, 4-chome, Kudan Mina-
mi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-264-0661
Chr.: Teruko Komyo

YWCA (0*4 •;


292


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


(102) m

4-8-8

m 03-264-0661


CITY YWCA
Fukuoka

8-15, 2-chome, Maizuru,
Fukuoka-shi 810
Tel. 092-74-6485
Chr.: Hoko Uzaki
^HfPTfT YWCA

YWCA

TOjgfm 2-8-15

092-74-64


Hakodate

1-12, Shoin, Hakodate-shi

040

Tel. 0138-51-5262

Chr.: Fujiko Watanabe

mm YWCA
(040) mm^mm 1-12

m 0138-51-5262


Hiratsuka

24-32, Yaezaki-cho, Hira-

tsuka-shi, Kanaga\va-ken

254

Tel. 0463-21-1990

Chr.: Kayoko Hotari

¥-m YWCA

(245) 5p^r|jAg[^(aj 24-32
m 0463-21-1990


Hiroshima

3-10, 4-chome, Otemachi,
Hiroshima-shi 730
Tel. 0822-41-5313
Chr.: Reiko Fujikawa
J£ft YWCA

(730) KSrt^^fflJ 4-3-10
m 0822-41-5313


Kamakura Shonan

c/o Koto Nishida, 11-1,

3-chome, Inamuragasaki, Ka-

makura-shi, Kanagawa-ken

248

Tel. 0467-22-5097

Chr. : Kyoko Hashimoto

mm YWCA
(248) mg-fcmtt*® 3-11-1


0467-22-5097


Kobe

1-10, Kami Tsutsui-dori,
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 651
Tel. 078-23-6201
.Chr.: Kimiko Ohara

YWCA

(651) W^rU*^
1-10
m 078-23-6201


Kofu

c/o Yoshi Amemiya, 6-31,


CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK


293


1-chome, Shiobe-cho, Kofu-

shi 400

Tel. 0552-2-5535

Chr.: Yoshi Amemiya

YWCA
(400) TO rfJiMM 1-6-31


0552-2-5535


Kure

2-1, 1-chome, Saiwai-cho
Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken 737
Tel. 0823-21-2414
Chr.: Kiyoko Yamamoto
£\ YWCA

(737) !3TfJW 1-2-1
m 0823-21-2414


Kyoto

Muromachi-dori Idemizu-
Agaru, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto-
shi 602

Tel. 075-431-0351
Chr.: Mitsuko Urabe
YWCA

(602)


075-431-0351


Nagasaki

c/o Nagasaki Ginyamachi
Church, 4-5, Furukawa-cho,

Nagasaki-shi 850


Tel. 0958-23-0667
Chr. : Chiyoko Tsuruta
Ulf YWCA
(850) SllfrfJfiJIiiilJ' 4-5


0958-23-0667


Nagoya

21 Shinei-cho, Naka-ku,
Nagoya-shi 460
Tel. 052-961-7707
Chr.: Yoshie Yamada

YWCA

(460) ^SMTtJ^Kif^liiJ 21
m 052-961-7707


Numazu

235 Yoshidamachi, Numazu-
shi, Shizuoka-ken 410
Chr.: Mitsu Asaka

YWCA

(410) ^rU^ffilffJ 235


Okayama

Okayama Daigaku Kansha,
Tsushima, Okayama-shi 700
Chr.: Aiko Kawaguchi

YWCA

(700)


Osaka

13 Nishi Ogimachi, Kita-ku,


294


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Osaka-shi 530
Tel. 06-361-0838
Chr. : Ayako Oshita
YWCA

(530) ^rf^bKffiW; 13
m 06-361-0838


Sendai

136, Kita Yonban-cho, Sen-
dai-shi 980
Tel. 0222-22-9714
Chr.: Kaoru Mishima
MS YWCA

(980) fiiiSitJjbraW 136

M 0222-22-9714
£cH H&rf^iS

Tokyo

8-11, 1-chome, Kanda Suru-


gadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo

101

Tel. 03-293-5421

Chr.: Fumiko Sato

st YWCA


1-8-11
03-293-5421


Yokohama

225 Yamashita-cho, Naka-
ku, Yokohama-shi 231
Tel. 045-681-2903
Chr.: Shizuko Kunugi

YWCA

(231) ^^rljiliKlUTinj- 225
IS 045-681-2903


V. SOCIAL WORK


1. Central Organizations


American Friends Service
Committee

(American Friends Hoshidan)
12-7, 4-chome, Minami Aza-
bu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106
Tel. 03-473-0472
Dir.: DeWitt Barnett


X 'J il > • -7 \s > X

(106) -&&t®mKmt%lB 4-12-7
n 03-473-0472


Anglican Episcopal Church,
Hoiku Remmei

c/o Heian Jogakuin Junior

College, Shimo Tachiuri Ni-

shi Iru, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto

602

Tel. 075-441-0135

Dir.: Koji Hori


(602)


075-441-0135


Bethesda Deaconesses' Home

(Betesuda Hoshijo Haha no


Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177
Tel. 03-924-2238
Mgr. : Fumio Fukatsu


(177)

526

n 03-924-2238


Christan Children's Funds

(Kirisutokyo Jido Fukushi

Kai)

Shibuya Chiyoda Bldg., 13.
Nanpeidai, Shibuya-ku, To
kyo 150

Tel. 03-461-0497/1292
Bgr.: Seiji Giga


13


(150)


03-461-0497, 1292


Christian Federation of Child
hood Education

(Kirisutokyo Hoiku Eenmei)
17-11, 3-chome, Mejiro, To-
shima-ku, Tokyo 171
Tel. 03-953-5163


526 Oizumi Gakuen Machi, Dir.: Hatsue Sato


296


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


(171)

S 03-953-5163

m


3-17-11


(104)

f

03-561-0931


4-5-1


Haha To Gakusei No Kai

Kita 7, 1-chome, Shimouma- Japan Friends Service Com-
cho, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154 mittee


Tel. 03-421-1728

Sec.: Sei Tai, Tama Matsu-

moto


(154)

i-dfc 7

m 03-421-1728


lesu-Dan

5-3, Azuma-dori, Fukiai-ku,
Kobe-shi 651
Tel. 078-22-3627
Mgr.: Haru Kagawa


5-3


(651)

m 078-22-3627


Japan Christian Social Work
League

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Shakai
Jigyo Domei)

c/o Naigai Kyoryoku Kai,

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-

ku, Tokyo 104

Tel. 03-561-0931

Sec.: Masaharu Tadokoro


(Nihon Friends Hoshidan)
Friends Center, 8-19, 4-
chome, Mita, Minato-ku, To
kyo 108

Tel. 03-451-0804
Dir.: Yoji Ukaji


(108)


03-451-0804


Japan MTL

(Kyurai Kyokai)

2-232, Kashiwagi, Shinjuku-

ku, Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-368-8010

Mgr.: Kenichi Sugiyama
0* MTL (&$Jfffi£)

(160) m^^fffgK^^ 2-232

m 03-368-8010


Jiai-En

320, Kamimizu-cho, Kuma-
moto-shi 860
Tel. 0963-64-3509
Mgr.: Soichiro Shioya


SOCIAL WORK


297


(860)

m 0963-64-3509


320


Kirisutokyo Hoiku Kyokai

4-9, 7-chome, Minami Koiwa,
Edoga\va-ku, Tokyo 133
Tel. 03-657-2680
Chr.: Naotaka Araki

(133)

7-4-9

S 03-657-2680


Kirisutokyo Hoikusho Domei

c/o Naigai Kyoryoku Kai,
5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-
ku, Tokyo 104
Tel. 03-561-0931
Sec.: Yuzuru Imai


4-5-1


(104) Jgj^W
m 03-561-0931

3>#


Labor Traffic Welfare Center

(Kotsu Rodo Fukushi Centa)
112 Takahata, Hiraoka-cho,
Kakoga\va-shi, Hyogo-ken
675-01

Tel. 07942-2-6768/7978
Mgr.: Michio Imai


(675-01)


mm 112

M 07942-2-6768, 7978

3-#EWm

Nishi Chugoku Christian So
cial Work Association

(Nishi Chugoku Kirisutokyo
Shakai Jigyo-dan)

1438 Minami Sanjomachi,

Hiroshima-shi 733

Tel. 0822-31-6954

Mgr.: L. H. Thompson


(733) E

m 0822-31-6954
L. H. h


HW 1438


Pillar of Cloud Foundation

(Unchu-sha)

8-19, 3-chome, Kami Kita-
zawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo
156

Tel. 03-302-2855
Dir.: Haru Kagawa


(156) ^

3-8-19

m 03-302-2855

tt%% gJII^^

Salvation Army Headquarters
Social Dept.

(Nihon Kyuseigun Shakai-bu)
2-17, Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chi-
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101
Tel. 03-263-7311/3


298


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Social Sec.: Jubei Miyamoto

Bi&t&ma^


2-17

•m 03-263-7311—3

Sffi^- "g^m&ffi

United Church of Christ in
Japan. Deaconesse Kyokai


526, Oizumi Gakuenmachi
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177
Tel. 03-924-2238
Dir.: Fumio Fukatsu


(177) £ft
526

m 03-924-2238


2. Settlements


Aikei Gakuen

1-1035, Motogi-cho, Adachi-
ku, Tokyo 120
Tel. 03-886-2815
Dir.-Mgr. : Motoichi Toyama

(120)

1-1035

m 03-886-2815


Airin-Dan

15-3, 5-chome, Negishi,
Daito-ku, Tokyo 110
Tel. 03-872-4547
Dir.-Mgr.: Ryoichi Manabe


5-15-3


Airin-Kai

8-967, Kami Meguro, Megu-


ro-ku, Tokyo 153
Tel. 03-466-0263/4
Mgr. : Shigeru Sato

(153) JgjfCHSSHK-hgH 8-967
n 03-466-0263/4


&m m

Bctt Memorial Home

(Bott Hakase Kinen Homu)
2-21, Tamagawa Naka-cho,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158
Tel. 03-701-3676
Mgr.: Yoshiichi Hiramoto


(158)
2-21
m 03-701-3676

¥*«-.

Chiba Bethany Home

(Chiba Betania Home)
9-13, 2-chome, Kokufu-dai,


SOCIAL WORK


299


(272) 7frJ||fUHJff
f€ 0473-22-6055


Ichikawa-shi, Chiba-ken 272
Tel. 0473-22-6055
Mgr.: Etsuo Tomoda


2-9-13


Christian Yuai Community
Center

(Kirisutokyo Yuai Shakai
Kan)

21-18, Fujimi-cho, Nagasaki-

shi 852

Tel. 0958-44-1475

Mgr.: Takehide Hirayama

��J|fflT 21-18
0958-44-1475


Fukagawa Airin Gakuen

25-10, 2-chome, Fukagawa

Edagawa-cho, Koto-ku, To

kyo 135

Tel. 03-645-9900

Mgr.: Reiji Takahashi

(135) JgM^

2-25-10

m 03-645-9900


Hakuho-Kai Child Counselling
Office

133 Heiraku, Minami-ku,


Yokohama-shi 232
Tel. 045-251-3351/2
Dir.: Tsune Hirano


(232)

n 03-251-3351/2

¥& m


133


(433)

n 0534-36-1251


Hamamatsu Deaconesses'

Home

(Hamamatsu Deaconese Haha
no le)

3015, Mikatahara-cho, Ha-

mamatsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken

433

Tel. 0534-36-1251

Mgr.: Tamotsu Hasegawa


3015


Hiroshima Christian Social
Center

(Hiroshima Kirisutokyo Sha
kai Kan)

438, Minami Misasamachi,

Hiroshima-shi 733

Tel. 0822-31-6954

Dir.: Lawrance H. Thomp

son

(733) jESTUmHW 1438
m 0822-31-6954


V >


300


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


lesu No Tomo Rinpo-Kan

9-14, 1-chome, Ohanajaya,
Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124
Tel. 03-601-0618
Dir.-Mgr. : Shintaro Naka-
yama


(124)

1-9-14

m 03-601-0618


Ishii Kinen Aisen-En

10-8, 4-chome, Nihonbashi

Higashi, Naniwa-ku, Osaka

556

Tel. 06-632-5640

Mgr. : Masako Ohara


(556) *BSfm��5

4-10-8

Vt 06-632-5640


Kagawa Kinen Kan

5-3, Azuma-dori, Fukuai-ku,
Kobe-shi 651
Tel. 078-22-3627
Dir.: Haru Kagawa

KJIIftftffi

(651) ftprfj^K-g^il 5-3
^ 078-22-3627


Kobo Kan

11-6, 1-chome, Terajima-cho,


Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130
Tel. 03-611-1880/1866
Mgr.: Kazuko Nakamura

(130) iRmfPSffllX^AfflT

1-11-6

m 03-611-1880, 1866


(111)

® 03-822-0058


Koho Kai

7-1, 2-chome, Nihonzutsumi,
Daito-ku, Tokyo 111
Tel. 03-872-0058
Dir.: Shozo Endo


2-7-1


Kuji Social Center

(Kuji Shakai Kan)
70-1, 5-chome, Kashiwazaki,
Kuji-shi, I\vate-ken 032
Tel. 019452-4169
Mgr.: Mitsuzo Yafuku


5-70-1


(032)

m 019452-4169


Kyoai Kan

53-6, 3-chome, Sumida-ku,

Tokyo 131

Tel. 03-612^920

Mgr.: Hideo Fuse


SOCIAL WORK


301


(131) Jpi5C«HKff�� 3-53-6
m 03-612-4920
Jtflrl? "ffrStg^tt

Mead Christian Center

(Kirisutokyo Mead Shakai

Kan)

1-2, Moto Imazato, Higashi
Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532
Tel. 06-301^4920
Mgr.: Chiaki Okamoto

as

(532) ;*;

1-2

m 06-301-4920


Nagoya Christian Social Work
Center

(Nagoya Kirisutokyo Shakai
Kan)

6-17, Miyoshi-cho, Minami-

ku, Nagoya-shi 457

Tel. 052-611-7971

Mgr.: Tadao Ozaki


H-gflSj 6-17


Okayama Hakuai Kai

4-25, Miyuki-cho, Okayama-
shi 700

Tel. 0862-72-1161/2
Dir.-Ggr.: Yoshio Sarai


(457)

n 052-611-7971

/>


(700) [^[liiU^l^fflT 4-25
B 0862-72-1161/2

iWE^f


Osaka Christian Social Work
Center

(Osaka Kirisutokyo Shakai

Kan)

6-14, Minamihiraki, Nishi-
nari-ku, Osaka-shi 557
Tel. 06-562-1450
Dir.: Isamu Nishihara


6-14


(557)

m 06-562-1450

mjs m


Osaka Shinai Kan

1-15, Nishi Shijo, Nishinari-
ku, Osaka 557
Tel. 06-641-8472
Mgr.: Yutaka Haneda


1-15


Seiwa Social Work Center

(Seiwa Shakai Kan)
5-18, Igaino Naka, Ikuno-
ku, Osaka 544
Tel. 06-718-1750
Mgr.: Michiko Yamakawa


(557)

m 06-641-8472


(544)
5-18


302


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


® 06-718-1750

mm*

Setagaya Neighborhood Center

Kita 8-2, 1-chome, Shinio-

uma, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo

154

Tel. 03^421-4016

Mgr. : Kimi Nunokawa

'*- ~? v K • -b > £ -


(154)

l-.1t 8-2

n 06-421-4016


Shinkanjima Yurin Kan

6-8, Kasugade-cho, Kono-
hana-ku, Osaka-shi 554
Tel. 06-461-3713
Mgr.: Shuichi Ogawa

(554) *BgmjItraK*BtfiBr4i

6-8

fg 06-461-3713

/NII3I-

Toryo Yuaikan

1-1, Nishi Bugyo-machi,
Fushimi-ku, Kyoto-shi 612
Tel. 075-611-3307
Dir.: Haru Kagawa

(612) gctprimjiKs^fiHr 1-1

® 075-611-3307

*tt*0

Toyama Heights Neighbour


hood Center

No. 7, Toyama Heights,

Toyama-cho, Shinjuku-ku,

Tokyo 162

Tel. 03-341-7245

Mgr.: Kimi Nunokawa

J y • 3-J ^—7 K • -b >


(162)


06-341-7245


Yokosuka Christian Social
Center

(Yokosuka Kirisutokyo Sha-
kai Kan)

2-81, Taura, Yokosuka-shi,

Kanaga\va-ken 237

Tel. 0468-61-4163/4

Mgr.: Shiro Abe

(237) mm&]mm a-si

m 0468-61-4163/4

H^^g|3

Yodogawa Zenrin Kan

2-33, Honjo Naka-dori, Oyo-

do-ku, Osaka 531

Tel. 06-372-1331

Mgr.: Kanzaburo Momotani


(531)

2-33

H 06-372-1331


SOCIAL WORK 303

3. Women's and Children's Homes


Aiko-Kai

Miyadani, Koge-cho, Yazu-
gun, Tottori-ken 680-05
Tel. 08587-2-0075
Mgr.: Koichi Kamaya

(680-05) H


08587-2-0075


Ajiro Boshi-Ryo

250, Ajiro, Itsukaichi-machi,

Nishitama-gun, Tokyo 190-

01

Tel. 0425-96-0121

Mgr.: Iwao Sakamoto


(190-01)

2BiUH]WS 250
m 0425-96-0121


Akita-Fujin Home

41 Furukawa Shin-machi,
Narayama, Akita-shi 010
Tel. 01882-2-3512
Mgr.: Nobuko Takeda


41


01882-2-3512


Asahigaoka Boshi-Ryo


45, Higashi Asahigaoka,
Chiba-shi 280
Tel. 0472-22-4823
Mgr.: Fumiko Tanabe


45


Bethany Home

(Betania Home)
4-1, 5-chome, Kotobashi,
Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130
Tel. 03-631-0444
Mgr.: Sumeru Nagaune


(280)

m 0472-22-4823


(130)

m 03-631-0444


Gyokutei-En

489, Yorii-machi, Osato-gun,
Saitama-ken 369-12
Tel. 048581-203
Dir.-Mgr.: Shoji Endo


(369-12)

489

IB 048581-203

&m%


Eisei-Kan Boshi Home

Sankumi, Shimonoguchi,

Beppu-shi, Oita-ken 874


304


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Mgr.: Kotora Nag-ami


(874)


Honjo Bethany Boshi-Ryo

4-1, 5-chome, Kotobashi, Su-

mida-ku, Tokyo 130

Tel. 03-631-0444

Mgr.: Sumeru Nagaaze


Boshi No le

2-4, Aotani-cho,
Kobe-shi 657
Tel. 078-86-5375
Dir.: Kazuo Jo


Nada-ku,


(657)

m 078-86-5375

m -


2-4


(130)

It 03-631-0444


Ikoi Boshi-Ryo

2-83, Taura, Yokosuka-shi,

Kanagawa-ken 237

Tel. 0468-61-3011

Mgr.: Kanesaburo Shinkai


Kobe Fujin Dojo Kai Daini
fa 5-4-1 Boshi No le

28 Konakajima, Amagasaki-
shi, Hyogo-ken 661
Tel. 06-491-2543
Dir.-Mgr.: Kazuo Jo


(661)

m 06-491-2543


(237) mm%.fimm 2-83

m 0468-61-3011

%\mm=.m


Kamimeguro Boshi-Ryo

8-967, Kami Meguro, Megu-
ro-ku, Tokyo 153
Tel. 03-466-0864
Mgr.: Saburo Sekine


8-967


28


Kori Boshi-Ryo

Miyatani, Kogemachi, Yazu
gun, Tottori-ken 680-04
Tel. 085884-2-0075
Mgr.: Koichi Kamatani


(153)

m 03-466-0864

mm=^


Kobe Fujin Dojo Kai Daiichi


(680-04)


m 085884-2-0075

HS^-

Maebashi Boshi-Ryo

8-24, 2-chome, Iwagami-ma-
chi, Maebashi-shi, Gunma-
ken 371


SOCIAL WORK


305


Tel. 0727-31-9452
Dir.: Kiyomoto Suda

(371) itJfiTf

m 0727-31-9452


2-8-24


Naomi Home

2-44, Tamagawa Todoroki-

machi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo

158

Tel. 03-701-3481/9813

Mgr.: Fumiko Takizawa


(158)
EEJII^;W 2-44
m 701-3481 • 9813

ffiHtt

Shin-Ai Hoiku-En Boshi No le
Kibo-Ryo

Saiin-cho, Maruta-cho Hi-


gure Nishi Iru, Agaru, Ka-
mikyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 602
Tel. 075-841-5761
Dir.-Mgr.: Michiko Okabe


(602)


075-841-5761


Shin-Ai Home

676 Moro Kongo, Moroya-

mamachi, Iruma-gun, Sai-

tama-ken 350-04

Tel. 049294-0440

Dir.-Mgr. : Kuroto Naka-

mura

ffi g fc — A

(350-04) S&B
^g*«5 676
^ 04924-0440


4. Homes for the Rehabilitation of Women


Izumi-Ryo

521 Oizumi
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177
Tel. 03-924-2002
Mgr.: Fumio Fukatsu


(177)

521

m 03-924-2002


Jiai-Ryo

Gakuenmachi, 3-360, Hyakunin-cho, Shin-
juku-ku, Tokyo 160
Tel. 03-368-0553
Mgr.: Minoru Ohno

(160) !jtMfP$T?i
m 03-368-0553


306


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Kanita Fujin No Mura

594 Oga Tateyama-shi, Chi-

ba-ken 294

Tel. 04702-2-2280

Mgr.: Fumio Fukatsu


(294) tmjrffAff 594
m 04702-2-2280

n


Kobe Fujin-Ryo

3-26, 3-chome, Tenjin-cho,
Suma-ku, Kobe-shi 654
Tel. 078-71-3666
Mgr.: Haruo Nishibuchi


(654)

3-3-26

m 078-71-3666


Nozomi No Mon Gakuen

1439, Kawana, Futtsu-machi,

Kimitsu-gun, Chiba-ken 299-

13

Tel. 04788-7-2218

Mgr.: Dora Mundinger


(299-13) ^nm

1439
04788-7-2218
K-5-


Osaka Fujin Home

1-13, Toyosaki Nishi-dori,
Oyodo-ku, Osaka-shi 531
Tel. 06-371-7661
Mgr.: Koharu Kuwashima


(531) A

1-13

m 06-371-7661


Salvation Army, Fujin-Ryo

41-25, 1-chome, Wada, Sugi-
nami-ku, Tokyo 166
Tel. 03-381-0992
Mgr.: Kazuo Nagura


1-41-25


(166)

m 03-381-OJ92

m^-


Salvation Army, Tokyo Shin-
sei-Ryo

11-13, 4-chome, Shibazaki-

cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo

190

Tel. 0425-22-2306

Mgr.: Teppei Matsuda

(190) AllllTU^l&tlHT 4-11-13
m 0425-22-2306


5. Medical Institutions for Tuberculosis


Hakujuji-Kai Murayama Sana
torium


2-145, Suwa-machi, Higashi
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189


SOCIAL WORK


307


Tel. 0423-91-6111
Mgr.: Minoru Nomura

tt \lli- h'J ^A

(189) mfcrujOTtfiBj 2-145

m 0423-91-6111

mtt n

Haruna-So Hospital

765-1, Kami Murota, Haru-
na-machi, Gunma-gun, Gun-
ma-ken 370-33
Tel. 0273-74-119/255
Mgr.: Wataru Muramatsu

(370-33) Mmgpf«£fflj

��gffl 765-1

m 027374 (gffl) -119; 255

tt& m

Haruna-So Takasaki Hospital

59, Shinden-machi, Taka-
saki-shi, Gunma-ken 370
Tel. 0273-23-5032
Mgr.: Shinju Masaki

(370) ^ft�� -rUfffflffll 59
« 0273-23-5032


Kashima Hakujuji Hospital

5651 Okunotani, Kamisu-
mura, Kashima-gun, Iba-
ragi-ken 314-02
Tel. Ogihara 3-69
.Mgr.: Masao Nakano


(314-02)
H^;£ 5651
« l^m 36-9


Ohmi Airin-En Imazu Hospital

87, Minami Shinpo, Imazu-
machi, Takashima-gun, Shi-
ga-ken 520-16
Tel. 07402-2-2238
Dir.-Mgr.: Toyoji Sugihashi


87

07402-2-2238


Ohmi Sanatorium

492, Kitanosho-cho, Ohmi

HHachiman-shi, Shiga-ken

523

Tel. 07483-3-3181

Mgr.: Masao Yao


492


Salvation Army, Seishin Ryo-
yo-En

17-9, 1-chome, Takeoka, Ki-
yose-machi, Kitatama-gun,
Tokyo 180-04
Tel. 0424-91-1411/3
Mgr.: Yoshio Shimada


(523)

B 07483-3-3181


308


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


(180-04)
ft\l 1-17-9
m 0424-91-1411—3
HifflH^c

Salvation Army, Suginami
Ryoyojo

21-35, 2-chome, Wada, Sugi-
nami-ku, Tokyo 166
Tel. 03-381-7236/8, 9300
Mgr. : Taro Nagasaki

(166) IflMtl^^Kfclffl 2-21-35
m 03-381-7236—8, 9300


Shinai Hospital

5-9, 2-chome, Umezono, Ki-
yose-machi, Kitatama-gun,


Tokyo 180-04

Tel. 0424-91-3211

Mgr.: Yukimasa Ichikawa


(180-04)

fSH 2-5-9

n 0424-91-3211


Shinsei Ryoyojo

Obusemachi, Kami Takai-

gun, Nagano-ken 381-02

Tel. 026247-33

Mgr. : Katanaka Mutsugu-

ruma


33


(381-02)


6. Homes for the Elderly


Ai No Izumi Rojin Home

15-57, 2-chome, Tsuchide,
Kazo-shi, Saitama-ken 347
Tel. 0480-6-1008
Mgr. : Kiyoshi Takenouchi


(347) JpJlTf?��^ 2-15-57
m 0480-6-1008
ftS^ ¥& h ^ K • ^ .
^ 'J .y b


Aiyu-En


4642, Higashihara-cho, Mi-
to-shi, Ibaragi-ken 310
Tel. 0292-21-6157
Mgr.: Shin Yamaguchi

(310) 7j<pTUi|CJIBT 4642
m 0292-21-6157


Akashi Airo-En

513, Nagasaka-dera, Uo-
zumi-cho, Akashi-shi, Hyo-
go-ken 674


SOCIAL WORK


309


Tel. 078-6-2252

Mgr.: Fumiichiro Yada

(674) rerU&ffiBIftig^ 513
m 078-6-2252


Alice Kan

643 Maruo, Myotani-cho,
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 655
Dir.: Hinsuke Yashiro


7


Hakujuji Home

2-145, Suwa-cho, Higashi
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189
Tel. 0423-92-1375/6
Mgr.: Minoru Nomura


2-145


(189)

m 0423-92-1375-6


(655)

643


Bethany Home

525 Nishi Koiso, Oiso-
machi, Naka-gun, Kana-
gawa-ken 255
Tel. 0463-6-0174
Mgr.: Shigeru Chiba

•^s $t ."!". *^7 • jfc i— £^

/ O £ rC \ -jrrh -f^ f [ t r ^J r-4-t 5H/ -Jr*7^^ fftT

®/JN^ 525

m 0463-6-0174

=^m us

Hakuju-So

8-967, Kami Meguro, Me-
guro-ku, Tokyo 153
Tel. 03-466-0265
Dir.-Mgr. : Shigeru Sato


Haruna Shunko-En

756-1, Kami Murota, Haru-

na-machi, Gunma-ken 370-

33

Tel. 0273-74-119

Dir.: Masao Hara

(370-33) ��¥Hm
m 0273-74-119

m


(153)

« 03-466-0265


Jiai-En Rojin Home

320, Kamimizu-cho, Kuma-

moto-shi 862

Tel. 0963-64-2648

Mgr. : Shunzo Sugimura


320


Kamakura Seiyo-Kan

543 Gokuraku-ji, Kama-
kura-shi, Kanagawa-ken 248


(862)

m 0963-64-2648


310


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 0467-2-3245
Dir.-Mgr.: Mikizo Matsuo


543


(248) m

m 0467-2-3245

Keiai-Ryo Yogo Rojin Home

1551 Fukuda, Yamato-shi,
Kanagawa-ken 242
Tel. 0462-61-1038
Mgr.: Kotaro Miyakoda


175

0720-76-1181


(242) •Xfa-fcmm 1551
m 0462-61-1038


Kokuko Home

3-848, Kami Takaido, Sugi-
nami-ku, Tokyo 167
Tel. 03-391-0165/9152
Mgr.: Takeo Serizawa


Maebashi Rojin Home

12-8, 2-chome, Hiyoshi-cho,
Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken
371

Tel. 0272-31-3430
Dir.-Mgr.: Kumazo Tanabe
Sff^^A*~A
(371) Itf^T^S^
m 0272-31-3430

Miss Upton Memorial Home

335, Odadani, Moroyama
cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama-
ken 350-04
Mgr. : Naohiko Okubo


2-12-8.


(350-04)


(167)
3-848
m 03-391-0165, 9152


Lutheran Home

175 Okayama, Shijo Nawa-

te-machi, Kita Kawachi-gun.

Osaka 575

Tel. 0720-76-1181

Mgr.: Ryo Izumi

3 5 "C Z> # - A

(575)


335


Nagano Keiro-In

2-14, Yoshino-machi, Kawa
chi Nagano-shi, Osaka 586
Tel. 07-215-3960
Mgr.: Azusa Shinan


2-14


Urizura-


(586)

m 07-215-3960

mm &


Nazare-En

361 Nakazato,


SOCIAL WORK


311


machi, Naka-gun, Ibaragi-

ken 319-21

Tel. 029296-77

Mgr. : Yukichi Kotoku


n 029296-77

/h®f��lt

Rojin Home Keisen-En

765-1, Kami Murota, Haru-
na-machi, Gunma-gun, Gun-
ma-ken 370-33
Tel. 027374-119
Dr.-Mgr.: Masao Kara


80


(370-33) ffi%
_h^ffl 765-1
m 027374-119


St. Hilda Yoro-In

3-8, Miyoshi-cho, Fuchu-
shi, Tokyo 183
Tel. 0423-61-4461
Mgr.: Mitsuko Sakano


t ^

(183)

m 0423-61-4461


3-8


Sakura-So

1537, Oritachi, Kengun-cho,
Kumamoto-shi 862
Tel. 0963-68-2446


Mgr.: Soichiro Shiotani

1537


(862)

m 0963-68-2446

*£E^ $��£$—115

Seiai Home

2356, Miyaji, Tsuyazaki-cho,

Munakata-gun, Fukuoka-ken

811-33

Tel. 09405-36

Mgr.: Tokuichi Nishiji


i3 2356
09405-36


Seifu-En

1412, Kanai-cho, Machida-
shi, Tokyo 194-01
Tel. 0427-32-8000
Mgr.: Noboru Niwa


1412


(194-01)

m 0427-32-8000

nm &


Seimei-En

722, Kurosawa, Ohme-shi,
Tokyo 198

Tel. 0428-7-5201/5376
Mgr.: Akio Honma


(198) MftmK 722
m 0428-7-5201, 5376


312


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


(020)

m 0196-22-3947


Seiwa-So

3-14, 4-chome, Kagano, Mo-
rioka-shi, Iwate-ken 020
Tel. 0196-22-3947
Mgr.: Kiyoko Ohara


4-3-14


Shijimi Aishin Home

Misaka, Shijimi-cho, Miki-
shi, Hyogo-ken 673-05
Tel. 07948-7-3608
Dr.-Mgr.: K. Okajima


(673-05)


Tel. 023537-0065
Dir.-Mgr. : Tozo Sato


(997-12)

mWfc^fc^. 444
m 023537-0065


Shofu Home

3-848, Kami Takaido, Sugi-
nami-ku, Tokyo 167
Tel. 03-391-0165/9152
Mgr.: Takeo Serizawa


(167)

3-848

m 03-391-0165, 9152


07948-7-3608


! J"


Shinai-So

2-687, Nagafuchi, Ohme-shi,

Tokyo 198

Tel. 0428-2-2283

Mgr.: Giichi Chiba

(198) ^m^&m 2-687
m 0428-2-2283

=f-mm—

Shion-En Rojin Home

444 Hamaizumi, Yunohama,
Tsuruoka-shi, Yamagata-ken
997-12


Tokubetsu Yogo Rojin Home

Juji No Sono, 7220-11, Naka-
gawa, Hosoemachi, Inasa-
gun, Shizuoka-ken 431-13
Tel. 05352-36-1251/4
Dir.-Mgr.: Seiji Suzuki


4iJ|| 7220-11

m 05352-36-1251-4


Tokyo Rojin Home

1-3, 4-chome, Yanagisawa,
Hoya-shi, Tokyo 188
Tel. 0424-61-2230
Mgr.: Chima Matsunaga


SOCIAL WORK


313


(188) &'&-fiWH 4-1-3
n 0424-61-2230


Yokufu-En

3-848, Kami Takaido, Sugi-

nami-ku, Tokyo 167

Tel. 03-391-0165/9152, 398-

6170

Dir.: Takeo Serizawa


(167)
3-848


n 03-391-0165, 9152;
398-6170


Yuai Home

188, Kinuta-machi, Seta-

gaya-ku, Tokyo 157

Tel. 03-416-1745

Mgr. : Yoshio Nakagawa


188


(157)

m 03-416-1745

fWI[&8t


V. HOSPITALS

Airinkai Hospital

967 Kamimeguro 8-chome, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (153)

03-466-0262, 0264

Director: Tsunesaburo Nakasawa
Aisenbashi Hospital

1-14 Nipponbashi Higashi 5-chome, Naniwa-ku, Osaka-

shi (556) 06-633-2801

Director: Dr. Tameo Nishikawa
Booth Memorial Hospital

21-35 Wada 2-chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo (166)

03-381-7236-8

Director: Dr. Taro Nagasaki
Futaba Hospital

4-1598 Kamiarai, Tokorozawa-shi, Saitama-ken (359)

0429-22-7725

Director: Kimitoyo Yamashita
Hakuaisha Clinic

65 Motoimasato Kitadori 2-chome, Higashi-Yodogawa-ku,

Osaka-shi (532) 06-301-5428

Director: Dr. Hashimoto
Hakujuji Clinic

5-2 Fujimi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (102)

03-261-6491

Director: Dr. Minoru Nomura
Hakujuji Sanatorium

145 Suwa-machi, 2-chome, Higashimurayama-shi, Tokyo

(189) 0423-91-6111

Director: Dr. Minoru Nomura
Harajuku Medical Office Tokyo Sanitarium Hospital

11-5 Jingumae 1-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (150)

03-401-1282
Marunaso Hospital


HOSPITALS 315

765 Kamimurota, Haruna-machi, Gunma-gun, Gunma-ken

(370-33) Murota 119
Harunaso Takasaki Hospital

59 Shinden-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma-ken (370)

02731-23-5032

Director: Dr. Araki Masaki
Japan Baptist Hospital

47 Kitashirakawa Yamanomoto-machi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto

(606) 075-781-5191

Director: Dr. C.F. Clark
Jyofuen Hospital

19-9 Egota 4-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo (165)

Director: Dr. Toru Sakakibara
Kashima Hakujuji Hospital

Okunotani, Kamisu-mura, Kashima-gun, Ibaragi-ken (314)

Hagihara 369

Director: Dr. Masao Nakano
Kinugasa Christian Hospital

23-1 Koyabe 2-chome, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken (238)'

0468-51-1182

Director: Dr. Takayoshi Takeda
Kirisuto-kyo Clinic

c/o Tokyo YMCA, 7 Mitoshiro-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo>

(101) 03-294-0808

Director: Dr. Takejiro Horiguchi
Kiyosato St. Luke's Clinic

KEEP Kiyosato, Takane-machi, Kitakoma-gun, Yama-

nashi-ken (407-03) Kiyosato 112

Director: Dr. Kikue Uematsu
Kodokai Hospital

77 Ohimasato Honcho 5-chome, Higashinari-ku, Osaka-sM

(537) 06-976-3081

Director: Dr. Tadashi Kitazono
Kohakai Adachi Hospital

1028 Kaga Saranumacho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo (121)


316 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

03-899-3681
Kohokai Hospital

7-1 Nihonzutsumi 2-chome, Daito-ku, Tokyo (111)

03-872-0058

Director: Dr. Junichi Nagane
Kujukuri Home Hospital

21 likura, Youkaichib-ashi, Chiba-ken (289-21)

04797-2-1131

Director: Dr. Takeshi Otani
Mead Shakaikan Clinic

50 Motoimasato Minamidori 1-chome, Higashi-Yodogawa-

ku, Osaka-shi (532) 06-301-4920

Director: Dr. Hideko Miyata
Musashino Kirisutokyo Clinic

10-7 Kichijoji Kitamachi 3-chome, Musashino-shi, Tokyo

(180) 0422-51-8708

Director: Dr. Kiyoshi Kanno
Nagano Shinsei Clinic

6 Nishinagano, Nagano-shi, Nagano-ken (380)

02622-3-2652

Director: Dr. Masaya Amari
Nakano Kumiai Hospital

50-16 Chuo 4-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo (164)

03-382-1231-6

Director: Dr. Seiji Aoki
Numazu Midori-cho Hospital

898-1 Honji shita 1-chome, Numazu-shi, Shizuoka-ken

(410) 0559-62-0392

Director: Dr. Kimiyo Toyoura
Ohmi Airinen Imazu Hospital

87 Minami-niiho, Imazumachi, Takashima-gun, Shiga-ken

(520-16) 07402-2-2238

Director: Dr. Toyotsugu Sugihashi
Ohmi Sanatorium

492 Kitanosho Ohmihachiman-shi, Shiga-ken (523)


HOSPITALS 31f

07483-3-3181

Director: Dr. Masao Yao
Okayama Hakuaikai Hospital

1-9-37 Monden-yashiki, Okayama-shi (700)

0862-72-1108

Director: Dr. Shikashi Katayama
Okayama Hakuaikai Hospital Branch

4-25 Miyuki-cho, Okayama-shi (700) 0862-72-1161

Director Dr. Michio Nomura
Omiya Chuo Hospital

227 Higashinari-machi 1-chome, Omiya-shi, Saitama-ken

(330) 0486-42-2501-5
Osaka Gyomeikan Hospital

4-7 Naka Kasugaide-machi, Konohana-ku, Osaka-shi (554),

06-462-0261

Director: Dr. Yoshiaki Nakanishi
Osaka Kirisutokyo Shakaikan Clinic

6-14 Minamihiraki, Nishinari-ku, Osaka-shi (557)

06-651-7959

Director: Dr. Jun Ozaki
Otakebashi Hospital

53 Senju Sakuragi-cho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo (120)

03-881-9211

Director: Dr. Matsuki Tsukamoto
Palmore Hospital

4-20 Kita-nagasa-dori, Ikuta-ku, Kobe-shi (650)

078-33-5056

Director: Dr. Ren Miyake
St. Barnabas Hospital

66 Saikudani-cho, Tennoji-ku, Osaka-shi (543)

06-771-9236-9

Director: Dr. Hirozo Yamamura
St. James (Sei Yakobu Clinic)

14-35 Nishikameari 2-chome, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo (124>

Director: Dr. Mie Yamaguchi


:318 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

St. Luke's International Hospital

10-1 Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (104) 03-541-5151

Director: Dr. Hirotoshi Hashimoto
St. Paul's Hospital

1710 Kohiki-machi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo (192)

0426-23-3275

Director: Dr. Kazuo Komatsu
Sanikukai Hospital

20-2 Ohira 3-chome, Sumida-ku, Tokyo (130)

03-622-9191-4

Director: Dr. Shoichi Kinoshita
Sanikukai Tokai Hospital

Ikeshinden, Hamaoka-machi, Ogasa-gun, Shizuoka-ken

(437-16) Hamaoka 130

Director: Dr. Kunio Nakajima
Sanikukai Toyono Hospital

Toyono, Toyono-machi, Kamiminachi-gun, Nagano-ken

(389-11) Toyono 64

Director: Dr. Nasao Otake
Seirei Hamamatsu Hospital

119 Sumiyoshi-cho, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken (430)

0534-71-3131

Director: Dr. Kosaku Nakayama
.Seirei Hospital

3453 Mikatahara-machi, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken

(433) 0534-36-1251

Director: Dr. Kazuo Sekiguchi
;Seishin Sanatorium

17-9 Takeoka 1-chome, Kiyose-machi, Kitatama-gun, To
kyo (180-04) 0424-91-1411

Director: Yoshio Shimada
.Shinai Hospital

5-9 Umezono 2-chome, Kiyose-machi, Kitatama-gun, To
kyo (180-04) 0424-91-3211

Director: Dr. Yukimasa Ichikawa


HOSPITALS 319

Shinsei Sanatorium

Obuse-machi, Kamitakai-gun, Nagano-ken (381-02)

Obuse 33

Director: Dr. Masanaka Mukuruma
Shiroganeyama Hospital

6073 Otoshima, Tamashima, Kurashiki-shi (713)

0864-2-4148

Director: Dr. Tadasuke Kageyama
Teine Luke Hospital

173 Kanayama, Teine, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido (061-24)

Director: Dr. Takashi Kamiizumi
Tokyo Sanitarium Hospital

17-3 Amanuma 3-chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo (167)

03-392-6151

Director: Dr. C.D. Johnson
Waseda Clinic

51 Totsuka-cho 2-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (160)

03-341-3330

Director: Dr. Masatada Tanabe
Yodogawa Christian Hospital

57 Awaji-Honcho 1-chome, Higashi-Yodogawa-ku, Osaka-

shi (532) 06-322-2250-4

Director: Dr. F.A. Brown


VI. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROTESTANT
CHURCHES

Assembly of God

Opposite Gate 6 Yokota Air Base

Tel. (0425) 51-0966

Pastor: Rev. Paul F. Klahr
Atonement Evangelical Lutheran Church

1134 Minamisaga, Kurume-machi, Kitatama-gun, Tokyo

(188). Tel. (0424) 71-1855

Pastor: Norbert R. Meier
Azabu Overseas Chinese Church

8-12 Moto- Azabu 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (106)

Tel. (03) 473-0136
Calvary Baptist Church

Near Gate 7 of Tachikawa Air Force Base

Tel. (0425) 41-5842

Pastor: Frank L. Tetro Jr.
Chofu Baptist Church

1919, 3 Kami Ishihara. Chofu-shi, Tokyo (183)

Tel. (0422) 43-4724

Pastor: Rev. Kenneth Brabb
Far East Church of the Nazarene

Tama Shunkoen, 280 Kunitachi, Kunitachi-shi, Tokyo

(186). Tel. (0425) 35-8949

Pastor: Merrill Bennett
German Speaking Evangelical Church

5-26 Kita Shinagawa 6-chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo. 141.

Tel. (03) 441-0673

Pastor: Rev. Wenzel Graf von Stosch
Grace Gospel Church

5-7 Azumabashi 1-chome, Sumida-ku, Tokyo (130)

Tel. (03) 622-5248


FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROTESTANT CHURCHES 321

International Baptist Church

60 Nakaodai, Naka-ku, Yokohama (232)

Tel. (045) 621-6431

Pastor: Rev. R. C. Bruce
International Christian University Church

10-2 Osawa 3-chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo (181)

Tel. (0422) 43-3131
Kanto Plains Baptist Church

1181 Aza Musashino, Kawasaki, Hamura-machi, Nishi-

tama-gun, Tokyo (190-11). Tel. (0425) 51-1915
Korean Chapel

c/o Kokusai Eigo Gakko, 1-29 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo

(151). Tel. (03) 401-4048, Mrs. Kang

Pastors: Keith C. Lee and K. D. Lee
Kobe Union Church

34 Ikuta-cho 4-chome, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken,

651. Tel. (078) 22-9150

Pastor: Rev. Richard B. Ribble
Nakagami Baptist Church

Gate No. 7 of Tachikawa Air Base

Tel. Kanto Mura 224-9075

Pastors: Ryosuke Jokura and Guy Marchant
Religious Society of Friends

Friends Meeting House, 8-19 Mita 4-chome, Minato-ku,

Tokyo (108). Tel. (03) 451-7002
Saint Alban's (Anglican Episcopal) Church

10 Shiba, Sakae-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo.

Tel. (03) 431-8534

Pastor: Rev. Christopher L. Webber
St. Paul Evangelical Lutheran Church Services at:
Tokyo Lutheran Center

2-32 Fumi-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo.

Tel. (03) 261-5266

American School in Japan

Grant Heights Chapel Annex


322 HOSPITALS

Pastor: Eev. Carl Westby
Tokyo Baptist Church

33 Hachiyama-cho, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo.

Tel. (03) 461-8425

Pastor: Rev. Marion F. Moorhead
Tokyo Union Church

7-7 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, 150.

Tel. (03) 400-0047/1942

Pastors: Rev. Maclyn N. Turnage, Rev. Peter Meister.
West Tokyo Union Church

c/o Tokyo Union Theological Seminary, 10-30 Osawa 3-

chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo, 181. Tel. (0422) 45-4185

Chairman of Steering Committee: Rev. Glenn Gano


VII. PUBLISHERS


Bethesda Deaconesses' Home
Publishing Dept.

(Betesuda Hoshijo Haha no le

Shuppan-bu)

526 Oizumi Gakuenmachi,
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177
Tel. 03-924-2238
Dir. : Fumio Fukatsu


Tel. 03-294-0775
Dir.: Robert J. Garry


(177)

526

m 03-923-2238

i_£. =����- -+*.

( v l< a


Christian Audio-Visual Center

(Kirisutokyo Shichokaku Sen-
ta)

4-13, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi-

buya-ku, Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-400-4121

Dir.: Seishi Ogawa


S 4-4-13


(150)

a 03-400-4121


Christian Literature Crusade

(Kurisuchan Bunsho Dendo-
•dan)

1-3, 2-chome, Kanda Suru-
gadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
101


i^^n1 2-1-3
n 03-294-0775

ft^if PX — H • j • y; —

Church of The Nazarene Pub
lishing Dept.

(Nihon Nazaren Kyodan Shup
pan-bu)

8-589, Kami Meguro, Me-

guro-ku, Tokyo 153

Tel. 03-466-2416

Dir.: Shinobu Sekiya


8-589


(153)

m 03-466-2416

mm


Commission on Christian Lite
rature of JNCC

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Kyogikai
Bunsho Jigyobu)

3-1, Ogawa-cho, Shinjuku-

ku, Tokyo 162

Tel. 03-260-6520

Dir.: Tomio Muto
0

(162) mMWriK/Niifir 3-1

n 03-260-6520


324


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


Concordia-Sha

2-32, 1-chome, Fujimi-cho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-261-5266/7
Dir.: Hirotatsu Ohtaka


(102)

1-2-32

m 03-261-5266/7


Education Association of
Christian Schools in Japan

(Kirisutokyo Gakko Kyoiku
Domei)

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-

ku, Tokyo 104

Tel. 03-561-7643

Dir.: Kinjiro Ohki

(104)

n 561-7643


4-5-1


Evangelical Publishing Depot

(Dendo Shuppan-sha)
1-15, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-
ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-260-1059
Pres.: G. M. Speechley


1-15


(162)

m 03-260-1059

ft^^t G • M • 7, h��


Fujimi Shuppan-Sha


16-4, 3-chome, Nishi Ike-

bukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo

171

Tel. 03-982-7089

Pres. : Kazuho Kashiwazaki


(171)

3-16-4

n 03-982-7089


n 0272-31-8222
/h


Fukuin Dendo Kyodan, Pub
lishing Dept.

4-4, 2-chome, Hiyoshi-cho,

Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken

371

Tel. 0272-31-8222

Dir.: Seiichi Kobayashi


2-4-4


Fukuinkan-Shoten

1-9, 1-chome, Misaki-cho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-91
Tel. 03-292-3401
Dir.: Tadashi Matsui

(101-91) mmfP^ftfflKHH^firr

1-1-9

m 03-292-3401

%km m

Immanuel General Mission.
Publishing Dept.


PUBLISHERS


325


{Imanueru Sogo

.Shuppan-bu)

9th Fl., Shin Kokusai Bldg.,
3-4, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-
ku, Tokyo 100
Tel. 03-211-2746
Dir.: Fumio Tsutada


(100)

flfffll

S 03-211-2746


Dendodan (Nihon Araiansu Kyodan
Shuppan-bu)

12-2, 5-chome, Sanban-cho,

Matsuyama-shi, Ehime-ken

790

Tel. 0899-21-1009

Dir.: Kazuroku Fujiie


5-12-2


Itoh Setsu Shobo

1-3, 2-chome, Otowa,
kyo-ku, Tokyo 112
Tel. 03-941-9179
Dir.: Kimiko Itoh


(790)

m 0899-21-1009


Japan Assemblies of God Lite
rature Dept.

Bun- 3-430, Komagome, Toshima-
ku, Tokyo 170
Tel. 03-918-0497
Dir.: Ryunosuke Kikuchi

-fe > 7 'J - X - * 7 • 3 ,y


(112)

^ 03-941-9179


(170)

n 03-918-0497


2-1-3


Izumi-Sha

2-117, Zoshigaya, Setagaya- Japan Bible Society

ku, Tokyo 157

Tel. 03-483-1178

Dir.: Ichitaro Nakajima


3-430


(157)
2-117
« 03-483-1178


Japan Alliance Church Pub
lishing Dept.


(Nihon Seisho Kyokai)

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-
ku, Tokyo 104
Tel. 03-567-1986
Pres.: Shiro Murata


4-5-1


Japan Biblical Seminary Pub-


(104)

m 03-567-1986


326


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


lication Dept. fg

(Nihon Seisho Shingakko ft
Shuppan-bu)

1-492, Shimo Ochiai, Shin-

juku-ku, Tokyo 161

Tel. 03-951-1101/3

Dir.: Gosaku Okada


075-441-1486


(161)

m 03-951-1101/3


Japan Jesus Christ Church
Publications Board

(Nihon lesu Kirisuto Kyodan
Shuppan Kyoku)
Higashi Imakoji-cho, Kitano,


Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto
Tel. 075-441-1486
Dir.: Taizo Okamoto


602


(602)


1-492


Japan Church Music Publish
ing Society, The

(Kirisutokyo Ongaku Shup-
pan)

2-193, Ogikubo, Suginami-

ku, Tokyo 167

Tel. 03-334-3247

Dir.: Hidesaburo Kioka

(167) HM£P^Kra 2-193
m 03-334-3247


Japan Publishing House

(Fukuin-sha)

1960, Kami Kawai-chor
Hodogaya-ku. Yokohama-shl
241

Tel. 045-951-1385
Pres.: R. W. Pohle

-Jgn-E-J-L

taeft

��JI|#ffiJ I960
n 045-951-1385

L^^^-^f. "D \1(T _LP

Japan Sunday School Union

(Nihon Nichiyo Gakko Joset
Kyokai)

21-3, 5-chome, Mita, Minato-

ku, Tokyo 108

Tel. 03-447-4781/2

Dir.: Edwin W. Fisch


(108) HM^KHffl 5-21-3

n 03-447-4871/2

ft^t x K V 4 > • W • 7


Jordan Press

(Yorudan-sha)
2-350, Nishi Okubo, Shin
juku-ku, Tokyo 160
Tel. 03-351-2166
Dir.: Toshio Kusanagi


PUBLISHERS


327


(160)
2-350
m 351-2166

Kirisuto Shimbun-Sha

3-1, Shin Ogawa-cho, Shin-
juku-ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-260-6445
Dir.: Tomio Muto


'J 7.

(162)

n 03-260-6445


Kirisutokyo Jyoshiki-Sha

33-1, 5-chome, Chuo, Naka-
no-ku, Tokyo 164
Tel. 03-381-8011
Dir.: Shigeru Saito

4'j* hsmntfc

5-33-1


(164)

m 03-381^8011


Kirisutokyo Kyojokai Shup-
pan-Bu

5 Sakuragaoka, Shibuya-ku,

Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-461-7088

Dir.: Naritaka Okuda


(150)

m 461-7088


5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-
ku, Tokyo 104
Tel. 03-561-8446
Pres.: Kokichi Ukai


4-5-1


(104)

m 03-561-8446


Nippon Seikokai Publications
Division, The

(Nippon Seikokai Shuppan
Jigyo-bu)

4-21, 1-chome, Higashi, Shi

buya-ku, Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-407-2452

Dir.: Atsushi Sasaki


1-4-21


Omi Brotherhood Kosei-Sha

(Omi Kyodaisha, Kosei-sha)
Moto, Uoyamachi, Omi
Hachiman-shi, Shiga-ken 523
Tel. 07483-2-3131
Dir.: Tsuneo Nishigori


(150)

n 03-407-2452


(523)

m 07483-2-3131


Kyo Bun Kwan


Protestant Publishing Co., Ltd.

(Shinkyo Shuppan-sha)
3-1, Shin Ogawamachi, Shin-


328


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


juku-ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-260-6148
Pres.: Norie Akiyama


2-17, Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chi-
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101
Tel. 03-263-7311/5
Dir.: Koshi Hasegawa


03-260-6148


Reap

(Reinforcing Evangelists &
Aiding Pastors)

Mission, Inc., 1-43, Kotake-

cho, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176

Tel. 03-958-1581

Dir.: Kenny Joseph


(101)

W^BT 2-17

m 03-263-7311-5


Seibunsha

3-16, Shin Ogawamachi,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-269-7751
Dir.: Tamiji Katsube


(176)


03-958-1581


1-43 (162)
3-16


- - • i/ a -fe


269-7751


Reika Tomonokai Shuppan-Bu

9-17, 2-chome, Kita Shina- Seishi-Sha

gawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo

160

Tel. 03-471-4616

Dir.: Joji Aimi


(160) |gj5C^

2-9-17

m 03-471-4616

UK


6-12, 5-chome, Igusa, Sugi-
nami-ku, Tokyo 167
Tel. 03-399-8573
Dir.: Yoshii Yanase


5-6-12


(167)

m 03-399-8573


Salvationist Publishing and
Supplies, Ltd.

( Kyuseigun Shuppan Kyoyo-
bu)


Seisho Tosho Publishers

116 Sakanamachi, Sendai-

shi 980

Tel. 0222-23-1458

Dir.: James Penner


PUBLISHERS


329


Tokyo Office: c/o Seisho

Shingakusha, 2-565, Nari-

mune, Suginami-ku, Tokyo

166

Tel. 03-313-4389

(980) li!j£T«fflJ 116
n 0222-23-1458


-jr


(166)


2-565


•r 03-313-4389


Seito-Sha

1806, Mitamachi, Kishi-
wada-shi, Osaka 596
Tel. 0724-45-0813
Dir. : Shakuhiko Naka

(596) *S

1806

M 0724-45-0813


Shin-Ai Shuppan-Sha

76 Higashiogi, Suginami-ku,
Tokyo 167

Tel. 03-391-5531/7750
Pres. : Kazuo Kaneda


76


Shobi Shuppan-Sha

16-4, 1-chome, Yayoi-cho,


(167)

n 03-391-5531, 7750


Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164
Tel. 03-372-5946
Dir.: Taro Nakada

(164) iptM^W

1-16-4

m 03-372-5946


(167)

n 03-398-5778


Taishindo

1-139, Nishi Ogikubo, Sugi

nami-ku, Tokyo 167

Tel. 03-398-5778

Dir.: Masahiro Ichikawa


1-139


Tamagawa University Press

(Tamagawa Daigaku Shup-

pan-bu)

1-1, 6-chome, Tamagawa

Gakuen, Machida-shi, To

kyo 194

Tel. 0427-32-9111

Dir.: Kuniyoshi Ohara


6-1-1


(194)

n 0427-32-9111

^&m^


Tomoshibi-Sha

2-86, Kita Nagao-cho, Sakai-
shi, Osaka 591
Tel. 0722-52-1947


330 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY

Dir.: Toshio Saito 7 /* • j]/ — &Mj&


(591) PrfclbSMBJ 2-86
i\l 0722-52-1947


Tosen-Sha

1-1477, Mawarida-cho, Hi-

gashi Murayama-shi, Tokyo

189

Tel. 0423-91^3075

Dir.: Kanji Komi


(189) mWLlj

m 0423-91-3075


1-1477


United Church of Christ in
Japan, Board of Publications

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan Shup-
pan Kyoku)

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-

ku, Tokyo 104

Tel. 03-561-6131

Dir.: Masao Tsuboi


4-5-1


Upper Room

7-5, 4-chome, Sakai Minami-

cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo

180

Tel. 0422-43-7006

Editor: Kenji Ochida


(104)

fS 03-561-6131


(180) nmmifimm- 4-7-5
m 0422-43-7006

m^^=.

Word of Life Press

(Inochi no Kotoba-sha)
6 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku
ku, Tokyo 160
Tel. 03-353-9345
Dir.: Kenneth McVety


03-353-9345


YMCA Press

(Nihon YMCA Domei Shup-
pan-bu)

6th FL, 2nd Kosuga Bldg.r

30 Ryogoku, Nihonbashi,

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103

Tel. 03-861-7838

Dir.: Arata Ikeda
B£ YMCA mm&ffi.^

(103) atjRfB#*ix0#iiWH

30 %*2?xtftr»6m
m 03-861-7838


Yamamoto Shoten

23 Honmura-cho, Ichigaya,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-268-2056
Dir.: Nanahei Yamamoto


PUBLISHERS


331


(162)


23


03-268-2056


VIII. MASS COMMUNICATION AGENCIES


Audio-Visual Activities Com-
mision of Japan National
Christian Council

(AVACO)

4-13, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi
buya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150
Tel. 03-400-4121
Gen. Sec.: Seishi Ogawa

8

(AVACO)

(150) m£W£SK8£$ 4-4-13

m 03-400-4121

^n\mm

Baptist Evangelical Broadcast
ing Center

(Baputesuto Fukuin Hoso Sen-
ta)

Sapporo C.P.O. Box 201,

Sapporo-shi 060-91

Tel. 0122-56-6990

Sec. : Kunihiko Sugawara


(060-91)

201 -if
m 0122-56-6990

mm

Christian Audio-Visual Center

(Kirisutokyo Shichokaku Sen-
ta)

4-13, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi

buya-ku, Tokyo 150


Tel. 03-400-4121/5
Gen. Sec.: Seishi Ogawa
jll-fMP''!'-t: > •£ —

i H -£A. LTD fl*i> JTCJ •— **^ x

(150) ^HSPS^^KS^S 4-4-13
S 03-400-4121-5


v * ^ -v

(535)

m 06-951-5882


Christian Broadcasting Asso
ciation

(Kurischan Hoso Kyokai)
6-14, Nakamiya-cho, Asahi-
ku, Osaka 535
Tel. 06-951-5882
Chr.: Eiichi Taniyama


6-14


Evangelical Alliance Mission,
Audio Visual Education Dept.

(Team-Aved)

10-8, 3-chome, Umegaoka,

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154

Tel. 03-420-2367

Dir.: Donn H. Goss
?• - A • 7 ^ K

(154)

3-10-8

m 420-2367

ft^lf K - >


H


Far East Broadcasting Co.


MASS COMMUNICATION AGENCIES


333'


(Kyokuto Hoso)
2-1, Kanda Surugadai, Chi-
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101
Tel. 03-291-0364/5
Dir.: James Barham


(101)

mm-a 2-1 ^^.

m 03-291-0364/5


Japan Baptist Convention,
"Baptist Hour"

(Nihon Baputesuto Renmei)
2-350, Nishi Okubo, Shin-
juku-ku, Tokyo 160
Tel. 03-361-2166
Dir. : Fumitaro Kimura


7 7 — J

(160)

m 03-361-2166


-350


Japan Mennonite Brethren
Conference, "A Light of The
World"

(Nihon Menonaito Brezaren
Kyodan, "Yo no Hikari")

3-4, 2-chome, Shoen, Ikeda-

shi, Osaka 563

Tel. 727-51-9221

Dir.: Sam Krause


2-3-4


0727-51-9221

^ -9- A • H


Japan Mennonite Church Con
ference, "A Light of The
World"

(Nihon Menonaito Kyogikai,

'-'Yo no Hikari")

6-chome, Kita Odori, Kushi-
ro-shi, Hokkaido 085
Sec.: Hiroshi Kaneko


(085)


Japan Mission Broadcasting
Evangelism

(Nihon Mission Hoso Dendo)
242-3, Hanyuno, Habikino-
shi, Osaka 583
Tel. 0729-55-1348
Dir.: Cornelio Faber


242-3


(583) m

a 0729-55-1348

f^;g- a ;i/ 4- 'J


Jiyu Christian Crusade, "Be
yond The Sunset"

("Yuhi no Kanatani)
25-22, 2-chome, Tahara,
Fukui-shi 910
Tel. 0776-22-6315
Dir.: Arne Hemmingby


(563)


334


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


(910) H#tffEHfC 2-25-22
m 0776-22-6315

^\ > ? h* -f


Kinki Christian Audio-Vidual
Center

(Kinki Kirisutokyo Shicho-

kaku Senta)

c/o Osaka Christian Center,
5151 Niemon-cho, Higashi-
ku, Osaka 540
Tel. 06-762-7701
Dir. : Doris Schneider


(540)


« 06-762-7701

Lutheran Hour

2-32, 1-chome, Fujimi-cho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-261-2288
Mgr.: Masaharu Harada

ft#j]/ — 'TJl' ' 7? -

(102) mM

1-2-32

fg 03-261-2288


Lutheran World Federation
Broadcasting Service Tokyo
Office

(Sekai Luteru Renmei "Mass
Media" Kenkyusho Tokyo Shi-
kyoku)


Room No. 624, Nikkatsu
Hotel, 1-1, Yurakucho, Chi
yoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Tel. 03-213-4860
Dir.: George L. Olson


7]


m 03-213-4860

]£fo ft i^ 3 — i? • L • ^ ;l/ V >

Minami Presbyterian Church
Radio Evangelism Dept.,
"Time for Christ"

(Minami Choro Kyokai Rajio
Dendobu, "Kirisuto eno Ji-
kan")

4-33, Chikara-cho, Higashi-

ku, Nagoya-shi 461

Tel. 052-941-6421

Gen. Sec.: J. A. McAlpine


4-33


Missions to Japan, Inc., "Voice
of Life"

(Nihon Fukuin Senkyodan,

"Inochi no Koe")

10-6, Hamada-machi, Kure-
shi, Hiroshima-ken 737
Tel. 0823-21-8904


(461)

n 052-941-6421

J • A • v # ;l/ 1?


MASS COMMUNICATION AGENCIES


335


Dir.: Ray T. Pedigo


(737) SrU^Egpjf io_6
m 0828-21-8904
ft^^t i"f • T • 1 7-' n'

Nazarene Hour

8-589, Kami Meguro, Megu-

ro-ku, Tokyo 153

Tel. 03-644-2414

Chr.: Yozo Seo

Sec.: Takashi Uematsu


Tel. 03-400-4121/5
Dir.: Seishi Ogawa


(150)

s��^

m 03-400-4121/5


4-4-13


•)- -tf ix >
(153)
« 03-644-2414


8-589


Nishi Nippon Shinseikan

1-27, Naka Gofukumachi,
Fukuoka-shi 812
Tel. 092-29-0973
Pres.: Glenn Bruggers


1-27


(812)

n 092-29-0973


New Life League Pacific Broadcasting Associa-

(Shinsei Undo Kyoryoku Kai) tion
1736, Katayama, Niiza- (Taiheiyo Hoso Kyokai)
machi, Kita Adachi-gun,
Saitama-ken 352


Tel. 0424-71-1625
Pres.: Cliff Reimer


10-8, 3-chome, Umegaoka,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154
Tel. 03-420-3166/8
Gen. Manager: A. J. Seely


(154)
3-10-8

m 03-420-3166-8
A • J -


(352)

1V36
0424-71-1625


Nihon Kirisutokyo Hoso Rem- Sweden Orebro Mission

mei 122 Minato Aoi-cho, Waka-

c/o AVACO, 4-13, 4-chome, yama-shi 640
Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Tel. 0734-23-8574/8911
150 Dir.: B. Hagstrom


336


PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY


7* X. — -T ' > • % ]/ ~f P • < -y ~> 3 >

(640) MOjTfJ^BT 122
m 0734-23-8574, 8911
ft&% B • >\->f7. hn A

Takaoka Baptist Church,
"Story About The Bible"

(Takaoka Baputesuto Kyokai,

"Seisho no Hanashi")

9-24, Naka Kawamoto-cho,

Takaoka-shi, Toyama-ken

933

Tel. 0766-23-6655

Dir.: F. L. Pickering


(933)

fg 0766-23-6655

^^ F • L • t


9-24


United Church of Christ in
Japan, Joint Broadcasting
Committee

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan Hoso


Dendo Kyodo linkai)

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-
ku, Tokyo 104
Tel. 03-561-6131/7713
Sec. : Kiyoshi Takai

. JBC ifcjgEil&B
(JBC)

(104) mMWi£KM^ 4-5-1
m 561-6131-7713


Voice of Prophesy

(Yogen no Koe)
846 Kami Kawai-cho, Hodo-
gaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 241
Tel. 045-951-2421
Mgr.: Masuichi Kamoda


(241) ®

846
045-951-2421


IX. OTHER


Gideons International in Japan

(Nihon Kokusai Gideon Kyo-
kai)

Toko Bldg., 12 Tomoe-cho,

Shiba Nishikubo, Minato-ku,

Tokyo 105

Tel. 03-434-1010

Chr.: Tomojiro Kobayashi


(105) m35C
12 jfOfctouft
m 03-434-1010


Japan Christian Medical Asso
ciation

(Nihon Kirisuto-sha Ika Ren-
mei)


3-1, Ogawa-cho, Shinjuku-
ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-269-7247
Chr.: Eiichi Kamiya


(162)

m 03-269-7247


Osaka Christian Center

515, Niemon-cho, Higashi
ku, Osaka-shi 540
Tel. 06-762-7701/3
Dir.: Sotaro Yamazaki


(540)

n 06-762-7701


X. STATISTICS

Schools (Protestant) Statistics

Number of Number of

Grades Schools Students

Graduate School 12 719

College 32 122,296

Junior College 49 28,477

Senior High School 108 83,687

Junior High School 83 28,421

Elementary School 29 6,917

Seminary 67 2,050

Speciality School 71 24,949
Others

Total 451 297,516

Kindergarten 976 105,188

Sum Total 1,427 402,704
* from Kirisutokyo Nenkan 1968.


Other Statistics

Nursery Schools 429

Nurseries (Baby care) 5

Clinics, Clinics for mothers 46

Homes for the Handicapped 49

Asylums 29


PART III
CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


1. CHURCH HEADQUARTERS: CENTRAL
ADMINISTRATION


Japan Bishops' Conference

Pres.: Cardinal Tatsuo Doi
Vice-Pres.: Archbishop Yo-
shigoro Taguchi
Members: The Bishops of
Japan


(102) ^

10-1

m 03-262-3691/3


Permanent Committee

Chr. : Cardinal Tatsuo Doi
Vice-Chr.: Archbishop Yo-
shigoro Taguchi
Members: Bishop Katsusa-
buro Arai, Bishop Satoshi
Nagae, Bishop Arikata Ko-
bayashi

Address: National Catholic
Committee of Japan, (Gen
eral Secretariat) (NCCJ),
10-1, Rokubancho, Chiyoda-
ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-262-3691/3
Sec. Gen.: Rev. Tadayoshi
Tamura

Assis. Sec.: Rev. James E.
McElwain


Episcopal Commissions
Doctrine of the Faith

Fukuoka

Tel. 092-87-4943

Chr.: Archbishop Satowaki

Church Administration

NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3691

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi

Liturgy

NCCJ

Tel. 03-264-0875

Chr.: Bishop Nagae

Church Legislation
Osaka

Tel. 0798-33-0921

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi

Seminaries and Clergy
NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3691

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi


342


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Lay Apostolate

NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3691

Chr.: Bishop Tomizawa

Education

NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-2662

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi

Social and Welfare

Yokohama

Tel. 045-641-0901

Chr.: Bishop Arai

Public Information

NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3695

Chr.: Bishop Kobayashi

Emigration
NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3695
Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi

Terminology

NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3691

Chr.: Bishop Hirata

Ecumenism
NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3691
Chr.: Bishop Ito

Non-Christians


NCCJ

Tel. 03-262-3691

Chr.: Bishop Nagae

Apostolic Nunciature

9-2, Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku,

Tokyo 102

Tel. 03-263-6851

Chr. : Archbishop Bruno

Wiistenberg

Local Administration

Dioceses of Japan
Tokyo

Cardinal Tatsuo Doi

Coadjutor Archbishop Sei-

ichi Shirayanagi

3-16-15, Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-

ku, Tokyo 112

Tel. 03-943-2301


(112)
16-15
m 03-943-2301


Nagasaki

Archibishop Asajiro Sato-

waki

1, Otsu, Minami Yamate-cho,

Nagasaki 850

Tel. 0958-23-2934


2-1


(850)

m 0958-23-2934


CHURCH HEADQUARTERS


343


Osaka

Archbishop Yoshigoro Ta-

guchi

1-55, Nishiyama-cho, Koyo-

en, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-

ken 662

Tel. 0798-3:5-0921


(662) &J»mSWTWRgS

HlilfflJ 1-55

m 0798-33-0921

Fukuoka

Bishop Saburo Hirata

39, Josui-dori, Fukuoka 810

Tel. 092-53-5323


39


(810)

m 092-53-5323


Hiroshima

Bishop Yoshimatsu Noguchi

4-42, Nobori-cho, Hiroshima

730

Tel. 0822-21-6017


(730) ESrfrRPJ 4-42
m 0822-21-6017

Kagoshima

Bishop Shinichi Itonaga
1685, Toso, Tagami-cho, Ka
goshima 890
Tel. 09922-4-1670


(890)

1685-2

m 09922-4-1670


Kyoto

Bishop Yoshiyuki Furuya

418, Shimo Maruya-machi,

Sanjo-Agaru, Kawara-

machi, Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto

604

Tel. 075-231-2756

(604) MrfJ^rnKMlCffiT
H&��;i>T&M«T 418
m 075-231-2756

Nagoya

Bishop Nobuo Soma

21, Nunoike-cho, Higashi-

ku, Nagoya 461

Tel. 052-971-2223


(461)

m 052-971-2223


21


Niigata

Bishop Shojiro Ito
656, Ichiban-cho, Higashi
Ohata-dori, Niigata 951
Tel. 0252-22-7457


(951) SfJSltK
n 0252-22-7457


Oita

Bishop Takaaki Hirayama


344


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


30-7, Chuo-machi 3-chome,

Oita 870

Tel. 09752-2-2452


3-7-30


(870)

m 09752-2-2452


1-30, Tokhva C-chome, Ura

wa 336

Tel. 0488-22-3285


(336)

n 0488-22-3285


6-1-30


Sapporo

Yokohama

Bishop Takahiko Tomizawa „. , ,, ,

Bishop Katsusaburo Arai

44, Yamate-cho, Naka-ku,
Yokohama 231


10, Higashi 6-chome, Kita
1-jo, Sapporo 060
Tel. 0122-24-2785


(060) *m-ftit

m 0122-24-2785


10


Sendai

Bishop Arikata Kobayashi

161, Moto Terakoji, Sendai

980

Tel. 0222-22-7371


161


Tel. 045-641-0901


(231)

m 045-641-0901


44


(980) ^

m 0222-22-7371


Takamatsu

Bishop Eikichi Tanaka


Ryukyu Islands

Bishop Felix Ley

377, Sobe, Naha-shi, Oki

nawa

Tel. Naha 2-2020


7 X '

(377)


377


2-2020


Missionary Coordination:


8-9, Sakura-machi 1-chome, } Conference of Major Religious


Takamatsu 760
Tel. 0878-31-6659


(760)

n 0878-31-6659

Urawa

Bishop Satoshi Nagae


Superiors

Pres.: Rev. Arthur Newell,
S.A.

l_g_g Vice-Pres.: Rev. Raymond
Renson, C.I.C.M.
Treasurer: Brother Maurice
Picard, F.S.C.
Sec.: Rev. Ward Biddle C.P.


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS


345


National Catholic Commit
tee, 10-1, Rokuban-cho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-262-3691

Association of Religious Con
gregations of Sisters in Japan

Pres.: Sister Takamine
Vice-Pres.: Sister Takeda
Treasurer: Sister Seki


Sec.: Sister Ebihara

Councillors: Sisters Keogh,

Ruiz, Koide

Sisters of St. Maur, 7-5, Ni-

ban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo

102

Tel. 03-261-4306

(102)

m 03-261-4306


2. CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS
(UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES)

Seminaries: n 03-261-9640

Tokyo Regional Seminary ~$- 1=3 -��
Theology Department

191, Sekimachi 2-chome, Ne- St. Sulpice Regional Seminary

rima-ku, Tokyo 177 1900, Shinshoen, Katae, Fu-

Tel. 03-920-2121 kuoka 814

Rec.: Rev. Ludwig Arm- Tel. 092-87-4943

bruster, S.J. Rec.: Rev. Yoshiyuki Takaki


1000


(177)

a 03-920-2121


2-191


Philosophy Department


(814)

'ft 092-87-4943

St. Mary's College


4, Yonbancho, Chiyoda-ku, (Jesuit Seminary)

Tokyo 102 1-710, Kami-Shakujii, Neri-


Tel. 03-261-9640

Rec.: Rev. Shogo Hayashi,

S.J.


(102)


ma-ku, Tokyo 177
Tel. 03-929-0847
Rec.: Rev. Edmundus
mes, S.J.


Ne-


346


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(177) JftRfttt*
1-710

m 03-929-0847


St. Bonaventure

(Conventual Franciscan Semi
nary)

2-2100, Aoba-cho, Higashi

Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189

Tel. 0423-91-2074

Rec.: Rev. Sunao Yamaura,

O.F.M. Conv.


2-2100


(189)

m 0423-91-2074


Society of Divine Word

70, Yagumo-cho, Showa-ku,

Nagoya 466

Tel. 052-832-2082

Rec.: Rev. Anthony Zimmer

man, S.V.D.


70


(466)

® 052-832-2082


Salesians of Don Bosco

21-12, Fujimi-cho 3-chome,
Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182
Tel. 0424-82-3117
Rec.: Rev. Carmelo Simon-
celli, S.D.B.


(182) H7iJrf?g��JlfflT 3-21-12
m 0424-82-3117


St. Anthony

(Franciscan Seminary)
370, Tamagawa Seta-machi,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158
Tel. 03-700-0652
Rec.: Rev. Eugenio Pinci,
O.F.M.


ass)
mmwj 370

m 03-700-0652

Our Lady of Hope

(Oblate Fathers Seminary)
287, Sekimachi 6-chome,
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177
Tel. 03-920-8265
Rec.: Rev. Joseph Hofmans,
O.M.I.


6-287


(177)

m 03-920-8265


Redemptorist

5-16, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku,

Tokyo 151

Tel. 03-466-0361

Rec.: Rev. Noboru Yoshi-

yama, C.Ss.R.


(151) Jflm

m 03-466-0361


5-16


Universities and Junior Col
leges:


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS


347


Eichi University and Junior
College

10-1, Naeda, Nakoji, Ama-
gasaki-shi, Hyogo-ken 661
Tel. 06-491-5083
Pres.: Rev. Hideshi Kishi


10-1


06-491-5083


Elizabeth University of Music

4-15, Nobori-cho, Hiroshima

730

Tel. 0822-21-0918

Pres.: Rev. Ernest Goossens,

S.J.


(730) j£ftrf?W 4-15
m 0822-21-0918

Fuji Women's College and Jun
ior College

Nishi 2-chome, Kita 16-jo,

Sapporo 065

Tel. 0122-73-0311

Pres.: Sister M. Helena

Makino


(065)

ft 0122-73-0311


Kaisei Women's University
and Junior College


7-1, Aodani-cho 2-chome,

Nada-ku, Kobe 657

Tel. 078-86-1325

Pres.: Sister M. Madeleine

Guerlet


(466)

n 052-832-3111


(657) flJFi7fJJ8K1f£BJ 2-7-1
m 078-86-1325

Nanzan University

18, Yamazato-cho, Sho\va-

ku, Nagoya 466

Tel. 052-832-3111

Pres.: Rev. Kiichi Numa-

zawa, S.V.D.


18


Notre Dame Seishin Women's
College

16-9, Ifuku-cho 2-chome,

Okayama 700

Tel. 0862-52-1155

Pres.: Sister Kazuko Wata-

nabe


2-16-9


Notre Dame Women's College

Minami Nonogami-cho, Shi-
mo-gamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto
606


/-
(700)
n 0862-52-1155


348


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 075-781-1173

Pres.: Sister Mary Eugenia


(606) m


a 075-781-1173

Sacred Heart University

3-1, Hiroo 4-chome, Shibuya-

ku, Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-400-1803

Pres.: Sister Setsuko Mi-

yoshi


4-3-1


Seisen Women's College

16-21, Higashi Gotanda 3-

chome, Shinagawa-ku, To

kyo 141

Tel. 03-443-1367

Pres.: Sister Yasuko Uchi-

yama


(150) UijiJvas
'fl 03-400-1803


(141) jfiM

3-16-21

m 03-443-1367


Shirayuri Women's College

1-25, Midorigaoka, Chofu-

shi, Tokyo 182

Tel. 03-300-5050

Pres.: Sister Hatsue Mi-

shima


(182) mttfi
m 03-300-5050


1-25


Sophia University

7, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To

kyo 102

Tel. 03-265-9211

Pres.: Professor Mikao Mo-

riya


(102) f£M

m 03-265-9211


Sophia University Faculty of
Theology

1-710, Kamishakujii, Neri-

ma-ku, Tokyo 177

Tel. 03-929-0847

Pres.: Rev. Peter Nemeshe-

gyi, S.J.


(177)
1-710
n 03-929-0847


Ake No Hoshi Junior College

502, Aza Namiuchi, Tsukuri-

michi, Aomori 030

Tel. 01772-4-0121

Pres.: Sister Henriette Can-

tin


502


(030)


CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS


349


m 01772-4-0121

Assumption Junior College

1, Nyoidani, Minoo-shi, Osa

ka 562

Tel. 0727-21-7690

Pres.: Sister Guadalupe

(562) ^BRJflSffiTfrjHJftS 1
m 0727-21-7690

Caritas Junior College

1800, Nakanoshima, Kawa-
saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 214
Tel. 044-91-4656
Pres.: Sister Rita Deschenes


(880)

m 0985-2-8296


110


1800

m 044-91-4656

Holy Spirit Junior College

62-2, Aza Takano, Terauchi,

Akita Oil

Tel. 01882-5-4111

Pres.: Sister Immolata Reida


62-2


Junshin Junior College

2-600, Takiyama-cho, Hachi-

oji-shi, Tokyo 192

Tel. 0426-23-3867

Pres.: Sister Miyako Sakai


2-600


Junshin Women's Junior Col
lege

13-15, Bunkyo-cho, Nagasaki

852

Tel. 0958-44-1175

Pres.: Sister Haru Oizumi


(192)

m 0426-23-3867


(on)

m 01882-5-4111


Hyuga Junior College

110, Yamato-cho, Miyazaki

880

Tel. 0985-2-8296

Pres.: Rev. Bautista Massa,

S.D.B.


(852) giTOXW 1315
m 0958-44-1175


Junshin Women's Junior Col
lege

1847, Kamoike-cho, Kago-

shima 890

Tel. 09922-4-4121

Pres.: Sister Kane Hatta


j 1847


(890) fii^artm
m 09922-4-4121
AH**


Kemmei Junior College


350


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


68, Honmachi, Himeji-shi

Hyogo-ken 670

Tel. 0792-23-6455

Pres.: Sister Kyoko Sato


(670) ��gg��?fJ*lHj 68
m 0792-23-6455


Midorigaoka Junior College

660, Midorigaoka, Nobeoka-

shi, Miyazaki-ken 882

Tel. 09823-3-3203

Pres.: Sister Claudia Cava-

lieri


eio


(882)

m 09823-3-3203


Misono Gakuen Junior College

1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono,

Akita 010

Tel. 01882-3-1920

Pres.: Sister Yoshiko Chono


1-58


(010)

n 01882-3-1920

run?


Nanzan Junior College

17, Hayato-cho, Showa-ku,

Nagoya 466

Tel. 052-831-1153

Pres.: Rev. Hubert Flatten,

S.V.D.


(466)

m 052-831-1153


17


Sakura no Seibo Junior Col
lege

3-6, Hanazono-cho, Fukushi-

ma 960

Tel. 0245-34-7137

Pres.: Sister Frances Kir-

wan


-6


(960) ^iSrfJ^^
m 0245-34-7137


Seibi Junior College

2-14, Akabanedai 4-chome,

Kita-ku, Tokyo 115

Tel. 03-907-1671

Pres.: Sister Shizu Hirate

(115) HlKtHbKMS 4-2-14
m 03-907-1671


Seibo Junior College of Nurs
ing

2-630, Shimo-Ochiai, Shin-

juku-ku, Tokyo 161

Tel. 03-951-9667

Pres.: Sister Eleanor Harse


(161)

m 03-951-9667


Seibo Women's Junior College

18-10, Mii-cho, Neyagawa-


CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS


351


shi, Osaka 572

Tel. 0720-31-1381

Pres.: Sister Mitsugu Chi-

kasue


(572)
18-10
m 0720-31-1381


Shin'ai Junior College

(Kurume)

2278-1, Mii-machi, Kurume-
shi, Fukuoka-ken 830
Tel. 0942-2-4531
Pres.: Sister Francoise
Matsunaga


(830)

2278-1

m 0942-2-4531


Shin'ai Junior College

(Osaka)

5, Furuichi Kita-dori 4-
chome, Joto-ku, Osaka 536
Tel. 06-939-4391
Pres.: Sister Hatsuko Mu-
rata


(536)

n 06-939-4391


Shin'ai Junior College

(Wakayama)


(640)

n 0734-22-2938


9, Yakata-machi 2-chome,

Wakayama 640

Tel. 0734-22-2938

Pres.: Sister Isabel Oyama


2-9


Shirayuri Junior College

(Sendai)

46, Aza Honda, Matsumori,
Izumi-cho, Miyagi-gun, Mi-
yagi-ken 981-31
Tel. 022373-3254
Pres.: Sister Ayako Noshita


46

m 022373-3254
SFT*?

St. Catherine Junior College

660, Hojo, Hojo-shi, Ehime-

ken 799-24

Tel. 08999-2-0702

Pres.: Most Rev. Eikichi

Tanaka


(799-24) m

m 08999-2-0702


Tenshi Junior College

Higashi 3-chome, Kita
jo, Sapporo 065


13-


352


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 0122-71-3780
Pres.: Sister Gaile


(065)

& 0122-71-3780


Tokyo Kindergarten and Nur
sery Teachers' Training School

32-30, Koenji Minami 2-
chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo


166

Tel. 03-311-7014

Pres.: Mrs.. Keiko Imai


2-32-30

11 03-311-7014


3. CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS


Action Doshikai Liaison Office

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda-

ku, Tokyo 102

Tel. 03-262-3691

Dir.: Mr. Seijiro Yoshizawa


(102)

10-1

m 03-262-3691


Catholic Boy Scouts

1-32-16, Yutenji, Meguro-ku,

Tokyo 153

Tel. 03-719-5496

Dir.: Mr. Eiichi Yamaguchi

-h MJ -.x^tr-'f x*^7 MJtaS^-


(153)

1-32-16

n 03-719-5496


Catholic Graduates Associa
tion of Japan

Shinsei Kaikan, 33, Shinano-

machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo

160

Tel. 03-357-7022

Pres.: Professor Masao

Matsumoto


33


Catholic Physicians Guild

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda-
ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-262-3691
Pres.: Dr. Taiei Miura


(102)
10-1


(160) JU

m 03-357-7022


CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS


353


03-262-3691 HOT 370

ft 03-700-0652

Catholic Medical Institutes As- Grail

sociation (Women's Apostolate)

Seibo Byoin, 5-1, Naka-Ochi- 5-15, Mejiro 2-chome, To-
ai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161 shima-ku, Tokyo 171

Tel. 03-971-0682
Directress: Miss


Tel. 03-951-1111
Dir.: Bishop K. Arai


(161)

m 03-951-1111


2-5-1


Consilium de Laicis

(Council of the Laity)
Liaison Office

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda-

ku, Tokyo 102

Tel. 03-262-3691

Pres.: Bishop T. Tomizawa


(102)

10-1

m 03-262-3691


Franciscan Bible Institute

370, Tamagawa Setamachi,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158
Tel. 03-700-0652
Dir.: Rev. Bernardine Sch
neider O.F.M.


(158)


Donders


(171)


Rachel


2-5-15


03-971-0682


Japan Catholic Nurses Asso
ciation

St. Joseph Hospital, 28, Mi-
dorigaoka, Yokosuka-shi,
Kanagawa-ken 238
Tel. 0468-22-2134
Directress: Miss Catherine
Y. Ibuka

J.C.N.A.


(238)

238

m 0468-22-2134


Justice and Peace Council in
Japan

3-16-15, Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-

ku, Tokyo 112

Tel. 03-943-2301

Pres.: Archbishop S. Shira-

yanagi


354


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(112)

m 03-943-2301


Korean Catholic Center

3, Minami Kamiai-cho, Ni

shinokyo, Nakakyo-ku, Kyo

to 604

Tel. 075-841-5964

Dir.: Rev. Thomas W. Taka

hashi, M.M.


P 3-16-15 Institute of

Shinsei Kaikan, 33, Shina-
nomachi, Shinjuku-ku, To
kyo 160

Tel. 03-353-0401
Dir.: Professor Shin Anzai


(604)

it I: ft HI! 3

m 075-841-5964

iftfi n

Legion of Mary

Catholic Church, 1-7-8, Go-
tenyama, Musashino-shi, To
kyo 180
Pres.: Mr. Samuta

(180) u^^if lU^iJiIi 1-7-8

Oriens Institute for Religious
Research

2-28-5, Matsubara, Seta-

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156

Tel. 03-322-7601

Dir.: Rev. Joseph Spae

•% 'J ^ ^
(156)
2-28-5
m 03-322-7601

Religious-Sociology, Japanese


(160)

m 03-353-0401


t zSKT 33


Seamen's Center

47-1, Yamamoto-dori 2-

chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 650

Tel. 078-22-9604

Dir.: Rev. Robert Schmeer,

M.E.P.


(650) ^

2-47-1

m 078-22-9604

Social Research Institute

399, Kashiwagi 3-chome,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160
Tel. 03-362-4659
Dir.: Mr. Goro Fujise


3-399


(160)

S 03-362-4659


Society of St. Vincent de Paul
Superior Council in Japan

1-27-40, Takanawa, Minato-
ku, Tokyo 108
Tel. 03-441-5410


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


355


Pres.: Mr. Jun Sakamoto

V -i > -fe > y * 7 • /N�� ^ n ^


1-27-40


(108) m^^mK

a 03-441-5410


machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo

160

Tel. 03-351-1685

Pres.: Mr. Masanobu Nakao


33


(160)

m 03-351-1685


Socio-Economic Institute of
Sophia University

(SUSEI) Credit Unions

7, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To- Young Christian Workers Na-

kyo 102 tional Secretariat

Tel. 03-265-9211 3-399, Kashnvagi, Shinjuku-

Dir.: Rev. Jose M. De Vera, ku, Tokyo 160

S.J. Tel. 03-371-4319

_h?D-Jc^ Chaplain: Rev. Minoru Sugi-

ta


3-399


(102) 3jt;jc

m 03-265-9211

Students Federation, Catholic

Shinsei Kaikan, 33, Shinano-


(160) mM

m 03-371-4319


4. CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


HOSPITALS:
Bethlehem Hospital

14-72, Umezono 3-chome, Christ the King Hospital


Kiyose-machi, Kita Tama-

gun, Tokyo 180-04

Tel. 0424-91-2525

Dir.: Dr. Seihei Shimokobe


(180-04) m
mm 3-14-72

m 0424-91-2525


104, Jubancho, Uegahara,

Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken

662

Tel. 0798-33-1275

Dir.: Dr. Kenji Monma

'J ^ h • n 7 >^|^

(662)

+��mj 104


356


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


m 0798-33-1275
P5H«&

Gracia Hospital

3-24, Awaza Kami-dori,

Nishi-ku, Osaka 550

Tel. 06-531-5984

Dir.: Dr. Hirokazu Ishida


(550)
3-24

m 06-531-5984

Gyokokai Kitahara Hospital

50, Shiroshima, Minoo-shi,

Osaka 562

Tel. 0727-21-7014

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade,

M.E.P.


(562) *|KlffgIirfJajft 50
m 0727-21-7014

Holy Spirit Hospital

56, Kawanayama-machi,

Showa-ku, Nagoya 46(>
Tel. 052-832-1811
Dir.: Sister Thomas

(466) «fiB^naftK;ii«ii4«r

56

m 052-832-1811

Holy Spirit Hospital

5-30, Naga-machi 1-chome,
Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken
920


Tel. 0762-31-1295

Director: Sister Praxede Ca-

denbach

(920) EJIim^zRHmWr 1-5-30
n 0762-31-1295

Jikei Hospital

831, Oaza Shimazaki, Shi-
mazaki-cho, Kumamoto 860
Tel. 0963-52-7063
Dir.: Sister Margareta Zink

(860) ji4:rfJSiW^ft^83i

^ 0963-52-7063

Jiseikai Hospital

15-2, Egota 3-chome, Naka-

no-ku, Tokyo 165

Tel. 03-387-5421

Dir.: Rev. Emilien Milcent,

M.E.P.


(165)

3-15-2

m 03-387-5421

Jochi Kosei Hospital

9-10, Machiya 4-chome, Ara-

ka\va-ku, Tokyo 116

Tel. 03-892-4514

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel,

S.J.


(116)

4-9-10


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


357


(289-25) ^

m 04796-2-0714


m 03-892-4514

Kaijoryo Sanatorium

4017, Nonaka, Asahi-shi,
Chiba-ken 289-25
Tel. 04796-2-0714
Dir.: Miss Kei Obara


401


Kaisei Hospital

47, Shinohara, Kita-machi

3-chome, Nada-ku, Kobe 657

Tel. 078-87-5201

Dir.: Sister Yvonne Neer-

daels


3-47


Tel. 07756-2-0330

Dir.: Sister Raku Watanabe


(525) MmW
m 07756-2-0330


412


Misono Hospital

1436, Aoyama, Niigata 950-

21

Tel. 0252-66-4310

Dir.: Sister Hildegardis


1436


(950-21) fr^rfm-
m 0252-66-4310


(657)


078-87-5201


Misono Hospital and Sanato
rium

46, Hirune, Terauchi-cho,

Akita Oil

Tel. 01882-3-5757

Dir.: Sister Raphaela


(Oil)

m 01882-3-5757


46


Koyama Fukusei Hospital and
St. Mary's Hospital

109, Koyama, Gotemba-shi,

Shizuoka-ken 412

Tel. 055004-4

Dir.: Sister Tomo Yukawa St' Francis Hospital

9-20, Komine-machi, Naga
saki 852

Tel. 0958-44-1868
Dir.: Sister Marysia Kubsda


(412) M
m 055004-4


109


Kusatsu Sanatorium

412, Yagura-cho, Kusatsu-
shi, Shiga-ken 525


(852) g^iU/jN|I$fflj 9-20
m 0958-44-1868

St. Joseph Hospital


358


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


28, Midorigaoka, Yokosuka-

shi, Kanagawa-ken 238

Tel. 0468-22-2134

Dir.: Sister Yoshie Kame-

zaki


saki


(238) n

28

ffi 0468-22-2134


St. Joseph Shinryojo

(Hospital-Dispensary)
4-7, Yawata Honmachi,
Shizuoka 420
Tel. 0542-85-5921
Dir.: Sister Paula Huot


4-7


(420)

m 0542-85-5921


St. Martin Hospital

4-13, Tani-machi 1-chome,

Sakaide-shi, Kagawa-ken

762

Tel. 08774-5-5195

Dir. : Sister M. Isobel Sogabe


1-4-13


(762)

m 08774-5-5195


St. Mary's Hospital

133, Matsuyama-cho, Fukue-
shi, Nagasaki-ken 853
Tel. 09597-2221
Dir.: Sister Takako Hama-


(853)

m 09597-2221


133


St. Mary's Hospital

650, Nibuno, Himeji 670

Tel. 0792-23-2481

Dir.: Sister de Lellis Mehl


65��


(670)

m 0792-23-2481


St. Teresia Hospital

2-26, Koshigoe 1-chome,

Kamakura 248

Tel. 0466-23-0900

Dir.: Sister Marie Fukuda


2-26


(248)

m 0466-23-0900

lgffl-7 'J X


Sacred Heart of Jesus Hospi
tal

3-56, Kambayashi-cho, Ku-

mamoto 860

Tel. 0963-52-7181

Dir.: Sister Marie Annette

Birube


(860) ^$m_hW5Tr 3-56
m 0963-52-7181

Sakuramachi Hospital


359


2-20, Sakura-machi 1-chome,
Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184
Tel. 0423-83-4111
Dir. : Sister Fuku Okamura


(983)

m 0222-57-0231


(184) /Jvfc#iff$lflJ 1-2-20
n 0423-83-4111

<


Shindenbaru Sanatorium

2843, Oaza Higashi-Toku-

naga, Yukuhashi-shi, Fuku-

oka-ken 824

Tel. 09302-2-1006

Dir.: Sister Kazuko Harada


2343


Catholic


(824)

m 0423-83-4111


Tairo Leper Hospital

820, Shimazaki-machi, Ku-

mamoto 860

Tel. 0963-54-1021

Dir.: Sister Margareta Zink

(860) ;||;$7f;i E [If HI 820
m 0963-54-1021

Tenshi Hospital

Higashi 3-chome, Kita 12-

jo, Sapporo 065

Tel. 0122-71-0101

Dir.: Sister Marie Lioba


(065)

m 0122-71-0101


Seibo International
Hospital

5-1, Naka-Ochiai 2-chome; CLINICS:
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161 Catholic Dispensary

Tel. 03-951-1111
Dir.: Sister Eleanor Harse

(161) JiL^tPfrflfEFt'ltlln 2-5-1
» 03-951-1111


Spellman Hospital

5, Dotemae, Odawara, Hara-
no-machi, Sendai 983
Tel. 0222-57-0231
Dir.: Dr. Toshiyuki Maeda


Boma, Tokunoshima, Oshi-

ma-gun, Kagoshima-ken

891-73

Tel. Boma 17

Dir.: Fr. Josef Mittermeier,

C.Ss.R.


ana* H v

(891-73)


Christmas Village


360


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


149, Okino-machi, Adachi- '

ku, Tokyo 120

Tel. 03-890-5564

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel,

S.J.


149


(120)

m 03-261-7074


Hakuai Dispensary

4-1, Kudan Kita 2-chome,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-261-7074
Dir.: Sister Yuri Ebihara


(102)

2-4-1

m 03-261-7074


Hakuai Dispensary

15-15, Moto-machi, Hako-
date-shi, Hokkaido 040
Tel. 0138-22-7629
Dir.: Sister Koto Saito


(040) SHrtJTClHT 15-15
m 0138-22-7629


Jiseikai Nasu Shinryojo

3010, Otsu, Oaza Toyohara,

Nasu-machi, Nasu-gun, To-

chigi-ken 329-32

Tel. 0287-72-7855

Dir.: Sister Tomiho Mizu-


ochi

(329-32) m^m^
SSC^^Z, 3010
m 0287-72-7855


Konohara Clinic and Asylum

2639, Nakano-machi, Hachi-

oji-shi, Tokyo 192

Tel. 0426-22-0969

Dir.: Rev. Emilien Milcent,

M.E.P.


2639


(192)

m 0426-22-0969


Misono Clinic

4238, Fujisawa, Fujisawa-
shi, Kanagawa-ken 251
Tel. 0466-22-4069
Dir.: Sister Mineko Saito


4238


Naze Catholic Clinic

4-1, Kasuga-cho, Naze-shi,

Kagoshima-ken 894

Tel. Naze 309

Dir.: Rev. Eusebius Wien-

cko, O.F.M.Conv.


(251)

m 0466-22-4069


U


(894)


309


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


361


Our Lady of the Sick Dispen
sary

314, Asato, Naha, Okinawa
Tel. Naha 082-2-2021
Dir. : Sister Clarissa

IE -7 'J 7&&W\


314

082-2-2021


St. John's Clinic

2, Okuyamabata-cho, Suma-

ku, Kobe 654

Tel. 078-71-0869

Dir.: Brother Aegidius Lut-

ter, O.K.

* h 'J y *Ii3/N*^j&B>T
(654) ^FMlffi^KHUjftBUlJ 2
m 078-71-0869

Sei Maria lin

448, Okuno, Ura-machi,

Aomori 030

Tel. 01772-4-3917

Dir.: Sister Tomo Uzawa


v 'J 7m
(030) Tf
m 01772-4-3917


448


Sei Maria lin

3-8, Momomidai, Koriyama-
shi, Fukushima-ken 963
Tel. 02492-2-2794
Dir.: Sister L'enfant Jesus


(963)


n 02492-2-2794

St. Pius

15-10, Shirasagi 1-chome,
Nakano-ku, Tokyo 165
Tel. 03-330-1451
Dir.: Sister Odilia Lehmann


1-5-10


(165)

S 03-330-1451


Sacred Heart

7-30, Shinhon-machi 1-
chome, Kochi 780
Tel. 0888-72-1996
Dir.: Kuniko Kawarada


(780) ^£pm$T*fflT 1-7-30
n 0888-72-1996
Sfflffl?

Seishin Dispensary

1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono,

Akita 010

Tel. 01882-3-0342

Dir.: Sister Tae Misono


1-58


(010)

m 01882-3-0342

ORPHANAGES:

(By Diocese)
Tokyo:
Bethlehem Gakuen

14-4, Umezono


3-chome,


362


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Kiyose-machi, Kita Tama-

gun, Tokyo 180-04

Tel. 0424-91-2529

Dir.: Sister Yasuko Hosono


(iso-04) itzm

3-14-4

m 0424-91-2529


Boy's Town

592, Minami-cho, Josui,
Kodaira-shi, Tokyo 187
Tel. 0423-21-0412
Dir.: Rev. Albinas Marge-
vicius, S.D.B.


592


(187)

m 0423-21-0412


Nazareth Baby Home

1-1101, Toyotama Naka,

Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176

Tel. 03-387-5421

Dir.: Rev. Emilien Milcent,

M.E.P.


(145)

m 03-751-1230


882


(176)

1-1101

m 03-387-5421

St. Francis Children Home

882, Kugahara, Ota-ku, To

kyo 145

Tel. 03-751-1230

Dir.: Sister Elizabeth Hiro-

shi


St. Joseph Home

10-26, Honcho 4-chome, Ho-

ya-shi, Tokyo 181

Tel. 0424-64-2211

Dir.: Sister Mary Edward

fi 3 Hz' 7 • * - A

(181) ^Si1j*HTl' 4-10-26
m 0424-64-2211

St. Odilia Home Nursery

15-15, Shirasagi 1-chome,
Nakano-ku, Tokyo 165
Tel. 03-330-1451
Dir.: Sister Odilia Lehmann

' ��?:* 7-' i }) 7 • * - A

(165) JUS WUKejjfc 1-15-15
m 03-330-1451

Sayuri no Ryo

19-28, Igusa 4-chonie, Sugi-

nami-ku, Tokyo 167

Tel: 03-399-2258

Dir.: Sister Tomie Noguchi


4-19-28


(167) Km

m 03-399-2258

^n h < x


Seibi Home

2-14, Akabanedai 4-chome,
Kita-ku, Tokyo 115
Tel. 03-907-1692


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


363


Dir.: Sister Hana Hirate Tainoura Orphanage


(115) ju

n 03-907-1692


4-2-14


Tsubomi no Ryo

19-28, Igusa 4-chome, Sugi-

nami-ku, Tokyo 167

Tel. 03-399-8049

Dir.: Sister Bernadetta


Hf 4-19-28


(167) 3Kj£

m 03-399-8049


Nagasaki:
Maria En

16, Minami Yamate-cho,
Nagasaki 850
Tel. 0958-22-1583
Dir.: Sister Veronique

v 'J 7 HI

(850) WrfJitllj^Urr 16
n 0958-22-1583

Seibo no Kishi-En

Konagai-cho, Kita Takaki-

gun, Nagasaki-ken 859-01

Tel. 095734—152

Dir.: Rev. Masuji Hamada,

O.F.M.Conv.


(859-01)


300-3, Tainoura, Arikawa-
machi, Minami Matsuura-
gun, Nagasaki-ken 853-33
Tel. Arikawa 204
Dir.: Sister Fujino Taninaka


(853-33)


m 095734-152
^ffliife


204


Urakami Orphanage

341, Tsuji-machi, Nagasaki

852

Tel. 0958-44-4055

Dir.: Sister Sakae Tsutsumi

(852) ftdf IfJitffll 341
m 0958-44-4055


Fukuoka:

Biwasaki Seibo Aiji-En

837, Shimazaki-machi, Ku-

mamoto 860

Tel. 0963-52-4005

Dir.: Sister Margareta Zink


837


Goshi-machi,
Kumamoto-


(860)

m 0963-52-4005

Boys' Town

Suya, Nishi
Kikuchi-gun,
ken 861-11


364


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 0963-64-2420
Dir.: Rev. George

s.s.c.


Bellas,


(861-11)

tarn 1710

m 0963-64-2420


Holy Angels

2187, Aza Kuma, Mii-machi,

Kurume-shi, Fukuoka-ken

830

Tel. 09422-3-3418

Dir.: Sister Kinuko Yamada


(830)

m. 2187

m 09422-3-3418


Immaculate Heart

1578-1, Oaza Kami-Taka-
hashi, Tachiarai-machi, Mii-
gun, Fukuoka-ken 830-12
Tel. 094276-210
Dir.: Mr. Kiyomasa Hirata


(830-12)
_h^li 1578-1
m 094276-210


Kumamoto Tenshi-En

928, Oaza Toroku, Oe-machi,
Kumamoto 862
Tel. 0963-64-0352


Dir.:

naga


Sister Makiko Fuku-


(862) fifr

It 0963-64-0352


Madarajima Seibo-En

Madarajima, Chinzei-cho,

Higashi Matsuura-gun, Sa

ga-ken 847-04

Tel. 095587-9

Dir.: Sister Dorothea M.

Kono

(847-04) &%mm®ffimmmRs

1640
m 095587-9

rum 3 *

Nazareth Baby Home and Or
phanage

10-32, Tori-cho, Yatsushiro-
shi, Kumamoto-ken 866
Tel. 09653-2926
Dir.: Sister Sei Kawano


10-32


St. Kozaki Orphanage

548, Orio Honjo, Yahata-ku,

Kita-Kyushu 807

Tel. 093-69-0107

Dir.: Miss Yukiko Kito


(866)

m 09653-2926


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


365


(807)

548

n 093-69-0107


Tenshi Ikuji-En

1-2, Hikari-machi, Moji-ku,

Kita-Kyushu 800

Tel. 093-38-0244

Dir.: Sister Therese Chag-

non


1-2


0862-22-4806


(800)

m 093-38-0244


Hiroshima:
Hikari no Sono

1895, Jigozen, Hatsukaichi-

cho, Saeki-gun, Hiroshima-

ken 738

Tel. 0829-31-2470

Dir.: Sister Kiyoko Aoki


(738) j£

1895
0829-31-2470


Misono Children's Home

6-34, Tenjin-cho, Okayama

700

Tel. 0862-22-4806

Dir.: Sister Setsu Tanaka


6-34


Misono Tenshi-En

740, Hatagasaki, Yonago-

shi, Tottori-ken 683

Tel. 08592-2-4364

Dir.: Sister Toshiko Honda

(683) JUIfc&^rfJffiyra 740
m 08592-2-4364


Misono Tenshi-En

287, Uchida, Okayama 700

Tel. 0862-23-8513

Dir.: Sister Mieko Tanaka

(700) m\-Wm 683
m 0862-23-8513


Kagoshima:
Ai no Seibo-En

5507-2, Kami Fukumoto-
cho, Kagoshima 891-01
Tel. 09929-6-2045
Dir.: Sister Mary


(891-01) ^jl^rt]
m 09929-6-2045


TCfflT 5507


(700)


Naze Tenshi-En Baby Home

1221, Aza Hayatsu, Nishi
Nakakachi, Naze-shi, Kago-
shima-ken 894-07


366


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. Naze 945

Dir.: Sister Yae Mizuura


(894-07)


(894)

25-1


1221

t 945


Shirayuri no Kyo

25-1, Komata-cho, Naze-shi,

Kagoshima-ken 894

Tel. Naze 1108

Dir.: Sister Chizuko Mizuura


1108


Kyoto:
Infant Jesus

22, Sonjoin-cho, Nishi Kinu-

gasa, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603

Tel. 075-462-9268

Dir.: Sister Margarita M.

Nishimoto


(603) M

% h^fflj 22

« 075-462-9268


Dir.: Mr. Mitsuo Yokogawa

(509-91) grJ=iiE|Ft-ipjjJ 1 1 ,f] -Tfi^

1468

'M 05736-8-2168

mmmm

Misono Tenshi-En

156, Yakushiyama, Narumi-

cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 458

Tel. 0560-89-0236

Dir.: Sister Electa Keiko

Kawamura


(458)
156


0560-89-0236


Holy Spirit Hospital Nursery
and Orphanage

5-30, Naga-machi 1-chome,

Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-

ken 920

Tel. 0762-61-9812

Dir.: Sister Wiebertis Rein-

weber


(920)

m 0762-61-9812


1-5-30


Nagoya :
Fujii Gakuen

1468, Sendanbayashi, Naka-
tsugawa-shi, Gifu-ken 1468
Tel. 05736-8-2168


Niigata:

Misono Tenshi-En

1436, Urayama-cho,
yama, Niigata 950-21
Tel. 0252-66-6253


Ao-


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


367


(950-21) ^?^m WOlffi til BT 1436
m 0252-66-6253


Dir.: Sister Sadako Noritake Hikari no Sono Shiragiku Ryo

8-kumi, Soen-cho, Beppu-

shi, Oita-ken 874

Tel. 0977-3-2506

Dir.: Elizabeth Shige Nagata

Misono Tenshi-En

1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono,

Akita 010

Tel. 01882-3-2696

Dir.: Sister M. Aurea

m 01882-3-2696

Seibo Aiji-En

9-47, Honmachi 1-chome,

Mitsuke-shi, Niigata-ken 954

Tel. 02586-2-0851

Dir.: Rev. Anton Adler,

S.V.D.


(874) *#

m 0977-3-2506


St. Joseph

2663, Oaza Nagasoe, Naka-

tsu-shi, Oita-ken 874

Tel. 0979-2-2320

Dir.: Rev. Clodoveus Tassi-

nari, S.D.B.

ff£ 3 -fe* 7 ft

(874) Mj&f\^\i
m 0979-2-2320


km 266


(954) if

m 02586-2-0851


1-9-47


Oita:

Caritas no Sono

1543 Ko, Okinohara, Yoshi-
mura-cho, Miyazaki 880
Tel. 0985-2-2285
Dir.: Sister Tone Kawabata


(880) "gtftlti^

^ 1543

m 0985-2-2285


Sayuri Aiji En

Gohan, Urata-ku, Beppu-shi,

Oita-ken 874

Tel. 0977-2-1517

Dir.: Sister Josefina Gaz-

zada


(874) Xftmsm ilT?ffflKHHE
m 0977-2-1517

Sayuri Aiji En Bun'en

2601, Oaza Joharu, Oita-shi

870-02

Tel. 097501-44


368


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Dir.: Sister Maria Motta


(870-02)

fg 097501-44


2610


Osaka:

Kobe Boys' Town and Baby

Home

720, Umekidani. Shioya-cho,
Tarumi-ku, Kobe 655
Tel. 078-76-2112
Dir.: Rev. Tetsuji Sasaki


(655) $)F5fcil7.

720
078-76-2112


Holy Family Home

27, Yamasaka-cho 5-chome,

Higashi-Sumiyoshi-ku, Osa

ka 546

Tel. 06-699-7221

Dir.: Sister Mary Breen


(546)

5-27

H 06-699-7221


Sapporo:
Shirayuri-En

15-13, Moto-machi, Hako-
date-shi, Hokkaido 040
Tel. 0138-22-7629
Dir.: Sister Koto Saito


(040) @q!trf?7GHT 15-13
m 0138-22-7629

»3 h

Tenshi Baby Home

Higashi 3-chome, Kita 12-

jo, Sapporo 065

Tel. 0122-71-0101

Dir.: Sister Marie Lioba


(065)

m 0122-71-0101

Tenshi no Sono

82, Aza Hiroshima, Hiro-

shima-mura, Sapporo-gun,

Hokkaido 061-11

Tel. 012844-20

Dir.: Sister Ayako Tawara


(061-11)

m 012844-20


Sendai:
Fuji Seiboen

457, Okuno, Ura-machi, Ao-

mori 030

Tel. 01772-4-0489

Dir.: Sister Elizabeth Wata-

nabe

(030) ff^rtJffiWHS 457
m 01772-4-0489


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


369


Fuji no Sono

64, Date, Yamanome-cho,

Ichinoseki-shi, Iwate-ken

021

Tel. 019122-5360

Dir.: Sister Raingardis Ar-

thaus

64-2

m 019122-5360

La Salle Home

18, Annai, Odawara, Hara-

nomachi, Sendai 983

Tel. 0222-57-3801

Dir.: Brother Gilles Pomer- |

leau


7 • •$• - )]/ • fc - A

(983) ffl|£iflSBr
H 0222-57-3801


18


Sei Maria-En

3-8, Momomidai, Koriyama-
shi, Fukushima-ken 963
Tel. 02492-2-2794
Dir.: Sister L'enfant Jesus


(963)

n 02492-2-2794


3-8


cott


(983)

m 0222-57-3898


18


(980)

18 0222-22-6337


Sayuri-En

12, Yanagisawa, Harano-

machi, Sendai 983

Tel. 0222-57-3898

Dir.: Sister Gertrude Ars-


Tenshi-En

2-18, Tsunogoro 2-chome,

Sendai 980

Tel. 0222-22-6337

Dir.: Sister Clemencia Mu-

ramoto


2-2-18


Takamatsu:

Misono Tenshi-En Orphanage

and Baby Home

7-30, Shinhon-machi 1-
chome, Kochi 780
Tel. 0888-72-1996


1-7-30


Yokohama:
Fatima Boys' Town

3753, Shimo Tsuruma, Ya-
mato-shi, Kanagawa-ken 242
Tel. 0462-61-0645
Dir.: Rev. Charles Revel

7 r T- 4

(242)

3753


(780)


0888-72-1996


370


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


m 0462-61-0645

Misono

4238, Fujisawa, Fujisawa-
shi, Kanagawa-ken 251
Tel. 0466-22-4069
Dir.: Sister Mineko Saito


(251)


0466-22-4069


4238


Seibi Home

530, Nakanogo, Shimizu-
shi, Shizuoka-ken 424
Tel. 0543-2-2296
Dir.: Sister Gina Cardin


(424)


530


0543-2-2296


Seibi Home

233, Yamanakako-mura, Mi-

nami Tsuru-gun, Yama-

nashi-ken 401-05

Tel. 05556--2-8625

Dir.: Sister Francesca Broc-

cardo


(401-05)

\lV\mtt 233
7g 0556-2-8625

Seibo Aiji-En

68, Yamate-cho,
Yokohama 231


Naka-ku,


Tel. 045-641-1309

Dir.: Sister Kyoko Chiba

(231) ^^rp^Kaj^ET 68
n 045-641-1309


Shirayuri-En

1320, Gora, Hakone-machi,

Ashigara-shimo-gun, Kana

gawa-ken 250-04

Tel. 0460-2-2853

Dir.: Sister Kazuko Nishi-

date


(250-04)


0460-2-2853


1320


Tenshi-En

23, Naruko-cho, Hama-
matsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 430
Tel. 0534-52-8625
Dir.: Rev. Clement Fonte-
neau, M.E.P.


23


(430)

m 0534-52-8625


HOMES FOR THE ELDERLY
Caritas no Sono

1543, Ko, Okinohara, Yoshi-
mura-cho, Miyazaki 880
Tel. 0985-2-2285
Dir.: Sister Misano Urata


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


371


'j $ x <D

(880)

Ep 1543

m 0985-2-2285

ifffl % •*'


Caritas St. Joseph Home

60, Moto Konya-cho, Kofu-
shi, Yamanashi-ken 400
Tel. 0552-33-8955
Dir.: Sister Misano Urata


(400)


0552-33-8955


Fuji Old Folks Home

448, Okuno, Ura-machi, Ao-

mori 030

Tel. 01772-4-0539

Dir.: Sister Umeno Saito


(030) W^rfrffiffll
m 01772-4-0539


448


(562) -

n 0727-21-7014

Holy Family


14-72, Umezono 3-chome,
Kiyose-machi, Kita Tama-
gun, Tokyo 180-04
Dir.: Sister Haruyo Oha


(180-04)
3-14-72


Gyokokai Akatsuki Old Folks
Home

50, Shiroshima, Minoo-shi,

Osaka 562

Tel. 0727-21-7014

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade,

M.E.P.


50


Kamakura Special Home for
the Aged

2-36, Koshigoe 1-chome,

Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa-

ken 248

Tel. 0466-23-6156

Dir.: Sister Sachi Yoshida

m&mmm%A*--i>

(248) fifi^jllS^JtTfJlJliiS 2-36
71 0466-23-6156

ffffl ^

Kotobuki So

263, Fuki Hiyoshi, Maizuru-

shi, Kyoto 624

Tel. 07736-5-1333

Dir.: Sister Rosalie Aarts


263


(624) HMHHT
® 07736-5-1333


Matsuzaka Catholic

1771, Okuroda-cho, Matsu-
zaka-shi, Mie-ken 515
Tel. 05982-2-2852
Dir.: Sister Mary Anna


372 CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


m 02878-2578

1771

n 05982-2-2852 Momiji

13, Hamawaki, Beppu-shi,

Oita-ken 874

550, Haru-Ushiroyama, Aku- Tel. 0977-2-3616
ne-shi, Kagoshima-ken 899- Dir.: Sister Hatsu Yamazaki

*T^yp

Tel. 09967-2-0805 JJJv . „.„ p,,^-™, 1Q

TV „. , (8<4) T^ftmSOJfif rfj^jg? is

JJir. : Sister Calhsta Okutsu a=» 0977-2-3616


(899-16)

$L'H?l£|ll 550 Our Lady's Home

« 09967-2-0805 820, Shimazaki-machi, Ku-

mamoto 860

Tel. 0963-54-1021
Misono „. „,. , ,,

Dir.: Sister Maria Lioba
1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono,

Akita 010

Tol H1Q80 Q O^QC (86��^ W'WulW 820

m 0963-54-1021
Dir.: Sister Miyoko Takeda


A Rosary

(010) I^HTlj^Hiff-blflT 1-58 1386-2, Oaza Kuchii, Yama-
01882-3-2696 to-cho, Saga-gun, Saga-ken

840-02

Tel. 095205-303
Misono St. Joseph n- .0-4. 0 •, , T

Dir.: bister Sadako Iwasaki
2806-1, Minami 1-chome,

Karasuyama-machi, Nasu- D/8^_oSfe»i

gun, Tochigi-ken 321-06 ^ftf}# 1386-2

Tel. 02878-2578 m 095205-303
Dir.: Sister Yukiko Kito


(321-06) SJ7fCj^fi£3|iM||Ijltr St. Francis

ft 1-2806-1 44-1, Kozukura, Takaki-


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


373


machi, Kita Takagi-gun,

Nagasaki-ken 859-01

Tel. 095732-129

Dir.: Rev. Masuji Hamada,

O.F.M.Conv.


Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161

Tel. 03-953-4028

Dir.: Sister Hana Matsu

shita


(161)

2-5-21

n 03-953-4028


St. Joseph

54-6, Toge, Gose-shi, Nara-

ken 639

Tel. 07456-7-0509

Dir.: Sister Hisako Sato


54-6


St. Martin

250, Okuyashiki, Nakanishi-

uchi, Hojo-shi, Ehime-ken

799-24

Tel. 0573-2-0702

Dir.: Sister Rosa Kozuma


(639) **&

m 07456-7-0509


(799-24) g

250
^ 0573-2-0720


St. Joseph

2210-5, Aza Sagita, Kuma- St. Martin no Sono

de, Yahata-ku, Kita-Kyushu 9-18, Tanimachi
806

Tel. 093-62-5829
Dir.: Sister Dominica Sasa
ki


1-chome,

Sakaide-shi, Kagawa-ken
762

Tel. 08774-6-3776
Dir.: Sister Eiko Ueno


1-9-18


Sacred Heart

St. Margaret Seibo Home 7, Tera-machi, Hitoyoshi-

5-21, Naka Ochiai 2-chome, shi, Kumamoto-ken 868


3 -fe" 7 (D
(806)

2210-5
093-62-5829


(762)

m 08774-6-3776


374


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


Tel. 09662-2-2428

Dir.: Sister Marie de St.

Longin


(868)

m 09662-2-2428

Seibo Ryo

37, Kami Smva, Smva-shi,

Nagano-ken 392

Tel. 02G65-2-22C4

Dir.: Rev. Anthony Ville-

neuve, C.Ss.R.


m 045-871-0771

MlJ4^ ft 3

INSTITUTIONS FOR
HANDICAPPED CHILDREN:
Aitoku Seishi-En

1620, Nishihama, Waka-

yama 641

Tel. 0734-23-1748

Dir.: Sister Baptista Casper


1620


(392)

n 02665-2-2204


Seibo-En Imamura

573, Oaza Ima, Tachiarai-

machi, Mii-gun, Fukuoka-

ken 830-12

Tel. 094276-85

Dir.: Rev. Hitoshi Itonaga


573
094276-85


Seibo no Sono

75, Harajuku, Totsuka-ku,

Yokohama 244

Tel. 045-871-0771

Dir.: Sister Takayo Oyama

(244) flt&ujF^KicfSHr 75


(641)

m 0734-23-1748


Christmas Village

149, Okino-machi, Adachi-

ku, Tokyo 120

Tel. 03-890-5564

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel,

S.J.


149


(120)

m 03-890-5564


Kosei Gakuen

Aza Michinoue, Oaza Toyo-
hara, Nasu-machi, Nasu-
gun, Tochigi-ken 329-32
Tel. 0287-72-7825
Dir.: Sister Teruko Fudai


(329-32)


0287-72-7825


CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


375


Mikumo Catholic Jido-En

451, Nakabayashi, Mikumo-

mura, Ichishi-gun, Mie-ken

515-21

Tel. Rokken 221

Dir.: Sister Maria Jacobatti

h 'J y ^'/SM

(515-21) HMW-iSl&HStt
ft^ 451

m *ff 221

Misakae no Sono

277, Totake-myo, Konagai-

cho, Kita Takagi-gun,

Nagasaki-ken 859-01

Tel. 095734-111

Dir.: Sister Michiyo Ima-

nishi


277


095734-111


Misakae Gakuen

8021, Masuyama, Kaseda-
shi, Kagoshima-ken 897-11
Tel. 09935-2860
Dir.: Koichi Dozono


(897-11) ^jB

8021

m 09935-2860


Kibo no Hoshi Gakuen

1537-3, Akaogi, Tatsugo-


son, Oshima-gun, Kago
shima-ken 894-04
Dir.: Sister Georgette Cou
ture

(894-04) $Jfc&Jft*&IBlgSW
/^M^ 1537-3

St. Joseph Seishi-En

6, Higashi Kobai-cho, Kita-

no, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603
Tel. 075-462-7621
Dir.: Dr. Hiroshi Fukase


Shimizuzawa Gakuen

170, Minami Shimizuzawa,
Yubari-shi, Hokkaido 068-05
Tel. 012356-321
Dir.: Rev. Christopher Mai-
no, M.M.


(068-os) ^m

170

n 012356-321


Yuki no Seibo-En

420, Aza Tobetsu Harano,
Tsukigata-machi, Kabato-
gun, Hokkaido 061-04
Tel. 013327-105
Dir.: Mr. Fujisaburo Kinai


376


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(061-04) :|bi!SiI

^$mm 420

« 013327-105


SETTLEMENTS:
Sophia Settlement

9-10, Machiya 4-chome, Ara-

kawa-ku, Tokyo 116

Tel. 03-892-4511

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel,

S.J.


03-644-8189


Gyokokai Catholic Workers
Home

4-1, Azuma-dori 5-chome.

Fukiai-ku, Kobe 651

Tel. 078-22-5342

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade,

M.E.P.


(651)

m 0727-22-3438


5-4-1


(116)


4-9-10 Gy��kokai Kitahara Center


03-892-4511


Arinko

Shiomi 2-chome, Koto-ku,

Tokyo 135

Tel. 03-644-8189

Dir.: Rev. Zengo Yoshida


(135)


48, Shiroshima, Minoo-shi,

Osaka 562

Tel. 0727-22-3438

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade,

M.E.P.


48


(562)

n 0727-22-3438


5. CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS


Aisha Publications

Konagai-machi, Kita-Taka-

ki-gun, Nagasaki-ken 859-01

Tel. 095734-228

Dir.: Sister Kazuko Naka-

yama


(859-01)


095734-228


Catholic Press Center

1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku,

Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-351-6173


CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS


377


Dir.: Rev. Aldo Varaldo


1-5


(160)

« 03-351-6173


Knderle Publications

3, Koji-machi 6-chome,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Tel. 03-263-4251
Dir.: Mr. Rupert Enderle


6-3


(102)

M 03-263-4251


Good Shepherd Movement

Sanjo-Agaru, Kawara-ma-

chi, Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto 604

Tel. 075-211-9341

Dir.: Rev. James F. Hyatt.

M.M.


(604) St

=*��^

m 075-211-9341


Koe-sha Publishers

Catholic Center 31-1, Kita-

hama 5-chome, Higashi-ku,

Osaka 541

Tel. 06-231-4540

Dir.: Rev. Masao Mase


5-31-1


(541)

* h 'J y V • -fe

m 06-231-4540


Komyo-sha Publishers

Higashi 2-chome, Kita
jo, Sapporo 065
Tel. 0122-71-2554


11-


(065)

m 0122-71-2554

Oriens Publications

2-28-5, Matsubara, Seta-

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156

Tel. 03-322-7601

Dir.: Rev. Joseph Spae


Holy Rosary Publishers

51, Nampeidai, Shibuya-ku,

Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-463-5881

Dir.: Rev. Yoshinori Wata- Salesian Press

nabe


(156)

2-28-5

m 03-322-7601


(150)

m 03-463-5881


51


1-22, Wakaba, Shmjuku-ku,
Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-351-7041; 341-5416
Dir.: Rev. Julius Manganelli


-t*


378 CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(160) ^biSSfflSK^r^ 1-22 Dir.: Mr. Isamu Nakano-

n 03-351-7041; 341-5416 watari


Seibo no Kishi Publications

196, Hongochi-machi, Naga- .^ 012^-71-0101

saki 852 il-iIfi^iT1
Tel. 0958-23-2079

Dir.: Rev. Toyomitsu Saka- Veritas Publishing Company

tani No. 7 Kojimachi Building, 5,.

IBficDPf+^f- Kojimachi 4-chome, Chiyo-

(852) ^df rf^^M 196 da'ku> Toky�� 102

H 0958-23-2079 Tel. 03-263-3857

•* Dir.: Mr. Akira Mizoguchi


Tenshi-in Printing Office (102) iPM^^ftfflKSHJ 4-5

Higashi 3-chome, Kita 12-- .^ 7 ?5f[Hj t";l/
jo, Sapporo 065 ft 03-263-3857

Tel. 0122-71-0101 fftp HH


6. MASS COMMUNICATIONS

Catholic Koho-shitsu (Newspaper)

(Public Information Office) 1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-kur

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda- Tokyo 160
ku, Tokyo 102 Tel. 03-351-6173

Tel. 03-262-3695 Dir.: Rev. Aldo Varaldo

Dir.: Rev. Ikkaku Take- # h y ., ^gfHiSI^SB
shima (160) IffMfPfffilX^H 1-5

m 03-262-3695


•fi h 'J .
(102) flWw-riv,miA/N««j Good shepherd Movement

•S"103-262-3695 (^�� "d Televifn)

Sanjo-Agaru, Ka\vara-ma-

chi, Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto 604
Catholic Weekly Tel. 075-211-9341


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN


379


Dir.: Rev. James F. Hyatt
(604)


075-211-9341


S 03-351-5135

Tosei News
(News Agency)

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda-

ku, Tokyo 102

Tel. 03-262-3691

Dir.: Rev. James E. Mc-


7,


St. Paul Center
(Radio and Television)
1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku, Elwain

Tokyo 160 'l|cM-^-
Tel. 03-351-5135 "(102)

Dir.: Rev. Carlo Boano io_i

iz I/ \> . tf - }\, • •& -s & - n 03-351-5135

(160) 4lMfP:fr?t'jK?ali 1~5 i


7. MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES
OF MEN


Atonement, Franciscans Friars
of the. S.A.

1787, Higashi Terao-machi,
Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230
Tel. 045-581-6374
Sup.: Rev. Arthur Newell


(230) ^TU

1787

M 045-581-6374

Augustine, Order of St. O.S.A.

6-5, Wakakusa-cho, Naga

saki 852

Tel. 0958-44-9208

Sup.: Rev. Edward Hattrick


(852) SdgTfJ^^iHIJ' 6-5
n 0958-44-9208

3-12, Sakae-cho, Hatano-
shi, Kanagawa-ken 257
Tel. 0463-81-1521
Sup.: Rev. James Ryan

(257) $£Jlim^!iriUW 3-12
® 0463-81-1521

Benedict, Order of St. O.S.B.

6-22, Kami-Osaki 4-chome,
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141
Tel. 03-491-5461
Sup.: Rev. Hildebrand Yai-


380


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


* T-* -f ? h ^

(141) m^^

4-6-22

m 03-491-5461


Bethlehem Foreign Mission
Society. S.M.B.

5-16, Shike-cho, Morioka-

shi, Iwate-ken 020

Tel. 0196-22-5270

Sup.: Rev. Lukas Stoffel


5-16


(020) S^m
m 0196-22-5270


Burgos Foreign Mission So
ciety. I.E.M.E.

269, Saiwai-cho, Marugame-
shi, Kagawa-ken 763
Tel. 08772-22-4529
Sup.: Rev. Cremencio Manso


269


(763) SJIIM^Tf
m 08772-22-4529


Carmelites. Order of Discal-
ced. O.C.D.

97, Kaminoge-cho, Tama-

gawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo

158

Tel. 03-701-0063

Sup.: Rev. Luciano Pertusi


(158) H

JiH^HT 97
m 03-701-0063


' 4-5, Taiho-cho, Atsuta-ku,
Nagoya 456
Tel. 052-671-1003
Sup.: Rev. Constantius Ad-
amini

(456) ^]SMrtJ^fflK^^fflT4-5
n 052-671-1003

Christian Instruction, Brothers
of. F.I.C.

1, Takinoue, Naka-ku, Yoko
hama 232

Tel. 045-641-4578, 1974
Sup.: Brother Jean Trudel


(232) m

m 045-641-4578, 1947

Christian Schools, Brothers of.
F.S.C.

5795, Hino, Hino-shi, Tokyo

191

Tel. 0425-81-2523

Sup.: Brother Maurice Pi-

card


5795


(191) mm^B^
m 0425-81-2523


Cistercians, Order of the
Strict Observance. O.C.S.O.

392, Mitsuishi Aza, Kami
Iso-machi, Kami Iso-gun,
Hokkaido 049-02
Tel. Moheji 139


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN


381


Sup.: Dom Bonaventure Mi-
tsuno


(167) J|CS«
n 03-396-0291


2-35-7


(049-02)


392

< 139


mrnm*

Columban's Foreign Mission
Society, St. S.S.C.

3-10, Roppongi 7-chome,

Minato-ku, Tokyo 106

Tel. 03-408-5677

Sup.: Rev. Charles Moriarty
jgn n >x>^

(106) jgsctp*iix7v£# 7-3-10

n 03-408-5677

Divine Word, Society of.
S.V.D.

6, Gokenya-cho, Showa-ku,

Nagoya 466

Tel. 052-831-5726

Sup.: Rev. Hermann Bertels-

beck


(466)

m 052-831-5726

Salesians of Don Bosco. S.D.B.

35-7, Igusa 2-chome, Sugi-
nami-ku, Tokyo 167
Tel. 03-396-0291
Sup.: Rev. Stephen Dell' An
gela


Franciscan Friars Minor, Or
der of. O.F.M.

2-39, Roppongi 4-chome, Mi

nato-ku, Tokyo 106

Tel. 03-408-6957, 402-2634

Sup.: Rev. Sigfrid Schnei

der

Sx*3£

4-2-39

Friars Minor Capuchin, Order
of. O.F.M.Cap.

377, Sobe, Naha-shi, Oki

nawa.

Tel. 082-2-2020

Sup.: Rev. LaSalle Parson?

wmwmiti&si 377

m 082-2-2020

Friars Minor Conventual, Or
der of. O.F.M. Conv.

2-2100, Aoba-cho, Higashi
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189
Tel. 0423-91-2074
Sup.: Rev. Yasaku Sueyoshi


(189) mSOJTUffllBT 2-2100
n 0423-91-2074


Guadalupe, Foreign Mission


382


Society of Our Lady of. M.G.

1-57, Nishi Sakae-machi,

Aizu-Wakamatsu-shi, Fuku-

shima-ken 965

Tel. 02422-2-1447

Sup.: Rev. Antonio Valdes


(965) Mm^S

1-57

II 02422-2-1447

Missionary Sons of the Im
maculate Heart of Mary.
C.M.F.

3-3, Imaicho, Asahi-ku,

Osaka 535

Tel. 06-951-5018

Sup.: Rev. Emeterius de la

Rosa


3-


(535) -A;B

m 06-951-5018


Immaculate Heart of Mary
Mission Society. C.I.C.M.

68, Honmachi, Himeji-shi,

Hyogo-ken 670

Tel. 0792-22-0082

Sup.: Rev. Raymond Ren-

son


68


(670) ^ju

» 0792-22-0082


Little Brothers of Jesus. P.F.J.

1-4, Sakuramoto-cho, Kawa-
saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 210


Tel. 044-26-7555
Sup.: Rev. Andre Gay


(210) »3»ffl
m 044-26-7555


Jesus, Society of. S.J.

7, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To

kyo 102

Tel. 03-262-0282

Sup.: Rev. Ildebrando Mar

tini


(102)

m 03-262-0282


John of God, Order of St. O.H.

2, Okuyamahata-cho, Suma-

ku, Kobe 654

Tel. 078-71-0869

Sup.: Brother Aegidius Lut-

ter


(654)

m 078-71-0869


Marist Brothers of the Schools.
F.M.S.

2-1, Senmori-cho 1-chome,

Suma-ku, Kobe 654

Tel. 078-71-0174

Sup.: Brother Thomas O'-

Donnell


1-2-1


(654)

* 078-71-174


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN


383


Society of Mary. S.M.

1-2-43, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku,

Tokyo 102

Tel. 03-261-2965

Sup.: Rev. Yoshifusa Ishi-

waki


(102)

1-2-43

m 03-261-2965


Marist Fathers. S.M.

(Society of Mary)
36, Nobori-oji-cho, Nara 630
Tel. 0742-22-2094
Sup.: Rev. Sidney J. Nugent


36


(630) ^

m 0742-22-2094


Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
O.M.I.

6-287, Sekimachi, Nerima-

ku, Tokyo 177

Tel. 03-920-8265

Sup.: Rev. Bertram M. Sil

ver

^ 7 \> - h ^

(177) JUmMUKIiBT 6-287
m 03-920-8265

Maryknoll Catholic Foreign
Mission Society of America.
M.M.

6, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To


kyo 102

Tel. 03-261-7283

Sup.: Rev. J. Joseph Mooney

S 'J > -;tMif^

(102) m%m=F ft ffl K^/i^fBj e

m 03-261-7283

Pontifical Institute for Foreign
Missions. P.I.M.E.

12-16, Higashi 2-chome, Shi-

buya-ku, Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-471-3978

Sup.: Rev. Allegrino Alle-

grini


(150)
12-16
n 03-471-3978

Paris Foreign Mission Society.
M.E.P.

3-7-18, Mejirodai, Bunkyo-

ku, Tokyo 112

Tel. 03-941-0902

Sup.: Rev. Emilien Milcent


(112)

3-7-18

m 03-941-0902

Congregation of the Passion.
C.P.

6, Tsukudo Hachiman-cho,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162
Tel. 03-260-5915
Sup.: Rev. Ward Biddle


384


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(162)

it 03-260-5915

Paul, Pious Society of St.
S.S.P.

1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku,

Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-351-5135

Sup.: Rev. Aldo Varaldo


1-5


(160)

M 03-351-5135


Pious Schools, Order of. S.P.

5-2, Komaba 4-chome, Me-

guro-ku, Tokyo 153

Tel. 03-467-1871

Sup.: Rev. Enrique Rivero


4-5-12


(153) ft&flSi
m 03-467-1871


Preachers, Order of. O.P.

51, Nampeidai, Shibuya-ku,

Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-463-5881

Sup.: Rev. Bernard-M. Tra-

han


si


(150)

m 03-463-5881


Quebec Foreign Mission So
ciety. M.E.Q.

4-4-17, Motomachi, Aomori-


shi 030

Tel. 01772-4-3937

Sup.: Rev. Paul Lavoie


(030) W&TfrW 4-4-17
M 01772-4-3937

Redeemer, Congregation of
the Most Holy. C.SS.R.

624, Kami Fukumoto-cho,

Taniyama-shi, Kagoshima-

ken 891-01

Tel. 09929-6-2084

Sup.: Rev. Josef Mittermei-

er


(891-01) ^^ft

624
09929-6-2084


5-16-1, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku,

Tokyo 151

Tel. 03-466-0361

Sup.: Rev. Armand Dufour

(151) JfCm»SKtt*#

5-16-1

m 03-466-0361

San no Maru 66, Maizuru-

shi, Kyoto-fu 624

Tel. 07736-5-2294

Sup.: Rev. David A. Weir

(624) &%>ffimmi$=;jL 66

m 07736-5-2294
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Mis-


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN


385


sionaries of the. M.S.C.

1-55, Tanabata-cho, Kita-ku,

Nagoya 462

Tel. 052-981-2022

Sup.: Rev. Adrian Fitzgib-

bon


1-55


(462)

m 052-981-2022


Sacred Hearts of Jesus and
Mary, Congregation of the.
SS.CC.

1071, Ota-machi, Tomobe-
machi, Nishi Ibaragi-gun,
Ibaragi-ken 309-14
Tel. 02967-7-0047
Sup.: Rev. Cornelius Biffar
<i .rX'x • -7 'J T<£>lg,|>^
(309-14) «ii®8;$«SW
^HEI 1071
« 02967-7-0047

Scarboro Foreign Mission So
ciety. S.F.M.

14-8, Takanavva 4-chome,

Minato-ku, Tokyo 108

Tel. 03-441-6063

Sup.: Rev. Patrick J. Mc-

Namara

*##*n#SS|fc£
(108) 4-14-8

fg 03-441-6063

San Sulpice, Society of. S.S.
1900, Shinshoen, Katae, Fu-


kuoka 814

Tel. 092-82-4943

Sup.: Rev. Yoshiyuki Taka-

ki


1900


(814)

m 092-82-4943


Clerics of St. Viator. C.S.V.

33, Minami-machi, Komatsu-
bara, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603
Tel. 075-463-3281
Sup.: Rev. Pierre Carriere


33


(603) S«P

m 075-463-3281


Mission, Congregation of. C.M.

1-1-16, Maikodai, Tarumi-

ku, Kobe 655

Tel. 078-77-9335

Sup.: Rev. Ignatius L. Foley

H tf j > -te > -> % ' ~7 • A •> a CD

(51f U^h^)
(655) ^FfTtf^M^
1-1-16
% 078-77-9335

Xaverian Missionary Fathers.

S.X.

9, Kagoike-dori 1-chome,

Fukiai-ku, Kobe 651

Tel. 078-22-2990

Sup.: Rev. Virginio Aresi


386


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(651)

m 078-22-2990


1-9


Order of Preachers. O.P.

4-5-5, Sanbancho, Matsuya-
ma-shi, Ehime-ken 790


Tel. 0899-21-1849

Sup.; Rev. Vicente Gonzalez


(790)


Hsmr 4-5-5


0899-21-1349


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES
OF WOMEN


Adorers Handmaids of the
Blessed Sacrament and of
Charity, Congregation of.
A.E.S.C.

2155, Kitami-cho, Setagaya-

ku, Tokyo 157

Tel. 03-489-1974

Sup.: Sister Isabel Bohor-

quez


(157)
2155

n 03-489-1974


Angels, Missionary Sisters of
Our Lady of the. M.N.D.A.

4-6, Yawata Honmachi, Shi-

zuoka 420

Tel. 0542-85-4956

Sup.: Sister Madeleine Guer-

tin


4-6


(420)

m 0542-85-4956


Assumption of the Virgin,
Sisters of the. S.A.S.V.

502, Namiuchi, Oaza Tsuku-
rimichi, Aomori 030
Tel. 01772—4-0122
Sup.: Sister Ste-Zenobie


502


(030) ff

n 01772-4-0122


Assumption, Congregation of
the. R.A.

1, Nyoidani, Minoo-shi, Osa

ka 562

Tel. 0727-22-3933

Sup.: Sister Eugenia Sole-

dad


(562) ^ra
n 0727-22-3933

Benedict, Order of St. O-S.B.

2-13, Higashi Azabu, Mina-
to-ku, Tokyo 106


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN


387


Tel. 03-583-5182

Sup.: Sister Mary Gertrude

Maus


2-13


(655)


7-4-4


078-77-3116


(106)

ra 03-583-5182


Bernardine Nuns of Esquer-
mes, Order of. O.B.N.E.

19775, Shijimizuka, Hama-

matsu 430

Tel. 0534-52-1573

Sup.: Sister Marie Lutgarde

Englebienne


19775


Charity, Daughters of. F.D.
C.C.

2-5-1, Sakurajosui, Seta-

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156

Tel. 03-302-1078

Sup.: Sister Paola Miramon-

ti


(430) i

m 0534-52-1573


Capitanio Sisters.

213, Honji Harayama, Seto-

shi, Aichi-ken 489

Tel. 0561-82-7713

Sup.: Sister Candida Gaz-

zaniga


(156)

2-5-1

m 03-302-1078

Charity and Christian Instruc
tion of Nevers, Sisters of.
S.C.I.C.N.

3, Taya-cho, Fukakusa, Fu-

shimi-ku, Kyoto 612

Tel. 075-641-6602

Sup.: Sister Bernadette

Gauthey


(489)

213

II 0561-82-7713

Carmelite Sisters of Charity.

4-4, Kasumigaoka 7-chome,

Tarumi-ku, Kobe 655

Tel. 078-77-3116

Sup.: Sister Ramona Escu-

dero


x V *. - fr g ® $s J: t>*

(612) MfPitT^HK
n 075-641-6602


U


de


Charity of St. Vincent
Paul, Daughters of.

1-16, Maikodai 1-chome,
Tarumi-ku, Kobe 655
Tel. 078-77-2734
Sup.: Sister Mary Moran

•7 • '•? $ o (D


388


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(655)

1-1-16

ft 078-77-2734

Charity of Quebec, Sisters of.

10-1, Wakabayashi-cho 3-

chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo

154

Tel. 03-414-3439

Sup.: Sister Marie-Anna

Chouinard


(154)
3-10-1


Christ Jesus, Missionaries of.

132-2, Shinden, Hatsuishi,

Nagareyama-shi, Chiba-ken

270-02

Tel. 0471-52-1022

Sup.: Sister Filar Perez Bo-

billo

4 'J * h • 4 ^Xx^SgrB^
(270-02) ^SiMOlTffTOfrffi
132-2
S 0471-52-1022

Christ the King, Missionary
Sisters of. M.C.R.

4-10-26, Honcho, Hoya-shi,

Tokyo 188

Tel. 0424-64-2211

Sup.: Sister Anne-Germaine

Smith


m 0424-64-2211

Claire, Order of St. O.S.C.C.

922, Inume-machi, Hachi-
oji-shi, Tokyo 192
Tel. 0426-54-4401
Sup.: Sister Ogishima


(192)

m 0426-54-4401


Immaculate, Teaching Sisters
of Mary.

2-15, Nomi-cho, Takatsuki-

shi, Osaka 569

Tel. 0726-75-1278

Sup.: Sister Asuncion Lla-

quet


2-15


(569)

m 0726-75-1278


Company of Mary.

2-41-23, Izumi, Suginami-

ku, Tokyo 166

Tel. 03-321-1550

Sup.: Maria Dolores Lashe-

ras


(166)


' 2-41-28


03-321-1550


(188)


4-10-26


Divine Heart and Immaculate
Virgin, Handmaids of.

1-185, Ogikubo, Suginami-
ku, Tokyo 167


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN


389


Tel. 03-391-7142
Sup.: Sister Pura


(167)

n 03-391-7142


1-185


Dominic, Religious Sisters of
St. O.P.

410, Midorigaoka, Itami-shi,

Hyogo-ken 664

Tel. 0727-72-2548

Sup.: Sister Ines Takaichi


410


1-10-1

m 03-700-0017

Catholic Mission Sisters of St.
Francis Xavier.

1.67, Nakajima-cho, Kochi

780

Tel. 0888-72-0522

Sup.: Sister Margaret Mary

# h y -j, * • -tf^'J^^ia-A^
(780) ?4^iU4iEfflI 167
3-72-0522


(664) %m

m 0727-72-2548


Dominican Nuns. O.P.

74, Ezomori, Ueda, Morioka-

shi, Iwate-ken 020

Tel. 0196-22-3936

Sup.: Sister Marie- Jeanne

de Jesus Crucifie


(020)

74

m 0196-22-3936

Dominique, Congregation Ro-
maine de Sainte. O.P.

1-10-1, Okamato-cho, Seta-

gaya-ku, Tokyo 157

Tel. 03-700-0017

Sup.: Sister Benedicta Take-

da


(157)


Franciscan Missionaries of
Mary.

2-5-1, Naka-Ochiai, Shin-

juku-ku, Tokyo 161

Tel. 03-951-1111

Sup.: Sister Francois Remi

v 'J


7 7 > -> 7* 3

(161) ESIB
m 03-951-1111


Franciscan Missionary Sisters
"Del Giglio".

2093, Aoba-cho 2-chome,

Higashi Murayama-shi, To

kyo 189

Tel. 0423-91-4127

Sup.: Sister Lauretana Mia-

tello


(189) I
2-2093


390


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


m 0423-91-4127

Franciscan Sisters of the Ato
nement. S.A.

572, Kamiyama-cho, Ko-
hoku-ku, Yokohama 226
Tel. 045-931-1532
Sup.: Sister Ann Philip
~7 h- >^ >


572


(226)

m 045-931-1532


Franciscan Nuns of the Most
Blessed Sacrament. F.S.S.S.

919, Shiobara, Fukuoka 810

Tel. 092-54-3627

Sup.: Sister Marie Bernice


(810) mm^m& 919

m 092-54-3627

Franciscan Sisters of St. Geor
ge.

Nishi 2-chome, Kita 16-jo,

Sapporo 065

Tel. 0122-73-0311

Sup.: Sister M. Paula Weil-

ke


•7 5 >
(065) ft
m 0122-73-0311

Good Samaritans, Sisters of
the.


746, Horen-cho, Nara 630

Tel. 0742-22-6160

Sup.: Sister Sheila Mary O'-

Donnell


(630)


746


0742-22-6160


Good Shepherd of Angers,
Congregation of Our Lady of.

3-58, Kasuga-cho, Toyonaka-

shi, Osaka 560

Tel. 068-52-1254

Sup.: Sister Marie de St.

Jacques


3-58


(560)

n 068-52-1254


Grey Sisters of the Cross.
S.G.C.

112, Anyoji-shita, Odawara

Haranomachi, Sendai 983

Tel. 0222-56-5279

Sup.: Sister Raymonde The-

rien

K • ^ • 2 o 7 £
(983) M£ffiiCfflT/.MBi[
^a^T 112
m 0222-56-5279

Guardian Angels, Sisters of
the. S.A.C.

2-22, Kotobuki-cho 2-chome,
Ube-shi, Yamaguchi 755


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN


391


Tel. 0836-21-0634

Sup.: Sister Maria Accacia


2-2-22


(755)

m 0836-21-0634


Heart of Mary, Daughters of.

6-2, Minami Motomachi,

Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-351-0297

Sup.: Miss France Chevil-

lette


6-2


'J

(150)

m 03-351-0297


Helpers of the Holy Souls.

24-1, Tamachi 2-chome, Ichi-

gaya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo

162

Tel. 03-269-3285

Sup.: Sister Marie de Ste.

Jeanne d'Arc Brizon


(162) jfi

2-24-1

m 03-269-3285


Holy Spirit, Missionary Sis
ters, Servants of the. C.M.S.
Sp.S.

1, Yagoto Honmachi, Sho-

wa-ku, Nagoya 466

Tel. 052-832-0434

Sup.: Sister Margarethe Ca-

denbach


(466)

n 052-832-0434


Holy Infant Jesus, Sisters of
the. (St. Maur)

7-5, Niban-cho, Chiyoda-ku,

Tokyo 102

Tel. 03-261-4306

Sup.: Sister Cecilia Taka-


(102)

m 03-261-4306


Hospital Sisters of the Third
Order of St. Francis. O.S.F.

650, Nibuno, Himeji-shi,
Hyogo-ken 760
Tel. 0792-22-5051
Sup.: Sister M. Elreda


650


(760)

m 0792-22-5051


Immaculate Conception, Mis
sionary Sisters of the.

8-13-16, Fukazawa-cho, Se-

tagaya-ku, Tokyo 158

Tel. 03-701-3295

Sup.: Sister Therese Lali-

berte


(158)

8-13-16


392


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


n 03-701-3295

Immaculate Conception, Tea
ching Missionary Sisters of
the.

1-56, Sonoyama-cho, Chi-

gusa-ku, Nagoya 464

Tel. 052-781-1696

Sup.: Sister Isabel Paran-

diet


(507) %L$VJ
m 0572-22-3373


38


(464)

156

n 052-781-1696


Infant Jesus of Chauffailles,
Congregation of the.

1-37, Nigawa Takadai 2-

chome, Takarazuka-shi,

Hyogo-ken 665

Tel. 0798-51-0174

Sup.: Sister Marie du St.

Sacrament


(665) &mm^.

2-1-37

m 0798-51-0174


Jesus Crucified, Congregation
of the Sisters of.

38, Midorigaoka, Tajimi-

shi, Gifu-ken 507

Tel. 0572-22-3373

Sup.: Sister Marie Asssum-

pta Honda


Jesus, Daughters of.

1968, Horiuchi, Hayama-

machi, Miura-gun, Kana-

gawa-ken 240-01

Tel. 0468-75-0459

Sup.: Sister M. del Carmen

Otamendi


(240-01)

Mft 1968

m 0468-75-0459

Jesus, Little Sisters of.

1-11, Naito-cho, Shinjuku-

ku, Tokyo 160

Tel. 03-341-2981

Sup.: Sister Johanna Misao


1-11


(160) iSH

m 03-341-2981


Joseph, Sisters of St.

7, Higashi Kobai-cho, Kita-
no, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603
Tel. 075-461-0245
Sup.: Sister M. Mark


(603)

n 075-461-0245


Joseph of Carondelet, Congre
gation of the Sisters of St.
110, Nakagawa-machi, Shi-


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN


393


mogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto

606

Tel. 075-781-0669

Sup.: Sister Mary Regis


l£:


(606) M
ffjllgtfflj HO
n 075-781-0669

Marie-Auxiliatrice, Society of.

2509, Higashi-Fukatsu-cho,
Fukuyama-shi, Hiroshima-
ken 720

Tel. 0849-22-1682
Sup.: Sister Marie Francis


(720) jCAJjlfliljftlKffttnr

2509

S 0849-22-1682

Mary Immaculate, Congrega
tion of the Daughters of.

1300-1, Sasu-cho, Chofu-shi,

Tokyo 182

Tel. 0424-83-3525

Sup.: Sister Isabel


1300-1


(182)

S 0424-83-3525


Korean Martyrs, Congregation
of the Blessed.

31-7, Ikaino Higashi 9-
chome, Ikuno-ku. Osaka 544
Tel. 06-757^768
Sup.: Sister Damien Oo Rin


Sook


(544)

9-31-7

a 06-757-4768


Maryknoll Sisters of St. Do
minic.

17, Ko\vaki-cho, Matsu-

gasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606

Tel. 075-78-3330

Sup.: Sister Sarina Naka-

mura

^ U ; -*
(606) M
/jNJ^fflj 17
n 075-78-3330


Mercedarian Missionaries of
Berriz.

33-28, Minami Koenji 2-

chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo

166

Tel. 03-311-3466

Sup.: Sister Juana Lasarte


(166)

m 2-33-28

n 03-311-3466

Notre Dame, Congregation de.

590, Shimo-Ishihara, Chofu-

shi, Tokyo 182

Tel. 0424-82-2012

Sup.: Sister Fernande St.

Pierre


394


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


3 > y u tf :> ^j- > • • K •

y - h;l/XA

(182) H^rUTeJI 590
m 0424-82-2012

Notre Dame, School Sisters of.

1, Sakuradani-cho, Shishi-
gadani, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606
Tel. 075-771-4436
Sup.: Sister Mary John


(606)


n 075-771-4436

Notre Dame of Namur, Sis
ters of.

26-21, Honcho 4-chome, Ki-
chijoji, Musashino-shi, To
kyo 180

Tel. 0422-52-1180
Sup.: Sister Mary Martina
i- I * -^ • ;


4-26-21

n 0422-52-1180

Our Lady's Missionaries.

346, Kamiagu, Maizuru-shi,

Kyoto 624

Tel. 07736-5-3222

Sup.: Sister Catherine Peco


(624)

n 07736-5-3222


Paris Foreign Mission Society,


Sisters of the.

Ko 9-1, Seki-machi 2-chome,
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177
Tel. 03-920-9118
Sup.: Sister Marie Andree


(177)
q\ 9-1

m 03-920-9118

Passion of Our Lord Jesus
Christ, Religious of the Most
Holy Cross and.

2-278, Nagaoyama, Kiri-

hata, Takarazuka-shi, Hyo-

go-ken 665

Tel. 0727-59-3742

Sup.: Sister John Mary


(665)

2-278

m 0727-59-3742

Paul, Daughters of St.

8-12-42, Akasaka, Minato-

ku, Tokyo 107

Tel. 03-408-2513

Sup.: Sister Agnes Leto


8-12-42


(107)

m 03-408-2513


Paul de Chartres, Sisters of
St.

4-1, Kita 2-chome, Kudan,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102


MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN


395


Tel. 03-261-7074

Sup.: Sister St. Luc Ebihara

-> ^ ;l/ I
(102)
2-4-1
m 03-261-7074

Pious Disciples of the Divine
Master.

1-3-15, Inokashira, Mitaka-

shi, Tokyo 181

Tel. 0422-43-2602

Sup.: Sister Silvana Pan-

caro

tf X • 7-' ,f

(181)

1-3-15

fg 0422-43-2602

Pious Institute of the
Daughters of Mary.

270, Tsukimidai, Hodogaya-

ku, Yokohama 240

Tel. 045-331-2952

Sup.: Sister Maria Pilar

Julian


Tel. 03-429-4823

Sup.: Sister Maria Beatriz

Aguilar Silva


(240)

270

tg 045-331-2952

Poor Clare Missionary Sisters
of the Blessed Sacrament.

27-15, Sakurashin-machi 1-
chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo
154


(154) ^

1-27-15

m 03-429-4823

Preachers, Order of.

33, Higashi Nagane-cho,
Seto-shi, Aichi-ken 489
Tel. 0561-82-6409
Sup.: Sister Marie Josepha

K ? -*> • i£3 •&?&)&&
(489) g^mUpTijmSffiW 33
m 0561-82-6409

Precious Blood, Sisters Ado
rers of.

200, Amanuma, Chigasaki-
shi, Kanagawa-ken 253
Tel. 0467-82-3672
Sup.: Sister St. Paul of the

Cross


200


(253) flj

n 0467-82-3672


Presentation of Mary, Sisters
of the.

6-25, Matsuzaki-cho 3-
chome, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545
Tel. 06-621-2110
Sup.: Sister Marie Saint-
Theodule Fecteau


396


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


(545)

3-6-25

H 06-621-2110


Kedeemer, Order of the Most
Holy.

263, Hiyoshi, Fuki, Maizuru-

shi, Kyoto 624

Tel. 07736-5-1413

Sup.; Sister Eosalie Aarts

Ixr >:/ h-Ji/ife^jgEill^
(624) £•»£?& itf« Hit 263
m 07736-5-1413

Sacred Heart of Jesus, Hand
maids of the.

8-3, Higashi Gotanda 3-

chome, Shinagawa-ku, To

kyo 141

Tel. 03-442-6370; 441-4871;

441-6442

Sup.: Sister Mercedes Ruiz


(150)

n 03-400-1890


4-3-1


(141)

3-8-3

S 03-442-6370, 441-4871,

441-6442

Sacred Heart of Jesus, Socie
ty of the.

4-3-1, Hiroo, Shibuya-ku,

Tokyo 150

Tel. 03-400-1890

Sup.: Sister Brigid Keogh


Trinity, Eucharistic Mission
aries of the Most Holy.

2-10-14, Kami-Tanaka-cho,

Shimonoseki-shi, Yamagu-

chi-ken 751

Tel. 0832-22-6636

Sup.: Sister Josef a Fox


(751)

2-10-14

m 0832-22-6636


Ursuline Sisters.

1-2, Ipponsugi-machi,

dai 982

Tel. 0222-56-0931

Sup.: Sister Roland De-

schamps


Sen-


(982)

m 0222-56-0931

Ursulines of the Sacred Heart.

92-2, Shiobara, Fukuoka 810

Tel. 092-54-2428

Sup.: Sister M. Enrica Bon-

bagna


(810) ^i|^TtJig,fg 92-2
m 092-54-2428

International Catholic Auxili
aries.


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


397


185, Okubo-cho, Minami-ku,
Yokohama 233
Tel. 045-741-0259
Sup.: Miss Marie Rose Jas
pers


(233)

m 045-741-0259


Teresian Institute.

9-2, Yamate-dori 1-chome,
Showa-ku, Nagoya 466
Tel. 052-832-2473
Sup.: Maria Josefa Sarrasin


(466)
1-9-2
» 052-832-2473


Mission Sisters of the Holy
Redeemer.

1685, Toso, Tagami-cho,

Kagoshima 890

Tel. 09922-5-2505

Sup.: Sister Katarina Maria

Gandl


I/ 7-' > 7 \>
(890)
m 09922-5-2505


1685


Mary Help of Christians,
Daughters of.

4-2-14, Akabanedai, Kita-

ku, Tokyo 115

Tel. 03-907-2036

Sup.: Sister Giuseppina Za-

ninetti


4-2-14


(115)

m 03-907-2036


Mary, The Missionary Society
of.

11-6, Kosada 3-chome,
Hashimoto-shi, Wakayama-
ken 648

Tel. 07363-2-0574
Sup.: Sister Wanda de Rosa
-7 'J

(648)

3-11-6

m 07363-2-0574


398


CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY


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STATISTICS OF THE ADMINISTRATORS APOSTOLIC
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Area:

Population :

Catholic Population:

Catechumens :

Baptisms:

Marriages:

Easter Communions:

Bishop:

Priests:


Seminarians:

Brothers :

Sisters:

Parishes :

Catechists :

Deaths:

Educational Institutions


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1,004,692

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230

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2,420

1

Japanese Secular 2

Japanese Religious 1

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Japanese 41; Missionary 4

12; Stations 7; Centers 5

Male 1; Female 1

33


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Sunday Schools:
Student Residence


1; Students: Male 135, Female 75
2; Students: Male 462, Female 457
10; Students: Male 706, Female 685
14; Students: Male 346, Female 631
1; Residents 20
Social and Welfare Institutions
Dispensary: 1; Consultations 7,779

* Catholic Population 'Net' refers to the number of Catholic
faithful, less priests, religious, seminarians. 'Total' refers
to all.


PART IV


IN MEMORIAM


IN MEMORIAM

1969 REPORT
PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES

Compiled by Howard Norman

Hymns like "Onward Christian Soldiers" are not popular
in some Christian circles today. We can understand this and
do sympathize with this attitude. But was the Roman soldier
of the first century a glamorous figure for the Jews? Yet the
Pauline epistles have many military metaphors.

In offering this necrology we have no hesitation in de
scribing them as Christ's soldiers who fought the good
fight, for they fought with Christ's weapons of love and faith
with — in most cases — more courage than five soldiers. We
honor them and list them with joy for their long battle for
the Kingdom, in the knowledge that they are now enjoying
rich fellowship with their Captain.

The following are the names of those reported to us.

MR. FREDERICK ABLE, Missionary Band of the World,
was born June 30, 1878 in Marshall, Illinois ,U.S.A. and
died March 23, 1968 in Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A. In
Japan: 1913-1940. Sei-ved: Fukaya and Tokyo in evangelis
tic work. Of his four children, Dorothy became a missionary
to Japan, and one son a pastor in Rye, N.Y., and another
son a pastor in Delphi, Indiana.

' MISS MARTHA AKARD, of the United Lutheran Church
of America, died May 30, 1969 in Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
In Japan 1914-1956, except for the war years. She founded
the Kyushu Girls' School and served as its president for


412 IN MEMORIAM

many years. She was elected president of the National
Kindergarten Union in Japan several times. In 1955 she
was awarded The Fourth Order of the Sacred Treasure.

MR. ROBERT R. BASINGER, Board of World Missions of
the Methodist Church, was born November 7, 1924 at
Mountain Lake, Minn. U.S.A. and died October 9, 1967. In
Japan 1950-1953. Served: Teacher of English in Rakuno
Gakuen, Hokkaido and in Too Gijuku in Hiroshima. He
died of leukemia.

V MISS FLpRENCEJBIRD. of the United Church of Canada,
was born in Marysville, New Brunswick, Canada, April 27,
1885 and died July_9, 1968 at Fredericton, N.B., Canada. In
Japan 1912-1920. She came to Japan under the Women's
Missionary Society to the Methodist Church of Canada
which later became the W.M.S. of the United Church of
Canada. She served in direct kindergarten work and in the
training of kindergarten teachers in Nagano, Ueda, Tokyo
and Shizuoka. From 1922-1953, when she retired, she was
engaged in the Japanese work of the United Church in
Vancouver, Montreal and Toronto.

MISS LEONA BURR, of the United Church Board for
World Ministries, was born at Academy, South Dakota,
U.S.A. on June 9, 1890 and died August 5, 1968 at Mitchell,
South Dakota, U.S.A. Served in China 1919-1954. Profes
sor of English Literature, Kobe College, Nishinomiya,
1950-1954.

MISS ELIZABETH LOUISE BYRD, World Mission to
Children, was born June 11, 1916 in Tacoma, Washington,
U.S.A. and died August 30, 1960 in Sasebo, Japan. In
Japan: 1956-1960.


PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 413

MISS LOLA CLARK, came out to Japan under the Women's
Missionary Society of the Methodist Church of Canada
(now the United Church of Canada). Died December 17,
1968 at Chatham^ Ontario. In Japan 1919-1925. She taught
at the Kofu Girls' High School (Yamanashi Eiwa).


^ MABEL CLAZIE, of the United Church of Canada,
was born in Belleville, Ontario, Canada, December 26, 1879
and died April 5, 1968. She served from 1910-1931 in For
mosa under the Presbyterian Church of Canada; 1932-1943
in Japan under the United Church of Canada. For most of
this period she served as a social worker in the Aiseikwan
Social Service Settlement in Tokyo. From December 1941
until her return to Canada in 1943, she was kept under
observation and interned.

MRS. EMMA FLEDDERJOHN COOK, Evangelical and
Reformed Church, was born in Tolono, Illinois, U.S.A. and
died February 14, 1967 in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. In
Japan: 1902-1916. Served: With her husband, who died in
1916, in North Japan College, Sendai, and in evangelistic
work in Yamagata and Akita prefectures. She held cook
ing and Bible study classes. Of six daughters, two later
were short-term teachers in Miyagi Girls School in Sendai,
Mrs. Cook's niece and grand-niece now represent the Cook
family as missionaries in Japan.

REVEREND LEONARD WREN COOTE, of the Far East
Apostolic Mission, was born April 20, 1891 in Enfield,
Middlesex, England and died in San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.
on February 23, 1969. In Japan 1913-1959, Korea 1959-
1968. He founded churches in Tokyo, Nara and Osaka and
a Bible College in Ikoma, as well as the Osaka Evangelistic
Tabernacle. He also established churches and Bible Colleges
in the U.S.A. and Korea.


414 IN MEMORIAM

MISS AMY R. CROSBY, of the Woman's American Baptist
Foreign Mission Society, was born April 25, 1885 in Center-
ville, Mass. U.S.A. and died November 5, 1968 in Boston,
Mass. U.S.A. In Japan 1916-1933. She taught at the Tokyo
Kindergarten Teacher's Training School and served for
shorter periods at Misakicho Tabernacle, the Yotsuya Stu
dent Dormitory and at Mead Christian Center in Osaka.
She served as hostess at Hasseltine House in Newton Cen
ter until retirement.

I/ REVERENDJDARLEY DOWNS, P.P., of the United Church
Board for World Ministries, formerly American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Congregational
Church, was born in Manitou, Colorado, April 8, 1894 and
died in Hendersonville, North Carolina, March_ 29^1969. In
Japan 1919-1941, 1947-1963. He served arPoshisha Mid
dle School in Kyoto and in 1929 became director of the
School of Japanese Language and Culture in Tokyo. On
temporary assignment in the Philippines when the war
broke out, he was interned and for four years he served as
liaison between internees and Japanese authorities. After
the war he returned to Japan and was a key figure in
negotiating arrangements for the Council of Cooperation
of the Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan and the Interboard Commit
tee for Christian Missions and acted until his retirement
as Secretary of the Interboard Field Committee. He is
survived by his wife Lucille and three children. In October
1968 he was awarded a decoration from the emperor, the
Third Class Order of the Sacred Treasure.

REVERENP EPWIN BURKE POZIER, of the Southern
Baptist Convention, was born in Nagasaki, Japan, April 16,
1908 and died May 10, 1969 at Fukuoka. In Japan 1932-
1941, 1946-1969. He was engaged in both educational and
evangelistic work, serving at various times as Pean of the


PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 415

English Literature Department, Professor in the Seminary,
and Chancellor of the Seinan Gakuin Foundation. From
1941-1945 he ministered to Japanese speaking people in the
Hawaiian Islands. He was the first S.B.C. missionary to
return to Japan after the war. On December 18, 1968, he
received the Decoration of the Rising Sun of the Fourth
Rank from the Japanese Government.

KARL FRIEDRICH EITEL, M.D., of the Liebenzeller Mis
sion, was born in Germany, December 15, 1889 and died at
Calw, West-Germany, February 8, 1968. Dr. Eitel first went
to China in 1922. He came to Japan in 1951 and engaged
in medical work in Tokyo until his retirement in 1968.

MRS. WILLIAM H. ERSKINE, (nee Virginia Stewart),
of the United Christian Missionary Society, was born at
Perry Depot, Ohio, U.S.A. and died in Silver Springs, Mary
land, U.S.A. on November 15, 1968. In Japan 1904-1933.
She served with her husband in Akita and Osaka in both
educational and evangelistic work.

MISS STELLA MARIE GRAVES, of the United Church of
Christ, was born at Battle Creek, Michigan, U.S.A. and
died in Long Beach, California U.S.A. December 2, 1968.
In Japan 1922-1930. She taught music at Kobe College for
five years and one year in Tottori. Transferred in 1930 to
Foochow Mission, China, serving in Shanghai and at Gink-
ing College, Nanking and West China until 1948. Active
in the United States until 1966, teaching, acquainting
westerners with music of the Far East and as organist at
Grace Presbyterian Church, Los Angeles.

MISS FLORENCE ISABELL HAMILTON, Anglican
Church of Canada, was born June 15, 1886 in Collingwood,
Ontario, Canada and died March 1. 1968 in Toronto, Canada.


416 IN MEMORIAM

In Japan: 1914-1964. Served: Matsumoto, Toyohashi and
Ueda in evangelistic work and Kindergarten work includ
ing the training of teachers. Before coming to Japan she
taught at an Indian school in Fort McPherson in the Mc-
Kenzie district in the Arctic Circle in northern Canada.
During 1942-1951 she worked among relocated Japanese in
British Columbia, Canada.

MISS KATE HANSEN, Doctor of Music, Evangelical and
Reformed Church, was born 1879 in Logan Kansas, U.S.A.
and died January 4, 1968 in Logan, Kansas. In Japan:
1907-1947. Served: Taught music in Miyagi Gakuen, Sen-
dai. Dr. Hansen contributed mwch to sacred music in Japan.

'' REVEREND^CHARLES W^ IGLEHART, Ph.D, D.D., of

the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, later the Division of Foreign Mission, The Metho
dist Church, was born in Evansville, Indiana, U.S.A. on
April 17, 1882 and died at Dunedin, Florida, U.S.A., May 4,
1969. In Japan 1909-1941 and 1950-1953. He worked in
Hirosaki, and in Tokyo, in which place he served as Pro
fessor at Tokyo Shingaku Daigaku and at Aoyama Gakuin
Daigaku. He was also Honorary Secretary of the National
Christian Council and Professor at International Christian
University. He was in Japan again 1961-1963. In his home
land he was twice Associate Secretary of his Board of Mis
sions and also from 1944-1950, he was Associate Professor,
and Professor of Missions, Union Theological Seminary,
N.Y. In 1953 he received the Fourth Class Order of the
Rising Sun.

MISS MARY JESSE, Baptist, was born 1885 in Lancaster
Virginia, U.S.A. and died May 12, 1968 in Alhambra, Cali
fornia, U.S.A. In Japan: 1912-1952. Served: Shokei Joga-
kuin, Sendai her entire time in Japan. She became the


PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 417

second principal of the School. In 1962 she returned for the
70th anniversary celebration. A representative of the school
returned her ashes which were buried in Sendai. In May
1952, she was decorated with the Fourth Order of the
Sacred Treasure.

REVEREND WALTER WESLEY KRIDER, Methodist,
was born August 23, 1894 in Portland, Indiana, U.S.A. and
died October 12, 1967 in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. In Japan
1920-1964. Served: Nagasaki and Tokyo. After the war
he also worked in Okinawa.

MRS. ANNA THOMAS LAMPE, Evangelical and Reformed
Church, was born 1873 and died February 11, 1965 in Phila
delphia, Pa., U.S.A. In Japan: 1900-1907. Served in Sendai
with her husband.

MISS CLARA LOOMIS, of the Woman's Union Missionary
Society, was born at San Rafael, California, U.S.A., Octo
ber 14, 1877 and died September 5, 1968 at Claremont,
California, U.S.A. Came to Japan at the age of three. Her
parents were Henry Loomis of the American Bible Society,
and Jane Herring Greene Loomis, sister of Daniel Crosby
Greene, first American Board missionary to Japan. Re
turned to Japan 1902 and was Principal of the Yokohama
Kyoritsu Gakuen (Doremus School) until 1936. She taught
at Doshisha 1939-1940. After returning to the U.S. she
taught one term at Wesleyan University, New Haven, Con
necticut.

ELIZABETH TRENT WILSON McLAUCHLIN (Mrs.
Wilferd C. McLauchlin), of the Presbyterian Church in the
United States, was born in Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A.,
June 10, 1887 and died at China Grove, North Carolina,
U.S.A., January 8, 1969. In China 1916-1949 (Suchien and


418 IN MEMORIAM

Haichow); in Korea 1927-1928. In Japan 1949-161. With
Dr. McLauchlin, she served in evangelistic work among
Overseas Chinese, opening up the first of this mission's
work in Japan, and establishing congregations in Kobe,
Osaka and Kyoto. She also made invaluable contribution
at Kobe Union Church. After leaving Japan Dr. and Mrs.
McLauchlin have been serving the Emanuel Presbyterian
Church, China Grove.

MISS AGNES SOPHIE MELINE, of the Woman's Ameri
can Baptist Foreign Mission Society, was born December 10,
1886, in Colon, Nebraska, U.S.A., and died March 17, 1969,
in Norfold, Nebraska. In Japan 1919-1932. She taught at
Sochin Girls' School in Yokohama and Shokei Girls' School
in Sendai. Returning at her own expense in 1937 she taught
at Tsuda College until she was interned in 1941. She was
repatriated on the Gripsholm in December of 1943.

MRS. SHERWOOD F. MORAN, (nee Ursul Reeves)
American Board of Commissioners, died October 25, 1967 in
Claremont, California, U.S.A. In Japan 1916-1957. Served:
Yodogawa Settlement House (Zenrinkan), in Osaka. Rev.
S.F. Moran was one of the founders of this institution.

REVEREND WILLIAM B. PARSONS, Protestant Episcopal

Church, U.S.A.

MRS. GLORIA LOUISE PENNINGTON, Reformed Presby
terian Church of North America, was born in New Brigh
ton, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., November 2, 1938 and died in
San Diego, California, U.S.A., November 23, 1967. In Japan
1964-1966. Worked in student work in Hyogo Ken. After
leaving Japan she served in various capacities as wife of
the pastor of San Diego, California, Reformed Presbyterian
Church.


PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 419

MISS TORDIS M. PETERSEN, of the Board of Interna
tional Missions of the Evangelical and Reformed Church
which is now merged with the United Church of Christ,
was born at Flekkef jord, Norway, January 28, 1915 and died
at Short Hills, New Jersey, U.S.A. May 7, 1969. In Japan
1953-1958 working at the Doshisha Theological Seminary
and in Occupational Evangelism, leading workers' choruses
in Osaka. Returned for a time to Japan and worked as a
secretary at IBM.

MISS MYRTLE Z. PIDER, Methodist, was born 1880 in
Kansas City, Missouri, and died September 9, 1967 in Pasa
dena, California, U.S.A. In Japan: 1911-1950. Served:
Tokyo Women's Christian College, Tokyo, during her entire
stay in Japan.

REVEREND JEFFERSON FRANKLIN RAY, Southern
Baptist, was born January 15, 1872 in Ripley, Mississippi,
U.S.A. and died September 13, 1967, in Jackson, Tennessee.
In Japan 1904-1940. Served: Evangelistic work in Fukuoka,
Hiroshima, Kure, and in the Shimonoseki-Kobe area.
While living in Shimonoseki he was one of the first to use
an automobile for literature evangelism. He received
degrees from Union University in Jackson, Mississippi and
from the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louis
ville, Kentucky. Before coming to Japan he was pastor of
churches and taught school in Alabama and Mississippi.
Mrs. Ray died in 1944. To them were born three children.
Dr. Herman S. Ray served as missionary in Japan and is
now a pastor in Honolulu.

MISS CONSTANCE M. RICHARDSON, Church Missionary
Society, was born October 16, 1887 in England and died
November 14, 1968, Cambridge, England. In Japan 1911-
1918. She taught at Poole School, Osaka and worked as


420 IN MEMORIAM

evangelist in Tokushima. She was Principal of Kennaway
Training College, England in 1924. Later she took great
interest in Japanese students in Cambridge.

REVEREND STEPHEN WILLIS RYDER, Ph.D., Re
formed Church in America, was born 1880 in Florida and
died November 28, 1967. Graduated from Yale University
1910, Brunswick Seminary, N.J., 1913, Ph.D. Columbia Uni
versity, Union Free College, Glasgow. In Japan: 1919-1930.
Served: Saga. After leaving Japan he served the Flatbush
Church, Saugerties. He wrote the book, "A Historical
Source Book of the Japan Mission of the Reformed Church
in America, 1958-1951".

MRS. CHARLES H. SEARS, (nee Minnie V. Sandberg), of
the Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society,
was born in Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. on February 25,
1894 and died December 1, 1968 in Kansas City, Kansas.
She taught at Soshin Girls' School in Yokohama and also
was for a time its principal. In Japan 1918-1923. From
1928-1959 she served as the WABFMS Candidate Secretary,
Foreign Vice President, and Secretary for Japan, Philippines
and China. After the Merger of the Woman's Society with
the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, she served
as Secretary for Japan, Hong Kong and the Philippines.
From retirement she taught Missions at Central Baptist
Seminary in Kansas City.

REVEREND DEWEES FRANKLIN SINGLEY, Evangeli-
can and Reformed Church, was born 1889 (or 1890) in
Nuremburg, Schuylkill Co., Pa., U.S.A. and died November
22, 1966 in Southamption, Pa. In Japan: 1918-1924. Served:
Morioka in evangelistic Work. After leaving Japan he
served as minister in Mauch Chunk, Pa., Amherst, Henrietta,


PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 421

and Akron, Ohio. He retired in 1964 but continued to sup
ply.

ROY SMITH, Methodist, was born June 17, 1878 on a farm
a,rNiota,"Hancock County, Illinois, U.S.A. and died June 3,
1968 while visiting old friends on a farm adjoining his
birthplace. In Japan 1903-1906, 1909-1942, 1947-1968. In
answer to the Student Volunteer Movement appeal for
Middle and High School teachers he taught at Chofu, Yama-
guchiken, and Waseda, Tokyo. In 1909, after further edu
cation in America he returned to Japan and began to teach
at Kobe Higher Commercial School. He remained with that
institution .when it became the Commercial Department of
Kobe University until his retirement in 1968. In 1938 he
was awarded the Fifth Class Order of the Sacred Treasure
and later received two other decorations from the Japanese
Government. On his retirement he was made an honorary
professor of Kobe University. From 1942-1947 he worked
among the Japanese in Chicago.

MRS. IRENE SABIN SNELSON, R.N., of the Fukuin Koyu
Kai, was born March 27, 1908 in Palmyra, N.J., U.S.A. and
died while on furlough on February 23, 1969 when in the
hospital for treatment. She worked in Hamadera, Sakai,
Osaka Fu, caring for many babies which were adopted by
missionaries in the Fukuin Koyu Kai. She later worked in
Kobe with established churches, and cared for convalescents
in her home. In Japan 1949-1968.

HviISSJVlARIE STAPLES, of the United Church of Canada,
was born ~at~ Princeton, Ontario, Canada on March 3, 1889
and died in Brantford, Ontario, Canada on July 26, 1968.
In Japan 1914-1941. She served as teacher at the Toyo
Eiwa Girls' School in Tokyo and also as teacher and
evangelistic missionary in Nagano, Fukui, and Shizuoka.


422 IN MEMORIAM

After returning to Canada she worked with the All Peo
ple's Mission in Windsor, Ontario, Canada.

MISS GRACE STOWE, American Board of Commissioners,
was born April 11, 1882 in Enfield, Connecticut, U.S.A. and
died September 7, 1967 in Claremont, California, U.S.A.
In Japan: 1908-1952. Served: Kobe College, Nishinomiya
her entire stay in Japan. She was president of the college
1925-1926. During the war years she served in Madura,
South India.

REVEREND A. J. STIREWALT, D.D., of the United
Lutheran Church of America was born February 5, 1881
and died September 28, 1968 in Luray, Virginia, U.S.A. In
Japan 1905-1968. He served in various capacities until his
retirement in 1952. After his retirement until the summer
of 1968 he lived in Japan and did educational work in Kobe
in the Bible School and Seminary under the auspices of the
Norwegian Lutheran Missionary Society. For many years
he was the necrologist for the Fellowship of Christian Mis
sionaries.

MR. CECIL S. WILKINSON, Japan Evangelistic Band, was
born in England and died February 12, 1968 in Worcester,
England. In Japan 1913-1937. Served: International Chris
tian Police Association, Tokyo, Koriyama. Fukuchiyama,
Kobe, and Field Director of the J.E.B. After leaving Japan
he ministered to Japanese in British Columbia and Alberta,
Canada.

v ' ^SS^MABEL WHITEHEAD, of the Board of Missions of
the Methodist Church: World Mission, formerly Board of
Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South;
Woman's Division of Christian Service of the Methodist
Church, was born in Arcadia, Missouri, U.S.A., January 22,


CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES 423

1892 and died in Birmingham, Alabama, August 8, 1968. In
Japan 1917-1940, 1946-1960. For some time she worked in
Oita. After the war, in 1952 she became President of Seiwa
Junior College, now Seiwa College for Christian Workers,
in Nishinomiya, a position which she held until her retire
ment.

MISS FLORENCE WALVOORD, Reformed Church in
America, was born January 28, 1896 in Cedar Grove, Wis
consin, U.S.A. and died October 1, 1967 in Denton, Texas,
U.S.A. In Japan: 1922-1960. Served: Baiko Jo Gakko,
Shimonoseki. During the war she served in India.

CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES

SISTER ALICE ATKINSON was born January 1, 1892 in
New Jersey, U.S.A., and died June 22, 1968 in Seoul, Korea.
In Japan: 1932-1957. Taught at Obayashi and Susono
Sacred Heart Schools. Went to Seoul 1957 as founder of
Sacred Heart School. In Japan and Korea ... 36 years.
SISTER MARIA CAMILLERI was born August 28, 1897
in Malta and died July 3, 1968 in Tokyo. In Japan: 1926-
1968. Served as teacher in Sacred Heart School, Tokyo . . .
42 years.

BROTHER GELINAS CONRAD, O.F.M., was born No
vember 28, 1889, in Saint Barnabe, P.Q., Canada, and died
April 27, 1968 in Tokyo. Served in Japan: 1922-1968 in
Kagoshima and Tokyo ... 46 years.

FATHER FRANCIS A. CUNERTY, C.SS.R., was born
December 24, 1923 in Toronto, Canada and died March 9,
1968 in Toronto. Served in Japan: 1956-1966 in Kyoto...
10 years.

SISTER CLEMENCE DEPREY (SISTER ADOLPH) of St.

Maur, was born November 10, 1887 in France and died


424 IN MEMORIAM

November 26, 1968 in Tokyo. In Japan: 1925-1968. Served
as a teacher in St. Maur's schools in Tokyo, Shizuoka,
Hakodate and Yokohama. In Japan ... 43 years.

SISTER ST. ANNE DUFORD was born April 28, 1886 in
Lennoxville, P.Q., Canada and died December 9, 1968 in
Chigasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture. Served in Japan 1934-
1968... 34 years.

FATHER GRATIAN FELTZ, O.F.M., was born January 1,
1904 in New York and died January 22, 1969 in New Jersey.
Served as a missionary in China 1934-1948. In Japan: 1955-
1958. Served at Kitahama, Osaka. In Japan and China
17 years.

FATHER FRANCIS FLAHERTY, C.P., was born April 19,
1903 in Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A., and died December 7, 1968
in Detroit. Served as a missionary in China for 25 years.
In Japan: 1963-1965 as director of retreats ... 2 years.

BROTHER CHARLES FOJOUCZYUK, F.M.S., was born
January 17, 1893, in Detmold, Germany, and died June 17,
1969 in Tokyo. Served in China 1913-1951. In Japan: 1951-
1969. Founder of Marist School, Kobe. In Japan and China
... 56 years.

FATHER JOHN FORSTER, S.J., was born March 26, 1902
in Montana, U.S.A., and died March 9, 1969 in Seattle.
Served as professor in Jesuit schools in the U.S. from 1934-
1948. In Japan: 1948-1968. Served at Yokosuka, Kobe and
Tokyo ... 20 years.

BROTHER RENE GAVALDA, S.M., was born in Vincenne,
France November 30, 1880 and died September 15, 1968 in
Tokyo. In Japan: 1904-1968. Served as professor at Gaku-
shuin and tutor to Prince Chichibu. Teacher at Gyosei and


CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES 425

Chaminade schools ... 64 years.

BROTHER IGNATIUS CROPPER, S.J., was born Decem
ber 2, 1889 in Bayern, Germany and died November 17, 1968
in Tokyo. In Japan: 1930-1968. Served as architect for
churches and institutions ... 38 years.

BROTHER THEODOR GUTLEBEN, S.M., was born No
vember 8, 1882 in Alsace and died February 18, 1969 in
Tokyo. In Japan: 1903-1969. Served as teacher in St.
Joseph College, Yokohama, Osaka Meisei, Tokyo Meisei and
Gyosei ... 66 years.

FATHER JOSEPH HEIDRICH (FATHER EDMUNDUS)
O.C.S.O., was born March 5, 1898, in Oberschlesien, Ger
many, and died at the Trappist Monastery in Hokkaido on
November 1, 1968. In Japan: 1927-1968. Served as a mis
sionary with the Divine Word Society in Kanazawa and
Akita. Entered the Trappists in 1948... 41 years.

SISTER KATE HOLLAND was born June 6, 1882 in
Sefton, New Zealand, and died December 1, 1968 in Osaka.
In Japan: 1926-1968. Served as teacher at Sacred Heart
School, Obayashi, Takarazuka ... 42 years.

FATHER JULIUS HOLZER, S.V.D., was born February 6,
1894 in Vienna and died January 9, 1969 in Nagasaki. In
Japan: 1931-1969. Served as teacher in Nanzan University,
Nagoya, and as principal of Nanzan High School, Naga
saki ... 38 years.

FATHER ANTHONY KARLOVECIUS, M.M., was born in
Chicago, 111., U.S.A., on June 13, 1921 and died April 9,
1969 in Chicago. In Japan: 1952-1968. Served in Kyoto . . .
15 years.

FATHER JACQUES LEDUC, O.P., was born October 23,


426 IN MEMORIAM

1927 in Sainte-Anne de Bellevue, P.Q., Canada, and died
September 10, 1968, in Montreal. Served in Japan: 1956-
1968 as pastor of Shibuya Church, Tokyo, and Director of
Veritas Publishing Company, Kyoto. In Japan ... 12 years.

FATHER GUSTAVE MAYET, M.E.P., was born in Jura,
France in 1890 and died in Tokyo July 10, 1969. In Japan
1921-1969. Served in Sekiguchi and as first pastor of Koen-
ji Church in Tokyo. Founder and director of Tokyo Kinder
garten and Nursery Teachers' Training School ... 48 years.

SISTER M. EPHREM ANNA MERTEN, Franciscan mis
sionary, was born August 22, 1885 in Spahn, Germany and
died July 8, 1968 at Yuki no Seibo-en, Tsukigata-machi,
Hokkaido. In Japan: 1925-1968. Served as teacher and
director of home for mentally retarded children ... 43 years.

FATHER ALOIS OBERLE, S.V.D., was born January 2,
1895 in Wiimersheim/Rastatt, Germany, and died May 16,
1968 in Nagoya. Served in China 1925-1949. In Japan:
1949-1968. Served as teacher in Nanzan High School, Na
goya. In Japan and China ... 43 years.

FATHER GERARD PARE, O.P., was born July 16, 1906,
in Montmagny, P.Q., Canada and died July 29, 1968, in
Tokyo. In Japan: 1955-1968. Served as superior of the
Dominicans in Japan 1955-1963 and afterwards in Shibuya
Church ... 13 years.

BROTHER FRANCOIS-XAVIER POITRAS (BROTHER
FELIX-MARIE), F.I.C., was born April 10, 1902 in Sainte-
Scholastique, P.Q., Canada and died in Fukushima Pre
fecture July 7, 1968. In Japan: 1951-1968. Served in St.
Mary's International School, Tokyo, which he founded. In
Japan ... 17 years.


CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES 427

SISTER ERNESTINA RAMALLO was born in Buenos
Aires November 9, 1902 and died January 26, 1969, in Tokyo.
In Japan: 1934-1969. Founded the Seisen Schools in Tokyo,
Kamakura, Nagano and Ofuna. Superior of the Handmaids
of the Sacred Heart and first president of the Association
of Religious Sisters in Japan ... 35 years.

FATHER FRANCIS REUSCHEL, S.J., was born Novem
ber 23, 1913 in Breslau, Schlesien, Germany, and died July
23, 1968 in Hiroshima. In Japan: 1935-1968. Served in
Fukuyama, Yokosuka, Onomichi, Hatsukaichi, and Yanai
... 33 years.

SISTER LEONA ROUSSEL, of the Congregation of Notre
Dame, was born 11 December, 1909, in Tracadie, N.B., Cana
da and died October 2, 1968, in Montreal. In Japan: 1959-
1968. Served as a teacher in Tokyo ... 9 years.

FATHER MACARIO RUIZ, O.P., was born February 28,
1894 in Palencia, Spain and died October 31, 1968 in Sakai-
de, Kagawa-ken. In Japan: 1918-1968. Served as pastor in
Shikoku ... 50 years.

SISTER MARIANNE DE SCHONBERG (SISTER M.
HERIBERTA) of the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, was
born on March 25, 1882, in Wilsdruff, Saxony, Germany and
died November 1, 1968 in Yokohama. Served in China 1921-
1950 and at Yokohama 1950-1968. In Japan and China . . .
47 years.

SISTER SAL VINA XERRI was born May 14, 1901 in Malta
and died June 3, 1969 in Osaka. In Japan: 1927-1936 and
1952-1969. Served as teacher in Obayashi and Tokyo Sacred
Heart schools. In Shanghai 1936-1951. In Japan and China
... 42 years.


428 CONTRIBUTORS OF ARTICLES


Contributors of Articles

Toru Takakura

General Secretary, Kyodan

(United Church of Christ in Japan)
James Colligan, M.A.

Information Office

National Committee of Catholic Church
Hisashi Aizawa, LL.D.

Professor, Sophia University, LL.D.
Robert Epp, Ph.D.

Eesearcher and Chief Translator

Center for Japanese Social and Political Studies

Assistant Professor of Oriental Languages, University

of California, Los Angeles

Reiko Matsuoka

Playwright

Vice-President of the Japan YWCA and Tokyo YWCA
Keiji Kuniyasu

Pastor, Komazawa Church, Kyodan
Takashi Sakamoto, Ph.D.

Professor, Sophia University
Chitose Kishi, D.D., Th.D.

President, Japan Lutheran Theological Seminary
Chosei Kabira

President, Okinawa Hoso Kyokai

(Okinawa Broadcasting Corporation)
Paul Pfister, D.D.

Professor, lezusu-kai Shingakuin

(St. Mary's College)


TRANSLATORS 429


Translators

1. (a) Kev. and Mrs. John Krummel, Missionaries of Unit

ed Methodist Church and I.B.C., Staff of Aoyama
Gakuin.

2. Rev. Grant Worth, missionary of Southern Baptist Con
vention.

4. Rev. W.H. Howard Norman, D.D. Missionary of the
United Church of Canada and I.B.C.

5. Miss Patricia Murray, Staff member of Center for Japa
nese Social and Political Studies.

8. Fr. Francis Uyttendaele, CICM, Editor: The Japan Mis
sionary Bulletin, Researcher, Oriens Institute for Re
ligious Research.

9. Rev. William Elder, Missionary of the United Methodist
Church and I.B.C.


BgjU 45 ^ 3 n 10 0


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Printed in Japan (1970)


Statistics of the Protestant Churches

Churches

Preaching
Points

Japan Church of Jesus Christ

67

Japan Evangelistic Band

4

11

Kassui Kirisuto Kyodan

3

14

Church of the Resurrected Christ

4

7

Universal Evangelical Church

1

30

Fukuin Dendo Kyodan

20

21

Japan Evangelical Mission

9

5

Next Towns Crusade in Japan

11



Kirisuto Shinshu Kyodan

12

16

Christian Canaan Church

7

5

Sanbi Kyodan

3

7

Jesus Gospel Church

4

16

Advent Christian Mission

11

1

Spirit of Jesus Church— (Statistics according

l

to the church office) 135 304

True Church of Jesus in Japan

7 3

Japan Pentecost

8 2

Japan United Pentecostal Church

15 5

Nihon Shinyaku Kyodan

10



Mino Mission

4

20

Evangelical Free Church in Japan

9

5

The Worldwide Evangelization Crusade

4

7

Evangelical Covenant Church of Japan

5 9

Mission Covenant Church in Japan

9 1

Swedish Alliance Mission in Japan

7 4

Orebro Mission

10

Evangelical Orient Mission

9 3

The Salvation Army Territorial Headquarters,

Japan

57

59

Seventh-day Adventists Japan Union Mission

71 57

Pastors

,,. . Baptized
Total Mlss.'on- Total Church
anse Members

Non-Com
municant
Members

Baptisms
in 1967

School
Pupils

67

32 164 5,046

2,587 1

322

5,034

15

18 26

17

28 2,346





11

25 577

45



160

31

20 1,000





41

42 626

252

41

1,558

14

20 8 149

83

31

682

11

6 10 450





28

4 1,286



12 28 2,652

146

13

288

10 3 152





20

11 865



51

12

11 9 395

131

49

563

439

165 57,776



1,943

10

6 350





10

1 9 175





70

20

3 26 320





10

18 350



24

2 5 342



14

19 10 434

100



650

11

21 4 80



6

14

16 12 263

135

44

590

10

12 7 547

| —

34

800

11

18 6 151



36

820

10

16 550





'

12

11 9 128



14

300

116 13 262 5,535

4,716

189

2,863

128

42 434 6,749



370

6,744

Statistics of the Protestant Churches


Churches


Preachi]
Points


Japan Open Bible Church 7

1

Pentecost Church of God in Japan

6

3

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel

5



Apostolic Faith Mission

2



The Apostolic Christian Church of Japan

3



Philadelphia Mission

4

5

Shorisha lesu (Jesus the Victor) Kyodan

3

3

Japan Gospel League

4

4

Japan Rural Mission

3



International Evangelical Convention

3



Swedish Evangelical Orient Church

4



Swedish Evangelical Mission in Japan

7

Japan Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society

of Friends

8



Church of God Remmei

5

2

Japan Church of God

5

3

Gospel Hall, Plymouth Brethren

7



International Christian Body

4



United Universalist Association

2

-t

Japan Free Religious Association

4



Independent

163

Total (Protestant)

4,896 1,871

Total (Catholic)

Total

Pastors

T��W **£?

Baptized
Total Church
Members

Non-Com- Bat)t;
municant • ^1(
Members

^s Pup^s

8 2 12 200

250

15 500

9 3

8 400

600

25 500

5 2 7 139



30 165

2 1 32

17

7 45

3 2 3 30



19

9 8

8 188

190

22 390

6 5

5 70



5 200

g

16 319



184

3 4 3 31

20

30

3 6 50



4 5

2 116



36 820

7 6 8 170



— —

8 269



90

7 9

' Z

8 2

8 52
10 265

40

170
400

7

1 200



4 4 233



3 2 92



4 10 1,365



163 21 147 10,245

6,767 1,713

I

12,324 455,193

156,980 15,

801 217,588

1

(From the Christ Weekly, Year Book, 1969)


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Tel : Yokosuka 52-1182


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MARSH & McLENNAN FAR EAST. LTD.

ACME SERVICES, INC.

All Leading Insurance Go's

Room 522/523, Yurakucho Bldg.

5, 1-chome, Yuraku-cho

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo

Central P.O. Box 1645

Tel: 212-5831/5
Cable Address : MARSHMAC


Each Piece a Work of Art


CHALICE NO. 687 Sterling Silver 970
Rose Sandalwood Cup

ALOHA COMPANY, LTD.

43-13, 1-CHOME MATSUBARA, SETAGAYA-KU, TOKYO 156
TEL. (328)7439


To place your

ADVERTISEMENT

in

THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN
YEAR BOOK

and
THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN

QUARTERLY
. . . Widely Circulated
English Publications . . .
Please request an Appli
cation form from our
office and send it back
with the needed informa
tion.

KYO BUN KWAN JIGYOSHA


No. 2, 4-CHOME, GINZA, CHUO-KU,
TOKYO Tel: (561) 9691 ~ 4
BRANCH OSAKA:
NO. 29, 3 CHOME, DOJIMA UE
KITA-KU, OSAKASHI

Tel : (344) 8309


Your Only Complete

Imported Drug Service

In Japan

Prescription Service
Baby Needs
Toiletries
Cosmetic
Household Needs
Greeting: Cards, etc.


merican

k. PHARMACY


Nikkatsn Int'l Bldgr, Tokyo.

(271) 4034
Kobe Branch Store : Tor Road.

(33) 1352


llu» JAPAN
CHRISTIAN QUARTERLY


thought

opinion

fact

poetry

translations

book reviews


An independent ecumenical journal


Sponsored by
THE FELLOWSHIP OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES

Beverley Tucker, editor


1-year rate :

¥1,700 in Japan
$6.00 abroad


Order from :

Kyobunkwan
2, 4-chome, Ginza
Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104, Japan
Furikae Tokyo 11357


A meeting place of East and West,
North and South


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