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Full text of "The Stryker Brigade Combat Team Infantry Battallion Reconnaissance Platoon"

FM 3-21.94


APRIL 2003


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is

FM 3-21.94

NO. 3-21.94

Washington, DC, 18 April 2003






Section I. Capabilities, Limitations, Organization, and Responsibilities 1-1

1-1. Capabilities 1-2

1-2. Limitations 1-8

1-3. Organization 1-9

1-4. Reconnaissance Sections and Teams 1-12

1-5. Dismounted Organizations 1-12

1-6. Mounted Organizations 1-13

1-7. Responsibilities 1-13

Section II. Combat Power and Considerations for Employment and Training.... 1-16

1-8. Combat Power 1-16

1-9. Considerations for Employment 1-17

1-10. Training Considerations 1-18


Section I. Command and Control 2-1

2-1. Leadership 2-1

2-2. Mission-Oriented Command and Control 2-2

Section II. Plans and Orders 2-3

2-3. Mission Statement 2-4

2-4. Combat Orders 2-4

Section III Troop-Leading Procedures and Techniques 2-6

2-5 Receive the Mission 2-7

2-6 Issue a Warning Order 2-7

2-7 Make a Tentative Plan 2-7

2-8 Initiate Movement 2-20

2-9 Conduct a Leader's Reconnaissance 2-20

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

FM 3-21.94


2-10 Complete the Plan 2-20

2-11 Issue the Operations Order 2-21

2-12 Supervise and Refine 2-21


3-1. Navigation and Route Planning 3-1

3-2. Movement Formations 3-3

3-3. Movement Techniques 3-7

3-4. Actions on Contact 3-12

3-5. Actions at Danger Areas 3-24

3-6. Infiltration 3-26

3-7. Exfiltration 3-30


Section I. Purpose and Fundamentals 4-1

4-1. Orient on the Reconnaissance Objective 4-1

4-2. Maintain Tempo and Focus 4-2

4-3 . Report All Information Rapidly and Accurately 4-2

4-4. Retain Freedom to Maneuver 4-2

4-5. Establish and Maintain Enemy Contact 4-2

4-6. Develop Situation Rapidly 4-2

4-7. Acquire All Required Information 4-2

4-8. Avoid Detection 4-3

4-9. Employ Security Measures 4-4

4-10. Utilize Sensory Techniques 4-4

Section II. Planning 4-5

4-11. Planning, Methods, and Employment of

Reconnaissance Forces 4-5

4-12. Reconnaissance Methods 4-6

4-13. Rehearsals 4-8

4-14. Essential Planning Considerations 4-8

Section III. Reconnaissance and Surveillance Handover 4-9

4-15. Reason for Surveillance Handover 4-9

4-16. Additional Missions 4-11

4-17. Digital Systems 4-12

Section IV. Area Reconnaissance 4-12

4-18. Tasks 4-13

4-19. Mounted Techniques 4-13

4-20. Dismounted Techniques 4-14

4-21. Objective Rally Point 4-15

4-22. Leader's Reconnaissance 4-16

4-23. Actions at the Objective 4-16

4-24. Withdrawal and Dissemination of Information 4-19

Section V. Zone Reconnaissance 4-19

4-25. Tasks 4-19

4-26. Mounted Reconnaissance Techniques 4-20

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4-27. Dismounted Zone Reconnaissance Techniques 4-21

4-28. Dismounted Reconnaissance Methods 4-21

Section VI. Route Reconnaissance 4-24

4-29. Purpose 4-24

4-30. Organization 4-25

4-31. Stealth and Speed 4-26

4-32. Movement near Roads 4-26

4-33. Engineer Support 4-26

4-34. Route Reconnaissance Overlay 4-26

4-35. Employment Considerations 4-26

4-36. Key Tasks 4-27

4-37. Techniques 4-28

Section VII. Urban Reconnaissance 4-29

4-38. Employ Dismounted Surveillance Teams 4-29

4-39. Urban Patrolling 4-31

4-40. Assessment of the Area of Operations 4-33

4-41. End State 4-33

Section VIII. Reconnaissance of Obstacles and Restrictions 4-34

4-42. Types of Obstacles and Restrictions 4-34

4-43. Tasks 4-34

4-44. Elements of Obstacle Reconnaissance 4-34


Section I. Purpose and Fundamentals 5-1

5-1. Purpose 5-1

5-2. Fundamentals 5-2

5-3. Planning Considerations 5-2

Section II. Screening Missions 5-3

5-4. Fundamentals 5-3

5-5. Sequencing and Prioritization 5-4

5-6. Surveillance Techniques 5-5

5-7. Counterreconnaissance Techniques 5-13

Section III. Area Security Operations 5-15

5-8. High- Value Targets 5-15

5-9. Convoy and Route Security 5-16

Section IV. Observation Post Employment 5-24

5-10. Critical Tasks 5-24

5-11. Types of Observation Posts 5-26

5-12. Observation Post Positions 5-26

5-13. Observation Post Site Selection 5-27

5-14. Occupation of the Observation Post 5-28

5-15. Manning the Observation Post 5-28

5-16. Position Improvement 5-29

5-17. Communications 5-30

5-18. Observation Post Security 5-30

5-19. Active Patrolling 5-31

FM 3-21.94



Section VI.






Section III.


5-20. Extended Observation Posts 5-31

Construction Techniques 5-32

5-21. Dirt Removal 5-32

5-22. Natural Vegetation 5-33

5-23. Sidewall Support 5-33

5-24. Observation Post Kits 5-33

Observation Post Employment in Operational Environments 5-34

5-25. Urban Environment 5-34

5-26. Mountainous Environment 5-35

5-27. Types of Ground Observation Posts 5-37

5-28. Checkpoints, Roadblocks, and Observations Posts 5-40


Understanding the Urban Environment 6-1

6-1. Definitions 6-1

6-2. Characteristics of the Urban Environment 6-3

Planning 6-6

6-3. Collect and Analyze Existing Intelligence 6-6

6-4. Develop the Plan 6-9

Execution 6-18

6-5. Approach the Urban Area of Operations 6-18

6-6. Employ Dismounted Surveillance Teams 6-18

6-7. Conduct Reconnaissance 6-19

6-8. Assess the Area of Operations 6-19

6-9. End State 6-19

Combat Multipliers 6-20

6-10. Armored Vehicles 6-20

6-11. Engineers 6-22

6-12. Attack Helicopters 6-23

6-13. Antiarmor Weapons 6-23

6-14. Sniper Employment Considerations 6-24


7-1. Linkup Operations 7-1

7-2. Passage of Lines 7-2

7-3. Relief in Place 7-4

7-4. Stay-Behind Operations 7-6

7-5. Air Assault Operations 7-7

7-6. Assembly Area Operations 7-8


Fire Support 8-1

8-1. Fire Planning 8-1

8-2. Linking Fire Support Tasks and Maneuver Purpose 8-2

Section IV.



Section I.


FM 3-21.94


Section II. Indirect Fire Support 8-3

8-3. Fire-Planning Process 8-4

8-4. Call for Fire 8-5

8-5. Adjust Fire 8-8

8-6. Mortar Support 8-16

8-7. Field Artillery Support 8-17

8-8. Fire Direction Assets 8-18

8-9. Fire Request Channels 8-19

8-10. Close Air Support 8-21

8-11. Attack Helicopters 8-25

Section III. Combat Engineer Support 8-26

8-12. Medium Engineer Company 8-26

8-13. Engineer Missions 8-28

8-14. Mobility 8-28

8-15. Countermobility 8-29

8-16. Survivability 8-29

8-17. Reconnaissance Operations 8-29

Section IV. Air Defense 8-29

8-18. Systems, Organization, and Capabilities 8-30

8-19. Employment of Air Defense Systems 8-33

8-20. Weapons Control Status 8-33

8-21. Early Warning Procedures 8-34

8-22. Reaction Procedures 8-34

Section V. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Support 8-37

8-23. Reconnaissance Support 8-37

8-24. Decontamination Support 8-37


9-1. Organization 9-1

9-2. Individual Responsibilities 9-1

9-3. Planning Considerations 9-2

9-4. Resupply Operations 9-4

9-5. Aerial Sustainment 9-8

9-6. Soldier's Load 9-9

9-7. Combat Load and Basic Load 9-9

9-8. Maintenance 9-9

9-9. Recovery and Destruction 9-10

9-10. Evacuation Procedures 9-10

9-11. Administration 9-11

9-12. Medical Support 9-14

9-13. Prisoners of War 9-17


Section I. General 10-1

10-1. Organization 10-1

10-2. Initial Planning 10-2

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10-3. Completion of the Plan 10-2

10-4. Depart from Friendly Lines 10-4

10-5. Patrol Bases 10-5

10-6. Rally Points 10-5

10-7. Leader's Reconnaissance 10-7

10-8. Reentry of Friendly Lines 10-7

10-9. Debrief 10-8

Section II. Types of Patrols 10-8

10-10. Reconnaissance Patrol 10-8

10-11. Combat Patrol 10-12

10-12. Presence Patrol 10-16










GLOSSARY Glossary-1

REFERENCES References-1

INDEX Index-1


FM 3-21.94


This manual is based on the premise that although the unit
organization, weapon systems, and conditions have changed, section and
platoon maneuver, movement, reconnaissance, and surveillance have not.

This manual describes the doctrinal and tactical employment principles for the Stryker
reconnaissance vehicle (RV)-equipped infantry battalion reconnaissance platoon, which
is an element of the Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT). It provides emerging doctrine,
tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) for the SBCT infantry battalion reconnaissance
platoon and its teams and sections.

This manual provides the platoon and team leaders with tactics, techniques, and
procedures to exploit reconnaissance platoon capabilities through situational
understanding (SU), which will reduce vulnerabilities and enable the parent unit to obtain
the required information to defeat the enemy on the battlefield. Although this manual
reemphasizes critical information from other manuals, the user must continue to refer to
other manuals for in-depth discussions of particular subjects.

Although this manual does not implement any international agreements, the material
presented herein is in accordance with related international agreements.

The proponent of this publication is the US Army Infantry School. Send comments and
recommendations to doctrine@benning.army.mil or on DA Form 2028 directly to
Commandant, US Army Infantry School, ATTN: ATSH-ATD, Fort Benning, Georgia

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer
exclusively to men.


FM 3-21.94



The Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT) infantry battalion 's primary
mission is to close with and destroy the enemy during full-spectrum
operations through close, violent combat. The SBCT infantry battalion is
capable of accomplishing all missions historically identified with the
infantry and is organized and equipped to conduct operations in restricted
and urban terrain. The battalion, as part of the SBCT, deploys rapidly,
executes early-entry operations, and conducts effective combat operations
immediately upon arrival to prevent, contain, stabilize, or resolve a

The infantry battalion reconnaissance platoon is comprised of
handpicked, highly motivated, expert infantry soldiers and serves as the
forward "EYES AND EARS" for the battalion commander. The primary
mission of the reconnaissance platoon is to conduct reconnaissance and
surveillance in support of the battalion commander's intelligence,
surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operation to determine enemy
composition and disposition along named areas of interest. The
commander and his staff use this information during the planning and
execution of combat operations.



The mission of the infantry is to close with the enemy by means of fire and movement to
defeat him, capture him, or repel his assault by fire, close combat, or counterattack. The
reconnaissance platoon is organized, equipped, and trained to conduct reconnaissance,
surveillance, and limited security missions for its parent battalion. The platoon's primary
mission is to provide battlefield information and assist in the tactical control, movement,
and positioning of the battalion's companies and platoons. Its organization enables the
platoon to conduct both mounted and dismounted reconnaissance tasks simultaneously. It
provides the battalion commander with the ability to reconnoiter throughout his
battalion's battle space. To ensure understanding, the following definitions apply:

• Reconnaissance is a mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or
other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an
enemy or potential enemy or to secure data concerning the meteorological,
hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area.

• Security operations are designed to provide reaction time, maneuver space,
and protection to the main body.


The reconnaissance platoon's vehicles and design parameters provide it with the ability to
maintain "eyes on" four to six named areas of interest (NAIs). The SBCT infantry
battalion reconnaissance platoon can also accomplish the following:


FM 3-21.94

Conduct zone, area, and route reconnaissance.

Conduct limited screening and area security operations to the battalion's front,

flank, or rear.

Conduct linkup and liaison.

Guide maneuver forces.

Conduct terminal guidance for helicopter operation.

Mark helicopter landing and pickup zones.

Perform quartering party duties.

Provide traffic control.

Conduct limited obstacle construction and reduction.

Participate in air assault operations.

Conduct reconnaissance handover between elements of the cavalry squadron

(reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition [RSTA]) and itself.

a. Survivability. The increased mobility and protection afforded by the
reconnaissance vehicle (RV) and the ability of the vehicle to protect the infantrymen
from small-arms fire and fragmentation before dismounting increases the platoon's
survivability. In addition, the employment of the Force XXI battle command brigade and
below (FBCB2) system significantly enhances the platoon's survivability by increasing
its ability to communicate and receive tactical information and command and control
(C2). (See sub-paragraph c, for more information on FBCB2.)

b. Command, Control, and Communications. The RVs for both the
reconnaissance platoon leader and platoon sergeant are equipped with FBCB2 systems
that tie those vehicles and leaders to the C2 hierarchy of the infantry companies,
battalions, and brigade. Features that support command, control, and communications
(C3) are command and control software, navigational software, and digital
communications capabilities.

c. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below. FBCB2 is a network of
computers, global positioning equipment, and communication systems that provide on-
the-move, real-time command and control information to tactical combat arms, combat
support (CS), and combat service support (CSS) soldiers and leaders. FBCB2 is designed
for units performing missions at the tactical level (brigade to individual fighting
platform). It provides a common database with automated positional information and
current tactical battlefield geometry for friendly and known or suspected enemy forces.
Collectively, the FBCB2 systems generate the common operational picture (COP).
FBCB2 displays relevant information, showing the user his location, the location of other
friendly forces, observed or templated enemy locations, and all known obstacles. The
system also provides preformatted, standardized reports that allow leaders to rapidly
disseminate graphic overlays and written fragmentary orders (FRAGOs). The command
receives data "pushed" from all other battlefield systems to maintain real-time battle
information. The commander must organize and interpret the information received via
FBCB2 to determine its value in relation to the current situation.

NOTE: A COP is an operational picture tailored to the user's requirements, based on
common data and information (friendly and enemy) shared by more than one


FM 3-21.94

(1) FBCB2 Architecture. Figure 1-1, page 1-4, depicts the FBCB2 architecture. Each
vehicle in the platoon is equipped with the three basic components of the FBCB2 system.

(a) The global positioning system (GPS) provides precise location and date/time for
reporting real-time friendly locations and for generating laser designated map spots for
reporting purposes.

(b) The single-channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS) provides a
secure means of transmitting (both voice and digital) between vehicles in the platoon. In
addition to the SINCGARS, platoon vehicles also are equipped with the enhanced
position location and reporting system (EPLRS). The EPLRS provides a secure digital
connection and serves as a router, efficiently sending message traffic internally within the
platoon and out to the company and fire support nets. This routing capability ensures that
information is passed even if the chain of command is disrupted by physical separation
on the battlefield, casualties, or mechanical failures.

(c) The FBCB2 terminal provides the monitor, keyboard, mouse, and computing
functions that allow the crew to access the system. These systems form the lower tactical
Internet (TI).

(d) The upper TI consists of a variety of tactical computer systems and
communications equipment located primarily at the battalion level and higher. The most
important of these are the maneuver control system (MCS), the all source analysis system
(ASAS), the advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS), and the combat
service support control system (CSSCS). These systems draw upon the reports and
positional data passed on from the lower TI to provide the COP at higher command
levels. In turn, these systems can push information such as location of adjacent units,
known and templated enemy positions, graphics, and operations orders (OPORDs), down
to the FBCB2 users.


FM 3-21.94


















** -» ^*' , * , * ,,,,,,, *««^^















"**'"*" *****••««.



















Digital ^


Figure 1-1. FBCB2 architecture.

(2) FBCB2 Capabilities. The FBCB2 displays the current information on both
friendly and enemy forces, delivering the common operational picture for the platoon.
The following are capabilities of FBCB2.

(a) Friendly Information. The FBCB2 screen displays an icon for each friendly
individual vehicle in the platoon. This provides the vehicle commander (VC) with a clear
picture of where he is located in relation to the platoon. It provides the platoon leader
with a picture of where he is operating in relation to the rifle companies. While the
system functions automatically for vehicles equipped to operate on the TI, it does not
provide locations to every friendly element on the battlefield. For example, the system
does not automatically track dismounted elements operating at extended ranges from
their RVs. In addition, it does not cover non-digitally equipped units or allied and or
coalition forces that may be operating adjacent to the platoon. Icons representing these
elements may be imported into FBCB2 based on frequency modulated (FM) radio
reports, but they are not updated in real time. As a result, FBCB2 cannot be the sole
instrument used to clear fires; it does not substitute for a leader's judgment in preventing

(b) Enemy Information. FBCB2 creates the COP from both top-down and bottom-up
feeds. The battalion S2 inputs enemy icons into the system based on spot reports


FM 3-21.94

generated by the cavalry squadron (RSTA) and other information-gathering assets outside
the battalion. Based on his intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB), the S2
augments these actual locations with templated positions in the form of a situation
template (SITEMP).

(c) Enemy Activity and Obstacles. As the platoon conducts operations, it adds to the
COP by sending spot reports of enemy activity and obstacles via FBCB2. When a VC
sends a spot report, he automatically creates an icon representing the enemy on other
FBCB2 systems in the platoon. The platoon leader evaluates the validity of the report,
ensures its accuracy, and forwards the report to the other section and teams in the platoon
and higher to battalion.

(d) Enemy Location. To keep the COP current, units must update spot reports
concerning enemy locations that are represented by icons on the FBCB2. Updates must
be sent whenever the enemy situation changes (enemy element moves or is destroyed).
An icon will "fade" and eventually disappear from the FBCB2 screen as the icon's
information ages. The unit standing operating procedure (SOP) governs the icon "fade"

(e) Unreported Enemy. Members of the platoon must remember that the COP
provided by FBCB2 is only as good as the reports that the system receives. It will never
give a 100-percent complete or accurate enemy picture. The platoon leader, section
leaders, VCs, and team leaders must ensure that plans are adequate to detect enemy
forces not yet reported by digital means.

d. Standardized Reporting. FBCB2 streamlines the reporting process by providing
the platoon with the capability to send and receive preformatted, standardized reports
(Figure 1-2, page 1-6).

(1) Standardized reports afford several tactical advantages:

• They help to ensure that all required information is included in a particular
report or request.

• They reduce the chance of errors in transmission.

• They allow for the storage of messages for retrieval and reference.


FM 3-21.94



Check Fire

Situation Report (SITREP)

Call for Fire

Field Orders 2

Observer Mission Updates 1

Operations Plan

On-Call Fire Command

Fragmentary Order (FRAGO)

Message to Observer 1

Warning Order (WARNO)

Fire SPT COORD Measures

Minefield Laying

End of Mission/Surveillance


Sequent Adjust

MOPP Alert

Observer Readiness Report


Airborne Fire Mission

Logistics Report

Spot Report

Personnel Report

Engagement Report

Supply Point Status

Contact Report

Task Management

Land Route Report

LOG Task Order

Obstacle Report

LOG Call for Support

Bridge Report

LOG Task Status

Position Report

LOG Task Sync

NBC 1 Report

Execution Matrix

NBC 4 Report 1

1 Commander's graphic intent (CGI)
Receive Only

Figure 1-2. Preformatted, standardized reports.

(2) There continues to be a requirement for FM voice message traffic. For example,
platoon leaders must still transmit contact reports to initiate battle drills and to cue VCs to
reference their FBCB2 screens for updated information. Additionally, VCs may need to
send FM voice descriptions of enemy locations, routes, or obstacles to clarify the
situation. This is especially true in urban terrain where the FBCB2 cannot display the
terrain in sufficient detail to assist leaders in making effective decisions.

e. Combat Orders and Graphics. FBCB2 greatly enhances the speed and precision
of the orders process at platoon level. The system allows leaders to add or modify
operational graphics during the planning process or during execution. This ensures that
every element has the most current information to control movement and fires. In
addition, platoon leaders can use free text messages to transmit OPORDs, FRAGOs, and
situational updates over extended distances without the loss of time and information
typical of FM voice communications. Like the standardized reports, orders and graphics
can be stored for retrieval and reference. (For more information on reconnaissance
platoon overlays, symbols, and graphics, see Appendix A.)


FM 3-21.94

f. Sustainability. The reconnaissance platoon can operate for up to 72 hours on or
off the RV. This is accomplished by prestocking the RV with Class I and Class V
supplies as well as with potable water. The RV can operate for up to 16 hours daily and
travel a minimum of 100 kilometers with Class III resupply. The CSS system in the
parent battalion resupplies the RV as necessary.

g. Mobility. The driver's vision enhancer (thermal) and the driver's navigation
display unit improve the driver's vision, thus allowing upgraded platoon mobility in total
darkness, all weather conditions, and degraded visibility conditions. The RV precision
navigation system (PNS) consists of an inertial navigation unit (INU), a GPS, and
precision lightweight global positioning system receiver (PLGR).

(1) The PLGR provides the user with precise position coordinates with time and
navigation capability under all conditions except when obstructions exist between the
satellite and antenna. Users can enter map coordinates as waypoints. When the user
selects a waypoint as a destination, the receiver can provide steering indications and
azimuth and range information to the destination. The user can program a desired course
to the waypoint and can indicate an offset distance from this course line. The user can
also remove the PLGR from the vehicle and operate it in the handheld mode.

(2) The INU is a ring-laser, gyro-based navigation device. It is the primary navigation
system and supplies position, velocity, attitude, angular rate, and acceleration (roll, pitch,
and azimuth) to the turret processor unit. The GPS supplies the INU with initial position

(3) The components of the precision navigation system can operate in a combination
of five modes:

• Integrated GPS/INU/vehicle motion sensor (VMS).

• GPS only (when the INU sensor fails).

• INU/VMS (when the GPS receiver fails to acquire satellite signal or is

• GPS/INU (when the VMS fails).

• INU only (if both the GPS receiver and the VMS are not available).

h. Night-Vision Equipment. Own-the-night (OTN) equipment advancements
enhance command and control at night and improve the reconnaissance platoon's ability
to conduct surveillance and acquire targets (Table 1-1, page 1-8). SBCT sections and
platoons have infrared illuminators, improved nightsights, target acquisition devices, and
signaling devices. (Refer to Appendix B for a detailed discussion of limited visibility


FM 3-21.94




Provides observation out to 300 meters for
man-sized targets and 500 meters for
vehicle-sized targets.

3X Magnifier

Provides observation out to 600 meters for
man-sized targets and 1 ,000 meters for
vehicle-sized targets.

Thermal Weapon Sight, Medium
(M16, M249, M240)

Maximum range 1,100 meters.

Ground Commander's Pointer

Designate target from to 8,000 meters
(pinpoint mode); illuminate target 800
meters with 10-degree scan (area mode).


600 meters maximum.


Zeroed out to the maximum range of 3,000

Black Light

12-hour duration; range varies with terrain.

Infrared Trip Flare

20-meter radius; emits minimal visible light.


12-hour duration; range varies with terrain.

Javelin CLU Thermal Weapon

Range in excess of 3,000 meters.

Table 1-1. Night vision equipment capabilities.

(1) The reconnaissance teams use infrared light from infrared parachute flares or
infrared handheld flares to illuminate targets without the enemy's knowledge. These
advancements allow the teams to see more of the battlefield and aid in target acquisition,
indirect fire adjustment, and increased survivability.

(2) The key infrared target designator is the ground commander's pointer (GCP-1).
Platoon and squad leaders use the GCP-1 to designate targets to cue observers for target
acquisition and assist in reconnaissance handover.

(3) The reconnaissance teams are equipped with the infrared laser designators for
increased target acquisition.

(4) Individual soldiers are equipped with an AN/PAQ-4B/C laser aiming light that
emits a pulsating infrared laser on the desired target at the point of aim. The AN/PAQ-
4B/C mounts on the Ml 6, M4, M203, and M249. Soldiers use the laser with night-vision
goggles (NVGs) to improve the probability of hitting the target during darkness.

(5) Platoon members also have improved night-vision devices. Each soldier is
equipped with AN/PVS-14 night-vision goggles with 3X magnification.


The reconnaissance platoon is best suited to conducting operations as part of a larger
combined-arms force. Reconnaissance elements in general have limitations that must be
considered when planning for employment. Limitations of the reconnaissance platoon
include the following:

• The reconnaissance platoon is dependent on its parent unit for CS and CSS.

• During screening operations, reconnaissance platoons are limited in their
ability to destroy or repel enemy reconnaissance units.


FM 3-21.94

The platoon can effectively conduct route reconnaissance of only two separate

company mobility corridors.

The small size of the platoon limits its ability to conduct a detailed zone


Terrain, enemy situation, and time available also affect the size of the zone the

reconnaissance platoon can reconnoiter.

The reconnaissance platoon's communications equipment limits how far from

the main body it can operate. With its organic equipment, the platoon operates

on two nets—the battalion operations and intelligence net and the platoon net.

The reconnaissance platoon has limited obstacle construction abilities and

carries only a limited load of demolitions.

The reconnaissance platoon has very limited obstacle reduction capability;

under most conditions, it can breach only point obstacles.

Platoon RVs are vulnerable to enemy antiarmor fires.


The reconnaissance platoon is organized into two sections of two RVs each and three 5-
man reconnaissance teams (Figure 1-3, page 1-10). One section is "heavy" and transports
two reconnaissance teams. The other "light" section transports one reconnaissance team
and the platoon leader. The reconnaissance platoon rarely uses a headquarters element
during tactical operations; it relies instead on the leaders of its sections or teams as
described in the following discussion.


FM 3-21.94

E6 E3 E4 E5 E3

E5 E3

E6 E3 E4 E5 E3

E7 E3

E6 E3 E4 E5 E3

E5 E3

Figure 1-3. Reconnaissance platoon organization.

a. Platoon Headquarters. The platoon headquarters element provides C2 to the
platoon and consists of the platoon leader (PL), platoon sergeant (PSG), and their
respective vehicle crews. The platoon may be augmented with a medic.

b. Mounted Element. The reconnaissance platoon is equipped with four RVs that
provide the reconnaissance teams with rapid, protected tactical and operational mobility
to critical locations on the battlefield. The RV is a fully mobile system capable of
operating in conjunction with infantry and other elements of the combined arms team.
Each RV has a crew of two (commander and driver) that operates the vehicle. When
conducting mounted movement or reconnaissance, the PL and PSG are included in the
mounted element and serve as VCs and the reconnaissance section leaders (Figure 1-4).
The crew provides critical support to the platoon by operating and maintaining the RVs
and properly employing them on the battlefield to ensure protected delivery of the
reconnaissance teams to their dismount point. Once the reconnaissance teams have
dismounted the carriers, the vehicle crew may employ local self-defense armament to


FM 3-21.94

defeat "thin-skinned" enemy vehicles (trucks or lightly armored vehicles) or dismounted

Figure 1-4. Mounted element.

c. Dismounted Element. The dismounted element, consists of the platoon
headquarters and the three reconnaissance teams. The five-man reconnaissance team
(Figure 1-5) is the foundation of the reconnaissance and surveillance forces and is
employed to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance missions in support of the battalion
commander's information-gathering effort. The dismounted element may be required to
fight as infantrymen. To support the fight, the platoon is equipped with four M240
machine guns which may be task-organized to the dismounted elements. The element
must be prepared to defeat enemy forces, secure key or decisive terrain, deprive the
enemy of resources, deceive and divert the enemy, hold the enemy in position, or disrupt
an enemy attack.



E6 E4







Figure 1-5. Dismounted reconnaissance teams.


FM 3-21.94


The reconnaissance section is normally employed as the platoon's basic tactical
maneuver organization. Each section consists of a section leader (either the PL or the
PSG), team leaders, reconnaissance team(s), and two crews, each of which mans a
vehicle. The assistant section leader (A/SL) assists with command and control of the
section. For maneuver purposes, the platoon may also be task-organized into elements
known as reconnaissance teams (a team is normally a single vehicle and its crew). The
reconnaissance sections are capable of conducting mounted and dismounted
reconnaissance operations at the same time. The section leader reports critical
intelligence information obtained by his section to the reconnaissance platoon leader or
the battalion tactical operations center (TOC). The mounted element of each section is
capable of conducting traditional mounted reconnaissance missions (area, route, and
zone). The three dismounted reconnaissance teams are capable of conducting
independent, traditional dismounted reconnaissance missions. These include conducting
long-range surveillance of key areas of interest, marking landing and pickup zones,
providing terminal guidance for helicopter operations, and providing guides for the
conduct of dismounted infiltration operations.


The basic element within the reconnaissance platoon is the dismounted team. Every
dismounted team consists of a reconnaissance element and a control and security
element. The purpose of the reconnaissance element is to obtain data for information
requirements. The control and security element's primary responsibility is to protect the
reconnaissance element. The control and security element may also be a reconnaissance
element and have both reconnaissance and security responsibilities, or it may alternate
responsibilities with the other element. Regardless of other roles the control and security
element plays, its primary objective is to protect the reconnaissance element. A two-man
element is the smallest element within the reconnaissance platoon. The following
paragraphs describe possible dismounted organizations. Each type of organization can
perform reconnaissance tasks, security tasks, observation post (OP) and or surveillance
tasks, liaison, or a combination of any of these tasks. Within each team there is always an
element designated as control and security. The platoon's vehicle(s) may be the control
and security element for the reconnaissance element.

a. Dismounted Team Organization. The five-man dismounted team is the optimal
dismounted configuration. Each team has a single RV and is led by an experienced
noncommissioned officer (staff sergeant or higher).

b. Dismounted Section Organization. The dismounted section combines the
strength of one or two dismounted teams. A platoon leader, PSG, or staff sergeant leads
this section. The section is large enough to have a team capable of reacting to contact as
part of its control and security element.

c. Dismounted Platoon Organization. The dismounted platoon organization is
appropriate when the threat is high or vehicular movement is impossible. Infiltration, for
example, may require the platoon to conduct a dismounted tactical movement. The
platoon leader or platoon sergeant leads the dismounted platoon.


FM 3-21.94


When mounted, the reconnaissance platoon normally operates in one of three
organizations: as three teams with one vehicle in each team and the platoon leader's
vehicle serving as C2; as two sections with two vehicles in each section; or as a four-
vehicle platoon with each having an independent mission.

a. Three-Team Organization. The three-team organization is used when the
anticipated threat is low to medium . The key to this organization rests in ensuring that
adjacent vehicles mutually support each other. If mutual support is not possible because
of terrain or other mission constraints, vehicles must have the ability to maneuver and
support other adjacent platoon elements. This organization also allows the platoon leader
to provide C2 for the platoon and direct fire support for any of the other three vehicles in
his platoon. This organization does not provide the reconnaissance platoon with
overwatch capability, thus leaving elements vulnerable to enemy contact.

b. Two-Section Organization. The platoon uses the two-section organization when
it needs increased security, when it can cover the area of operations efficiently with only
two elements, or when the enemy situation is unknown . This type of organization limits
the amount of terrain the platoon can cover and decreases the speed with which the
platoon can perform its tasks. On the other hand, it increases internal section security by
providing mutually supporting fires. It also gives the platoon leader and the PSG greater
flexibility in performing C2 and CSS requirements.

c. Four- Vehicle Organization. The four-vehicle organization is the most difficult
to control. The platoon leader employs this organization when he must have four separate
information sources on-going at the same time requiring each of the reconnaissance
platoon's four vehicles and associated crews to be in separate locations or when
executing specific surveillance missions directed by battalion. The platoon should use
this organization when the likelihood of enemy contact is low or the enemy situation is
known. The platoon may also implement this formation during short-duration security
missions to allow for depth in the platoon's sector.


The reconnaissance platoon leader and the platoon's noncommissioned officers (NCOs)
must be experts in the use of the platoon's organic crew-served weapons, indirect fires,
land navigation, supporting direct and indirect fires, obstacles, communications,
reconnaissance, surveillance, information collection, liaison, and security techniques.
They must be familiar with infantry, mortar, and combined arms tactics and be able to
react to rapidly changing situations. They must also know how to employ CS assets that
are attached to the platoon. Because of the many missions the platoon must perform, the
reconnaissance platoon leader and PSG must be proficient in all collective and individual
infantry tasks and all the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) for reconnaissance
and surveillance. They must also be familiar with the capabilities, limitations, and
deployment of ground sensors.

a. Platoon Leader. The platoon leader is responsible for the tactical employment,
collective training, administration, personnel management, and logistics of the platoon.
He must know his soldiers and how to employ the platoon and its weapons. He is
personally responsible for positioning and employing all assigned or attached weapons.
The platoon leader—


FM 3-21.94

• Leads the platoon in supporting the battalion missions. He bases his actions on
the missions the battalion commander assigns to him and the battalion
commanders' concepts.

Informs his commander of his actions when operating without orders.
Plans operations with the help of the platoon sergeant, section leaders, team
leaders, and other key personnel.

Stays abreast of the situation and goes where needed to supervise, issue
FRAGOs, and accomplish the mission.

Requests necessary support from the battalion for his platoon to perform its

Provides guidance to the platoon sergeant in planning and coordinating the
platoon's CSS effort.

During planning, receives on-hand status reports from the platoon sergeant,
section leaders, and team leaders.

Reviews platoon requirements based on the tactical plan.
During execution, supervises the platoon sergeant and section leaders.
Develops the fire support plan with the platoon sergeant, section leaders, and
team leaders.

Coordinates the obstacle plan.

Analyzes tactical situations, disseminates information, and employs the full
capabilities of his platoon's equipment to accomplish the mission.
Manages the C3 information.

Ensures subordinates follow database protection procedures to prevent the
compromise of digital information.

Ensures that situation reports (SITREPs) are accurate and are forwarded to the
commander and staff as applicable.

Analyzes and then disseminates pertinent tactical friendly and enemy updates
to his subordinates.

During limited visibility, employs all available OTN assets to designate
targets for the direct- and indirect-fire weapons and for situation updates.
As a section leader, keeps his crew and wingman informed.

b. Platoon Sergeant. The platoon sergeant is the senior NCO in the platoon and
second in command. He assists and advises the platoon leader and leads the platoon in the
platoon leader's absence. He supervises the platoon's administration, logistics, and
maintenance. The PSG is responsible for individual training. He advises the platoon
leader on appointments, promotions and reductions, assignments, and discipline of NCOs
and enlisted soldiers in the platoon. He is a tactical expert in platoon operations to include
maneuver of the platoon and employment of all weapons. The platoon sergeant—

• Controls the mounted element when the platoon leader dismounts or
dismounts with the platoon when it is conducting ground operations
independent of its organic vehicles or when it is necessary to command and
control the platoon (mission dependent). The platoon sergeant is a fighter by
trade and should be considered in the tactical plan as either dismounted or
maneuvering the mounted element.

• Serves as VC and section leader when the platoon is mounted.


FM 3-21.94

• Receives team and section leaders' administrative, logistical, and maintenance
reports and requests for rations, water, fuel, and ammunition. Coordinates
with the battalion's headquarters and headquarters company's (HHC) first
sergeant or executive officer (XO) to request resupply.

• Directs the platoon medic and platoon aid and litter teams in moving
casualties during mounted or dismounted operations.

• Maintains platoon strength information, consolidates and forwards the
platoon's casualty reports, and receives and orients replacements.

• Monitors the morale, discipline, and health of platoon members.

• Takes charge of task-organized elements in the platoon during tactical
operations. This can include, but is not limited to, quartering parties, support
elements in raids, combat patrols, and security patrols.

• Ensures ammunition and supplies are properly distributed after consolidation
on the objective and during reorganization.

• Controls digital reports while the platoon is in contact to allow the platoon
leader to maneuver the teams.

• Ensures the platoon leader is updated on appropriate reports and forwards
those needed by higher headquarters.

• Collects, prepares, and forwards logistical status updates and requests to the
battalion's HHC.

• As the leader of Section B, keeps his crew and wingman informed and directs
fire and maneuver of his section.

• Ensures maintenance of all equipment.

• Ensures precombat inspections are conducted.

c. Reconnaissance Section Leader and Team Leader. The section leader and team
leader are responsible for all that the section or team does or fails to do. They are tactical
leaders and lead by example. The reconnaissance section leader and team leader—

• Are experts in dismounted patrols, employment of assets, reconnaissance,
surveillance, and establishment of OPs.

• Control the maneuver of their section or team.

• Brief operations orders to the section or team.

• Train their section or team on individual and collective tasks required to
sustain combat effectiveness.

• Manage the logistical and administrative needs of their section or team and
request and issue ammunition, water, rations, and special equipment.

• Maintain accountability of soldiers and equipment.

• Complete casualty feeder reports and review casualty reports completed by
section or team members.

• Direct maintenance of section or team weapons and equipment.

• Inspect the condition of soldiers' weapons, clothing, and equipment.

• Ensure material and supplies are distributed to the soldiers in the section or

• Keep the platoon leader and platoon sergeant informed of section or team
supply status and requirements.


FM 3-21.94

• Ensure supplies and equipment are internally cross-leveled within the section
or team.

• Assist the VC and driver in maintaining the RV.

• Are responsible to the platoon leader for the training and discipline of their
reconnaissance sections and teams.

d. Reconnaissance Soldiers. Soldiers within a reconnaissance platoon must be
among the most tactically and technically proficient soldiers in the battalion. The
reconnaissance platoon leader and PSG should be actively involved in the selection of
these soldiers. Reconnaissance soldiers are physically fit and are experts in land
navigation, communications, camouflage, surveillance, reconnaissance, target
acquisition, employment of indirect fire and aviation assets, and survival. They
understand the importance of the reconnaissance platoon's mission and what is required
for successful accomplishment. Like their leaders, these soldiers use initiative and are
intelligent, resourceful, dependable, and disciplined.


This section discusses the elements of combat power and the considerations for
employing and training the reconnaissance platoon.


The doctrine that guides infantry forces is based on the elements of combat power:
maneuver, firepower, protection, leadership, and information.

a. Maneuver. Maneuver is the employment of forces on the battlefield through
movement in combination with fire, or fire potential, to achieve a position of advantage
with respect to the enemy in order to accomplish the mission. Infantry forces move to
gain a position of advantage over the enemy and to hold that advantage. They maneuver
to attack enemy flanks, rear areas, logistics points, and command posts. In the defense,
they maneuver to counterattack a flank of the enemy attack. Maneuver, properly
supported by fires, allows the infantry to close with the enemy and gain a decision in

b. Firepower. Firepower is the amount of fire a position, unit, or weapons system
can deliver. Firepower destroys or suppresses the enemy in his positions, deceives the
enemy, and supports maneuver. Without effective supporting fires, the infantry cannot
maneuver. Before attempting to maneuver, units must establish a base of fire.

(1) A base of fire is fire that is placed on an enemy force or position to reduce or
eliminate the enemy's ability to interfere with friendly maneuver. A single weapon or
group of weapon systems may provide a base of fire, but a base of fire generated by the
weapons squad for the desired effect for the length of time necessary is most effective.

(2) Leaders must know how to control, mass, and combine fire with maneuver. They
must identify the most critical targets quickly, direct fires onto them, and ensure the
volume of fires is sufficient to keep the enemy from returning fire effectively and to keep
the platoon from expending ammunition needlessly.

c. Protection. Protection is the preservation of the fighting potential of a force so it
can be applied with maximum combat power at the decisive time and place. Platoons
must never permit the enemy to acquire an unexpected advantage. Platoons, sections, and


FM 3-21.94

teams take active and passive measures to protect themselves from surprise, observation,
detection, interference, espionage, sabotage, and annoyance. Protection includes two
basic considerations: care of the soldier and his equipment and actions to counter enemy
combat power.

(1) The first consideration involves sustainment techniques to maintain the platoon,
sections, and teams as an effective fighting force. It includes keeping soldiers healthy to
maintain morale through personal hygiene, physical conditioning, and rest plans. It also
includes keeping equipment in good working condition and providing and protecting

(2) The second consideration involves security, dispersion, cover, camouflage,
deception, and suppression of enemy weapons. Infantry units gain protection by digging
fighting positions when stationary for any length of time; by skillful use of terrain while
moving mounted; by dismounting the infantry to increase protection; and through
overwatch, suppressive fires, and obscuration. The infantry always wants to set the time
and place of battle. It must protect itself so it can do so with maximum combat power and
with the important element of surprise.

d. Leadership. Military leadership is a process by which a soldier influences others
to accomplish a mission. Leaders coordinate the other elements of combat power, and
their competent and confident leadership results in effective unit action. The right
leadership gives purpose, direction, and motivation in combat. Leaders must know their
profession, their soldiers, and the tools of war. Only leaders who embody the warrior
ethos can inspire and direct soldiers to do difficult tasks under dangerous and stressful
conditions. Leadership is the most important element of combat power.

e. Information. Information enhances leadership and magnifies the effects of
maneuver, firepower, and protection at decisive points. Infantry leaders have access to,
and an understanding of, the broader tactical situation. This knowledge allows leaders to
develop plans that better incorporate the elements of combat power during a decisive
action. It also allows infantry leaders to make crucial decisions while a mission is
ongoing to increase the opportunity for success.


The platoon leader must know the tactical strengths and weaknesses of the
reconnaissance platoon and must determine the most effective and efficient method of
employing the platoon. The reconnaissance platoon leader prepares, plans, and executes
its assigned missions with the assistance of the battalion staff. Primary and specialty staff
officers provide expertise for a particular battlefield operating system. The platoon leader
also understands the brigade concept of the operation and how the battalion fits into the
overall brigade concept. He identifies the brigade's task and purpose and his contribution
to the battalion's fight. The platoon leader must clearly understand the brigade
commander's intent from paragraph 3 of the brigade order. Additionally, the platoon
leader identifies the task, purpose, and disposition for all adjacent maneuver elements
under brigade control. The reconnaissance platoon leader should understand the specific
functions of the battalion staff, ensure he understands the battalion commanders intent,
and use the staffs expertise whenever possible. Finally, he must understand why the
battalion commander gave his platoon a particular tactical task and how that task fits into
the battalion's concept of the operation.


FM 3-21.94

a. The reconnaissance platoon leader task-organizes his platoon to accomplish the
mission based on the factors of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support
available, time available, and civil considerations (METT-TC). Unlike most other combat
arms platoons that maneuver together in formation, the reconnaissance platoon normally
maneuvers as individual reconnaissance sections or teams, either mounted or dismounted,
under the direction and control of the platoon leader. A reconnaissance section or team
may consist of one or two vehicles plus any combat elements under its operational
control (OPCON). Determining which organization best meets his mission requirements
is one of the key decisions the platoon leader must make during his planning process.

b. Primary and specialty battalion staff officers provide expertise for particular
battlefield operating systems:

(1) The battalion S2 provides information on the enemy and terrain.

(2) The S3 assigns the reconnaissance platoon its mission and then integrates its plan
into that of the battalion.

(3) The fire support officer provides artillery and mortar fires to support the
reconnaissance platoon's plan.

(4) The S4 maintains the platoon's logistical requirements.

(5) The signal officer maintains the battalion C2 and supplies the platoon's
communications requirements.

c. The platoon leader coordinates with the battalion commander and staff when
planning the platoon's mission. METT-TC factors determine whether to employ the
platoon as an intact unit or in sections under platoon control.

d. Distance and mission duration are critical considerations affecting employment of
the reconnaissance platoon away from the main body of its parent unit. Fire support,
CSS, and communications requirements are also important factors when the
reconnaissance platoon must conduct sustained operations beyond the immediate
supporting range of the main body.


Training is the cornerstone of success. The reconnaissance platoon must train for combat
using appropriate training literature and doctrinal manuals that provide reconnaissance
leaders with the TTP and principles required to conduct training properly. The leaders
should refer to the applicable infantry collective tasks (contained in the Army training
and evaluation program [ARTEP], Mission Training Plan) to find the specific conditions
and standards for the techniques and procedures discussed in this manual. Training
requires leaders to use their initiative and to make quick decisions. The training
environment must be realistic and stressful, and it must challenge soldiers to master all
infantry tasks (individual and collective). The training environment must constantly
remind soldies of their mission, of their heritage, and of the physical toughness and
mental stress that is required of them. Platoon training also promotes the cohesion and
determination of the platoon so that it continues to carry out the mission.


FM 3-21.94




This chapter describes techniques and procedures used by
reconnaissance platoons, teams, and sections for command, control, and
communications. It also describes troop-leading procedures (TLP),
communications in combat, and operation orders. Technical
enhancements in SBCT platoons provide leaders with several significant
improvements in command and control. These improvements aid the
platoon leader and team leaders throughout the planning, preparation,
and execution of tactical operations. Combined with the technical
enhancements, the platoon and team leaders must use proven techniques
of mission tactics and leadership.


Command and control refers to the process of directing, coordinating, and controlling a
unit to accomplish a mission. Command and control implements the commander's will in
pursuit of the unit's objective. The two components of command and control are the
commander and the command and control system. At platoon level, the commander is the
platoon leader; the command and control system consists of the personnel, information
management, procedures, and equipment the platoon leader uses to carry out the
operational process (plan, prepare, execute, and assess) within his platoon.


Leadership means influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to
accomplish a mission (Figure 2-1). Leadership is the most vital component of command
and control.

a. Purpose. Purpose gives soldiers a reason to accomplish the mission.

b. Direction. Direction gives them the means to accomplish the mission.

c. Motivation. Motivation gives them the will to accomplish the mission.

d. Communications. To command or control, leaders must communicate with their
subordinates. Digital radios represent a significant technical improvement over previous
systems. Leaders and soldiers at every level must ensure they know digital radio
procedures and how to link digital systems. Soldiers quickly lose these skills, so leaders
must constantly work to maintain them through sustainment training.

Influencing people to
accomplish a mission by
providing —


The reason to accomplish the


The means to accomplish the


The will to accomplish the

Figure 2-1. Elements of leadership.


FM 3-21 .94


The mission-oriented command and control method of directing military operations
encourages and helps subordinates to act within the intent and concept of both the SBCT
and battalion commanders. Mission-oriented C2 requires that subordinate elements
clearly understand the purpose and commander's intent (two levels up). This
understanding allows them the freedom to respond, with disciplined initiative, to the
changing situation without further guidance. With mission-oriented C2, the platoon
leader must consider the following guidelines.

a. Expect Uncertainty. The platoon leader must understand the impact of and the
manner in which capability impacts on the environment of combat. Dynamic battle
conditions, an (obviously) uncooperative enemy, and the chaos—the noise and confusion
of battle—challenge the platoon leader's ability to know what is happening in his
immediate area of operations (AO). Through the collection of data and information, he
must try to understand and envision the evolving battle beyond his personal knowledge
and senses. Using all of his personal, technical, and tactical resources helps him to
develop the situation and reduce the "fog of battle." Information alone cannot develop the
entire situation. The situation the leader anticipates during the planning phase will
invariably change; this fact requires flexible, dynamic leadership during the execution of
current operations.

b. Reduce Leader Intervention. Control stifles initiative. When soldiers expect the
platoon, section, or team leader to make every decision or initiate every action, they may
become reluctant to act. To counter this tendency, the platoon leader must plan and direct
operations in a manner that requires a minimum of intervention. The platoon leader must
operate on the principle that trained subordinates with a clear understanding of the
mission will accomplish the task.

c. Optimize Planning Time for Subordinates. The platoon leader must ensure that
the timelines he develops for mission planning and preparation provide adequate
troop-leading time for the subordinate elements.

d. Allow Maximum Freedom of Action for Subordinates. Given the expected
battlefield conditions, leaders at every level must avoid unnecessary limits on their
soldiers' freedom of action. The leader at the decisive point must have the knowledge,
training, and freedom to make the correct choice in support of both the battalion and
company commanders' intent. This concept must be emphasized at every opportunity and
at every level of leadership. Soldiers win battles. Their leaders can only place them in a
position where they can seize the opportunity to do so.

e. Encourage Cross Talk. Section and team leaders sometimes need no guidance
from the platoon leader in order to address a change in the situation. In some instances,
because of their position on the battlefield, two or more subordinates working together
may have on-site information that enhances the platoon leader's understanding of the
situation, thus providing the clearest view of what is happening. This information
becomes critical to the platoon leader as he develops the tactical solution. This type of
problem solving involving direct coordination between subordinate elements is critical to
mission-oriented C2.

f Lead Well Forward. The platoon leader locates where he can best employ his
platoon and make critical decisions to influence the outcome of the fight. He normally
chooses a position with the main effort in order to control his elements and, at the same


FM 3-21.94

time, support or draw resources from the main effort as needed. From his far forward
position, he can use all of the available technology and personal resources to "see" the
battlefield. In addition to visual observation, intelligence resources also include radio
reports and, if available, information provided via the FBCB2 system. The platoon
sergeant positions where he can best accomplish his tasks and assume command of the
platoon quickly, if needed.

g. Maintain the Common Operational Picture. The commander structures the
battlefield based on his intent and on the factors of METT-TC. How he does this affects
the platoon leader's mission planning and his ability to assess the situation and make
tactical decisions. The framework of the battlefield can vary from one extreme to the
other and with many variations. At one extreme, the battlefield could have obvious front
and rear boundaries and closely tied adjacent units. At the other extreme, it could consist
of a dispersed, decentralized structure with few secure areas and unit boundaries and no
definable front or rear boundary. Maintaining the COP becomes more difficult as the
battlefield loses structure. Modern, highly mobile operations involving small forces lend
themselves to a less rigid framework. To "see" the battlefield accurately, the platoon
leader must know the friendly situation one level higher. Whenever possible, he shares
what he knows with the section and team leaders. The platoon leader also must know the
terrain and weather and the enemy situation. He must picture enemy and friendly
elements through time as well as picture how the terrain will affect their actions.
Analyzing the situation (gaining and understanding the situation)—

• Includes having an understanding of relevant terrain, an understanding of the
relationship between friendly and enemy forces, and the ability to correlate
battlefield events as they develop.

• Helps leaders form logical conclusions, make decisions that anticipate future
events and information, and, if time is short, conduct TLP as fast as possible.

• Provides a basis for platoon sergeants, section leaders, and team leaders to
make sound, quick, tactical decisions.

• Reduces fratricide.

NOTE: The platoon leader must understand the situation and commander's intent two
levels higher than his own. However, he must know the real-time battlefield
situation in detail for his immediate higher level (battalion).


Plans are the basis for any mission. To develop his plan (concept of the operation), the
platoon leader summarizes how best to accomplish his mission within the scope of the
commander's intent two levels up The platoon leader uses TLP to turn the concept into a
fully developed plan and to prepare a concise, accurate OPORD. He assigns additional
tasks (and outlines their purpose) for subordinate elements, allocates available resources,
and establishes priorities to make the concept work. The following discussion covers
important aspects of orders development and serves as an introduction to the discussion
of the troop-leading procedures. This section focuses on the mission statement and the
commander's intent, which provide the foundation for the OPORD. It also includes a
basic discussion of the three types of orders (warning orders [WARNOs], OPORDs, and


FM 3-21 .94

FRAGOs) used by the platoon leader. The platoon leader and his subordinates must have
a thorough understanding of the building blocks for everything else that he does.


The platoon leader uses the mission statement to summarize the upcoming operation.
This brief paragraph (sometimes a single sentence) describes the type of operation, the
unit's tactical task and purpose, the actions to be taken, and the reasons for these actions.
It is written based on the five "Ws:" who (unit), what (tasks), when (date-time group),
where (grid location or geographical reference for the area of operations or objective),
and why (purpose). The platoon leader must ensure that the mission is thoroughly
understood by all leaders and soldiers two echelons down. The following considerations
apply in development of the mission statement.

a. Operations. Operations are groupings of related activities into four broad
categories: offense, defense, stability, and support.

b. Tasks. Tactical tasks are specific activities performed by the unit while it is
conducting a form of tactical operation or a choice of maneuver. (The title of each task
can also be used as an action verb in the unit's mission statement to describe actions
during the operation.) Tasks should be definable, attainable, and measurable. Tactical
tasks that require specific tactics, techniques, and procedures for the platoon are covered
in detail throughout this manual.

c. Purpose. A simple, clear statement tells the subordinates why the platoon is
conducting the mission and how the platoon will operate with or provide support for
other units.

d. Placement in OPORD. The platoon leader has several options as to where he
outlines his subordinates' tasks and purpose in the OPORD. His main concern is that
placement of the mission statement should assist subordinate leaders in understanding the
task, purpose, and each of the five W elements exactly. Figure 2-2 shows an example of a
mission statement the platoon leader might include in his order:


The reconnaissance platoon (who) screens (task/what) along PL
Anaconda (Where) NLT 040600Z FEB 98 (when) to provide early
warning to the battalion (purpose/why).

Or, broken out into the five-W format:

Who Reconnaissance Platoon.

What Screen.

When PL Anaconda (PK59674578 to Pk61 544978).

Where At 040600Z FEB 01.

Why To provide early warning to the battalion.

Figure 2-2. Example mission statement.


Combat orders are the means by which the platoon leader receives and transmits
information, from the earliest notification that an operation will occur through the final


FM 3-21.94

steps of execution. Warning orders, operations orders, and fragmentary orders are
absolutely critical to mission success. In a tactical situation, the platoon leader and
subordinate leaders work with combat orders on a daily basis. At the same time, they
must ensure that every soldier in the platoon understands how to receive and respond to
the various types of orders. The skills associated with analyzing orders are highly
perishable; therefore, the platoon leader must take every opportunity to train the platoon
in the use of combat orders with realistic practice.

a. Warning Orders. Platoon leaders alert section and team leaders by using a
WARNO during planning for an operation. Warning orders also initiate the parallel
planning process, the platoon leader's most valuable time management tool. The platoon
leader may issue a series of warning orders to his subordinate leaders to help them
prepare for new missions. The directions and guidelines in the warning order allow
subordinates to begin their own planning and preparation activities.

(1) The content of WARNOs is based on two major variables: information available
about the upcoming operation and special instructions. The information usually comes
from the battalion main command post.

(2) In addition to alerting the unit to the upcoming operation, WARNOs allow the
platoon leader to issue tactical information incrementally and, ultimately, to shorten the
length of the actual OPORD. Warning orders do not have a specific format, but one
technique to follow is the five-paragraph OPORD format. Table 2-1 shows an example of
how the platoon leader might use warning orders to alert the platoon and provide initial
planning guidance.







Receive battalion

Warning order #1 covers:

Prepare squads and vehicles for


Security plan.

movement to the tactical

Movement plan.

assembly area.

Initial reconnaissance and

Obtain map sheets.

surveillance guidance.

Initiate generic rehearsals (drill-

Tentative timeline.

and task-related).

Standard drills to be


Receive battalion

Warning order #2 covers:

Initiate squad-level mission


Friendly situation.



Enemy situation.

Conduct METT-TC

Terrain analysis.

Prepare for combat.


Platoon mission.

Receive battalion

Warning order #3 covers:

Identify platoon-level


Concept of the operation.

reconnaissance requirements.


Concept of fires.

Direct leader's reconnaissance.

Receive battalion

Subordinate unit tasks and

Prepare for combat.




Updated graphics.

Develop a tentative plan

Table 2-1. Example of multiple warning orders.

b. Operations Order. The OPORD is the five-paragraph directive issued by a
leader to subordinates for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an


FM 3-21 .94

operation. When time and information are available, the platoon leader will normally
issue a complete OPORD as part of his troop-leading procedures; however, after issuing a
series of WARNOs, he does not need to repeat information previously covered. He can
simply review previously issued information or brief the changes or earlier omissions. He
then will have more time to concentrate on visualizing his concept of the fight for his
subordinates. As noted in his warning orders, the platoon leader also may issue an
execution matrix either to supplement the OPORD or as a tool to aid in the execution of
the mission; however, the matrix order technique does not replace a five-paragraph

c. Fragmentary Order. A FRAGO is a brief oral or written order. The platoon
leader uses a FRAGO to—

• Communicate changes in the enemy or friendly situation.

• Task subordinate elements based on changes in the situation.

• Implement timely changes to existing orders.

• Provide pertinent extracts from more detailed orders.

• Provide interim instructions until he can develop a detailed order.

• Specify instructions for subordinates who do not need a complete order.

A written FRAGO can follow the five-paragraph OPORD structure; however, it includes
only the information required for subordinates to accomplish their mission. To enhance
understanding of oral FRAGOs, digitally equipped units can quickly develop hasty
graphics and transmit digital overlays.


Troop-leading procedures begin when the platoon leader receives the first indication of
an upcoming operation and continue throughout the operational process (plan, prepare,
execute, and assess). The TLP are a sequence of actions (Figure 2-3) that help platoon
leaders to effectively and efficiently use available time to issue orders and execute
tactical operations. TLP are not a hard and fast set of rules. They are a guide that must be
applied consistent with the situation and the experience of the platoon leader and his
subordinate leaders. The tasks involved in some steps (such as initiate movement, issue
the warning order, and conduct reconnaissance) may recur several times during the
process. The last step, those activities associated with supervising and refining the plan,
occur throughout troop-leading. The following TLP information assumes that the platoon
leader will plan in a time-constrained environment. As such, the suggested techniques are
oriented to help a platoon leader quickly develop and issue a combat order.


Figure 2-3. Troop-leading procedures.


FM 3-21.94


This step begins with the receipt of the initial WARNO or OPORD from the battalion.
This step begins the planning and preparation process so that the platoon leader can
prepare an initial WARNO as quickly as possible. The platoon leader must not become
involved in a detailed METT-TC analysis. During this step, the platoon leader determines
the time he has available to prepare and execute the mission. For the platoon leader,
mission analysis is essentially the analysis of the factors of METT-TC. At this stage of
the TLP, mission analysis should focus on determining the unit's mission and the amount
of available time. Detailed mission analysis will occur after the platoon leader issues the
initial WARNO.


After the platoon leader has determined his platoon's mission and gauged the time
available for planning and execution, he immediately issues an oral WARNO to his
subordinates. In addition to telling his subordinates of the platoon's new mission, the
WARNO also gives them the platoon leader's planning timeline. The platoon leader
relays all other instructions or information that he thinks will assist the platoon in
preparing for the new mission. Such information includes information about the enemy,
the nature of the overall plan, and specific instructions for preparation. Most importantly,
by issuing the initial WARNO as quickly as possible, the platoon leader enables his
subordinates to begin their own planning and preparation while he begins to develop the
platoon operation order. This is called parallel planning.


After receiving the battalion WARNO, the platoon leader develops a tentative plan. The
process of developing this plan in a time-constrained environment usually has four steps:
mission analysis, course of action (COA) development, COA analysis, and COA
selection. If more time is available, the platoon leader may develop more than one COA.
In this event, he will need to compare these COAs and select the best one.

a. Mission Analysis. This is a continuous process during the course of the mission.
It requires the platoon leader to analyze all the factors of METT-TC in as much depth as
time and quality of information allow. The factors of METT-TC are not always analyzed
sequentially. How and when the platoon leader analyzes each factor depends on when
information is made available to him. One technique for the analysis is based on the
sequence of products that the battalion staff produces: mission, terrain and weather,
enemy, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations. The
platoon leader can streamline his analysis effort by using his digital capability to access
products produced at the battalion or brigade to fill in gaps he identifies. As a result of his
analysis, the platoon leader must develop significant conclusions about how each element
will affect mission accomplishment.

(1) Analysis of Mission. Leaders at every echelon must have a clear understanding of
the mission, intent, and concept of the operation of the commanders one and two levels
higher. Without this understanding, it would be difficult to exercise disciplined initiative.
One technique to quickly understand the operation is to draw a simple sketch of the
battalion and brigade's concept of the operations (if not provided by the battalion staff).
The platoon leader can then understand how his platoon is nested into the overall plan


FM 3-21 .94

and can capture this understanding in his restated mission statement. The platoon leader
will write a restated mission statement using his analyses of these areas: the battalion
mission, intent, and concept; the company mission, intent, and concept; identification of
specified, implied, and essential tasks; identification of risks; and any constraints.

(a) Battalion Mission, Intent, and Concept. The platoon leader understands the
battalion concept of the operation. He identifies the battalion's task and purpose and how
his platoon is contributing to the battalion's fight. The platoon leader must also
understand the battalion commander's intent, which is found in the battalion intelligence,
surveillance and reconnaissance annex.

(b) Brigade Mission, Intent, and Concept. The platoon leader understands the brigade
concept of the operation and how the battalion fits into the overall brigade concept. He
identifies the brigade's task and purpose and his contribution to the battalion's fight. The
platoon leader must clearly understand the brigade commander's intent from the brigade
order (paragraph 3). Additionally, the platoon leader identifies the task, purpose, and
disposition for all adjacent maneuver elements under brigade control.

(c) Platoon Mission. The platoon leader finds his platoon's mission in the battalion's
concept of the operation paragraph. The platoon leader must understand how his purpose
relates to the other companies in the battalion. He determines the platoon's essential
tactical task to successfully accomplish his given purpose. Finally, he must understand
why the battalion commander gave his platoon a particular tactical task and how it fits
into the battalion's concept of the operation.

(d) Constraints. Constraints are restrictions the battalion commander places on the
platoon leader to dictate action or inaction. Constraints restrict the freedom of action the
platoon leader has for planning by stating the things that must or must not be done. The
platoon leader identifies all the constraints the commander places on the unit's ability to
execute its mission. There are two types of constraints: requirements for action (for
example, "place one reconnaissance team under operational control of Alpha company")
and prohibitions of action (for example, "do not cross PL BULL until authorized"/

(e) Identification of Tasks. The platoon leader must identify and understand the tasks
required to accomplish the mission. There are three types of tasks: specified, implied, and

• Specified tasks are tasks specifically assigned to a platoon by a battalion
commander. Paragraphs 2 and 3 from the battalion OPORD state specified
tasks. Specified tasks may also be found in annexes and overlays.

• Implied tasks are tasks that must be performed to accomplish a specified task
but which are not stated in the battalion OPORD. Implied tasks are derived
from a detailed analysis of the battalion OPORD, the enemy situation and
courses of action, and the terrain. Analysis of the platoon's current location in
relation to future areas of operation as well as the doctrinal requirements for
each specified task might provide implied tasks. SOP tasks are not considered
implied tasks.

• Essential task(s) must be executed to accomplish the mission. These are
derived from a review of the specified and implied tasks.

(f) Identification of Risks. Risk is the chance of injury or death for individuals and
damage to or loss of vehicles and equipment. Risk, or the potential for risk, is always
present in every combat and training situation the platoon faces. Risk management must


FM 3-21.94

take place at all levels of the chain of command during every operation; it is an integral
part of tactical planning. The platoon leader, his NCOs, and all other platoon soldiers
must know how to use risk management, coupled with fratricide avoidance measures, to
ensure that the mission is executed in the safest possible environment within mission
constraints. (Refer to Appendix C for a detailed discussion of risk management and
Appendix D for a discussion of fratricide avoidance.)

(g) Restated Platoon Mission Statement. The platoon leader prepares his mission
statement expressed with the five Ws: who, what, when, where, and why. The "who" is
the platoon. The "what" is the type of operation and the platoon's essential tactical task.
The "when" is given in the battalion OPORD. The "where" is the objective or location
taken from the OPORD. The "why" is the purpose for the platoon's essential tactical task
taken from the battalion commander's concept of the operations paragraph.

(2) Analysis of Terrain and Weather. The platoon leader must conduct a detailed
analysis of the terrain to determine how it will affect his unit and the enemy he
anticipates fighting. The platoon leader must gain an appreciation of the terrain before
attempting to develop either enemy or friendly CO As. He must exceed merely making
observations (for example, this is high ground, this is an avenue of approach); he must
arrive at significant conclusions about how the ground will affect the enemy as well as
his unit. Because of limited planning time, the platoon leader normally prioritizes his
terrain analysis. For example, in the conduct of an assault his priority may be the area
around the objective followed by the platoon's specific axis leading to the objective.

(a) Terrain mobility is classified in one of three categories.

• Unrestricted. This is terrain free of any movement restrictions; no actions are
required to enhance mobility. For mechanized forces, unrestricted terrain is
typically flat or moderately sloped, with scattered or widely spaced obstacles
such as trees or rocks. Unrestricted terrain generally allows wide maneuver
and offers unlimited travel over well-developed road networks. Unrestricted
terrain is an advantage in situations requiring rapid movement.

• Restricted. This terrain hinders movement to some degree, and units may need
to detour frequently. Restricted terrain may cause difficulty in maintaining
optimal speed, moving in some types of combat formations, or transitioning
from one formation to another. This terrain typically encompasses moderate to
steep slopes or moderate to dense spacing of obstacles such as trees, rocks, or
buildings. The terrain may not require additional assets or time to traverse, but
it may hinder movement to some degree due to increased security
requirements. In instances when security is the paramount concern, both
friendly and enemy elements may move in more restricted terrain that may
provide more cover and concealment.

• Severely Restricted. This terrain severely hinders or slows movement in
combat formations unless some effort is made to enhance mobility. It may
require a commitment of engineer forces to improve mobility or a deviation
from doctrinal tactics, such as using a column rather than a wedge formation
or moving at speeds much slower than otherwise preferred. Severely restricted
terrain includes any terrain that requires equipment not organic to the unit to
cross (for example, a large body of water and slopes requiring mountaineering


FM 3-21 .94

(b) The military aspects of terrain (OAKOC), Figure 2-4, are used to analyze the
ground. The sequence used to analyze the military aspects of terrain can vary. The
platoon leader may prefer to determine Obstacles first, Avenues of Approach second, Key
Terrain third, Observation and Fields of Fire fourth, and Cover and Concealment last.
For each aspect of terrain, the platoon leader determines its effect on both friendly and
enemy forces. These effects translate directly into conclusions that can be applied to
either friendly or enemy courses of action.







Figure 2-4. Military aspects of terrain.

• Obstacles. Within his AO, the platoon leader identifies existing and
reinforcing obstacles that limit his mobility with regards to the mission.
Existing obstacles are typically natural terrain features present on the
battlefield and may include ravines, gaps, or ditches over 3 meters wide; tree
stumps and large rocks over 18 inches high; forests with trees 8 inches or
greater in diameter and with less than 4 meters between trees; and manmade
obstacles such as towns or cities. Reinforcing obstacles are typically manmade
obstacles that augment existing obstacles and may include minefields, antitank
ditches, road craters, abatis and log cribs, wire obstacles, and infantry
strongpoints. Figure 2-5 lists several offensive and defensive considerations
the platoon leader can include in his analysis of obstacles and restricted


FM 3-21.94










Figure 2-5. Considerations in obstacle and terrain analysis.

• Avenues of Approach. An avenue of approach is an air or ground route of an
attacking force leading to its objective or key terrain. For each avenue of
approach, the platoon leader determines (or receives from the battalion
commander) the type (mounted, dismounted, air, or subterranean), size,
formation, and speed of the largest unit that can travel along it. Mounted
forces may move on avenues along unrestricted or restricted terrain (or both).
Dismounted avenues and avenues used by reconnaissance elements normally
include restricted terrain and, at times, terrain severely restricted to mounted
forces. In addition, the terrain analysis must identify avenues of approach for
both friendly and enemy units. Figure 2-6 lists several considerations for
avenue of approach analysis.















Figure 2-6. Considerations in avenue of approach analysis.


FM 3-21 .94

• Key Terrain. Key terrain affords a marked advantage to the combatant who
seizes, retains, or controls it. The platoon leader identifies key terrain not
previously identified by the battalion S2. The platoon leader identifies key
terrain starting at the objective or main battle area and working backwards to
his current position. It is a conclusion rather than an observation. Key terrain
may allow the platoon leader to apply direct fire or achieve observation of the
objective (or avenue of approach). The platoon leader must assess what terrain
is key to his mission accomplishment.

=> An example of key terrain for a platoon could be a tree line on a hillside
that over looks a high-speed avenue of approach. Controlling this tree line
may be critical in passing follow-on forces (the main effort) to their
objective. High ground, however, is not necessarily key terrain. For
example, a prominent hilltop overlooks an avenue of approach and offers
clear observation and fields of fire, but if it is easily bypassed, it is not key
terrain. For another example, a bridge may ease or hamper movement by
forming a chokepoint. Therefore, whoever controls it has the marked
=> Although unlikely, the platoon leader may identify decisive terrain — key
terrain that holds such importance that the seizure, retention, and control
of it will be necessary for mission accomplishment and may decide the
outcome of the battle. (Decisive terrain will not be present in every
situation.) A technique for evaluating key terrain is to analyze the next two
military aspects of terrain (observation and fields of fire and cover and
concealment) for each piece of key terrain. Figure 2-7 depicts operational
considerations when analyzing key terrain.








Figure 2-7. Considerations in key terrain analysis.

• Observation and Fields of Fire. The platoon leader analyzes areas surrounding
key terrain, objectives, avenues of approach, and obstacles to determine if
they provide clear observation and fields of fire for both friendly and enemy
forces. He locates inter-visibility (IV) lines (terrain that inhibits observation
from one point to another) that have not been identified by the commander
and determines where visual contact between the two forces will occur. When
analyzing fields of fire, the platoon leader focuses on both friendly and enemy
direct fire capabilities. Additionally, he identifies positions that enable
artillery observers to call for indirect fires and permit snipers to engage


FM 3-21.94

targets. Figure 2-8 provides considerations for analysis of observation and
fields of fire. Whenever possible, the platoon leader conducts a ground
reconnaissance from both the friendly and enemy perspectives.

















Figure 2-8. Considerations in analysis of observation and fields of fire.

• Cover and Concealment. Cover is protection from the effects of fires.
Concealment is protection from observation but not direct or indirect fires.
Figure 2-9 provides considerations for analysis of cover and concealment.
Consideration of these elements leads the platoon leader to identify areas that
can, at best, achieve both facets. The platoon leader looks at the terrain,
foliage, structures, and other features on the key terrain, the objective, and the
avenues of approach to identify sites that offer cover and concealment.










Figure 2-9. Considerations in analysis of cover and concealment.

(c) There are five military aspects of weather:


FM 3-21 .94

• Light data.

• Visibility.

• Temperature

• Precipitation

• Winds.

The platoon leader must go beyond merely making observations; he must arrive at
significant conclusions about how the weather will affect his platoon and the enemy. He
receives conclusions from the commander and identifies his own critical conclusions
about the five military aspects of weather. Most importantly, the platoon leader must
apply these conclusions when he develops friendly and enemy COAs.

• Light Data. The platoon leader identifies critical conclusions about beginning
morning nautical twilight (BMNT), sunrise (SR), sunset (SS), end of evening
nautical twilight (EENT), moonrise (MR), moonset (MS), and percentage of
illumination. Light data considerations include the following:

=> Will the sun rise behind my attack?
=> How can I take advantage of the limited illumination?
=> How will limited illumination affect friendly and enemy target

• Visibility. The platoon leader identifies critical conclusions about visibility
factors (such as fog, smog, and humidity) and battlefield obscurants (such as
smoke and dust). Visibility considerations include the following:

=> Will the current weather favor the use of smoke to obscure during

=> Will fog affect friendly and enemy target acquisition?

• Temperature. The platoon leader identifies critical conclusions about
temperature factors (such as high and low temperatures and infrared crossover
times) and battlefield factors (such as use of smoke or chemicals).
Temperature considerations include the following:

=> How will temperature (hot or cold) affect the dismounted rate of march for

the platoon?
=> How will temperature (hot or cold) affect the soldiers and equipment?
=> Will temperatures favor the use of nonpersistent chemicals?

• Precipitation. The platoon leader identifies critical conclusions about
precipitation factors (such as type, amount, and duration). Precipitation
considerations include the following:

=> How will precipitation affect mobility?

=> How can precipitation add to the platoon's ability to achieve surprise?

• Winds. The platoon leader identifies critical conclusions about wind factors
(such as direction and speed). Wind considerations include the following:

=> Will wind speed cause smoke to dissipate quickly?

=> Will wind speed and direction favor enemy use of smoke?

(3) Enemy Analysis. The critical outcome of this step is for the platoon leader to

identify the enemy's strengths and potential weaknesses or vulnerabilities so that he can

exploit them by generating overwhelming combat power in achieving his mission. To

accomplish this, the platoon leader must understand the assumptions the battalion staff


FM 3-21.94

used to portray the enemy's courses of action during their mission analysis. Furthermore,
the platoon leader's own assumptions about the enemy must be consistent with those of
the battalion commander. To effectively analyze the enemy, the platoon leader must
know how the enemy may fight. It is equally important for the platoon leader to
understand what is actually known of the enemy through the COP as opposed to what is
only assumed or templated (an educated guess). During doctrinal analysis, it is not
enough only to know the number and types of vehicles, soldiers, and weapons the enemy
has. The platoon leader's analysis must extend down to the squad level. During stability
operations and support operations or small-scale contingency (SSC) operations in an
underdeveloped area where little is known about the combatants, it may be difficult to
portray or template the enemy doctrinally. In this case, the platoon leader must rely on
brigade and battalion analyses provided via the COP and on his own knowledge of recent
enemy activities. The platoon leader should consider the following areas as he analyzes
the enemy.

(a) Composition (Order of Battle). The platoon leader's analysis must determine the
number and types of enemy vehicles, soldiers, and equipment that could be used against
his platoon. He gets this information from situational understanding or paragraph la of
the battalion OPORD. His analysis must also examine how the enemy organizes for
combat to include the possible use of a reserve.

(b) Disposition. From the battalion S2's information, the platoon leader identifies
how the enemy is arrayed. Much of the information is gained through the COP and a
detailed battalion reconnaissance and surveillance annex.

(c) Strength. The platoon leader identifies the strength of the enemy. It is imperative
for the platoon leader to determine the actual numbers of equipment and personnel that
his platoon is expected to encounter or that may affect his platoon. Again, much of this
information is gained through the COP and a detailed battalion reconnaissance and
surveillance annex.

(d) Capabilities. Based on the commander's assessment and the enemy's doctrine and
current location, the platoon leader must determine what the enemy is capable of doing
against his platoon during the mission. Such an analysis must include the planning ranges
for each enemy weapon system that the platoon may encounter.

(e) Anticipated Enemy Courses of Action. To identify potential enemy COAs, the
platoon leader weighs the result of his initial analysis of terrain and weather against the
enemy's composition, capabilities, and doctrinal objectives (through information
provided via FBCB2), then develops an enemy SITEMP for his portion of the company
plan. The end product is a platoon SITEMP, a visual or graphic depiction of how he
believes the enemy will fight under the specific conditions expected on the battlefield.
Much of this information will be gained from the commander's analysis and
understanding of the current enemy and friendly situation.

• Included in this SITEMP is the range fan of the enemy's weapons and any
tactical and protective obstacles, either identified or merely templated. Once
the SITEMP has been developed it should be transferred to a large-scale
sketch to enable subordinates to see the details of the anticipated enemy COA.
After the platoon leader briefs the enemy analysis to his subordinates, he must
ensure they understand what is known, what is suspected, and what is merely


FM 3-21 .94

templated. The platoon's SITEMP should depict individual soldier and

weapons positions and is a refinement of the commander's SITEMP.
• In conjunction with the SITEMP, the platoon leader considers the factors of

METT-TC from the enemy's perspective to develop the details of possible

enemy COAs. The following points can assist in this process:

=> Understand the enemy's mission. What will the enemy's likely mission be
based on enemy doctrine and knowledge of the situation and the enemy's
capabilities? This may be difficult to determine if the enemy has no
established order of battle. Enemy analysis must consider situational
reports of enemy patterns and COP updates. When does the enemy strike,
and where? Where does the enemy get logistical support and fire support?
What cultural or religious factors are involved?

=> Why is the enemy conducting this operation?

=> What are the enemy's goals?

=> What are the enemy's capabilities?

=> What are the enemy's objectives? Based on the SITEMP and the projected
enemy mission, what are the enemy's march objectives (offense) or the
terrain or force he intends to protect (defense)? The commander normally
provides this information.

=> Terrain and weather. If the enemy is attacking, which avenues will he use
to reach his objectives in executing his COAs and why?

=> How will terrain affect his speed and formations?

=> How will he use key terrain and locations with clear observation and fields
of fire?

=> Does the weather aid or hinder the enemy in accomplishing his mission or
does the weather degrade the enemy's weapons or equipment

=> Enemy obstacles. These locations, provided by the company commander
or obtained from the COP, give the platoon leader insights into how the
enemy is trying to accomplish his mission.

(4) Analysis of Troops. Perhaps the most critical aspect of mission analysis is
determining the combat power potential of one's force. The platoon leader must
realistically and unemotionally determine what tasks his soldiers are capable of
performing. This analysis includes the troops attached to or in direct support of the
platoon. The platoon leader must know the status of his soldiers' experience and level of
training and the strengths and weaknesses of his subordinate leaders. His assessment
includes knowing the status of his soldiers and their equipment, and it includes
understanding the full array of assets that are in support of the platoon such as indirect
fire support, mobile gun system (MGS), snipers, and engineers. This information is
gained from the lower tactical Internet.

(5) Time Analysis. As addressed in the first step of the TLP, time analysis is a critical
aspect of planning, preparation, and execution. The platoon leader must appreciate not
only how much time is available but also the time-space aspects of preparing, moving,
fighting, and sustaining. He must be able to see his own tasks and enemy actions in
relation to time.


FM 3-21.94

(a) He must be able to assess the impact of limited visibility conditions on the troop-
leading procedures.

(b) He must know how long it takes to conduct certain tasks such as order
preparation, rehearsals, back-briefs, and other time-sensitive preparations for subordinate

(c) Most importantly, as events occur, the platoon leader must adjust his analysis of
time available to him and assess the impact on what he wants to accomplish.

(d) Finally, he must update previous timelines for his subordinates listing all events
that affect the platoon.

(6) Analysis of Civil Considerations. The battalion S2 provides the platoon leader
with civil considerations that may affect the platoon missions. The platoon leader must
also identify any civil consideration that may affect only his platoon's mission. These
may include refugee movement, humanitarian assistance requirements, or specific
requirements related to the rules of engagement (ROE) or rules of interaction (ROI).

(7) Summary of Mission Analysis. The end result of mission analysis, as done during
the formulation of a tentative plan, is a number of insights and conclusions regarding how
the factors of METT-TC affect accomplishment of the platoon's mission. From these, the
platoon leader develops a course of action.

b. Course of Action Development. The purpose of COA development is to
determine one or more ways to achieve the mission by applying the overwhelming effects
of combat power at the decisive place or time with the least cost in friendly casualties. If
time permits, the platoon leader should develop several COAs. The platoon leader makes
each COA as detailed as possible to describe clearly how he plans to use his forces to
achieve the unit's mission essential task(s) and purpose consistent with the commander's
intent. He focuses on the actions the unit must take at the decisive point and works
backward to his start point. A COA should satisfy the criteria listed in Table 2-2, page 2-

NOTE: The platoon leader should consider (METT-TC dependent) incorporating his
section and team leaders in COA development. Incorporating the platoon's
leadership in the process may add time to the initial COA development
process, but it will save time by increasing their understanding of the
platoon's plan.


FM 3-21 .94


If the COA were successfully executed, would the unit
accomplish the mission consistent with the battalion
commander's concept and intent?


The platoon must have the technical and tactical skill and
resources to successfully accomplish the COA. In short,
given the enemy situation and terrain, the unit must have the
training, equipment, leadership, and rehearsal time
necessary to successfully execute the mission.


If more than one COA is developed, each COA must be
sufficiently different from the others to justify full
development and consideration. At platoon level, this is very
difficult to accomplish, particularly if the platoon has limited
freedom of action.


The COA must include the operational factors of who, what,
when, where, and how. The COA must address the doctrinal
aspects of the operation. For example, in the attack against
a defending enemy, the COA must cover movement to,
deployment against, assault of, and consolidation upon the

Table 2-2. Course of action criteria.

(1) Course of Action Development Step 1. Analyze Relative Combat Power. The

purpose of this step is to compare combat power, strengths, and weaknesses of both
friendly and enemy forces. At the platoon level, this should not be a complex process.
However, if the battalion is attacking or defending against a force in a situation where the
enemy has no order of battle but has exhibited guerrilla- or terrorist-type tactics, it could
be difficult. For the platoon leader, it starts by returning to the conclusions the
commander arrived at during mission analysis, specifically the conclusions about the
enemy's strengths, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities. In short, the platoon leader is trying
to see where, when, and how the effects of the platoon's combat power (maneuver,
protection, leadership, and information) can be superior to the enemy's while achieving
the mission. This analysis should lead to techniques and procedures at a potentially
decisive point that will focus the COA development. (See FM 101-5-1 for the definition
of a decisive point.)

(2) Course of Action Development Step 2. Generate Options. The platoon leader
must first identify the objectives or times at which the unit will mass overwhelming
firepower to achieve a specific result (with respect to terrain, enemy, and or time) that
will accomplish the platoon's mission. He should take the following action.

(a) Determine the Doctrinal Requirements. As the platoon leader begins to develop a
COA he should consider, if he has not done so in mission analysis, what doctrine
suggests in terms of accomplishing the mission. For example, in an attack of a
strongpoint, doctrine outlines several steps: isolate the objective area and the selected
breach site, attack to penetrate and seize a foothold in the strongpoint, exploit the
penetration, and clear the objective. In this case, doctrine gives the platoon leader a
framework to begin developing a way to accomplish the mission.

(b) Determine the Decisive Point. The next and most important action is to identify a
decisive point in order to progress with COA development. The decisive point may be
given to the platoon leader by the commander or be determined by the platoon leader
through his relative combat power analysis.


FM 3-21.94

(c) Determine the Purpose of Each Element. Determine the purpose of the
subordinate elements starting with the main effort. The main effort's purpose is nested to
the platoon's purpose and is achieved at the platoon leader's decisive point. The platoon
leader next identifies the purposes of supporting efforts. These purposes are nested to the
main effort's purpose by setting the conditions for success of the main effort.

(d) Determine Tasks of Subordinate Elements. Starting with the main effort, the
platoon leader specifies the essential tactical tasks that will enable the main and
supporting efforts to achieve their purpose.

(3) Course of Action Development Step 3. Array Initial Forces. The platoon leader
next must determine the specific number of elements and weapons necessary to
accomplish the mission and provide a basis for development of a scheme of maneuver.
He will consider the platoon's restated mission statement, the commander's intent, and
the enemy's most probable COA. He should allocate resources to the main effort (at the
decisive point) and continue with supporting efforts in descending order of importance to
accomplish the tasks and purposes he assigned during Step 2.

(4) Course of Action Development Step 4. Develop Schemes of Maneuver. The
scheme of maneuver is a description of how the platoon leader envisions his subordinates
will accomplish the mission from the start of the operation until its completion. He does
this by determining how the achievement of one task will lead to the execution of the
next. He clarifies in his mind the best ways to use the available terrain as well as how
best to employ the platoon's strengths against the enemy's weaknesses (gained from his
relative combat power analysis). This includes the requirements of indirect fire to support
the maneuver. The platoon leader then develops the maneuver control measures
necessary to enhance understanding of the scheme of maneuver, ensure fratricide
avoidance, and to clarify the task and purpose of the main and supporting efforts. (Refer
to Appendix D for a detailed discussion of fratricide avoidance.) He also determines the
supply and medical evacuation aspects of the COA.

(5) Course of Action Development Step 5. Assign Headquarters or elements. The
platoon leader assigns specific elements (for example, section and or teams) as the main
and supporting efforts. The platoon leader ensures that he has employed every element of
the unit and has C2 for each element.

(6) Course of Action Development Step 6. Prepare COA Statements and Sketches.
The platoon leader's ability to prepare COA sketches and statements will depend on the
amount of time available and his skill and experience as a platoon leader. Whenever
possible, the platoon leader should prepare a sketch showing the COA. The COA
statement is based on the scheme of maneuver the commander has already developed and
the platoon leader's situational analysis. It focuses on all significant actions from the start
of the COA to its finish.

c. Analysis of Course of Action. After developing a COA, the platoon leader
analyzes it to determine its advantages and disadvantages, to visualize the flow of the
battle, and to identify requirements to synchronize actual execution. Typically this is
done either mentally or during a rehearsal with the team leaders, platoon sergeant, and
other key personnel. This technique is not complicated and facilitates a total
understanding of the plan.

d. Course of Action Comparison and Selection. If the platoon leader develops
more than one COA, he must compare them by weighing the specific advantages,


FM 3-21 .94

disadvantages, strengths, and weaknesses of each. These attributes may pertain to the
accomplishment of the platoon purpose, the use of terrain, the destruction of the enemy,
or any other aspect of the operation that the platoon leader believes is important. The
platoon leader uses these factors as his frame of reference in tentatively selecting the best
CO A. He makes the final selection of a CO A based on his own analysis.


The platoon leader initiates any movement that is necessary to continue preparations or to
posture the unit for the operation. This may include movement to an assembly area, battle
position, perimeter defense, or attack position; movement of reconnaissance elements; or
movement to compute time-distance factors for the unit's mission.


NOTE: The following discussion on reconnaissance and the amount or type of
reconnaissance conducted must be evaluated by the amount of information
needed, the risk to leaders conducting the reconnaissance, and the amount of
time available. Reconnaissance must be a coordinated effort with higher

During troop-leading procedures, the platoon leader should conduct a reconnaissance
after he has developed a plan. The focus of the reconnaissance is to confirm the priority
intelligence requirements (PIR) that support the tentative plan.

a. PIR are assumptions or critical facts concerning the enemy's location and
strength. The PIR also include assumptions about the terrain (to verify, for example, that
a tentative support-by-fire position actually will allow for suppression of the enemy or to
verify the utility of an avenue of approach).

b. If possible, the platoon leader includes his subordinate leaders in this
reconnaissance (or instructs a team to conduct a reconnaissance patrol with specific
objectives). This allows them to see as much of the terrain and enemy as possible. It also
helps each leader visualize the plan more clearly.

c. In addition to the information available via the COP, the platoon leader also needs
to conduct a leader's reconnaissance. Examples include surveillance of an area by
subordinate elements, patrols by reconnaissance teams to determine where the enemy is
(and is not) located, and establishment of OPs to gain additional information. The nature
of the reconnaissance, including what it covers and how long it lasts, depends on the
tactical situation and time available. The platoon leader should use the results from the
COA development process to identify information and security requirements for the
platoon's reconnaissance operations.


Completion of the plan includes several steps that transform the commander's intent and
concept and the platoon's concept into a fully developed platoon OPORD. These steps
include preparing overlays, refining the indirect fire list, completing CSS and C2
requirements, as well as updating the tentative plan as a result of the reconnaissance or
COP updates. As part of completing the plan, the platoon leader prepares the briefing


FM 3-21.94

site, briefing medium, and briefing material he needs to present the OPORD to his
subordinates. Completing the plan allows the platoon leader to make final coordination
with other units or the commander before issuing the OPORD to his subordinates.


The OPORD precisely and concisely explains the platoon leader's intent and concept of
how he wants the teams and mounted elements to accomplish the mission. The OPORD
must not contain unnecessary information that could obscure what is essential and
important. The platoon leader must ensure his teams know exactly what must be done,
when it must be done, and how the platoon must work together to accomplish the mission
and stay consistent with the intentions of the commander.

a. Whenever possible, the platoon leader issues the order in person to ensure each of
his soldiers understands the mission and what his element must achieve. The platoon
leader also uses visual aids, such as sand tables and concept sketches, to depict actions on
the objective or movement. (FM 7-8, Chapter 2, discusses techniques for sand table
construction and use.)

b. The platoon leader may issue the platoon OPORD via FBCB2. FBCB2 allows for
quick dissemination of information and graphics; however, the platoon leader lacks the
human contact that allows him to feel comfortable that his subordinates clearly
understand the plan. Some combination of personal interaction and the tactical Internet is
the best solution.

c. The format of the five-paragraph OPORD helps the platoon leader paint a
complete picture of all aspects of the operation: terrain, enemy, higher and adjacent
friendly units, platoon mission, execution, support, and command. The format also helps
him address all relevant details of the operation. Finally, it provides subordinates with a
smooth flow of information from beginning to end.


The platoon leader supervises the unit's preparation for combat by conducting
confirmation briefs, rehearsals, and inspections.

a. Platoon leaders should conduct a confirmation brief after issuing the oral OPORD
to ensure subordinates know the mission, the commander's intent, the concept of the
operation, and their assigned tasks. Confirmation briefs can be conducted face to face, by
radio, or by FBCB2, depending on the situation. Face to face is the desired method
because all section and team leaders are together to resolve questions and ensure that
each leader knows what the adjacent team or vehicle is doing.

b. If time permits, the platoon conducts full rehearsals. During the rehearsals, leaders
practice sending tactical reports in accordance with the unit's SOP. Reporting before,
during, and after contact with the enemy is rehearsed in detail, starting with actions on
the objective.

(1) The platoon leader uses well-planned, efficiently run rehearsals to accomplish the

• Reinforce training and increase proficiency in critical tasks.

• Reveal weaknesses or problems in the plan.

• Integrate the actions of attached elements.


FM 3-21 .94

Confirm coordination requirements between the platoon and adjacent units.
Improve each soldier's understanding of the concept of the operation, the
direct fire plan, anticipated contingencies, and possible actions and reactions
for various situations that may arise during the operation.

NOTE: Time permitting, rehearse mounted and dismounted plans.

(2) Rehearsal techniques include:

(a) Map Rehearsal. A map rehearsal is usually conducted as part of a confirmation
brief involving subordinate leaders, portions of their elements, or both. The leader uses
the map and overlay to guide participants as they brief their role in the operation. If
necessary, he can use a sketch map. A sketch map provides the same information as a
terrain model and can be used at any time.

(b) Sand Table or Terrain Model. This technique employs a small-scale sand table or
model that depicts graphic control measures and important terrain features for reference
and orientation. Participants walk or move "micro" vehicles around the sand table or
model to practice the actions of their own elements or vehicles in relation to other
members of the platoon.

(c) Radio/Tactical Internet Rehearsal. This rehearsal is conducted when the situation
does not allow the platoon to gather at one location. Subordinate elements check their
communications systems and rehearse key elements of the platoon plan.

(d) Reduced-Force Rehearsal. In this rehearsal, leaders discuss the mission while
moving (in vehicles or dismounted) over key terrain or similar terrain.

(e) Full-Up Mounted and Dismounted Rehearsal. This is a full-force rehearsal.
Rehearsals begin in good visibility over open terrain and become increasingly realistic
until conditions approximate those expected in the area of operations.


FM 3-21.94



The purpose of tactical movement is to move units on the battlefield
either to initiate contact with the enemy or to reach a destination when
contact with the enemy along the way is possible. Movement is not
maneuver. Maneuver happens once a unit has made contact with the
enemy. This chapter focuses on the movement techniques and formations
that combine to provide the platoon leader with options for moving his
unit. The various techniques and formations have unique advantages and
disadvantages. Some are secure yet slow while others are faster but less
secure. Some formations work well in certain types of terrain or tactical
situations but are less effective in others. The command and control
equipment available to the SBCT infantry battalion reconnaissance
platoon significantly enhances the platoon 's ability to conduct effective
tactical movement, both day and night.

Many times the platoon must plan, rehearse, and execute a
combination of mounted and dismounted movement. The platoon operates
with and without vehicle support, so section and platoon leaders must
understand how to move and maneuver in either tactical situation.
Movement during dismounted operations is similar to mounted movement
but requires more command and control due to the decentralized nature of
the task. Compared to mounted operations, dismounted movement
techniques and formations require as much— or more— detail during the
planning phase.


This paragraph discusses the technological advantages of the mobility systems and C3
subsystems of the reconnaissance platoon as operational aids for planning, navigating,
controlling, and executing combat operations.

a. Navigation. Position navigation (POSNAV) assists in land navigation but does
not replace the need for basic navigational skills. Leaders use POSNAV aids to identify
their location and the location of subordinate and adjacent units. These aids also provide
directional information for movement and target acquisition, and they augment
operational planning graphics such as checkpoints, boundaries, coordination points, and
phase lines. Platoon and section leaders and VCs use position updates from their
navigation systems and analog information to assist in following their planned routes.
Position updates include, as a minimum, the locations of the platoon leader, his section
leaders, and vehicles. Before each mission, the leader designates the duration between
digital and analog position updates. Each section leader and VC should have, as a
minimum, the locations of every element in the platoon on his C3 subsystem. This
information allows the platoon leader to disperse his unit during movement.

(1) During dismounted movement, the section leader allows the lead team to move
along covered and concealed routes as long as it does not deviate too far from the axis,
route, or direction of attack. Technology aids, such as the GPS, can assist the sections in
location positioning during movement and allow the sections to move using


FM 3-21.94

predetermined waypoints as guides. The section leader must continue to use route
planning, mechanical navigational aids, visual observation of terrain features, and manual
techniques to ensure that the sections are in proper position. Leaders may detach small
security elements from the main body to provide early warning by acting as an advance
guard or as guides along a route.

(2) During mounted movement, leaders use their commander's tactical display (CTD)
to monitor the company, platoon, and sections. The POSNAV enables mounted elements
to use greater dispersion during movement without losing awareness of vehicle positions.
When dismounted, the platoon leader or platoon sergeant should transmit his position
location to direct the mounted elements into positions of greater advantage to provide
support and maintain digital connectivity with the battalion. Technology can assist in
navigational planning and execution, but soldiers, and especially leaders, should be
trained and able to navigate and send accurate reports, day or night, using all methods of

b. Route Planning. The leader analyzes the terrain for routes that provide protection
from direct and indirect fires and from ground and aerial observation. The routes should
facilitate mission accomplishment within the limitations of boundaries and allow freedom
of maneuver.

(1) The platoon leader receives the obstacle overlay and the situational template
overlay from the commander to identify reported enemy and obstacle locations. He also
receives the commander's operations overlay to identify graphic control measures
impacting on his route planning. The platoon leader then plans his routes.

(2) The leader identifies adjacent units and creates additional graphic control
measures as needed on his operations overlay. The additional graphic control measures
may include routes of march, coordination points, passage points, and boundaries for
subordinate units.

(3) The leader plots waypoints on easily recognizable terrain and on significant turns
on the route for ease in navigation. As he moves along the prescribed route or axis of
advance during execution, the leader navigates from waypoint to waypoint and reports
locations using the waypoints as checkpoints or phase lines. A good technique is to plot
the waypoints to coincide with other graphic control measures such as checkpoints and
rally points or significant terrain features. These techniques are applicable either mounted
or dismounted. Do not replace operational graphics with an over-reliance on waypoint
land navigation techniques.

c. Maps. Digital maps and overlays provide the platoon with a common operating
picture of the terrain and operational graphics. Leaders must maintain a paper map with
an acetate operational graphics overlay in case of system failures. Do not rely totally on
technology. Leaders and soldiers must remain proficient in using basic land navigation
and terrain orientation skills. They use the POSNAV capabilities of the C3 subsystem as
an enhancement to tactical navigation and not as a replacement. A system failure, an
inability of the GPS to acquire satellites, or a lag time in position updates could prove
disastrous in combat if the leader relies solely on the system.

d. Control Measures. The command and control system software on the RV can
create most standard graphic control measures used at platoon level. However, the screen
may display only a small portion of the platoon's area of operations. The screens are
relatively small and easily become cluttered with control measures. This problem


FM 3-21.94

increases with the addition of position updates and friendly and enemy icons during the

(1) If using only the FBCB2 software, the commander must use only the necessary
graphic control measures and icons for the mission to ensure clarity. The system features
layered overlays that allow leaders to selectively post overlays based on the tactical
situation. The vehicle commander can retrieve the operational overlay on one layer, the
enemy situation template on another layer, the fire support overlay on another, and so

(2) Technology can enhance movement and route planning for operations, but
platoon and section leaders must create concept sketches for briefing to the platoon. The
software should not limit the platoon leader's planning and use of control measures and
operational graphics.

e. Limited Visibility Navigation. Navigation during limited visibility conditions is
easier for the digitized platoon with the introduction of POSNAV and limited visibility
equipment. This equipment has greater optics resolution, which allows the leader to read
his map and terrain association during mounted movement in limited visibility.
Additionally, drivers and VCs have night-vision devices to aid in navigation. All leaders
within the platoon must ensure that their subordinates continuously wear their night-
vision devices when moving dismounted. The platoon should also develop SOPs for
limited visibility marking to aid in command and control at night.


During mounted and dismounted movement, the platoon employs combat formations
when the terrain supports their use or when the mission or reconnaissance objective is
very focused.

a. Dismounted Formations. When the platoon conducts dismounted movement, the
factors of METT-TC determine the formation of the dismounted element. Vehicles must
be located where enemy elements can not observe them. In addition, digital
communications are to be maintained between the dismounted and vehicular elements.
The platoon leadership must keep in perspective that during dismounted operations there
is always an information-gathering element and a control and security element (Figures
3-1 and 3-2, page 3-4), and they should resource each operation accordingly. Chapter 4
of this manual discusses dismounted movement techniques in detail. FM 3-21.9 provides
additional information on infantry platoon dismounted formations.


FM 3-21.94




Figure 3-1. Team dismounted formation.


Figure 3-2. Section dismounted formation.


FM 3-21.94

b. Mounted Formations. The six mounted reconnaissance platoon formations are
line, wedge, column, staggered column, coil, and herringbone. Movement into and out of
the various formations must be second nature to each section. Formations are intended to
be flexible and easily modified to fit the situation, terrain, and combat losses. They do not
have exact geometric dimensions and design.

(1) Line Formation. This formation can be used regardless of the platoon
organization and is applicable to most reconnaissance platoon missions. It allows the
platoon to cover the most ground systematically with maximum reconnaissance forward
(Figure 3-3).

Figure 3-3. Two-section platoon line formation.

(2) Wedge Formation. This formation uses the two-section organization. The platoon
maintains relative positioning based on terrain and combat losses. The wedge lends itself
to immediate mutual support and provides depth; it is very flexible. Using any of the
techniques of movement, the two forward vehicles perform all of the information
gathering and reporting. The rear vehicles provide overwatch and command and control
(Figure 3-4).

Light Section


Heavy Section

Figure 3-4. Two-section platoon wedge formation.

(3) Column Formation. The platoon uses the column formation when speed is
essential as it moves on a designated route (Figure 3-5, page 3-6). The column offers
protection to the flanks but little to the front and rear. Normally, the platoon leader briefs
the section leaders on the route and speed and then allows the lead section to control the
column movement. This frees the platoon leader to concentrate on the subsequent
mission, thus enhancing command and control. It does not, however, relieve him of the
responsibility of tracking the move on his map. The order of march in the column may
depend on which organization the platoon will use at the end of the movement; in
addition, the lead section may vary based on METT-TC considerations. When conducting
movement in a secure area, it is appropriate to specify the order of march by SOP.


FM 3-21.94

Figure 3-5. Platoon column formation.

(4) Staggered Column Formation. The staggered column is used for rapid movement
across open terrain. It affords all-round observation and fields of fire. Figure 3-6 shows
the platoon in the staggered column in a two-section organization with the heavy section

Figure 3-6. Platoon staggered column formation.

(5) Coil Formation. The platoon coil provides all-round security during halts. Each
vehicle has a particular position to occupy in the coil. The platoon leader designates the
orientation of the coil using a cardinal direction. (In the absence of orders, the direction
of travel becomes 12 o'clock.) The reconnaissance platoon should develop a coil SOP
based on its mission-essential task list (METL), war plans, and most frequently used
organizations. The platoon should then practice this SOP as a drill so that correct
execution of the coil becomes automatic. The platoon always executes the coil from the
column or staggered column, using the four-vehicle organization. The lead vehicle
occupies the 12 o'clock position, and the other vehicles occupy the 3, 9, and 6 o'clock


FM 3-21.94

positions in accordance with the order of march. Vehicles are positioned 100 to 150
meters apart (Figure 3-7).

3 o'clock

9 o'clock

Figure 3-7. Example platoon coil formation.

(6) Herringbone Formation. The herringbone provides 360-degree security during a
temporary halt from a march column (Figure 3-8). Troops should dismount to provide
greater security. The formation may be widened to permit passage of vehicles down the
center of the column. All vehicles should move completely off the road if terrain allows.

Figure 3-8. Platoon herringbone formation.


The reconnaissance platoon employs movement techniques for a number of reasons (to
minimize exposure, maintain freedom of movement, maximize available tactical options,


FM 3-21.94

and react effectively to contact). Effectively employed, movement techniques allow the
platoon to find and observe threats without being compromised.

a. At the same time, however, movement techniques alone are not enough to
guarantee accomplishment of these tactical goals. The platoon must use them in
conjunction with other movement- and security-related measures. For example, the
platoon must make maximum use of all available natural cover and concealment when
moving. In addition, it must avoid becoming vehicle-bound; it must be prepared to
dismount to improve observation, prevent enemy detection, and provide security.

b. In conducting both mounted and dismounted movement on the battlefield, the
reconnaissance platoon uses three movement techniques: traveling, traveling overwatch,
and bounding overwatch. These techniques provide a standard method of movement, but
the platoon leader must use common sense in employing them as he performs his
missions and encounters different situations. The decision of which technique to use is
based in large part on the likelihood of enemy contact; in general, this can be summarized
as whether contact is not likely (traveling), possible (traveling overwatch), or expected
(bounding overwatch). Terrain considerations may also affect the choice of movement

c. In the conduct of most tactical missions, the reconnaissance platoon may move as
separate sections or sections under the command and control of the platoon leader.
Traveling overwatch and bounding overwatch are most often executed at the section
level. Traveling, which is usually employed in secured areas, is used equally at the
section and platoon levels.

d. Regardless of which technique is used, the reconnaissance section leader gives the
section an order explaining what each element will do. This becomes more critical as the
likelihood of enemy contact increases. If possible, the section leader should provide his
section with the following information:

• The enemy situation as he knows or suspects it to be.

• The next overwatch position (the objective for the bounding element).

• The route of the bounding element to that position.

• What he wants the section to do after the bounding element gets to the next

e. Execution of the movement techniques is described below.

(1) Traveling. In this technique, the lead and trail elements move together as a unit.
Traveling is the fastest but least secure movement technique. It is used when speed is
important and enemy contact is not likely. Movement is continuous, and interval and
dispersion are maintained between sections as terrain and weather permit. The platoon
does not intend to engage in combat, but it is dispersed to prevent destruction in case of
unexpected air or ground attack. When using this technique, the platoon could be in a
column formation or dispersed in its other formations (Figure 3-9).


FM 3-21.94

Figure 3-9. Platoon using traveling technique and staggered column


(2) Traveling Overwatch. Traveling overwatch is used when contact is possible but
speed is desirable (Figures 3-10 and 3-11, page 3-10). The lead element moves
continuously along covered and concealed routes that afford the best available protection
from possible enemy observation and direct fire. The trail element moves at variable
speeds, providing continuous overwatch. It normally maintains contact with the lead
element and may stop periodically for better observation. The trail element remains close
enough to provide immediate suppressive fire and to maneuver for support. It must,
however, be far enough to the rear to avoid contact in case an enemy force engages the
lead element.


FM 3-21.94

1/2 maximum
effective range
of weapon system

Figure 3-10. Section using traveling overwatch technique and wedge



��50 -100m



Figure 3-11. Dismounted traveling overwatch.


FM 3-21.94

(3) Bounding Overwatch. Bounding overwatch, the slowest but most secure
movement technique, is employed when enemy contact is expected. Regardless of the
likelihood of enemy contact, the platoon should always use bounding overwatch if time is
available and when there is a possibility of enemy contact. It provides for immediate
direct fire suppression on an enemy force that engages the bounding element with direct
fire. In bounding overwatch, one element is always stopped to provide overwatch. The
trail element first occupies a covered and concealed position from which it can overwatch
the lead element. Upon completing its movement (bound), the lead element then occupies
a similar position and provides overwatch as the trail element bounds forward to its next
overwatch position. As an example, a two-vehicle section may use bounding overwatch
(Figure 3-12). The lead vehicle advances to a point (first move) where it can support the
advance of the overwatch vehicle. On signal, the overwatch vehicle moves forward to a
position abreast of the lead vehicle (second move) and halts. During its move, the lead
vehicle overwatches it. The lead vehicle then moves forward again, with the overwatch
vehicle providing security. Maximum use is made of folds of the earth and concealment
to mask movement from likely enemy positions. (See Figure 3-13, page 3-12, for an
illustration of dismounted bounding overwatch.) Bounding overwatch can be executed
using one of the following bounding methods.

(a) Alternate Bounds. In this method, the trail element advances past the lead element
to the next overwatch position. This is usually more rapid than successive bounds.

(b) Successive Bounds. In successive bounding, the trail element moves to an
overwatch position that is approximately abreast of the lead element. This method is
easier to control and is more secure than alternate bounding, but it is slower.

A. Lead vehicle bounds first.

B. Overwatch.

Figure 3-12. Section using bounding overwatch technique.


FM 3-21.94


Figure 3-13. Dismounted bounding overwatch.

(4) Move-Set Technique. The move-set technique of movement is simply an
organized way of controlling the reconnaissance section when it moves in bounding
overwatch. "Set" means that the element has arrived at its destination and has occupied a
position from which it can observe to its front. This technique allows for an absolute
minimum of radio transmissions, positive control by the section leader, and maximum
security within the section. Preferably, the section leader uses hand-and-arm signals or
digital communication within the section for command and control. The move-set method
can be used to control bounding overwatch within the reconnaissance section regardless
of the platoon organization. When terrain permits sections to be mutually supporting
(such as in desert terrain) and other METT-TC factors are favorable, the platoon leader
can use this technique to control bounding by sections.


Leaders at echelons from platoon through company conduct actions on contact when
they, or a subordinate element, recognize one of the forms of contact or receive a report
of enemy contact.

a. Planning. Prior to any mission, the reconnaissance platoon leader must receive a
detailed IPB of the area of operations from the battalion S2. This information is part of
the mission analysis during troop-leading procedures (discussed in Chapter 2). The leader
must determine the probability of contact and where that contact will most likely occur.
To do this, they use information from the battalion S2, sensor reports on the FBCB2, and
information collected by dismounted patrols. The leader is then able to plan for contact


FM 3-21.94

and determine how to employ TTP, such as the proper movement techniques, to reduce
the occurrence of chance contact.

(1) The ideal way for the platoon to make contact is by means of FBCB2 reports from
sensor elements (such as tactical unmanned aerial vehicles [TUAVs], ground surveillance
radar [GSR], or other intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance [ISR] assets). This
allows the platoon leader to evaluate and develop the situation while out of contact.
Based on this evaluation and further guidance from higher, he can then maneuver the
platoon out of contact and make contact either on his own terms or as directed by the

(2) Regardless of how thorough this analysis and planning may be, direct contact
with the enemy is still a possibility, usually as a result of chance contact. When contact is
made, the platoon executes battle drills, designated by SOP, to maintain freedom of
maneuver and avoid becoming decisively engaged. It uses the four steps of actions on
contact (covered in detail later in this paragraph) as the foundation for these drills:

• Deploy and report.

• Evaluate and develop the situation.

• Choose and recommend a COA and maneuver the force.

• Execute the COA.

b. Initial Contact. The platoon must be prepared to execute actions on contact
under any of the following conditions:

• Visual contact (the platoon is undetected by the enemy force).

• Contact with an unknown or superior force.

• Contact with an inferior force.

Whether the platoon remains undetected or is identified by enemy forces, it must first
take actions to protect itself, find out what it is up against, and decide on a COA. To
properly execute actions on contact, the platoon must take action consistent with the
fundamentals of reconnaissance (refer to Chapter 4 of this manual for a detailed

• Develop the situation rapidly.

• Report quickly and accurately.

• Maintain contact with the enemy in accordance with mission.

• Retain the freedom to maneuver.

• Remain focused on the reconnaissance objective.

c. The Seven Forms of Contact. In all types of operations, contact occurs when an
individual soldier, team, or section of the reconnaissance platoon encounters any
situation that requires an active or passive response to the enemy. These situations may
entail one or more of the seven forms of contact:

• Visual contact (friendly elements may or may not be observed by the enemy).

• Physical contact (direct fire) with an enemy force or civilians.

• Indirect fire contact.

• Contact with obstacles of enemy or unknown origin.

• Contact with enemy or unknown aircraft.

Situations involving nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) conditions (see
Appendix E).


FM 3-21.94

• Situations involving electronic warfare tactics.

d. Summary of Actions on Contact. When contact occurs, the reconnaissance
platoon leader bases the platoon's actions on the commander's intent and guidance that
he receives from the OPORD and or FRAGO. These specific instructions must include
focus of the reconnaissance, tempo of the operation, engagement criteria, and the desired
COA based on the size and activity of the enemy force encountered. By knowing these
details ahead of time, the platoon leader can develop the situation more rapidly and arrive
at and execute the desired COA. The platoon should strive to make contact with its
combat multipliers or with its smallest possible internal element—the dismounted soldier .
Digital or visual contact, in which the enemy is observed but the platoon remains
undetected, is the goal. This gives the platoon the greatest possible flexibility to
maneuver and develop the situation.

(1) When the platoon deploys and reports, it uses fundamental techniques of tactical
movement (dismounted or mounted) and action drills using the terrain to ensure effective
cover and concealment. As information becomes available, the element in contact sends a
contact report, followed by a digital or analog size, activity, location, and time (SALT)
report .

(2) Developing the situation is a critical step in choosing the correct COA and
providing an accurate, timely report to the commander. Once the platoon leader has
enough information to make a decision, he selects a COA that is within the capabilities of
the platoon, that allows the platoon to continue the reconnaissance as quickly as possible,
and that supports the commander's concept of the operation. He considers various
possible COAs, based on well-developed TTP (including battle drills), to meet the types
of contact. At a minimum, the platoon must rehearse and be ready to execute these
potential COAs:

• Disengage from enemy contact.

• Break contact and bypass.

• Maintain contact and bypass.

• Maintain contact to support an attack on an inferior force.

• Conduct an attack against an inferior force.

• Conduct a hasty defense.

• Conduct target handoff

e. The Four Steps of Actions on Contact. The steps that make up actions on
contact must be thoroughly trained and rehearsed so that the platoon can react
instinctively, as a team, whenever it encounters enemy forces. Executing the four steps
allows the platoon to accomplish its mission in accordance with reconnaissance

(1) Deploy and Report. When a reconnaissance platoon member makes contact with
the enemy, he reacts according to the circumstances of the contact.

NOTE: Refer to the seven general categories of contact discussed in paragraph 3-4c.

(a) The reconnaissance section or team that makes initial visual contact with the
enemy deploys to covered terrain that affords good observation and fields of fire. If the


FM 3-21.94

section or team receives fire from the enemy, it returns fire but only with the intent of
breaking direct fire contact.

(b) The element in contact sends a contact report to the platoon leader (refer to the
discussion of report procedures and formats earlier in this chapter) and follows as soon as
possible with a spot report using the format of size, activity, location, unit identification,
time, and equipment (SALUTE ). If the element in contact is unable to report or cannot
report quickly, another team in the reconnaissance platoon section must report.

(c) Elements not in contact temporarily halt in covered and or concealed positions,
monitor the incoming reports, and plot the situation on their maps. Once they determine
that the enemy in contact cannot influence them, they continue their mission with the
platoon leader's approval. The platoon leader or PSG relays the contact report to the
battalion tactical operations center and or the tactical command post (TAC CP), followed
as soon as possible by a spot report and updates.

(2) Evaluate and Develop the Situation. The element in contact next concentrates on
defining what enemy it faces. If it has not yet sent a spot report, it initially focuses on
getting enough information to send one.

(a) If undetected by the enemy and time is available, the section or team reconno iters
the enemy position, emphasizing stealth, dismounted reconnaissance, and use of assets
such as GSR and TUAVs, if available.

(b) If detected by the enemy, the section or team uses a combination of mounted and
dismounted reconnaissance. It conducts dismounted reconnaissance to get detailed
information on enemy dispositions. It may use mounted reconnaissance to move
additional assets into the area to support the reconnaissance element in contact.

(c) When physical contact occurs, the reconnaissance platoon employs indirect and
direct fires to suppress the enemy while maneuvering to get information. It attempts to
confirm (or to determine in detail) enemy size, composition, activity, orientation, and
weapon system locations. It searches for antitank (AT) ditches, minefields, wire, or other
obstacles that could force friendly forces into a fire sack. The platoon finds the flanks of
the enemy position and looks for other enemy elements that could provide mutual support
to the position. Once the platoon determines the nature of the enemy it faces, the platoon
leader updates the spot report.

(3) Choose and Recommend a COA and Maneuver the Force. Once the element in
contact has developed the situation and the platoon leader has enough information to
make a decision, he selects a COA. He ensures that the COA is within the capabilities of
the platoon, allows platoon members to continue the reconnaissance as quickly as
possible, and supports the commander's concept of the operation. The platoon leader
should consider all available COAs, including those outlined in the following discussion.
Once he decides on a COA, he recommends it to the battalion commander and provides
information on how the platoon COA will affect the current situation.

(a) Disengage from Enemy Contact. The reconnaissance platoon can not conduct its
mission if the enemy decisively engages it. Should the platoon become decisively
engaged, it must have a plan on how to break contact with the enemy. As a general rule,
the platoon, section, or team should disengage from the enemy as early in the contact as
possible. This allows for continuation of the mission and reduces the chance of any loss
of combat power.


FM 3-21.94

• At platoon level, OPs or patrols gain contact with the enemy, then report and
prepare to displace to successive positions. These platoon members should
report the enemy contact to the overwatching vehicles and to the platoon

• When the enemy force reaches the OP disengagement criteria (the point at
which the OPs must displace or risk detection and engagement by the enemy),
the OPs pass off responsibility for tracking the enemy to other OPs in depth.
The platoon then displaces its OPs to successive positions in depth while
maintaining contact with the enemy. Patrols request permission to return to
the platoon vehicles. When the leader grants permission, they use covered and
concealed routes back to the vehicle positions and remount the vehicles.

• After reporting the initial contact to higher headquarters and receiving the
order to break contact, the patrol disengages. One section or team acts as
overwatch for the displacing section or team as it moves. The unit that moves
first keeps its weapon systems oriented on the enemy. It uses covered and
concealed routes to move to a designated rally point that avoids enemy
observation and provides cover and concealment. The overwatching section or
team provides suppressive fires, both indirect and direct (if necessary), to
cover the movement of the displacing unit. The battalion mortars can also
provide effective and responsive support when elements must break contact.

• Once the displacing section or team has arrived at the rally point, it takes up
defensive positions and reports its arrival to the overwatch section or team.
The overwatching element then calls for protective fires and uses an alternate
covered and concealed route to move to the rally point. When the entire
platoon or section has moved back to the rally point, it consolidates and
reorganizes, reports its status to the higher headquarters, and continues the

(b) Break Contact and Bypass. The reconnaissance platoon may select this COA
when it does not have the resources to leave an element in contact and continue to
accomplish its priority reconnaissance tasks. The platoon may also break contact and
bypass when it has made contact with an enemy force that cannot adversely affect the
mission of the platoon's higher headquarters. Because breaking contact is a violation of
reconnaissance fundamentals, the platoon leader must be sure that his higher
headquarters is informed of and approves this COA (Figure 3-14).


FM 3-21.94


( A ) Section maintains overwatch.

(B ) Use of smoke (smk) to screen movement.

( C ) Continue reconnaissance using successive



Use indirect fires to disrupt.
B ) Break contact and continue reconnaissance.

Figure 3-14. Break contact and bypass.

(c) Maintain Contact and Bypass. This COA is appropriate when an enemy force,
based on its current disposition, is not in a position to influence the platoon's higher
commander. An element (normally a section or team) maintains contact while the rest of
the reconnaissance platoon continues the reconnaissance mission. The element that
remains in contact maintains visual contact with the enemy and reports if the enemy
situation changes. The platoon must keep an element in contact with the enemy unless
specifically authorized to do otherwise. Based on task organization, the reconnaissance
platoon leader must carefully assess METT-TC factors before deciding upon this COA.
Due to mission constraints, the platoon leader may have to leave one vehicle in contact.
To regain the use of all his assets, the platoon leader continues coordination to hand off
contact to a follow-on element (Figure 3-15, page 3-18).


FM 3-21.94

Section maintains overwatch.

Section out of contact continues

( A J Dismounted reconnaissance elements
maintain contact.

B ) Reconnaissance continues.

Figure 3-15. Maintain contact and bypass.

(d) Maintain Contact to Support a Hasty Attack. This CO A is appropriate when the
reconnaissance platoon discovers enemy elements his higher commander wants to
destroy but which it cannot destroy either because it lacks sufficient combat power or
because it has other tasks to perform. In this situation, the platoon maintains contact by
leaving a section or team in contact. The rest of the platoon moves on to establish far-side
security, monitor any changes in the enemy situation, and support the hasty attack by a
friendly unit. The platoon focuses on requirements for a successful friendly attack, to

• Locating covered and concealed movement routes for friendly attacking units.

• Locating attack positions.

• Establishing a contact point to link up with, brief, and guide the friendly unit
as necessary.

• Designating a line of departure (LD) to use as a handoff line to the attacking

• Preparing and coordinating fire support for the friendly attack.

• Locating and preparing to occupy base of fire positions, if required.

It is essential that the section or team left in contact understands what it needs to
accomplish, who will execute the attack, and when the friendly unit anticipates being in
position to receive handoff of the enemy. As the unit responsible for the attack moves
into position, the reconnaissance element in contact may rejoin the platoon or be placed
OPCON to the attacking unit to ease command, control, and coordination (Figure 3-16).


FM 3-21.94




l A) Vehicle that initiates contact maintains contact using
dismounted elements.

B ) Section out of contact continues to move forward and
installs screen for far-side security.

( C ) Second vehicle of section in contact continues to recon area
and locates mounted movement route and assault position
for attacking unit.

Figure 3-16. Maintain contact to support a hasty attack.

(e) Conduct a Hasty Attack. In most cases, the reconnaissance platoon can not or
should not mass its combat power to defeat an enemy force. If the platoon concentrates, it
risks losing its capability to complete its mission and jeopardizing its ability to conduct
subsequent missions. If necessary, the reconnaissance platoon can attack unarmored
reconnaissance vehicles, such as motorcycles or Soviet-style wheeled reconnaissance
vehicles (BRDMs) (Figure 3-17, page 3-20). They should not attack more heavily
armored vehicles except in self-defense.


FM 3-21.94


Alpha section dismounts observe
inbound enemy vehicle forward of
their position. Dismounts submit

spot report through the proper channels.

The platoon is tasked to engage and

destroy enemy vehicles.

Teams B and C move to and occupy
positions and prepare for engagement.
PSG accompanies Team C to oversee
operation and coordinate fires. Alpha
section continues to observe.

Bravo section dismounts its elements,
designates teams B and C, and occupies
forward positions. Alpha section continues
to observe enemy vehicle and updates initial
spot report. Vehicles provide overwatch,
for respective dismounted elements, from
their hide positions.

Enemy vehicle enters into target engagement
area. The PSG executes calls for fires and
gives fire command to Teams B and C to
initiate targets. PL receives and submits
reports to battalion for COP. The PSG sends
closure report and requests to displace OPs.
Teams B and C return to their vehicles and the
platoon continues its mission.

Figure 3-17. Conduct a hasty attack.

(f) Establish a Hasty Defense. The platoon establishes a hasty defense if it cannot
bypass the enemy, all the sections or teams are fixed or suppressed, and the platoon no
longer has the ability to maneuver. The platoon must also establish a hasty defense when
the enemy executes a hasty attack. The platoon maintains contact or fixes the enemy in
place until additional combat power arrives or the platoon is ordered to move (Figure 3-


FM 3-21.94

18. If the reconnaissance platoon must conduct a hasty defense, the battalion commander
assumes responsibility for continuing to develop the situation.

NOTE: Without the use of indirect fires in this situation, the platoon will fail .

(aj Reconnaissance platoon makes contact
with an enemy force advancing toward
their position and becomes engaged.

\By PL calls in immediate suppression from
mortars and initiates hasty defense drill.

One vehicle from each section displaces
to create depth.

[Cj Remaining teams dismount and engage

Teams dismount, establish hasty fighting
positions, and engage.

Figure 3-18. Establish a hasty defense.

(g) Conduct Target Handoff. The platoon leader attempts to hand off responsibility
for the enemy element. He does this for several tactical reasons: to continue operations as
directed, to regain use of all his elements, or to give responsibility to a friendly element
that can more effectively handle the enemy force.

(4) Execute the CO A.

(a) The platoon leader updates his spot report to the commander with any new
information and then recommends a COA to the commander. The commander approves
or disapproves the recommended COA based on how it will affect the parent unit's

(b) If the commander and the S2 have anticipated the enemy situation the
reconnaissance platoon is reporting, they will already have addressed the contingency in
the OPORD and given guidance to their subordinates on what COA the platoon should
execute. In such a case, the reconnaissance platoon leader can evaluate the situation,
choose a COA consistent with his higher commander's intent or concept, and execute it
without further guidance. He keeps the commander informed of what he is doing as he
executes the COA.


FM 3-21.94

f. Examples of Actions on Contact. The following examples illustrate actions on
contact in a variety of tactical situations. They are organized using the four-step process.

(1) Visual Contact, Undetected by the Enemy.

(a) Deploy and Report. A reconnaissance section or team makes contact when its
dismounted element identifies an enemy force. It immediately sends a contact report
informing higher headquarters that it has made visual contact with the enemy but is not
being engaged. This report is quickly followed by an initial spot report.

(b) Evaluate and Develop the Situation. Based on the initial spot report of the
reconnaissance section or team in contact, the platoon leader determines that he has
located his primary reconnaissance objective. He orders additional sections or teams to
maneuver into the area. These reconnaissance elements move to dismount points, set
their vehicles in hide positions, and send dismounted patrols to multiple vantage points
using dismounted reconnaissance techniques, with the emphasis on avoiding detection.
As they develop new information, they send spot reports to the platoon leader. The
platoon leader moves his element to a covered and concealed hide position where he can
maintain effective communications with both subordinate elements and higher
headquarters. From this position, he establishes local security (a hasty OP) and monitors
and controls the efforts of his sections or teams.

(c) Choose and Recommend a COA and Maneuver the Force. When the platoon
leader receives sufficient reports to have a clear picture of the situation, he chooses to
prepare to support a hasty attack. This choice is made because the platoon leader
determines that the force he has located is the objective of his commander; therefore, this
COA is in accordance with his commander's intent. After determining that the
commander's intent has not changed, the platoon leader recommends the COA to the
commander and requests permission to execute. He ensures that he receives clear
guidance from the commander before moving on to the execution step.

(d) Execute the COA. The platoon leader issues appropriate orders directing his
subordinates to prepare to support the hasty attack. He continues to inform his
commander of the enemy situation and the platoon's actions.

(2) Contact with an Unknown or Superior Force.

(a) Deploy and Report. The dismounted platoon members make contact as the lead
platoon vehicle is engaged. The lead element and the overwatch element see the signature
of the enemy weapon system. Since they do not have a clear idea of the size of the
enemy, they react as if it is a superior force. Simultaneously, the lead element returns
fire, sends a contact report, employs smoke grenades, and moves to the nearest hide
position. The overwatch vehicle engages the source of enemy fire by calling for indirect
fire support, then monitors to ensure the contact report is sent. As soon as the lead vehicle
is in a covered and concealed position, the overwatch vehicle moves to an alternate firing
position and occupies a hide position while trying to maintain contact with the smallest
possible element. The platoon leader follows up on the contact report with an initial spot

(b) Evaluate and Develop the Situation. Once the reconnaissance section or team is
set in cover and concealment and has submitted its initial reports, it must develop the
situation. The objective is to determine exactly what the enemy situation is by
dismounted reconnaissance or other reconnaissance assets and systems (ground
surveillance radar, tactical unmanned aerial vehicles, and long-range reconnaissance and


FM 3-21.94

surveillance). This can best be done by moving to the enemy's flank or rear. The section
or team leader organizes a hasty reconnaissance patrol that attempts to move to the flank
or rear of the enemy and observes the enemy position. Simultaneously, the section or
team maintains at least one hasty OP in contact with the enemy.

• As the dismounted element maneuvers, it is supported by direct fire from the
reconnaissance vehicles, by indirect fire called for by the OP, or by both.
These fires serve to suppress the enemy, reducing his ability to observe the
reconnaissance platoon; they also fix the enemy's attention on the last known
location of the mounted element.

• While attempting to develop the situation, the section or team may find that it
cannot determine the exact enemy situation for a number of possible reasons
to include obstacles, combat losses, suppressive fires by the enemy, or the size
and extent of the enemy position. It sends this information to the platoon
leader in the form of updates to the original spot report as soon as possible. If
this occurs, the platoon leader must decide whether to commit additional
platoon assets to the contact to develop it further or to adopt a COA based on
the information he has discovered to that point. If the platoon leader
determines he needs more information, he may commit additional assets
(reconnaissance sections or teams) to develop the situation further. The earlier
in the contact that the platoon leader can make this decision, the better.
However, he must not commit unneeded resources to an action that will
detract from other reconnaissance tasks.

• If he decides additional assets are required, the platoon leader then orders
other sections or teams not in contact to move to specific locations and assist
in developing the situation. As more than one section or team becomes
involved in the situation, the platoon leader or PSG (whoever is in the best
location to do so) takes control of coordinating their efforts.

• The elements conduct mounted movement to designated dismount points
where they organize dismounted patrols to develop the situation from a new
direction. As these patrols discover the enemy and add additional information
to the platoon leader's picture, the platoon leader may determine he has
sufficient information to choose and execute a COA or to make a
recommendation to his commander.

(c) Choose and Recommend a COA and Maneuver the Force. Based on the available
information and his commander's intent and guidance, the platoon leader decides to leave
one section in contact to support a hasty attack by a supporting MGS platoon. His other
sections continue their reconnaissance mission.

(d) Execute the COA. In this example, because the commander had specifically
addressed the contingency the reconnaissance platoon has developed, the platoon leader
neither makes a recommendation to his commander nor asks his permission to execute
the COA. Instead, the platoon leader immediately issues orders to his sections and
contacts the MGS platoon leader to initiate coordination for handover of the enemy and
support of the MGS platoon's hasty attack. He keeps the commander informed of his

(3) Contact with an Inferior Force.


FM 3-21.94

(a) Deploy and Report. The lead reconnaissance element (section or team) identifies
an enemy element consisting of one enemy reconnaissance vehicle. In the commander's
order, the engagement criteria tasked the reconnaissance section or team to engage when
the enemy force consists of one wheeled vehicle or less (dismounted troops). The section
or team leader sends a contact report and quickly engages and destroys the enemy
vehicle. After the engagement is complete, he sends an initial spot report.

(b) Evaluate the Situation. The lead vehicle and the overwatch element occupy
positions that allow them to observe the destroyed vehicle. They look for any other signs
of enemy activity or any enemy response to the destruction of the vehicle. The lead
vehicle then bounds past the destroyed vehicle and establishes far-side security. Once far-
side security is established, a dismounted element moves to the destroyed vehicle and
conducts a thorough search for prisoners, items of intelligence value, and any other
information that can be gained from a close examination of the enemy. When this
reconnaissance is complete, the section or team sends an updated report to higher

(c) Choose and Recommend a COA and Maneuver the Force. When engagement is
complete and the enemy is destroyed, the COA is obvious: the section or team continues
its mission.

(d) Execute the COA. Since the destruction of the enemy is in accordance with the
commander's order, the section or team leader simply informs higher headquarters that
he is continuing the mission.


During the execution of reconnaissance and security missions, the reconnaissance
platoon will encounter specific types of terrain or features that expose it to enemy fire.
Known as danger areas, these are likely points of enemy contact due both to the platoon's
vulnerability and to the cover, concealment, and observation these sites afford to the
enemy. The platoon leader identifies and highlights danger areas when he performs his
map reconnaissance during TLP. Once he identifies these areas, the platoon leader
considers where the enemy will focus its reconnaissance assets and determines their
fields of observation. He then employs specific reconnaissance methods and movement
techniques to either avoid the danger areas or move through them as quickly as possible
and with as much security as possible. The factors the reconnaissance platoon leader
needs to consider addressing, such as moving more rapidly and employing greater stealth
and security in the various terrains, will always be METT-TC dependent.

a. Open Areas. Open areas frequently afford the reconnaissance platoon the
opportunity to observe the enemy or objectives from long ranges. Conversely, these areas
often expose the platoon to possible enemy observation and fire for long periods of
movement. Therefore, the platoon must make maximum use of the terrain and employ
effective observation techniques to avoid exposing itself to a well-concealed and
camouflaged enemy.

(1) Before moving across a large open area, the reconnaissance platoon must make a
thorough visual scan of the area. This should be done both dismounted and mounted. The
platoon leader must use all available optics and other assets, including GSR, to
reconnoiter the open area and find a bypass, if applicable. If he cannot find a bypass, he
focuses not only on finding potential enemy positions but also on locating covered and


FM 3-21.94

concealed routes for bounding and a covered and concealed position to which the unit
can move. If time and terrain permit, he may send dismounted platoon members to move
to the far side of the open area and secure it. In very large open areas, however, use of
dismounted troops may not be feasible because of the distances between covered and
concealed positions.

(2) Once it has reconnoitered the area using visual, digital, and sensor enablers, the
platoon moves across the area. It uses bounding overwatch because of the possibility of
enemy contact. If the open area is very large, the overwatch element should only remain
stationary until the bounding element has moved a distance equal to half the effective
range of the overwatching element's weapon system. When that point is reached, the
overwatch element must move out, even if the bounding element has not yet reached a
position of cover and concealment.

(3) When enemy contact is likely and the platoon must move across large open areas
with limited cover and concealment, the platoon leader should consider using
reconnaissance by indirect fire to provide additional security during movement. The
platoon leader must decide whether to use this method with the understanding that doing
so will sacrifice stealth. Indirect fire can also provide concealment, with smoke used
alone or mixed with suppressive fires.

b. Wooded Areas. Wooded areas provide a high degree of concealment to forces
that occupy them, particularly infantry forces. However, troops must approach and move
through them with extreme caution. Visibility within wooded areas is very limited;
therefore, reconnaissance is confined primarily to trafficable routes and trails through the
forest. In densely wooded areas, mounted elements are extremely vulnerable to
dismounted enemy forces that can close on them undetected.

(1) Platoon members should use available terrain to scan the wooded area before
entering. They should search for movement, reflections, smoke, and any irregular shapes
or colors indicating camouflage. Whenever possible, dismounted members should
reconnoiter the entire wood line before mounted movement to the wooded area.

(2) The platoon should move to the wooded area using mounted bounding overwatch.
Once the vehicles are inside the wood line (approximately 100 to 200 meters), the
platoon shuts off vehicle engines, maintains dismounted security, and conducts a
listening/security halt. The halt should last approximately one to two minutes, with 360-
degree security maintained and radio speakers minimized throughout. The platoon must
conduct these halts at regular intervals (approximately every kilometer) while moving
through the wooded area.

(3) During movement through a wooded area, the platoon should move using
traveling overwatch. This technique is appropriate because of the extremely short fields
of view and the danger of dismounted ambush. Reconnaissance vehicles are most
vulnerable in wooded areas when they are stopped, so halts should be kept to a minimum.
Exposed sections or teams should maintain minimum silhouette in their vehicles because
of the danger from close-in snipers and ambush.

(4) The platoon may encounter small clearings, buildings, or hills while moving
through a wooded area. It must treat each as a separate task.

• Small clearings may require crossing in the same manner as a large open area.

• Dismounted troops must check isolated buildings.


FM 3-21.94

• The platoon must approach hills and curves cautiously, and dismounted
members must clear any dead space.
(5) Before leaving a wooded area, the platoon must clear the open area to the front. It
stops inside the wood line, ensuring it is still within the shadow line of the woods.
Drivers turn off vehicle engines, and dismounted elements move to the edge of the
wooded area to observe. If they determine the area is clear, the platoon brings vehicles
forward to observation positions. As the dismounted elements remount, the vehicles use
their optics to visually clear the open area again. Once they finish, the platoon resumes
movement using its chosen movement technique.

c. Urban Areas. Urban areas, including towns and villages, pose many potential
dangers for the reconnaissance platoon. Troops can be garrisoned in villages, snipers can
dominate approaches, and buildings and roads can be mined and booby-trapped. Cover
and concealment are abundant, and it is easy for the enemy to remain undetected until he
is at very close range. Urban areas are ideal for effective ambush by small numbers of
infantry. Whenever possible, the reconnaissance platoon should reconnoiter urban areas
from a distance, execute hand-off to follow-on elements, and bypass if possible. The
reconnaissance platoon is not manned or equipped to conduct detailed reconnaissance of
urban areas. (Refer to Chapter 6 of this manual for specific information on the urban

d. Lateral or Boundary Routes. As the reconnaissance platoon executes
reconnaissance and security missions, it will encounter routes or mobility corridors that
provide access into the area between the platoon and friendly elements to its rear. These
lateral corridors pose a security threat to both the platoon and the other friendly elements.

(1) It is critical that the platoon maintains continuous surveillance of these mobility
corridors to provide security against enemy forces that move into the sector after the
reconnaissance platoon has moved on. This is especially important when the platoon is
moving through an enemy security area where enemy forces are likely to move in
response to friendly activity or when the platoon expects to encounter a moving enemy
force. If necessary, the platoon can use a series of contact points, coordination points, or
both, to enhance security during movement through the area.

(2) To maintain surveillance, the platoon can use OPs to maximize the
reconnaissance effort forward. This security technique involves the use of short-duration
OPs consisting of mounted or dismounted soldiers with necessary observation equipment.
A reconnaissance section or team should deploy an OP when it is at risk of losing
observation on a possible enemy approach route that no other element can cover. Once
deployed, the OP maintains surveillance of the avenue of approach until the rest of the
reconnaissance element returns. In doing so, the OP can provide security through early
warning of enemy activity that the mounted element would not have detected.


Infiltration is a form of maneuver that entails movement by small groups or individuals,
at extended or irregular intervals, through or into an area occupied by an enemy or
friendly force, while avoiding contact with the enemy. To avoid the enemy's strength,
elements use stealth and move through gaps or around enemy positions to conduct
operations to the enemy's rear and out of contact with the enemy. The reconnaissance
platoon may use this form of maneuver during reconnaissance and security operations


FM 3-21.94

and may reconnoiter passage lanes and infiltration routes before movement of the
battalion. To accomplish a specific task, the reconnaissance platoon itself may need to
infiltrate areas occupied by enemy forces. The platoon may infiltrate by sections, by
teams, or as a complete platoon.

a. Tactics. Ground reconnaissance assets use infiltration most often although aerial
platforms may also employ tactics based on infiltration techniques. During infiltration,
the platoon uses predesignated routes to reach its objective without being detected and
engaged by the enemy. The infiltrating elements employ cover, concealment, and stealth
to move through gaps templated by the battalion S2 in the enemy array.

b. Purposes. Purposes of infiltration include the following:

• To achieve a positional advantage to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance.

• To emplace remote sensors.

• To establish communications relay capability for a specific period in support
of other reconnaissance operations.

• To locate unobserved routes through enemy positions.

c. Planning. The amount of intelligence information available to the reconnaissance
platoon leader during the planning process determines the risk involved in conducting the
infiltration. Due to the complexity of these operations, the battalion staff and the
reconnaissance platoon leader conduct detailed planning. Leaders must focus
information-gathering assets (GSR, TUAVs, human intelligence [HUMINT], and RSTA)
to provide detailed enemy locations and intentions. They base decisions about routes and
movement techniques on the mission, terrain and weather, likelihood of enemy contact,
speed of movement, and depth to which the platoon's elements must penetrate. After
considering these factors, the leaders decide to infiltrate either mounted or dismounted.
The infiltration plan must provide the platoon with enough time for preparation,
rehearsal, and initial movement. The platoon must conduct detailed coordination with
any adjacent units or friendly elements through which it will pass to ensure these
elements do not compromise the reconnaissance platoon as it conducts the infiltration.
Coordination must include CSS activities, integration of communications, fires, passage
lanes, C2, and battle handover.

d. Techniques. The size of the elements within the reconnaissance platoon depends
on several factors: the assigned mission, time available, cover and concealment, target
acquisition capabilities of both friendly and enemy forces, available communications
assets, and navigation capabilities and limitations. If the reconnaissance platoon is tasked
to gather information over a wide area, it may employ several small teams to cover the
complete sector. In most situations, smaller elements are better able to take advantage of
available cover and concealment. The battalion commander determines if the battalion
moves along single or multiple infiltration lanes with forces in the infiltration lanes
separated by space and time. The platoon leader decides whether to move as a platoon or
as teams. The advantages of moving as a platoon are faster movement and easier control
and navigation. When moving as teams, the size of the teams makes detection less likely.
However, navigation, consolidation, and command and control are more difficult. If the
battalion employs multiple lanes, the platoon leader must task organize to move along all
lanes. The overriding factor in determining whether to use single or multiple lanes is the
ability to remain undetected.


FM 3-21.94

(1) Single-Lane Infiltration. Infiltration on a single lane (Figure 3-19) is the least
desirable technique because it requires all infiltrating groups to move at intervals on the
same lane. The reconnaissance platoon uses this technique only when an analysis of
METT-TC shows that only one lane is feasible.


TF 3-187

Groups are separated by time intervals

Figure 3-19. Single-lane infiltration.

(2) Multiple-Lane Infiltration. Soldiers infiltrate by multiple lanes when two or
more infiltration lanes are found through the enemy defense (Figure 3-20). Rally points
may be in either enemy or friendly areas, depending on the situation. The platoon leader
assigns lanes to the sections and teams. The reconnaissance platoon normally uses no
more than two lanes due to its size and limited resources.

(3) Combination of Methods. Rarely are there enough lanes for each group to have a
separate one. Thus, some groups must share a lane with one or more groups while others
do not. Groups on different routes may move using different methods of insertion or
extraction (for example, one group moves by RVs, another group moves by helicopter,
and another moves dismounted).

(4) Rally Point. To aid in the control of movement, the platoon should choose rally
points for all infiltrations and exfiltrations.

(a) The first group to reach the rally point establishes security and exchanges
recognition signals with subsequent groups. All groups rehearse this procedure since no
one knows which group will arrive first.

(b) The leader must allow adequate time for each group to reach the rally point.
Delays may result when groups must avoid enemy contact. Contingency plans should
address what happens if a force fails to arrive or arrives late at a rally point.

(c) The leader must designate an alternate rally point to use if the primary rally point
is occupied by the enemy, is compromised, or is found to be unsuitable. The platoon
leader plans signals to direct movement to the alternate rally point. The contingency plan
must allow time for groups to reach the new (alternate) rally point.


FM 3-21.94



Groups are separated by space intervals

Figure 3-20. Multiple-lane infiltration.

e. Communications. In general, infiltrating elements should use digital
communications as the primary means of communications. They should use radio
listening silence except to report contact with enemy forces or to send critical
information that the commander has directed them to report immediately. When
operating out of normal communications range, an infiltrating element that must transmit
required information should move to high ground or set up a long-range expedient

f Fire Support. Infiltration plans always cover employment of indirect fires
although the platoon uses them only in limited circumstances. The most common use of
indirect fires is when the infiltrating unit makes enemy contact, in which case the
commander or platoon leader may employ indirect fires in another sector to divert
attention from the infiltration lane. The platoon can also use indirect fires to degrade the
enemy's acquisition and observation capabilities by forcing him to seek cover.

g. Actions on Contact. Each infiltrating element must develop and rehearse a plan
that clearly defines its actions in case of contact with enemy security forces. If detected,
an infiltrating element typically returns fire, breaks contact, and reports. Fighting through
the enemy force is the least preferred COA. Direct fire engagements are normally limited
to whatever actions are required to break contact. During infiltration using multiple lanes,
the detection of one platoon's elements may alert the enemy and compromise other units
in the infiltration zone. The OPORD must clearly state whether the element will continue
the mission or return to friendly lines if detected by the enemy. If the element makes
visual contact but is not detected, it should continue the mission.

Exfiltration is removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control using
stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means. The reconnaissance platoon and its
elements may need to exfiltrate during any tactical operation or situation. For example,


FM 3-21.94

reconnaissance forces that have infiltrated or bypassed the enemy-occupied area may
need to exfiltrate as soon as they gather the required information. In another instance, the
platoon may deploy in a stay-behind mode during defensive operations, requiring it to
plan and execute movement to return to friendly controlled areas.

a. Planning. In all situations, leaders must plan exfiltration as carefully as
infiltration. An effective exfiltration plan is essential for mission accomplishment and
morale. In most cases, planning for an exfiltration operation begins at the same time as
planning for the infiltration (or other tactical operation) that precedes it. For example, the
reconnaissance platoon leader must anticipate contingency measures in case his elements
must conduct an unplanned exfiltration during a reconnaissance operation. His
exfiltration plan should factor in additional time that the platoon may need to react to
unforeseen circumstances, such as inadvertent contact with enemy forces or unexpected
restrictive terrain. Whether the platoon plans to exfiltrate on foot, by RV, or by air, it
must conduct detailed planning to establish criteria for a passage of lines to minimize the
chances of fratricide.

b. Contingencies. The exfiltration plan should also cover other types of
contingencies that will not require the platoon to exfiltrate. For example, when a section
or team repeatedly misses mandatory radio contact, other elements must assume that the
element has a communications problem, is in trouble, or both. The exfiltration plan might
address this situation by calling for a resupply drop of new batteries and another means
of communication at a predetermined location. The plan would mandate that the resupply
location be specially marked for security and identity purposes.

(1) Movement Considerations. The principles of route selection, movement
formations, and movement security are critical to the success of the exfiltration operation.
Leaders must develop plans for extraction by applicable means (ground or air) before the
operation, to include procedural contingencies such as the destruction of the RVs,
evacuation of sick and wounded personnel, and disruption of communications. These
plans should address various contingencies for movement, such as the possibility that the
platoon may be able to exfiltrate intact or in smaller groups to avoid detection.

(2) Terrain Factors. The reconnaissance platoon uses terrain features to its
advantage during the exfiltration. It employs movement routes that put ridgelines, rivers,
and other restrictive terrain between the platoon and enemy security forces. The platoon
leader ensures that primary and alternate linkup points are not on a single azimuth
leading away from the OP or exfiltration route.

(3) Pickup Points. Exfiltration pickup points for dismounted personnel should be far
enough away from the OP to ensure the enemy does not hear vehicle or helicopter noises.
The exfiltrating force should use mountains, dense foliage, and other terrain features to
screen these noises. Under normal conditions in flat, open terrain on a clear night, rotary-
wing aircraft lose most of their audio signature at a distance of about 5 kilometers.

c. Methods. The platoon can exfiltrate by air, water, or land. Each method requires
specific operational considerations, and each has tactical advantages and disadvantages.
The exfiltration plan and OPORD must address these factors. They must also state what
actions the reconnaissance platoon must take if it must exfiltrate unexpectedly.

(1) Extraction by Air or Vehicle. Extraction by air or RV (ground) is favored when
the resources are available and their use will not compromise the mission. The platoon
uses these methods when it must cover long distances, time of return is essential, the


FM 3-21.94

exfiltration route lacks adequate cover and concealment, the enemy does not have air
superiority, or heavily populated hostile areas obstruct ground exfiltration.

(2) Exfiltration by Land. Reconnaissance forces normally conduct exfiltration via
land routes dismounted when friendly lines are close or no other extraction method is
feasible. Dismounted ground exfiltration is preferred when areas along the route are
largely uninhabited, when enemy forces are widely dispersed or under such pressure that
they cannot conduct counterreconnaissance and security operations, or when terrain is
sufficiently restricted to degrade enemy efforts to use mobile forces against the
exfiltrating reconnaissance unit.

(3) Emergency Exfiltration. The reconnaissance platoon may have to conduct an
emergency exfiltration if detected or engaged by an enemy force. This type of operation
may require the battalion to activate its escape and evasion plan or to deploy a reaction or
support force to help extract the friendly elements. The battalion must carefully
coordinate and rehearse employment of the reaction force and supporting fires before
initiating the infiltration (or other tactical mission, if applicable).


FM 3-21.94



Infantry leaders of all ranks are responsible for continuous
reconnaissance. The SBCT infantry battalion reconnaissance platoon is
the battalion commander's tool to conduct this type of reconnaissance.
The reconnaissance platoon conducts reconnaissance and surveillance
missions before, during, and after all combat operations to obtain
information of tactical value for the SBCT infantry battalion commander.
To make valid decisions regarding courses of action, the commander must
know in detail what to expect from the enemy, terrain, and weather in the
area of operations. Reconnaissance and surveillance reveals the enemy's
disposition, composition, strengths, and weaknesses and establishes the
effects of weather and terrain on maneuver conditions. This information
helps the commander to successfully maneuver against and apply
overwhelming combat power to destroy the enemy. The battalion
commander, S2, and S3 develop and direct the battalion 's reconnaissance
and surveillance effort.

The platoon conducts both mounted and dismounted reconnaissance.
The platoon conducts dismounted reconnaissance to gather detailed
information, to enhance security, or when moving in severely restricted
terrain. It conducts mounted reconnaissance when time is critical or the
area of operations is large. Mounted reconnaissance maintains the tempo
of operations and makes maximum usage of digitized communications
systems and optics. The reconnaissance platoon must never lose sight of
its reconnaissance objectives or priorities. It should avoid engagements
with enemy forces and engage enemy forces with direct-fire weapons only
in self-defense.


Based on the commander's intent and guidance, the platoon conducts reconnaissance
forward of friendly forces to provide current, accurate information about the enemy,
terrain, weather, and physical resources within a specified area of operations. This
provides follow-on forces with an opportunity to maneuver freely and rapidly to their
objective. Reconnaissance keeps follow-on forces from being surprised or interrupted and
prevents these forces from losing men and equipment en route to the objective.
Reconnaissance platoons perform three types of reconnaissance: area, zone, and route.
The following tenets provide a foundation to effectively employ and accomplish the
mission of the reconnaissance platoon.


The reconnaissance platoon scheme of maneuver must revolve around the specific
objective or objectives. The objective may be a terrain feature, a specific area, an enemy
force, an NAI, or a checkpoint. The platoon must maintain its orientation toward the
objective, regardless of what it encounters, until the mission is complete. For the
reconnaissance platoon, the objective(s) are normally discussed in the battalion


FM 3-21 .94

reconnaissance and surveillance annex, the commander's critical information
requirements (CCIR), or the execution portion of the OPORD. It is critical that the
platoon leader understand the mission explicitly before he begins the planning process.


The platoon leader must ensure that the platoon focuses on reconnaissance objectives and
keeps up the operational tempo of the mission. Operational tempo is not speed but is
more a constant rate of movement over time, focused on the objective. If the platoon does
not maintain tempo, it will quickly lose its combat effectiveness.


Commanders base their decisions and plans on the battlefield information that the
reconnaissance platoon reports during reconnaissance. Information loses value over time.
Reconnaissance teams must report all information exactly as they see it and as fast as
possible using both analog and digital communications. Inaccurate information is
dangerous. The teams must never assume, distort, or exaggerate. Information stating
where the enemy is located is equally as important as information stating where the
enemy is not located.


Reconnaissance teams must be able to maneuver on the battlefield. If the enemy fixes the
reconnaissance teams, they must break contact on their own. They must continuously
maintain situational understanding (SU), employ effective techniques of tactical
movement, and react appropriately to unexpected developments. If the platoon makes
contact, the platoon leader should break contact as soon as possible and avoid decisive
engagement with the enemy.


The reconnaissance platoon must establish contact with the enemy without being
detected. This allows them the ability to retain the initiative and control the situation.


When the reconnaissance platoon makes contact with the enemy, it must determine as
much as possible about the current situation. It must determine the size, composition,
activity, and location of the enemy force. It must do so quickly and with little or no
guidance from higher. Time is the reconnaissance platoon's most precious resource;
wasting time could cause the platoon to fail to accomplish its mission.


The battalion S2 and S3 are responsible for coordinating and directing the battalion's
reconnaissance and surveillance effort. During the intelligence cycle, the commander
establishes priority information requirements. This is information critical to the
commander since it affects his plan. The PIR form the basis of the battalion's
reconnaissance and surveillance plan. The S2 and S3 develop the reconnaissance and
surveillance annex, which specifies the information that is needed by the battalion and
assigns responsibility for obtaining that information. The battalion commander or S3


FM 3-21.94

briefs the reconnaissance platoon leader on the specifics of the reconnaissance and
surveillance annex. During this brief, the platoon leader ensures that he understands the
commander's expectations; failure to do so can result in information that is not of any
tactical value. The platoon leader then ensures that the reconnaissance platoon
understands the specific reconnaissance requirements and the purpose of the
reconnaissance. The reconnaissance mission is complete once all information is collected
and transmitted to the correct headquarters or when the commander directs the platoon to
end the mission and transmit the information collected so far. All information gathered
should be disseminated to all members of the platoon.


The reconnaissance platoon must not let the enemy detect its presence in the objective
area. The key is to see and not be seen.

a. If the enemy suspects that it is being observed, it may move its elements or
increase security measures as part of its counterreconnaissance plan. If this occurs,
movement in the objective area must be reduced; the patrol moves no closer to the
objective than necessary.

b. Adequate time must be allocated for the reconnaissance to answer the battalion
commander's PIR.

c. The platoon must exploit the technical advantages of its equipment, such as
FBCB2, to gain information.

d. The platoon uses camouflage, discipline, and stealth to help avoid detection. It
avoids routes covered by enemy radar, reconnaissance and surveillance, and target
acquisition devices.

e. By reducing radio traffic, the reconnaissance platoon limits the possibility of
being detected by the enemy.

f Battlefield situations occur in which a reconnaissance patrol makes chance
contact with the enemy, usually because a patrol moves too close to an objective. A
technique for addressing these contingencies is to brief soldiers on situations concerning
enemy contact and the risks the platoon leader will accept to obtain information.

(1) Although the intent of the reconnaissance platoon is to avoid enemy contact to
preserve combat power, every soldier should know what action to take upon enemy
contact. The platoon leader ensures the soldiers understand the engagement criteria by
asking questions that affect the engagement decision (Figure 4-1, page 4-4).


FM 3-21 .94

Is the engagement needed for self-defense?


Engage as necessary
(direct or indirect)

ir N0

Are there combat forces

in the area that can do

the job?

Do not engage.



Would engaging have

a negative impact on

future operations?

Do not engage.



Report to the

platoon leader for

further instructions.

Figure 4-1. Engagement decision questions.

(2) Soldiers also need to know about the criterion of risk acceptance. If the
commander wants a detailed sketch of the objective, he accepts the risk that the
reconnaissance platoon will have to move close to the objective. If the commander wants
general information, such as a location of an objective, then there is less risk. The platoon
leader ensures the soldiers understand the risk involved in obtaining information.


If detected, a reconnaissance element breaks contact using SOPs and then either returns
to friendly lines or continues the mission. The platoon rehearses plans for breaking
contact to include handling casualties. The platoon leader organizes the reconnaissance
platoon based on METT-TC factors.


A soldier's ability to effectively use his senses is critical to effective reconnaissance,
second only to the ability to move and observe without being detected. Equipment
supplements the senses, enabling the observer to accurately portray the combat
environment. Senses used in reconnaissance are sight, hearing, touch, and smell,
a. Sight. A soldier looks for—

• Enemy personnel, vehicles, and aircraft.

• Sudden or unusual movement.

• Smoke or dust.

• Unusual movement of farm or wild animals.


FM 3-21.94



Activity of local inhabitants.

Vehicle and personnel tracks.

Signs or evidence of enemy occupation.

Recently cut foliage or vegetation.

Muzzle flashes, lights, fires, or reflections.

Amount and type of trash.
Hearing. A soldier listens for—

Running engines or track sounds.


Metallic sounds.

Gunfire (by type of weapon).

Unusual calm or silence.

Dismounted movement.

Touch. A soldier feels for—

Warmth of coals or materials from fires.

Freshness of tracks.

Age of food or trash.
Smell. A soldier smells for—

Vehicle exhaust.

Burning petroleum products.

Cooking food.

Age of food or trash.

Human waste.


Soap and hygiene products.


The platoon leader and battalion staff use the TLP and military decision-making process
to develop the reconnaissance plan. Section and team leaders develop the plan based on
the reconnaissance platoon leader's plan. Every soldier should have an understanding of
the reconnaissance platoon's plan and the team's plan.


Critical to the platoon leader's ability to execute his mission is a clear understanding of
the focus and tempo of the reconnaissance mission. This information comes from the
battalion commander's initial guidance, which answers the two basic questions the
platoon leader needs to know to plan his mission (Figure 4-2, page 4-6). Essential
commander's guidance is an extension of the commander's intent and is meant to fully
clarify the commander's intent for his reconnaissance platoon. The platoon leader
receives the commander's guidance from higher and issues it to subordinates.


FM 3-21 .94


Focus of the reconnaissance.

• HUMINT (enemy or civilian).

• Terrain (bridges, routes, defensible terrain, enemy vs. friendly).

• Infrastructure (political situation, facilities, food distribution).

• What tasks are conducted or deleted?

Tempo of the reconnaissance.

• Dismounted or mounted?

• Is the unit stealthy, aggressive, or both?

• Is the reconnaissance deliberate or hasty?

Figure 4-2. Essential commander's guidance.

a. Focus. The focus of the reconnaissance allows the platoon leader to determine
which critical tasks he wants the platoon to accomplish first. It helps him narrow the
platoon's scope of operations to get the information that is most important to the
battalion's operations. The platoon focus is either terrain-oriented or enemy-oriented. In
stability operations, the platoon might focus on local populace sentiment or on
identifying local military leaders.

b. Tempo. The tempo of the reconnaissance allows the platoon leader to establish
associated time requirements with planning time and movement formations and methods,
such as dismounted or mounted. The platoon leader establishes the tempo by answering
two questions: Is the platoon conducting stealthy or aggressive reconnaissance and is the
reconnaissance deliberate or hasty? The reconnaissance platoon leader must understand
the answer to the two questions and articulate them to his platoon.

• Stealthy implies unseen, time-consuming, dismounted operations minimizing
chance contact where the platoon might be observed.

• Aggressive implies mounted, fast-paced operations.

• Deliberate reconnaissance operations are slow, detailed, and broad-based.

• Hasty reconnaissance operations focus the platoon on a few key pieces of
information required by the commander.


This paragraph describes the methods of conducting reconnaissance.

a. Reconnaissance Patrols. Reconnaissance patrols provide timely and accurate
information about the enemy and terrain. The reconnaissance platoon may be tasked to
conduct any of the three types of reconnaissance patrols (area, zone, or route). The patrol
leader must have specific intelligence collection requirements for each mission. For a
detailed discussion of reconnaissance patrols, refer to Chapter 10 of this manual.

b. Mounted Reconnaissance. Platoon members can frequently stay in their vehicles
while conducting assigned reconnaissance tasks. Remaining mounted allows the
reconnaissance platoon to conduct fairly detailed reconnaissance while maintaining the
speed and momentum required for the operation. Mounted reconnaissance also allows the
platoon to take advantage of the protection afforded by its vehicles.


FM 3-21.94

(1) Employment Considerations. Mounted reconnaissance is normally used under
these conditions:

• Time is limited.

• Detailed reconnaissance is not required.

• The cavalry squadron (RSTA) is performing coordinated reconnaissance tasks
in support of the infantry battalions.

• Ground sensors (such as GSR elements) are conducting reconnaissance
activities in support of ground forces.

• IPB provides accurate information on the enemy.

• Terrain is open.

(2) Advantages. Speed and momentum are rarely necessary in a reconnaissance
operation, but they are often critical to the successful execution of offensive operations
that the reconnaissance mission may support. In addition to speed, mounted
reconnaissance offers platoon members the advantages of their reconnaissance vehicle.
These advantages depend on the specific vehicle employed, but they can include armor
protection, enhanced navigation and communications capability, enhanced optics, and
limited firepower.

(3) Disadvantages. The disadvantages of mounted reconnaissance include the loss of
stealth due to the visual, noise, and thermal signatures of the vehicle and the loss of some
detail because of restricted vision and impairment of the senses of smell and hearing.
These disadvantages increase the risk to the platoon as it conducts reconnaissance.

c. Dismounted Reconnaissance. The primary purpose of dismounted
reconnaissance is to obtain detailed information about terrain features, obstacles, or
enemy forces. In addition, platoon members dismount and reconnoiter forward of their
vehicles to provide security before moving through danger areas such as open spaces,
hilltops, curves, or other blind spots on the battlefield. They also dismount to set up short-
or long-duration OPs. (Refer to the discussion of patrolling [Chapter 10] and observation
posts [Chapter 5] for additional information on how the reconnaissance platoon takes part
in dismounted reconnaissance.)

(1) Employment Considerations. In general, the reconnaissance platoon conducts
dismounted reconnaissance when the following conditions apply:

Detailed reconnaissance is required.

Stealth is required.

Enemy contact is expected or visual contact has been achieved.

Restricted terrain is encountered.

Time is available.

Danger areas are encountered.

Security is the primary concern.

IPB indicates close proximity to enemy positions.
Dismounted teams provide security for each other as they move. When only an individual
soldier dismounts, he should never move beyond effective overwatching fires of the

(2) Advantages. Dismounted reconnaissance is the preferred method when stealthy
movement is desired. Teams on foot benefit from the concealment offered by vegetation
and terrain; in addition, they do not emit a significant visual or audio signature.
Dismounted reconnaissance techniques allow the reconnaissance platoon to observe


FM 3-21 .94

enemy vehicles and soldiers at close range without being detected. Soldiers conducting
dismounted reconnaissance can also quickly transition to a stationary OP for a short
period of time without suffering any loss of effectiveness.

(3) Disadvantages. Disadvantages of dismounted reconnaissance include a relatively
slow rate of movement for personnel on foot, extensive requirements for detailed
preliminary planning and coordination, and considerable risk to soldiers conducting
dismounted operations. Unless they establish a radio relay, teams cannot conduct
dismounted reconnaissance in depth because of the relatively short range of FM man-
portable communications systems.

(4) Tools for Dismounted Reconnaissance. Dismounted platoon members employ a
variety of equipment and other tactical tools to enhance their capability to report
information accurately and to call for and adjust indirect fires. At a minimum, they carry
the following items:


Personal weapons.

Communications equipment.

Signal operation instruction (SOI) extracts.



Binoculars (and night-vision devices, if necessary).


To ensure everyone understands the plan, the platoon leader conducts rehearsals. Each
has a specific purpose and result. The five types of rehearsals include—

• Confirmation brief.

• Backbrief

• Combined arms rehearsal.

• Support rehearsal.

• Battle drill or SOP rehearsal.


The platoon sergeant assists the platoon leader in the development of the plan and
coordinates support requirements. The following items are essential to reconnaissance

a. Composition and task organization of the platoon and teams.

b. Information to be obtained by the reconnaissance element.

c. Movement routes and formations to the reconnaissance site for mounted and
dismounted personnel.

d. Actions at the objective and use of control measures.

e. Special instructions to members of the mounted and dismounted reconnaissance
and security elements.

f Special equipment to be used during the reconnaissance,
g. Contingency plans such as—

• Actions on contact.

• Actions if the reconnaissance party does not return.

• Evacuation of casualties.


FM 3-21.94

Initial rally point (IRP) for RV extraction.

Stay-behind surveillance.

Indirect-fire support for movement and reconnaissance.

Special communication arrangements.

Withdrawal plan from the reconnaissance site.

Plan for dissemination of information acquired during the reconnaissance.

Deadline for reporting information to higher headquarters.

Establishment of no-fire areas over OP positions once in position.


Reconnaissance and surveillance handover is the transfer of information and or
responsibility for observation (surveillance) of an assigned area or enemy force from one
unit to another. Battle handover is the transferring of the responsibility for conducting the
fight from one commander to another. Battle handover is a coordinated operation
executed to sustain continuity of the combined arms fight and to protect the combat
potential of both forces involved. While reconnaissance and surveillance handover shares
many critical tasks with battle handover, it focuses primarily on passing information and
the related responsibility for surveillance of an area or enemy force from one unit to
another. Reconnaissance and surveillance handover is normally associated with a
designated area or graphic control measure (such as a phase line); it may cover a sector or
zone, NAI, target area of interest (TAI), and or enemy contact. Reconnaissance and
surveillance handover can be visual, digital (FBCB2), or FM voice.


Surveillance handover is designed to provide information connection, overlapping
communications, and focus on the common commander's CCIR and reconnaissance

a. Surveillance Handover. The geographical point of reference or time of transfer
of surveillance responsibility must be coordinated between the coordinating staff and
commanders of the units affected or designated by the SBCT. The controlling higher
headquarters provides the graphic control measures that depict the applicable phase lines
and contact points, either digitally or on an overlay issued to subordinate units with the
OPORD or FRAGO. Reconnaissance and surveillance handover is complete when the
unit accepting the handover has established visual contact with the enemy element or has
the area (NAI or TAI) under surveillance. The higher headquarters commander prescribes
the specific criteria that mark completion of handover and ensures that both subordinate
commanders understand these criteria.

b. Critical Tasks for Unit Transferring Responsibility. The unit responsible for
surveillance must accomplish several critical tasks during change of responsibility. It

• Immediately establish FBCB2 linkage and enter appropriate communication
nets of adjacent units.

• Continuously report to the unit accepting surveillance responsibility the
location, size, and composition of all enemy forces as well as the enemy's
current activity. If the enemy is attacking, the unit conducting the surveillance
reports the enemy's direction of movement, movement formation, and


FM 3-21 .94

estimated rate of advance. If the enemy is defending, the unit conducting the
surveillance reports the enemy's locations, orientation, composition,
engagement areas (EA), reserves (if known), obstacles, and flanks.

• Coordinates with the unit accepting surveillance responsibility to determine
contact points at which subordinate elements (such as reconnaissance
sections) will physically coordinate handover with representatives of the unit
accepting surveillance responsibility. Once contact points are determined, the
surveilling unit leader digitally sends a FRAGO to all sections, specifying
where they will physically coordinate the change of responsibility for
surveillance of the enemy with the unit accepting surveillance responsibility.

• Ensure that each section or team acknowledges where it must physically
coordinate the change.

• Maintain visual contact with all enemy units, while avoiding decisive
engagement, until change of responsibility is complete.

c. Critical Tasks for Unit Accepting Surveillance Responsibility. The unit
accepting surveillance responsibility must accomplish a variety of critical tasks when
ordered to conduct surveillance handover. It must—

• Establish communications with the unit conducting the surveillance and
coordinate necessary contact points.

• Ensure that contact points are manned and that maneuver elements have
established personal communications with their representatives.

• Position security forces (if working with the platoon) where they have the best
possible observation of enemy avenues of approach (AA), adjusting as
necessary for limited visibility conditions.

• Ensure that routes through the obstacle system (if emplaced in the AO) are
clearly marked and physically controlled by guides or that escorts are
provided to the unit handing over surveillance responsibility.

• Ensure that all routes of withdrawal obligated to the unit conducting the
surveillance are unobstructed and facilitate rapid movement to the release
point (RP).

• Ensure that designated routes of advance, attack positions, and routes to the
point where responsibility for surveillance is changed are clear and facilitate
rapid movement.

d. An Example of Surveillance Handover. In this example, the cavalry squadron
(RSTA) is conducting a zone reconnaissance forward of the SBCT. The battalion's
reconnaissance platoon has been given a mission to conduct area reconnaissance missions
behind the cavalry squadron (RSTA) to develop attack positions and then conduct
surveillance of TAIs in support of the battalion's attack. This configuration allows the
reconnaissance platoon to conduct a thorough reconnaissance while taking advantage of
the security the cavalry squadron (RSTA) provides. The reconnaissance platoon has been
assigned a movement route to move to its assigned areas. The battalion's reconnaissance
platoon conducts physical and FM and or digital linkup with the RSTA reconnaissance
element directly to its front and with the lead infantry rifle company that directly follows
the platoon.

(1) En route to its OPs, the reconnaissance platoon maneuvers into the cavalry
squadron's AO. They report real time information to the battalion and its lead companies.


FM 3-21.94

Once the conditions are set, the battalion's reconnaissance platoon conducts the on-site
surveillance handover, coordinated by the battalion S3, with the cavalry squadron to its

• The cavalry squadron (RSTA) reports that it bypassed an enemy OP
consisting of a light skinned wheeled vehicle and six to eight indigenous
personnel armed with automatic weapons and RPG-7s. The cavalry squadron
also provides additional information concerning the terrain and enemy on the
battalion's objective.

• The cavalry squadron (RSTA) and the battalion's reconnaissance platoon also
coordinate passage of lines for the platoon to move into OPs that observe the
assigned TAIs.

• The platoon executes the handover from the cavalary squadron (RSTA) and
reports the contact to the battalion and the follow-on companies; it also
updates the FBCB2 overlay with the OP contact and updates the enemy
template on the objective.

• The battalion accepts responsibility for the enemy OP contact and directs the
reconnaissance platoon to bypass the OP and continue the mission.

(2) The reconnaissance platoon establishes OPs to observe TAIs and support the
battalion's attack.

• The reconnaissance teams provide a visual contact SITREP and then lead the
rifle companies to positions of advantage using covered and concealed routes
identified en route to their linkup point.

• The reconnaissance platoon leader now has enough information to physically
point out enemy and friendly locations and routes to the flank and rear of the
enemy and to continue to support the battalion's attack.


Given the capabilities of the reconnaissance platoon, many commanders require it to
assist other units in the passage of lines. Primarily, the reconnaissance platoon enhances
the command and control function for the commander. The platoon may be required to
conduct one or all of the critical tasks of a stationary or passing unit or may assist its
parent unit in the following ways:

• Elements of the reconnaissance platoon may assist in securing contact and
passage points where units will meet and pass.

• The reconnaissance platoon may reconnoiter possible passage lanes (primary
and alternate), mark their locations, and find bypasses.

• The reconnaissance platoon may guide units from contact points to or through
passage lanes. The platoon may also control traffic at the passage point and in
the lane.

• Reconnaissance platoon elements may be positioned in the passage area to act
as a communications link in case units involved in the passage have trouble
communicating with each other.


FM 3-21 .94

• The reconnaissance platoon may conduct area reconnaissance of attack
positions (forward passage) and assembly area locations (rearward passage).
This reconnaissance effort may include a requirement to check for NBC

• The reconnaissance platoon may assist the commander by occupying OPs or
conducting patrols to provide a continuous flow of information about the
enemy situation.


Digital systems assist the battalion staff in its coordination and synchronization efforts for
the operation. Each unit transmits or delivers a complete copy of its OPORD and
overlays either by digital (FBCB2 and MCS) or conventional (hardcopy and acetate
overlay) means. Any changes made after initial distribution are updated immediately. The
coordination effected between the two commanders includes—

• Establishing digital and FM voice communications.

• Providing updates of both friendly and enemy situations (digital, voice, and

• Coordinating passage points and routes and ensuring these are displayed on
operational overlays (digital and conventional).

• Collocating C2 and exchanging liaison personnel (if required).

• Coordinating fires and fire control measures (direct and indirect) and ensuring
these are displayed on operational overlays (digital and conventional).

• Determining the need for and dispatching contact point representatives.

• Establishing and coordinating recognition signals (conventional).

• Providing the location of obstacles and related covering fires.

• Providing route information to include waypoints.

• Determining CS and CSS requirements.

Due to the fluid nature of a battle handover, digital coordination may be too difficult to
accomplish. Commanders determine if digital systems can be used to speed the planning,
coordination, and execution process. However, FM voice may be the most prudent
method of coordinating and executing battle handover.


Before moving forces into or near a specified area, the commander may call on his
reconnaissance platoon to conduct an area reconnaissance to avoid being surprised by
unsuitable terrain conditions or unexpected enemy forces. The area could be a town,
ridgeline, woods, or another feature that friendly forces intend to occupy, pass through, or
avoid. The commander frequently employs area reconnaissance to gain information on
objective areas, to confirm the IPB templates, and to provide detailed information
regarding enemy dispositions. Within an area of operations, area reconnaissance can
focus the reconnaissance on the specific area that is critical to the commander. This
technique of focusing the reconnaissance also permits the mission to be accomplished
more quickly. Area reconnaissance can thus be a stand-alone mission or a task to a
section or the platoon. Like zone reconnaissance, area reconnaissance can be either
terrain- or force-oriented. The commander analyzes the mission using METT-TC to


FM 3-21.94

determine whether the platoon will conduct these types of reconnaissance separately or in
conjunction with each other.

4-18. TASKS

The reconnaissance platoon must accomplish numerous tasks during the area

a. Primary. The platoon's primary tasks include the following:

• Find and report all enemy forces within the area.

• Reconnoiter specific terrain within the area.

• Report reconnaissance information.

b. Other. In addition to the primary tasks, the reconnaissance platoon must be
prepared to conduct other tasks as directed by the higher commander. Additional tasks for
the area reconnaissance include the following:

• Reconnoiter all terrain within the area.

• Inspect and classify all bridges within the area.

• Locate fords or crossing sites near all the bridges in the area.

• Inspect and classify all overpasses, underpasses, and culverts.

• Within capability, locate all minefields and other obstacles in the area, reduce
or breach them, and clear and mark lanes.

• Locate bypasses around built-up areas, obstacles, and contaminated areas.


The order to conduct an area reconnaissance mission identifies the area to be
reconnoitered within a continuous boundary. The reconnaissance platoon leader analyzes
the mission, enemy, and terrain and completes his troop-leading procedures. He also
plans the movement to (and, if necessary, from) the area, following the basic rule of using
different routes to and from the area. The battalion reconnaissance and surveillance plan
specifies the ingress and egress routes for the platoon.

a. The platoon's primary concern during movement to the area is security rather than
reconnaissance. If the platoon leader feels there may be enemy forces along the route to
the area to be reconnoitered, the platoon should employ the principles of tactical
movement based on METT-TC factors. The platoon leader must also incorporate
information from TUAVs and ground sensor assets (such as GSR) into the operation. The
platoon may be augmented with Javelin AT systems. The Javelin's command launch unit
(CLU) thermal sight has a range of more than 3,000 meters and can be used to observe
the area. (See Appendix F for information on Javelin employment.) During movement to
the area, it may be appropriate (depending on the commander's intent) for the platoon to
avoid physical contact with the enemy. The platoon leader may also choose to orient and
focus sections or teams on checkpoints as the platoon moves to the area.

b. The platoon leader encloses the given area within a platoon zone; he uses
boundaries, an LD, and a limit of advance (LOA). He can divide the area into section
zones by placing boundaries on identifiable terrain. By doing this, the platoon leader
ensures that each section has responsibility for specific pieces of terrain.

c. The platoon leader places contact points at the intersections of phase lines and
boundaries and any other places he wants physical contact and coordination between his
reconnaissance (recon) sections. He can use the terrain index reference system (TIRS) as


FM 3-21 .94

necessary. He works with the fire support officer (FSO) to plan indirect fires to support
the platoon's scheme of maneuver.

d. The platoon can conduct area reconnaissance using either two 2-vehicle sections
or four individual vehicle elements. Vehicle formations are often not appropriate to the
area reconnaissance mission because of the wide variety of METT-TC considerations the
platoon may encounter.


The platoon leader conducts an area reconnaissance to obtain information concerning the
terrain or enemy activity within a prescribed area. The major actions required during
dismounted area reconnaissance include moving to and occupying an objective rally
point (ORP), conducting a leader's reconnaissance, conducting actions at the objective,
and withdrawing and disseminating information. The patrol conducting the area
reconnaissance reconnoiters and surveils the reconnaissance objective. To obtain the
required information, the patrol uses a series of vantage points around the reconnaissance
objective to observe it and the surrounding area. The patrol uses long-range and short-
range observation and surveillance. The platoon leader may assign the task to the entire
platoon or to individual teams. In the latter case, either the platoon leader or platoon
sergeant locates at a position, usually the release point, which allows good C2. The
platoon leader can use single or multiple teams. Security measures depend on the

a. When the battalion orders the reconnaissance platoon to conduct an area
reconnaissance, it identifies the area to be reconnoitered within a continuous boundary.
The reconnaissance platoon leader analyzes the mission, enemy, and terrain and
completes his troop-leading procedures. He also plans the movement to and, if necessary,
from the area following the basic rule of using different routes to and from the area. The
routes are specified for the platoon in the battalion reconnaissance and surveillance

b. The platoon's primary concern during movement to the area is security rather than
reconnaissance. If the platoon leader feels there may be enemy forces along the route to
the area to be reconnoitered, the platoon should employ the principles of tactical
movement based on METT-TC factors. The platoon leader must also incorporate
information from the cavalry squadron (RSTA) and ground sensor assets (such as GSR)
into the operation. During movement to the area, it is imperative for the platoon to avoid
physical contact with the enemy. The platoon leader may also choose to orient and focus
sections or teams on checkpoints as the platoon moves to the area.

c. The platoon leader uses boundaries, an LD, and an LOA. He can then divide the
area into section zones by placing boundaries on identifiable terrain; this ensures that
each section has responsibility for specific pieces of terrain.

d. The platoon leader should focus sections or teams on checkpoints as the platoon
moves through the area. He uses graphic control measures as necessary. He works with
the FSO to plan indirect fires to support the platoon's scheme of maneuver.

e. The platoon can conduct area reconnaissance using any of the platoon
organizations. The platoon leader deploys his sections based upon the factors of METT-
TC to accomplish their reconnaissance and surveillance tasks. Dispersed movement
formations are often not appropriate to the area reconnaissance mission because the area


FM 3-21.94

may be irregular in shape and because of the wide variety of METT-TC considerations
the platoon may encounter.


During planning, the platoon leader selects a tentative ORP based on a map
reconnaissance or, if possible, a physical reconnaissance.

a. From the leader's standpoint, the ORP should offer—

• Cover and concealment.

• Easy short-term defensibility.

• Location that is easy to find.

• Proximity to objective to simplify control.

b. The platoon leader then decides how to occupy the ORP. Every member of the
reconnaissance platoon must know how to execute this task. The patrol can use the
triangle technique (Figure 4-3), patrol bases, and rally points to occupy an ORP.

c. While in the ORP, the patrol makes final preparations for the leader's
reconnaissance and actions at the objective.

d. With a five-man team, the leader can leave two soldiers to secure the ORP. The
other three team members conduct the reconnaissance and provide security.

e. The patrol team leader may cache equipment in the ORP and take the entire team
on the reconnaissance.

Lead Team
10 o'clock V I 2 o'clock

Trail Team

Middle Team

6 o'clock



Direction of travel
12 o'clock






Figure 4-3. Occupation of an ORP using the triangle technique (3 teams).


FM 3-21 .94


During the area reconnaissance, the platoon and team leaders conduct their own
reconnaissance. This allows them to determine whether to modify the plan for actions at
the objective and allows them to ensure smooth execution of the reconnaissance. A
leader's reconnaissance of an objective may include the following tasks:

• Pinpoint the objective. If possible, accomplish this by checking terrain
features in the area, not by directly approaching the objective.

• Locate observation or surveillance positions, routes, and security positions.

• Determine or confirm the enemy situation in the objective area, locate enemy
OPs, determine enemy security status and activity, and adapt the patrol to the
local sounds in the area.

• Designate the release point and the positions for the reconnaissance and
control and security elements.


Once the patrol pinpoints the objective, designated elements conduct the reconnaissance,
viewing the objective from as many locations as necessary. Movement in and around the
objective must be cautious and slow. If the control and security elements separate from
the reconnaissance elements, they occupy a position that will allow them to place direct
or indirect fire on the objective, if necessary. The patrol leader decides how detailed a
reconnaissance to conduct. Thoroughness counts but so does avoiding detection. Two
techniques for conducting reconnaissance include long- and short-range observation and

a. Long-Range Observation or Surveillance. The ideal way to observe and survey
an objective is from a distance—out of sight and out of range. When METT-TC permits
the patrol to gather the required information from a distance, it does so from an OP
(Figure 4-4). This reduces the chance of detection or vulnerability to enemy small-arms
fire and local security measures. When one OP proves insufficient, then team-sized
reconnaissance patrols occupy successive or multiple OPs. Using available cover and
concealment, each patrol finds the best possible view of the objective.


FM 3-21.94

— 1st Event

2d Event

- O-O 3d Event

Figure 4-4. Example of long-range observation.

b. Short-Range Observation or Surveillance. Sometimes, to get the information
needed, the patrol (platoon or team) must observe within range of enemy weapons
systems (Figure 4-5, page 4-18). When the platoon as a whole operates at short range, the
leader must clearly define the routes and area to be reconnoitered.


FM 3-21 .94


1st Event

2d Event

O- 0-3d Event

Figure 4-5. Example of short-range observation.

(1) Once the reconnaissance platoon leader has identified the objective, he looks for
possible routes and locations from which he can observe the objective. He then briefs the
plan to the reconnaissance element. The size of the reconnaissance element should be
limited—for a team, two men conduct the reconnaissance while the others provide
security. Once the control and security element is in position, the reconnaissance element
begins slow and deliberate movement to the objective. This may require the soldier to
low-crawl a considerable distance, taking time, energy, and patience. Individuals take
only the equipment that is necessary. When moving, one soldier moves while the other
observes. They continue using this method until the reconnaissance element reaches its
final position.

(2) Once in position, the reconnaissance element observes and listens to acquire the
needed information. No eating, no talking, and no unnecessary movement occur at this
time; soldiers prone to coughing or sneezing should be in the control and security
element. If the reconnaissance element cannot acquire the information needed from its
initial position, it retraces the route and repeats the process. This method of
reconnaissance is extremely risky. The reconnaissance element must remember that the
closer it moves to an objective, the greater the risk of being detected. The reconnaissance
element moves only as close to the objective as necessary.

(3) The control and security element has limitations on what it can do. The security
element should go where it can observe the objective and, if possible, the reconnaissance
element. If it cannot observe the reconnaissance element, it should know the element's


FM 3-21.94

general location. If the enemy compromises the reconnaissance element, the control and
security element calls for fire and places direct fire on the objective. This method of
reconnaissance is difficult. The reconnaissance elements and the control and security
elements should think through and rehearse well their actions at the objective and
contingency plans.


After reconnoitering, the reconnaissance and control and security elements return to the
ORP or to a rally point. Control and security elements remain in position until the
reconnaissance elements leave the objective area. Once all elements arrive in the ORP,
each element leader debriefs the soldiers. He then moves to the center of the perimeter to
give the information to designated recorders. The recorders write the information and
make or collect sketches of the objective. Element leaders share the information obtained
with the soldiers. This ensures that everyone has the information and, if necessary, can
relay it back to battalion. If the platoon leader wants to increase the security of the
platoon, he can give the soldiers the information on the move or he can move the platoon
away from the ORP to another ORP. If he chooses the latter, he might move one terrain
feature away.


Commanders normally assign a zone reconnaissance to the reconnaissance platoon when
they need detailed information before maneuvering their forces through the zone. The
reconnaissance provides the commander with a detailed picture of how the enemy has
occupied the zone, enabling him to choose the appropriate COA. Zone reconnaissance
can be terrain-oriented, force-oriented, or both. The reconnaissance platoon conducts
terrain-orientated zone reconnaissance to gain detailed information about routes, terrain,
and resources within the assigned zone. This is the most thorough and complete
reconnaissance mission and therefore is very time-intensive. The reconnaissance platoon
conducts force-oriented zone reconnaissance to gain detailed information about enemy
forces within the zone. As the platoon conducts this type of zone reconnaissance, its
emphasis is on determining the enemy's locations, strengths, and weaknesses. The
techniques and objectives of terrain-oriented and force-oriented reconnaissance are not
mutually exclusive. The commander's intent, specifically the focus of the reconnaissance
and METT-TC factors, dictates if the platoon conducts these two types of reconnaissance
separately or in conjunction with each other.

4-25. TASKS

The reconnaissance platoon must accomplish numerous key tasks during the zone

a. Primary. Its primary tasks include the following:

• Find and report all enemy forces within the zone.

• Reconnoiter specific terrain within the zone.

• Report information higher.

b. Other. In addition to its primary tasks, the platoon must also conduct other tasks
as part of this type of reconnaissance. These tasks may include the following:


FM 3-21 .94

• Reconnoiter all terrain within the zone.

• Inspect and classify all bridges within the zone.

• Locate fords or crossing sites near all bridges in the zone.

• Inspect and classify all overpasses, underpasses, and culverts.

• Within capability, locate all minefields and other obstacles in the zone and
mark lanes and bypasses.

• Locate bypasses around built-up areas, obstacles, and contaminated areas.


Zone reconnaissance is very time-consuming. Unless the orders specify otherwise, all
tasks listed in the previous discussion are implied in the zone reconnaissance mission
statement. When speed is the primary concern, commanders must modify the mission
statement or prioritize the critical tasks for the platoon leader.

a. The width of the zone is determined by the road network, terrain features,
anticipated enemy activity, and time available to accomplish the mission.

b. When the reconnaissance platoon leader receives a zone reconnaissance mission,
the order defines the zone by lateral boundaries, an LD, and an LOA or objective. The
battalion may include additional phase lines or other graphic control measures within the
zone to help control the maneuver of the battalion.

c. The platoon leader analyzes the mission to determine what must be accomplished.
He analyzes the commander's guidance on focus (the reconnaissance objective: enemy,
terrain, or a combination) and tempo (time allowed for mission accomplishment:
aggressive, stealthy, deliberate, or rapid). He evaluates any information he has received
from the IPB to determine what enemy activity he should expect to encounter. He then
analyzes the terrain by conducting a map reconnaissance and by examining any imagery
intelligence (IMINT), signal intelligence (SIGINT), HUMINT, or information from other
reconnaissance units (for example, RSTA) to determine the types of terrain in which the
platoon must operate. This reconnaissance is important in identifying areas the enemy
could occupy based on observation capability, fields of fire, and natural obstacles. From
these factors, the platoon leader determines the manner in which the reconnaissance
platoon will accomplish its mission.

d. The platoon leader completes TLP and develops a COA to accomplish his
assigned mission. He may add phase lines on easily identifiable terrain through the zone
to help control the maneuver. He places checkpoints in specific areas that must be
reconnoitered or where they will aid in controlling the operation. If the terrain is mixed
with both extensive dead space and easily identifiable features, he may use boundaries to
designate areas of responsibility for each section. He places contact points at critical areas
where he wants to ensure that sections maintain contact.

e. The platoon leader works with the battalion FSO to plan indirect fire targets to
support the platoon's scheme of maneuver. As a minimum, they should plan targets on
known or suspected enemy positions.

f Depending on applicable METT-TC considerations, the platoon can conduct the
zone reconnaissance using a two-section or four-vehicle organization. It must deploy to
cover the entire zone. Additionally, the three dismounted teams can operate
independently of the vehicles. The platoon usually operates in a zone it knows very little


FM 3-21.94

about, so the COA must allow for flexibility, responsiveness, and security during

g. The platoon leader deploys the reconnaissance sections and teams on line across
the LD and assigns each section or team a zone within the zone for which the platoon is
responsible. He uses phase lines, checkpoints, or contact points to ensure that the
reconnaissance platoon reconnoiters the entire zone. He ensures that the reconnaissance
sections remain generally on line to prevent development of significant gaps that a
moving enemy could exploit. Platoon members dismount to gather detailed information,
reconnoiter danger areas, or move through areas that are not accessible to the vehicles.
The reconnaissance platoon continues to reconnoiter the zone until it reaches the LOA or
the final reconnaissance objective.


Zone reconnaissance focuses on obtaining detailed information concerning routes,
obstacles (to include chemical or radiological contamination), terrain, and enemy forces
within a zone defined by boundaries. A zone reconnaissance is assigned when the enemy
situation is vague or when information concerning cross-country trafficability is desired.
A reconnaissance platoon and other reconnaissance elements (infantry platoons or
squads) acquire this information by reconnoitering within the zone, by maintaining
surveillance over the zone, or by coordinating area reconnaissance of designated
locations within a zone. The platoon leader organizes the reconnaissance platoon based
on METT-TC. This analysis determines whether the platoon uses single or multiple
teams to conduct the reconnaissance. As in an area reconnaissance, the following
methods may be used as long as the fundamentals of reconnaissance are applied.

a. Single Team. Single -team reconnaissance is favored when—

• Specific information requirements can be gathered within the required time by
a single reconnaissance element.

• Control of multiple teams in the objective area is difficult.

• Terrain is open and visibility is good.

• Enemy security measures, such as patrols, sensors, and radar, are active in the

b. Multiple Teams. Multiple-team reconnaissance is favored when—

• The area to be reconnoitered is too large for a single team. In this case, the
platoon leader uses multiple reconnaissance teams to complete the
reconnaissance on time.

• Several angles of observation are needed.

• Terrain is difficult and visibility is poor.


The methods used to move multiple reconnaissance elements through a zone are fan,
converging routes, and successive sectors. To reduce the possibility of fratricide,
effective command and control is important when conducting reconnaissance with
multiple elements .

a. Fan Method. The element leader selects a series of ORPs throughout the zone.
When the element arrives at the first ORP, it halts and establishes security. The element
leader selects reconnaissance routes to and from each ORP, with the routes forming a


FM 3-21 .94

fan-shaped pattern around the ORP (Figure 4-6). A technique for determining routes is to
divide the route into four separate legs. The distance of each leg remains constant with
respect to one another. Whatever the initial azimuth is, the leader adds or subtracts 90
degrees. For example, if the initial azimuth is 360 degrees, the corresponding return
azimuth is 90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees. This ensures that a patrol leaves the
ORP in one direction (360 degrees) and returns in another direction (270 degrees). Once
the routes are selected and briefed to the team leaders, the teams execute accordingly.
The platoon leader may send one or all three teams, or he may send two and keep one
team as a reserve. The platoon leader or platoon sergeant can accompany one of the
teams or remain at the ORP. The platoon leader also sends the teams out on adjacent
routes. This prevents the patrol from making enemy contact in two directions. After the
platoon has reconnoitered all the areas (the "fan"), it reports to battalion, moves to the
next ORP, and repeats the action.

Recon Teams
Adjacent Routes

Figure 4-6. Fan method.

b. Converging-Routes Method. The platoon leader selects an ORP, reconnaissance
routes (through the zone), and a rally point (Figure 4-7). (The rally point is where the
platoon links up after the reconnaissance.) Once the platoon arrives at the ORP, it halts
and establishes security. The platoon leader confirms the platoon's location and selects a
reconnaissance route for each team, a rally point, and a rendezvous time. A team is sent
out on each route, which they reconnoiter using the fan method. At a designated time, the
entire platoon meets at the rally point, an easily identified terrain feature that is secured
the same as the ORP. Once there, the platoon consolidates and disseminates all
information obtained. The platoon leader sends the information to higher headquarters
and, based on guidance from battalion, returns to friendly lines or continues the mission.


FM 3-21.94

Figure 4-7. Converging-routes method.

c. Successive-Sectors Method. The successive-sectors method (Figure 4-8, page 4-
24) is a continuation of the converging-routes method. The platoon leader selects an
ORP, a series of reconnaissance routes, and rally points. The platoon's actions from each
ORP to each rally point are the same as in the converging-routes method. (Each rally
point becomes the ORP for the next phase.) When the platoon links up at a rally point,
the platoon leader again selects reconnaissance routes, a linkup time, and the next rally
point. This action continues until the platoon has reconnoitered the entire zone. The
platoon then returns to friendly lines.


FM 3-21 .94

Figure 4-8. Successive-sectors method.


The purpose of route reconnaissance is to provide detailed information on trafficability,
enemy activity, NBC contamination, and the adjacent terrain from the viewpoint of both
enemy and friendly forces. Route reconnaissance focuses on obtaining information about
a specified route and all terrain from which the enemy could influence movement along
that route. Route reconnaissance can orient on a road, a railway, a waterway, or a general
direction of attack to provide new or updated information on route conditions or activities
along the route.


The battalion commander orders a route reconnaissance when he needs information on
routes to and in his assigned area of operations. Usually, he gives an overlay to the
reconnaissance platoon leader along with specific information requirements needed for
specific routes. Possible information requirements include the following:

• The available space in which a force can maneuver without being forced to
bunch up due to obstacles. This requirement includes the size of trees and the
density of forests due to their effects on vehicle movement.

• The location and types of all obstacles and the location of any available
bypass. Obstacles can consist of minefields, barriers, steep ravines, marshy
areas, or NBC contamination.

• The enemy forces that can influence movement along the route.


FM 3-21.94

• The observation and fields of fire along the route and adjacent terrain. This
information assists planners as a supplement to map information.

• The locations along the route that provide good cover and concealment.

• The trafficability for the type of forces using the route.

• The bridges by construction type, dimensions, and classification.

• The landing zones and pickup zones.


When conducting a route reconnaissance, the platoon leader organizes the reconnaissance
platoon based on the factors of METT-TC. Depending on the time available, he conducts
a thorough map reconnaissance and plans a series of fans (Figure 4-9) along the route to
provide detailed terrain information. (Fans are the preferred reconnaissance method.) The
platoon must reconnoiter roads and trails intersecting or traversing the route until they
reach terrain where the enemy could influence friendly movement from adjacent terrain.

Figure 4-9. Route reconnaissance with fans.


FM 3-21 .94


If the platoon must conduct a route reconnaissance as part of the higher unit's mission,
then stealth and speed, in conjunction with detailed intelligence reporting, become key.
The reconnaissance platoon must remain far enough ahead of the maneuver force to assist
in early warning and to prevent the force from becoming surprised. In this case, the fan
method may not be as effective as a modification of the converging-routes method.


If all or part of the proposed route is a road, the platoon considers the road a danger area.
It moves parallel to the road using a covered and concealed route. When required,
reconnaissance and control and security teams move close to the road to reconnoiter
key areas.


Engineers can support the platoon in collecting technical information. They assist the
reconnaissance platoon by clearing obstacles and classifying bridges. (For detailed
information on classifying routes and bridges, refer to FM 5-34.)


The reconnaissance platoon reports conditions that are likely to affect the friendly
movement in accordance with (IAW) the SOP and prepares an overlay of the route.
(Figure 4-10 is an example of a route reconnaissance overlay using standard symbols.)

a. Required Information. The overlay must include—
Two grid references.
Magnetic north arrow.
Route drawn to scale.
Title block.
Route classification formula.

b. Additional Information. The overlay may also include—
Road curves having a radius less than 45 meters.
Steep grades with their maximum gradients.

Road width of constrictions (bridges, tunnels, and so forth) with width and
lengths of the traveled ways in meters.

Underpass limitations with limiting heights and widths in meters.
Bridge bypasses classified as easy, difficult, or impossible.
Civil or military road numbers or other designations.
Location of fords, ferries, and tunnels, including limiting information.


The following employment considerations apply when planning a route reconnaissance:

• Time.

• Detail of reconnaissance required.

• Accuracy of information on the enemy from the IPB.

• Terrain.


FM 3-21.94


Thomas M. Zurewich

Organization Reconnaissance Pit

Date 20 May 02

Map Reference Schwabach, FRG

Scale 1:50.000

Figure 4-10. Example of a route reconnaissance overlay.


During route reconnaissance, the platoon must be trained for and prepared to accomplish
a variety of reconnaissance tasks. Based on factors of METT-TC and the commander's
intent, the commander may direct the platoon to conduct reconnaissance for a general
purpose or to acquire only specific information. To ensure the platoon is ready for either
situation, the platoon leader must be prepared to conduct the following tasks:

Determine route trafficability.

Reconnoiter terrain that dominates the route.

Reconnoiter all lateral routes.

Reconnoiter all built-up areas along the route.

Inspect and classify all bridges on the route.

Locate fords or crossing sites near all bridges on the route.

Inspect and classify all overpasses, underpasses, and culverts.

Reconnoiter all defiles along the route.

Locate minefields and other obstacles along the route.

Locate a bypass around built-up areas, obstacles, restrictions, and

contaminated areas.


FM 3-21 .94

• Report route information.

• Find and report all enemy forces that can influence movement along the route.


The reconnaissance platoon needs to be prepared to conduct two detailed route
reconnaissance missions at a time. The following example outlines the aspects of getting
all tasks accomplished rapidly and securely:

a. The order the platoon leader receives specifies the route the platoon must
reconnoiter and defines the route from start point (SP) to RP. Additionally, the order may
specify platoon boundaries, phase lines, LD, and a LOA or reconnaissance objective.
These control measures specify how much terrain on both sides of the route the platoon
must reconnoiter and where the operation must begin and end.

b. Boundaries are drawn on both sides to include the terrain that dominates the route.
This ensures that the platoon reconnoiters all terrain the enemy could use to influence
movement along the route. The LD is drawn from one boundary to the other behind the
SP. This allows the platoon to cross the LD and be fully deployed before reaching the
route. The LOA or objective is placed beyond the RP on the last terrain feature that
dominates the route or at a location out to about 3 kilometers. (Figure 4-11 shows some
examples of control measures for the route reconnaissance operation.)

c. The platoon leader may add additional phase lines, contact points, and
checkpoints to the graphics he receives from the commander. Phase lines help control the
maneuver of the platoon. Contact points ensure that the sections or teams maintain
contact at particular critical points. Checkpoints along the route or on specific terrain
control movement or designate areas that must be reconnoitered.

d. In coordination with the FSO, the platoon leader plans artillery targets on known
or suspected enemy positions and on dominant terrain throughout the area of operations.
The platoon leader evaluates the factors of METT-TC to select a platoon organization. He
ensures that at least one section has responsibility for reconnoitering the route.


FM 3-21.94

Figure 4-11. Control measures.


The platoon collects information from local nationals outside of the urban area to gain
information on the objective. Depending on the time available, the platoon develops the
urban situation progressively as it moves from the surrounding area toward the city. The
platoon leader may refine objectives and routes as he gains and analyzes information.
RSTA assets should provide information about the local population to include attitudes
and dispositions toward US forces. The reconnaissance platoon then conducts
reconnaissance of the urban area. The platoon develops an understanding of the regional,
local, and neighborhood-level situation. The platoon members must learn the
characteristics of the urban area.


The primary method of employing surveillance teams is in a hide or surveillance site.
However, the terrain, mission, and location of the site may dictate that the teams establish
a separate surveillance site (or sites) to effectively observe the area.

a. Personnel Requirements. Personnel requirements depend on the mission and
conditions under which surveillance teams must operate. At least two soldiers are
required to conduct surveillance. One observes while the other records the information in
the surveillance log. Because observer efficiency decreases rapidly, the observer and the
recorder switch duties about every 30 minutes. When using night-vision devices, the
observer's initial period of viewing is 10 minutes followed by a 15-minute rest period.


FM 3-21 .94

After several periods of viewing, the observation period is extended to 15-20 minutes.
Hide site personnel should be rotated every 24 hours.

b. Surveillance Sites. During limited visibility, two to three (normally three)
members may be required to set up a new surveillance site. The site is near the target area
so that information may be collected through close-in observation and sound detection.
The remainder of the team stays in the hide site. The surveillance site and the route to and
from it are selected during good visibility. Members go in and out of the surveillance site
during limited visibility. One member observes, one records, and one maintains security
to the rear and flanks. Only passive night-vision devices are used to help prevent

c. Hide Sites. The hide site may not be suitable for transmitting reports. When this
is the case, a separate communication site is needed. At least two soldiers are required at
the communication site; one to send the message and erect an antenna (if necessary) and
one to provide security. The communication site is occupied long enough to transmit the
message and conceal any signs of the team's presence.

d. Hasty Sites. These are sites the team plans to occupy for a short period (generally
less than six hours). This occurs most often during target-acquisition missions.

(1) The team makes the best use of natural cover and concealment. It uses manmade
camouflage materials as required to improve concealment and keeps movement to a

(2) Generally, two or three members are positioned forward to observe the target area
and record information. The hasty hide site is positioned far enough to the rear so it is out
of the direct line of enemy observation. The distance depends on terrain and vegetation. It
must be far enough away from the surveillance element so that if an enemy force
discovers one of the two elements, the other element has enough standoff to prevent it
from being discovered also.

(3) The position allows the elements to fire on the enemy and enables one or both to
break contact. Team members in the hasty hide site maintain rear and flank security.
Communications are normally conducted after the team moves away from the area.

e. Urban Surveillance Sites. Surveillance teams can construct fixed urban hide
sites in occupied and abandoned buildings, on water tanks, in shrubbery, on rooftops, or
in attics of multistory buildings or other tall structures. If possible, teams should avoid
wooden and significantly deteriorated buildings because of the risk of injury from fire
and structural failure. Fixed sites should not be in buildings that will attract the enemy's
attention but should be in rubble, yards, and gardens. If the site is to be set up in an
undamaged part of the urban area, teams select buildings of solid construction with
serviceable stairs and basements that can be equipped for the rest and shelter of
personnel. Site construction may consist simply of taking a position by a suitable viewing
port, or it can be much more elaborate, time being a crucial factor. The team fills
windows, doors, and other openings with bricks, fragments of building materials, or
sandbags, if available, and removes flammable objects from the premises. If the enemy
has previously occupied the building, the team takes precautions against booby traps and
mines. When the enemy is near, the team prepares several places in the building for
observation and departure.


FM 3-21.94

f. Hasty Subsurface Sites. A hasty subsurface site is constructed when there is not
enough time to construct a complete subsurface site. The site is especially useful when
there is little natural cover and concealment.

(1) Considerations in the employment of hasty subsurface sites include the following:
Lower profile than surface surveillance sites.
Better protection against small-arms weapons and indirect fires.
Excellent camouflage.
Requirement to conceal soil.
Time required to construct.
Construction noise.

(2) Materials that may prove useful in building the position include the following:
Ponchos or other waterproofing.

Yetti net or small camouflage net to assist in camouflage.
Entrenching tool.
550 cord or bungee cord.
Chicken wire (optional).
Burlap or canvas (optional).

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe with connectors.
Fiberglass rod.


The reconnaissance platoon will not perform building-to-building clearance in urban
areas. They may, however, perform urban patrolling to accomplish reconnaissance
missions. Urban patrols can be conducted either mounted or dismounted with vehicles in
support, depending on the enemy situation. Patrols should never be conducted lower than
section level. Detailed planning, as discussed earlier in this chapter, is accomplished
before execution of a patrol. Using maps, aerial photography, and any other intelligence,
the reconnaissance platoon leader conducts preliminary route reconnaissance to identify
the following features:

• Insertion and extraction routes.

• Choke points along the routes.

• Escape and evasion directions or corridors.

a. Mounted Patrolling. Mounted patrols capitalize on the mobility of the
reconnaissance platoon's vehicles. Mounted patrols never enter an area via the route they
will use to exit the area. Vehicles should travel at moderate speeds, with the lead vehicle
stopping only to investigate those areas that pose a potential threat or support the
essential tasks of the patrol. Use a vehicle speed of 15 to 20 miles per hour to allow for
adequate observation and quick reaction. Slower speeds may allow noncombatants or a
more aggressive group to impede movement. On the other hand, vehicles should move at
high speeds only when responding to an incident. Equipment stored externally on the
vehicle should be secured high enough to prevent the problems of locals trying to snatch
equipment and weapons. When vehicles must stop the vehicle commander is at the ready,
and the driver remains in his seat with the engine running. It is imperative that the


FM 3-21 .94

platoon maintains an accurate COP and awareness of the location of other friendly
elements during patrols; this includes orientation on other patrols in the urban area. Other
mounted urban patrolling principles include the following:

• Ensure mutual support and depth by maintaining constant observation among

• Coordinate a supporting fire plan with all units in the area.

• Maintain all-round security.

• Develop a reliable communications plan for mounted and dismounted

• Adjust patrol routes and speed to promote deception and avoid repetitive

b. Dismounted Patrolling. During urban reconnaissance, dismounted patrolling is
used to collect information the battalion needs to be successful. Patrols are organized no
lower than team level. Leaders of dismounted patrols must maintain communications
with vehicles and the patrol headquarters throughout the mission. In the reconnaissance
platoon, vehicles must be prepared to react to any situation the dismounted element may
encounter. Patrols should avoid areas with large masses of civilians that could quickly
turn against the patrol. As with mounted patrols, dismounted patrol leaders must be ready
to contact other patrols or supporting elements for support in unfavorable or dangerous

c. Subterranean Patrolling. Reconnaissance of subterranean systems can
determine enemy use of the passageway, determine subterranean capabilities, or provide
support for isolating the urban area. The team leader organizes his patrol with one soldier
tasked with security to the front, one point man, and one soldier tasked with rear security.
If available, an engineer should assist the team leader in classifying the passageway or
eliminating obstacles. The team leader navigates and records data through the passage.
Two soldiers remain at the point of entry as a security post. They are responsible for
enemy detection and serve as a communications link between the team leader and higher.

(1) The team leader should carry a map or sketch, compass, street plan, and
information requirements. A team member should carry the tools needed to open
manhole covers. The point man is equipped with night-vision goggles. All soldiers
entering the passageway should carry a sketch of the subterranean systems to include
magnetic north, azimuths, distances, and manholes. They should also have flashlights,
gloves, and chalk for marking features along the route.

(2) In addition to chemical agents, noxious gases from decomposing sewage,
especially methane gas, can pose a threat. These gases are not detected by NBC detection
systems nor are they completely filtered out by the protective mask. Physical signs
(nausea and dizziness) indicate their presence in harmful quantities. Team leaders should
be constantly alert to these signs and know the shortest route to the surface for fresh air.

(3) Once the team is organized and equipped, it moves to the entrance of the tunnel.
The point man then descends into the tunnel to determine whether the air is safe to
breathe and if movement is restricted. The point man should remain in the tunnel for 10
minutes before the rest of the team follows. If he becomes ill or is exposed to danger, the
team can use a safety rope to pull him out.

(4) When the patrol is moving through the tunnel, the point man moves about 10
meters in front of the team leader. Other team members maintain five-meter intervals. If


FM 3-21.94

the water in the tunnel is flowing fast or if the subterranean system contains slippery
obstacles, the intervals should be increased to prevent all members from falling if one
man slips.

(5) The team leader should note the azimuth and pace count of each turn he takes in
the tunnel. When the team encounters a manhole to the surface, the point man should
open it and determine the location, which the team leader then records. Recognition
signals with friendly troops must be coordinated to prevent fratricide as the point man
opens the manhole.

(6) Once the patrol has returned and submitted its report, the commander decides how
to use the tunnel. Sealing off manhole covers and emplacing obstacles in the tunnel are
options for the commander. The patrol's report is converted into an overlay for the urban
operations sketch, which is sent to battalion.


The platoon leader receives and analyzes the information gathered by the reconnaissance
and surveillance teams. He then assesses the area of operations according to the mission
and intent of higher headquarters. The assessment includes, but is not limited to, these

Enemy composition and activity.

Areas of vulnerability to friendly forces.

Key terrain.

Approach routes for mounted and dismounted forces.

Entry points or points of penetration.

Support positions for direct and indirect systems.

Civilian disposition.

Density and composition of urban area.

Hazard areas (fuel storage, natural gas lines, chemical production sites).

Communication facilities.

Retransmission sites.

Intent of civilian populace (stay or flee).


The efforts of the reconnaissance platoon can be a critical factor in shaping the urban area
of operations and in maximizing the effectiveness of the battalion. A summary of the
platoon's tasks in the urban environment includes the following:

• Develop and distribute urban operations sketches.

• Reconnoiter recommended entry points and routes.

• Maintain surveillance on key objectives.

• Conduct target acquisition.

• Assist in isolation of the area of operations by conducting screening
operations (or establishing checkpoints) on the perimeter.

• Conduct battle handover with the lead elements of the battalion and pass them
into the urban AO.


FM 3-21 .94


One of the common tasks associated with reconnaissance missions is location and
reconnaissance of obstacles and restrictions that may affect the trafficability of a
particular route or axis.


Obstacles can be either existing or reinforcing. These obstacles include—

Log obstacles such as abatis, log cribs, stumps, and posts.
Destroyed or damaged buildings.
Antitank ditches.
Wire entanglements.
Persistent agent contamination.

4-43. TASKS

The reconnaissance platoon's ability to deal with an obstacle or restriction is extensive in
certain aspects and somewhat limited in others. The reconnaissance platoon has the
capability to reduce or breach small obstacles; however, this is generally limited to point
obstacles that are not integrated into the enemy defense and are not covered by enemy
fire and observation. Such obstacles are usually found along routes and not at enemy
strongpoints. When the reconnaissance platoon encounters obstacles that support an
enemy defense, it has the capability to assist the infantry with breaching.

a. Deliberate Obstacles. Most importantly, the platoon reconnoiters tactical
obstacles, including supporting enemy positions, and determines possible breach sites.

b. Bypasses. Another important reconnaissance task is to locate bypasses around
obstacles and restrictions.

c. Engineers. The battalion may task-organize engineer reconnaissance teams to the
reconnaissance platoon to aid in obstacle reconnaissance. An engineer squad is often
attached to the reconnaissance platoon to aid in reconnoitering obstacles and restrictions.
This squad provides expertise in collecting obstacle intelligence (OBSTEMTEL) and has
limited breaching capability.


How the reconnaissance platoon approaches obstacle reconnaissance depends on
METT-TC factors. In general, however, the following five steps ensure an organized and
efficient operation under most METT-TC conditions.

a. Detection. During reconnaissance operations, the reconnaissance platoon must
locate and evaluate manmade and natural obstacles and restrictions to support the
movement of its parent unit. Detection of obstacles and restrictions begins in the planning
phase of an operation when the S2 conducts IPB. The reconnaissance platoon combines
the S2's work with the reconnaissance conducted during the troop-leading process
(normally a map reconnaissance only) to identify all possible obstacles and restrictions
within AOs. The platoon leader then plans the reconnaissance based on the orders he
receives, the S2's IPB, and the platoon leader's own map reconnaissance.


FM 3-21.94

(1) The reconnaissance platoon uses visual and physical means to detect mines and
obstacles while conducting its mission. It visually inspects terrain for signs of mine
emplacement and other obstacles. It also must be alert to dangerous battlefield debris
such as bomblets from cluster bomb units (CBUs) or dual-purpose improved
conventional munitions (DPICMs).

(2) Mines and other types of obstacles can be difficult for mounted elements to
detect; therefore, the platoon must also conduct obstacle detection while dismounted. It
may need to dismount the vehicles several hundred meters short of a suspected obstacle
and approach the obstacle on foot to conduct reconnaissance. The platoon looks for
disturbed earth, unusual or out-of-place features, surface-laid mines, tilt rods, and
tripwires. It can incorporate vehicle-mounted thermal sights into the search to help detect
surface-laid mines.

(3) Physical detection methods include detonating, probing, and using a mine
detector. Detection occurs when a vehicle, soldier, or countermine system physically
encounters a mine. This method does not indicate the boundaries of the obstacle. The
reconnaissance platoon must probe or conduct additional visual inspection to define the
extent of the minefield.

b. Area Security and Reconnaissance. Enemy forces often cover their obstacles
with observation and fire. Whenever platoon members encounter an obstacle, they must
proceed with their reconnaissance assuming the enemy can observe and engage them.
The reconnaissance element that detects the obstacle establishes overwatch before it
proceeds with the reconnaissance. The members in overwatch look out for signs of
enemy forces in and around the obstacle or in positions that allow observation of the
obstacle. They visually search the dominant terrain on the far side of the obstacle for
evidence of enemy positions or ambushes. Once they confirm the enemy situation from
the near side, the element not in overwatch moves (mounted or dismounted) to find
bypasses around the obstacle. If it finds a bypass, it moves around the obstacle and
establish OPs on the far side to provide 360-degree security of the obstacle. If it is unable
to find a bypass, it must conduct its reconnaissance from the near side under the security
of the overwatch elements.

c. Obstacle Reconnaissance. After establishing security, the reconnaissance
platoon then moves dismounted to the obstacle. The soldiers take care when
reconnoitering it. Trip wires or other signs may indicate enemy usage of booby traps or
command-detonated mines to prevent friendly forces from determining pertinent
information about the obstacle (OBSTINTEL). The platoon collects all potentially
important information, especially information that may help in planning a breach and
verifying the enemy template. The reconnaissance element reconnoitering the obstacle
prepares an obstacle report with this information and forwards the report through the
platoon leader or PSG to the commander. Examples of OBSTINTEL include—

• Obstacle location.

• Obstacle orientation.

• Soil conditions.

• Presence of wire, gaps, and bypasses.

• Composition of complex obstacles.

• Minefield composition, including types of mines.

• Breaching requirements.


FM 3-21 .94

• Gaps between successive obstacle belts.

• Location of enemy direct fire weapons.

Before recommending to the battalion commander a possible course of action, the
reconnaissance platoon leader analyzes the situation and the factors of METT-TC and
considers the following options.

(1) Bypass. A bypass is the preferred technique the reconnaissance platoon uses when
it encounters an obstacle. A good bypass must allow the entire force to avoid the primary
obstacle without risking further exposure to enemy ambush and without diverting the
force from its objective. Bypassing conserves reduction assets and maintains the
momentum of the moving unit. If the platoon leader decides to bypass and his
commander approves, the unit must mark the bypass and report it to the commander. It
may be required to provide guides for the main body if the bypass is difficult to locate or
visibility conditions are poor. If the obstacle is part of a prepared defensive position and
the only available bypass canalizes friendly forces into an enemy engagement area or
ambush, the platoon must find an alternate bypass.

(2) Support a Breaching Operation. When the reconnaissance platoon locates a large
obstacle that cannot be easily bypassed, its primary option is to support a breaching
operation. The unit performs additional reconnaissance and security tasks as necessary.
These may include determining the amount of time and resources required to reduce the
obstacle and locating the best available reduction site.

NOTE: If he expects to encounter large obstacles during an operation, the commander
may direct engineer reconnaissance teams to move with the unit to determine
much of the information needed for breaching.

(a) The reconnaissance platoon's effort focuses on the following features:

• Fighting positions for support force weapons on the near side of the obstacle.

• Trafficable routes to the reduction site and routes from the far side leading to
the objective.

• Dispersed covered and concealed areas near the reduction site.

• Work areas on the near side for reduction assets of the breach force.

• Fighting positions on the far side once a foothold is established.

• Positions on both sides of the obstacle that could facilitate enemy observation
of the reduction site.

• Trafficability and soil conditions near the reduction site. (This is especially
important for minefield reduction because mine-clearing blades do not work
properly in all soil conditions.)

• Width, depth, bottom condition, bank height, and slope and soil stability of
wet and dry gaps.

• Water velocity of wet gaps.

• Wind direction for obscuration of the obstacle.

(b) Working closely with engineers makes gathering OBSTINTEL much easier. If he
expects to encounter large obstacles during a mission, the reconnaissance platoon leader
should request an attached engineer reconnaissance team or, as a minimum, an engineer
NCO to serve as a technical advisor.


FM 3-21.94

(c) After the reconnaissance platoon reports the necessary information to the
commander, it maintains security of the obstacle and serves as a guide, if necessary, for
the breach force. The information it provides is used by the commander and his engineers
to prepare the suppression, obscuration, security, reduction, and assault (SOSRA) plans
for the breach. The reconnaissance element maintains security during the breaching
operation and calls for and adjusts indirect fire, as necessary, in support of the breaching
operation. It must be in position to move rapidly through the obstacle once a lane is
created so it can continue the mission.

(3) Continue the Mission. When the reconnaissance platoon encounters a restriction,
such as a bridge or defile, it may find that the restriction is not an obstacle to movement
and is not covered by enemy fire or observation. The reconnaissance platoon may also
discover dummy minefields or obstacles that are incomplete and easily passed through.
Under these conditions, the COA may be to report this information and then continue the
reconnaissance mission.


FM 3-21.94



The reconnaissance platoon conducts security operations to protect
the main body from observation and surprise attack. These operations
provide the main body commander with early warning, allowing him to
gain positional dominance and concentrate his combat power at the right
place and time to defeat the enemy. There are four types of security
missions: screen, guard, cover, and area security. The reconnaissance
platoon screens and conducts reconnaissance and surveillance as part of
the battalion's counterreconnaissance effort. This chapter discusses the
purpose, fundamentals, missions, and TTP of security operations.


This section discusses the purpose, fundamentals, and planning considerations of security


All security missions serve the same general purpose: they prevent the main body from
being observed or attacked unexpectedly by the enemy. This provides the main body with
time and space to react and to achieve positional advantage to defeat the enemy. These
operations are conducted forward, to the flanks, or to the rear of the main body and may
be at extended distances (limited only by communications capabilities and the range of
indirect fire support). The reconnaissance platoon can conduct screening and area
security operations independently or as part of a larger force.

a. Screen. A screening force provides early warning to the main body and impedes
and harasses the enemy with direct and indirect fires. Screening missions, which are
defensive in nature, provide the protected force with the lowest level of protection of any
security mission. Screening missions are conducted to the front, flanks, and rear of a
stationary force and to the flanks and rear of a moving force. The reconnaissance platoon
generally accomplishes a screening mission by establishing a series of OPs and
conducting patrols to ensure adequate reconnaissance and surveillance of the assigned
sector. Within its capabilities and based on the commander's guidance, the platoon may
suppress enemy reconnaissance units with indirect fires in coordination with other
combat elements.

b. Guard. A force conducting a guard mission deploys over a narrower front than a
screening force. It accomplishes all the tasks of a screening force, with the additional task
of preventing enemy ground observation of and direct fire against the main body. A
guard force reconnoiters, attacks, defends, and delays as necessary to accomplish its
mission. It normally operates within the range of the supporting artillery. Guard
operations are not conducted below battalion level. The reconnaissance platoon conducts
a screen or conducts reconnaissance for the guard force.

c. Cover. A covering force accomplishes all the tasks of screening and guard forces.
It also operates apart from the main body to develop the situation early. It deceives,
disorganizes, and destroys enemy forces. Unlike screening or guard forces, a covering
force is tactically self-contained. It has enough CS and CSS forces to operate


FM 3-21 .94

independently of the main body. The reconnaissance platoon conducts reconnaissance
and screens in support of a covering force.

d. Area Security. Area security missions provide reconnaissance and security in
support of designated forces, facilities (including airfields), unit convoys, main supply
routes, lines of communications, high value assets, equipment, and critical points. The
reconnaissance platoon normally performs an area security operation when conventional
security or combat operations would not work. The reconnaissance platoon may perform
area security operations as part of a larger force or as an independent platoon mission.


Five fundamentals, described in the following paragraphs, are common to all security
missions. The reconnaissance platoon leader's plans must adhere to these fundamentals
as the platoon executes its mission.

a. Orient on the Main Body. If the main body moves, the platoon must be aware of
the move and must reposition its forces accordingly. The platoon must understand the
main body commander's scheme of maneuver and where he wants the screening force in
relation to his movement. The screen must be positioned where it can provide the needed

b. Perform Continuous Reconnaissance. The reconnaissance platoon conducts
continuous reconnaissance during security operations to gain as much information as
possible about the area of operations and the enemy.

c. Provide Early and Accurate Warnings. Early and accurate warning of enemy
approach is essential to successful operations. The main body commander needs this
information to shift and concentrate his forces to meet and defeat the enemy.
Reconnaissance elements occupy OPs and conduct patrols to provide long-range
observation, to observe enemy movement, and to report the enemy's size, location, and
activity to the main body commander.

d. Provide Reaction Time and Maneuver Space. The reconnaissance platoon
works at sufficient distance from the main body to identify and report on the enemy so
the main body commander can react accordingly. The platoon provides additional
reaction time and space by employing indirect fires to slow the enemy's rate of advance.

e. Maintain Enemy Contact. Reconnaissance elements gain and maintain contact
with the enemy to provide the commander with continuous information. If they lose
contact, they take steps to regain it. They then maintain contact until ordered to break
contact or until they hand over the enemy to another unit.


Critical to the reconnaissance platoon leader's ability to execute his mission is a clear
understanding of the answers to three basic questions: the focus, tempo, and engagement
and or displacement criteria of the security mission. This information comprises the
essential commander's guidance, an extension of the commander's intent that is meant to
fully clarify the intent for the security mission. The reconnaissance platoon leader
receives the essential commander's guidance from higher and then issues it to
subordinates within the platoon.

a. Focus. The focus of the security mission allows the commander to determine
which critical tasks he wants the platoon to accomplish. It helps him narrow the platoon's


FM 3-21.94

scope of operations to get the information that is most important to battalion and brigade
operations. In major theater war (MTW) or small-scale contingency operations, for
example, the platoon's focus might be on the main body or the enemy force. In stability
and support operations, the platoon might focus on determining local populace sentiment
or identifying local entity military leaders. While all critical tasks have some degree of
applicability in any given operation, certain tasks are more important for specific
missions; this must be clearly articulated at each level. Given its focus and a specific
amount of time, the reconnaissance platoon accomplishes its specified tasks as instructed
by the commander, then moves on to any other tasks within its capabilities.

b. Operational Tempo. The tempo of the security mission allows the commander to
establish associated time requirements (such as the available planning time) and
operational methods (such as dismounted or mounted OPs, reconnaissance patrols,
engagement criteria, and triggers for displacement).

c. Engagement and Displacement Criteria. The engagement and displacement
criteria establish what the platoon is expected to defeat with indirect fires and what it is
expected to hand over to the battalion. This is particularly important when the unit
conducts counterreconaissance. At his level, the reconnaissance platoon leader uses his
understanding of the commander's intent, coupled with his understanding of the enemy's
most likely COA, to determine what he wants the sections or teams to engage.
Displacement criteria inform the platoon leader of the events that will trigger the collapse
of the mission. He uses these criteria in planning how to occupy the area and in
determining when the platoon will execute displacement security drills.


The infantry battalion uses a screening force in both the offense and defense. Screening
forces operate to the front, flanks, and rear of the battalion. The exact size of the
screening force depends on the width of its sector in the defense or its zone of attack in
the offense. The nature of the terrain and specific tasks to be accomplished also affect the
composition of the force. Early warning is always a screening force task. The
reconnaissance platoon and designated forces screen as part of the battalion's overall
security plan.


Reconnaissance platoons conduct screen missions for the battalion to provide early
warning of enemy approach and to provide real-time information, reaction time, and
maneuver space for the main body. The battalion commander calls on his reconnaissance
platoons to screen for him when he needs advance warning of when and where the enemy
is attacking. Operating over an extended area, the platoon fights within its capabilities
only to protect itself or to deny enemy elements close-in observation of the main body.

a. Critical Tasks. During a screening mission, the reconnaissance platoon must
accomplish the following critical tasks:

Maintain continuous surveillance of all assigned NAIs or high-speed AAs into

the sector.

Provide early warning of enemy approach.


FM 3-21 .94

• Within capability and based on commander's guidance, identify enemy
reconnaissance units and, in coordination with other combat elements, destroy

• Gain and maintain contact with the enemy main body and report its activity.

• Impede and harass the enemy main body by controlled use of indirect fires.

b. Surveillance. The reconnaissance platoon maintains surveillance from a series of
OPs, either in linear positions or in depth. OPs are positioned where they can best
observe designated NAIs and AAs. The screen, normally identified by a phase line or
checkpoint on a map, designates the most forward location of the OPs. Commanders
must carefully weigh time and distance factors when choosing where to place this line. In
executing a screen mission, reconnaissance elements conduct active patrolling to extend
their observation range or to cover dead space and the area between OPs. Except for self-
defense actions, reconnaissance elements do not fight with their direct fire weapons. (See
Section IV for a discussion of observation posts.)


When planning a screen mission, the reconnaissance platoon leader uses the critical task
requirements covered in the following discussion as a guide to prioritize and sequence the
mission. He must address each requirement.

a. Conduct Surveillance of Assigned Areas. The first task that must be
accomplished is to provide surveillance of the assigned area of operations.

b. Surveillance Requirements. Generally, reconnaissance elements are assigned to
screen along a lateral line (the screen line). This can be misleading, however. The
reconnaissance screen is actually set to observe specific AAs or, more specifically, NAIs.
The screen line merely indicates the limit of the forward positioning of the
reconnaissance elements. Along with the screen line graphic, the reconnaissance platoon
leader must have an event template or matrix; he may also have a decision support

(1) Either the reconnaissance and surveillance plan the platoon leader receives or the
OPORD from battalion should identify the areas the platoon is tasked to observe. If the
platoon does not receive an IPB product, the battalion OPORD must specifically state
where to focus and what indicator the platoon is looking for during the screening
operation. If it assigns multiple requirements to the platoon, the battalion must prioritize

(2) The platoon leader's understanding of the commander's intent and guidance is the
most critical aspect of planning the screen mission. The focus of what to look for is more
important than the specifics of where to orient the focus. There are three choices for this
focus: the enemy main body, the enemy reconnaissance effort, or both. The intent should
specify which one the reconnaissance elements will focus on or, if both are required (as is
often the case), which has priority.

(3) The commander's intent and guidance then determines where the platoon will
orient and how it will allocate resources. If the commander's priority is locating the main
body, the platoon may focus most of its assets on the main avenues of approach and
accept risk on the enemy reconnaissance route. If the commander's priority is
counterreconnaissance, the platoon focuses on the enemy reconnaissance route and
accepts some risk on the main avenue. If the commander wants both, with equal priority,


FM 3-21.94

the platoon must plan to transition from the enemy reconnaissance route to the main
avenue at a designated point in the battle. The commander usually orders this transition
based on the enemy situation.

NOTE: An enemy reconnaissance route may mirror or parallel the intended route of
an enemy maneuver force, or it may follow a route that facilitates observation
of key terrain or friendly forces but is unrelated to the enemy scheme of

c. Surveillance Assets. Once the reconnaissance platoon leader has a thorough
understanding of what his surveillance requirements are, he must next determine what
assets he has available to execute these requirements. Availability of assets depends on
how long the screen must remain in place and how the platoon is task-organized. Among
the assets that can enhance the platoon's surveillance capability are GSR teams, infantry
teams, engineer reconnaissance teams, artillery forward observers, and TUAV assets. If
the screen will be of short duration (less than 12 hours), individual reconnaissance teams
can emplace and man separate OPs. If the duration of the screen is unknown or longer
than 12 hours, the platoon leader must task-organize to facilitate continuous operations.


To ensure that the critical task of surveillance of assigned reconnaissance objectives is
accomplished, the platoon leader and his higher headquarters apply a combination of
techniques to make the most efficient use of their assets.

a. Task Organization. The platoon leader task-organizes the platoon and any other
assigned assets to achieve the most effective surveillance of an NAI or avenue. He may
also employ assets not under his direct control but under control of the battalion or
brigade. As noted, these assets could be engineer teams, infantry teams, GSR, artillery
observers, and TUAV assets.

(1) When the platoon leader does not control the assets directly, he should
synchronize all elements on the screen to ensure he best utilizes his assets to accomplish
the mission. He must also ensure that all members of the platoon understand where these
forces are and what role they are playing.

(2) The platoon leader may use the surveillance assets in a number of ways. These
may include adjusting the number of reconnaissance sections or teams into a task-
organized surveillance team; mixing reconnaissance elements and other assets such as
engineers, artillery, GSR, or infantry into the same team; or maintaining elements in pure
teams under the platoon leader's control. The platoon leader must consider the
characteristics of the NAI or avenue of approach when task organizing for surveillance.
These considerations determine whether the platoon will need to call for fire or conduct
dismounted patrols; they also affect the field of view and applicability of GSR and
TUAVs. Figure 5-1, page 5-6, illustrates how the reconnaissance platoon might be task-
organized for surveillance operations.


FM 3-21 .94




Recon Team





Figure 5-1. Sample reconnaissance platoon task organization.

b. Redundancy. The platoon leader may task more than one element to observe a
particular assigned NAI or avenue. He does this based on the nature of the NAI or avenue
in terms of size, terrain, or importance. For example, a very large avenue of approach
may require multiple observation assets to ensure all aspects of the avenue of approach
are covered. Terrain that is very broken or mixed with areas of thick vegetation may
require more than one asset. Finally, if a particular NAI is assigned significant priority by
the commander, the reconnaissance platoon leader may assign multiple elements to cover
it. Redundancy not only ensures that an NAI or avenue is adequately observed but also
enables the unit to accomplish the mission even if some assets are compromised by
enemy forces. Figure 5-2 illustrates redundancy of observation assets.

Figure 5-2. Redundant coverage of an avenue of approach.

c. Cueing. Cueing is a technique the reconnaissance platoon leader can use to cover
an NAI or avenue when assets are limited and he lacks the capability for redundancy. He
plans contingency tasks that will increase surveillance on a particular NAI; his
surveillance teams execute the tasks when "cued" by activity at that NAI. The NAI or
avenue is covered initially either by a single surveillance team or by a remote or
electronic signaling device such as a trip flare (Figure 5-3) or the platoon early warning


FM 3-21.94

system (PEWS). When activity is detected, other teams move into preselected positions
to add their capabilities to the surveillance of the NAI or avenue.

A. Reconnaissance oriented on primary AA.

B. Trip flare ignites on dismounted AA.

C. Patrol cued to investigate AA by flare.

Figure 5-3. Use of trip flare to cue a patrol.

d. Early Warning. The reconnaissance platoon provides early warning of an enemy
approach. Effective early warning requires detailed communications planning. The
platoon leader looks at communications distances and significant terrain features to
identify potential communications problems. If he anticipates problems, he can request
support from higher in the form of battalion retransmission (retrans), or he can plan for
radio relays and directional antennas (Figure 5-4).

All transmitting
antennas masked
by terrain.

Wire from OP to

Directional antenna
to platoon leader.

Directional antenna
to TOC.



Figure 5-4. Platoon communications setup.


FM 3-21 .94

e. Counterreconnaissance. After planning surveillance and ensuring he can provide
early warning, the platoon leader evaluates the enemy's reconnaissance effort and the
platoon's assigned counterreconnaissance role. Counterreconnaissance operations consist
of two elements: finders and killers. Normally, the platoon's counterreconnaissance role
includes finding enemy reconnaissance assets rather than killing them.

(1) The commander's guidance specifically defines the role of the reconnaissance
platoon in counterreconnaissance operations. The reconnaissance platoon leader seeks to
thoroughly understand the commander's intent. He considers several factors in acquiring
enemy reconnaissance elements:

• Enemy reconnaissance routes.

• Expected time for encountering enemy reconnaissance forces.

• Expected conditions for encountering enemy reconnaissance forces.

• Size of the enemy reconnaissance forces.

• Organization of the enemy reconnaissance forces.

• Equipment of the enemy reconnaissance forces.

• Identity of friendly killing forces.

• Location of friendly killing forces.

(2) Enemy reconnaissance forces seldom use primary AAs to execute their mission.
To acquire their assigned reconnaissance objectives, reconnaissance elements must orient
on trails, rough terrain, and dead spaces that allow mounted movement, but only for small
teams of vehicles. Enemy reconnaissance elements typically move during darkness and
periods of limited visibility. Knowing the composition of enemy reconnaissance elements
helps the reconnaissance platoon more accurately determine the enemy's likely routes
and how best to acquire them.

(3) Other battalion or brigade elements receive the specific mission of killing enemy
reconnaissance. Once the reconnaissance platoon locates enemy reconnaissance elements,
it must use its thorough knowledge of the terrain and of the location and capabilities of
the friendly killing force to coordinate battle handover of the enemy forces.

(4) The counterreconnaissance task is extremely resource-intensive. It is generally
most effective when conducted by an element larger than the reconnaissance platoon. The
reconnaissance platoon does not have sufficient assets to both acquire and defeat the
enemy unless augmented by battalion. In addition, it may not be able to cover all enemy
reconnaissance routes and still maintain surveillance on the enemy's main avenues of
approach. The commander's intent is critical to resolving this dilemma.

(5) When the reconnaissance platoon must acquire both enemy reconnaissance
elements and the main body, the priority in the early stages of the mission will be on the
reconnaissance forces, focusing on the reconnaissance routes. The platoon will then track
the echeloned arrival of enemy elements on the battlefield and shift priority to the main
avenues of approach at the appropriate time. This technique permits the platoon to time-
phase its priorities based on battlefield conditions. The platoon leader, however, must
recognize when to change priority to the main avenue and then execute the change
successfully (Figures 5-5 and 5-6).


FM 3-21.94

A. OP oriented on primary AA.

B. All other OPs oriented on Recon
Routes as the acquiring elements
in counterreconnaissance.

Figure 5-5. Change of screen priority (initial priority to

On order or upon contact with enemy
main body, all OP's previously oriented
on Recon Routes move to designated
positions oriented on primary AA.

Figure 5-6. Change of screen priority (initial priority to main

avenue of approach).

f. Maintaining Contact. After locating the enemy's main body, the reconnaissance
platoon maintains contact until authorized to hand over contact to another friendly
element. Such a handover remains one of the most difficult tasks for the individual


FM 3-21 .94

reconnaissance vehicle section or dismounted section to accomplish and is best
accomplished through a platoon effort.

(1) The preferred method to maintain contact with a moving enemy main body is to
position echeloned OPs in depth along the avenue of approach (Figure 5-7). This allows
the OP to hand off contact to another OP without having to physically displace. This
technique works only if the reconnaissance platoon has enough assets to pre-position the
OPs in depth.

OP's arryed in depth
provide continuous
coverage along the entire
length of the AA without
having to displace any of
the positions.

Figure 5-7. Positioning OPs in depth.

(2) Another technique to maintain contact is to displace in front of a moving enemy.
This technique is very difficult because the reconnaissance elements must move to the
rear faster than the enemy moves forward. This often exposes the reconnaissance forces
to enemy fire. Additionally, if reconnaissance elements attempt to use only covered and
concealed routes, they risk moving too slowly, being overrun or outrun by the enemy,
and losing contact. Figure 5-8 illustrates how reconnaissance elements can conduct
displacement while maintaining contact.


FM 3-21.94

A. Upon contact with enemy, one
team mounts.

B. One team maintains contact from
the initial OP.

C. The second team displaces.

A. The second team occupies the
subsequent position and makes
visual contact.

B. The first team displaces.


Figure 5-8. Displacement while in contact.

(3) A third technique combines the two previous techniques. Leaving the original
dismounted OP in position (with a vehicle in support, if possible), the reconnaissance
forces detach a vehicle or vehicle section. They reposition it in depth as either a mounted
or dismounted OP. They can establish or reorient this OP to maintain contact until they
can hand off the enemy force to a maneuver element. This technique reduces both the
time associated with moving OPs and the likelihood of compromising any reconnaissance
element (Figure 5-9, page 5-12).


FM 3-21 .94

A. Three OPs are set to monitor
three separate AAs.

B. Subsequent OPs are planned
in depth.

C. Contact is made on AA2.

D. Contact is maintained by OP 2.

E. On order, OP 1 moves to OP 4
and observes the AA.

F. On order, OP 3 moves to OP 5
and makes contact.

Figure 5-9. Repositioning OPs in depth.

g. Harassing and Impeding. The reconnaissance platoon should try to harass and
impede the enemy using indirect fire. Engaging a moving armored element with indirect
fire is difficult. The reconnaissance platoon leader plans carefully, focusing on expected
avenues of approach, choke points, the enemy rate of march, and artillery time of flight.
He can then determine trigger lines (or points) for accurate enemy engagement.

h. Accurate Artillery Fire. Accurate artillery fire immediately affects the enemy
main body. Artillery fire disrupts formations; individual enemy vehicles change speed,


FM 3-21.94

button up, or are destroyed or disabled. Command and control deteriorates as the smoke
and dust of battle restrict vision and as antennas stop working. This loss of vision and
command and control restricts the enemy's ability to spot displacing friendly forces.
Also, if he tries to find the element directing the fire, the enemy may compromise his
momentum and combat power.


Counterreconnaissance is a directed effort to prevent visual observation or infiltration of
friendly forces by enemy reconnaissance elements. It is a task of all reconnaissance
platoon security missions. Countering the enemy's mounted and dismounted
reconnaissance elements is the first and possibly most important step in ensuring the
main body can successfully execute its mission. At the same time, it can be extremely
difficult to identify enemy reconnaissance forces, especially when they are dismounted.
The reconnaissance platoon may lack this capability. As a result, this task is most
successfully executed when it is approached as a combined arms effort at battalion level.

a. Planning Considerations. The battalion concept of executing
counterreconnaissance must address how the unit will accomplish the two aspects of
counterreconnaissance: acquiring the enemy and then killing it. The battalion S2 provides
key input in this determination. He identifies where enemy reconnaissance routes into the
unit sector are located, what type of enemy reconnaissance elements might be used in the
sector, and when they are most likely to move into the sector.

(1) The battalion commander should discuss conduct of counterreconnaissance in the
OPORD or FRAGO, indicating in tactical terms how elements will organize and conduct
the operations throughout the depth of the area of operations. This information should
include planning considerations for the operation to include—

• Direct fire planning and coordination.

• Observation planning and coordination.

• Command and control.

• Battle handover.

(2) In all counterreconnaissance operations, the goal is to destroy the enemy
reconnaissance forces after they have penetrated the initial screen line. The
reconnaissance platoon's role in these operations is usually to conduct a screen mission to
acquire and identify enemy reconnaissance forces. This requires that the acquiring
elements of the platoon be well hidden to prevent the enemy from detecting the screen
line. In most cases, the reconnaissance platoon does not have the capability to acquire,
identify, and defeat the enemy reconnaissance by itself. Other combat forces from other
battalion or brigade elements must fight and destroy the enemy reconnaissance elements.

b. Organization. Several organizational options, which are described in the
following paragraphs, are available to the commander to counter the enemy
reconnaissance effort.

(1) Reconnaissance Platoon. This technique puts the entire burden for
counterreconnaissance on the reconnaissance platoon and attached combat and combat
support assets. It requires maximum use of the CS assets to acquire the enemy, freeing
the reconnaissance platoon to perform the killing function of counterreconnaissance. The
reconnaissance platoon leader places acquiring assets along the screen line and positions
his designated killing teams in depth. The killing assets of the platoon occupy positions


FM 3-21 .94

on likely enemy reconnaissance routes; however, they must be flexible to respond to
enemy elements moving on other routes. This technique requires that the platoon's
sections or teams reconnoiter alternate positions and routes that permit quick
repositioning once the acquiring elements make contact. With this organization,
counterreconnaissance tasks must be prioritized in the early stages of the screen mission.

(2) Reconnaissance Platoon and MGS or Infantry Platoon or Section. The team
technique requires the close integration of a reconnaissance platoon and an MGS or
infantry element to execute counterreconnaissance tasks. The reconnaissance platoon is
the acquiring element, and the MGS or infantry element is the killing element. The
reconnaissance platoon leader, as leader of the element that makes first contact,
commands the counterreconnaissance effort; the killing element is placed OPCON to the
reconnaissance platoon. The battalion commander may decide to control and coordinate
this effort or may designate one of the infantry companies to execute the operation.

(3) Killing. The reconnaissance platoon acquires the enemy using surveillance
techniques. The killing elements occupy a battle position (BP) along likely
reconnaissance avenues, but they are prepared to move to alternate positions based on
reports coming from the reconnaissance platoon. This organization is most effective
when the elements establish a habitual relationship. (Refer to Figure 5-10 for an
illustration of this technique.)


FM 3-21.94

Reconnaissance platoon
prepares to acquire with OPs.

Killing element
prepares to kill
in depth

battle position.

Figure 5-10. Reconnaissance and MGS/infantry team
counterreconnaissance array.


Area security operations protect specific critical and vulnerable assets or terrain from
enemy observation and direct fire. They can consist of escorting friendly convoys;
protecting critical points such as bridges, command and control installations, or other key
and vulnerable sites; or participating in protection of large areas such as airfields. The
platoon normally performs an area security operation when conventional security or
combat operations would not work. The reconnaissance platoon may perform area
security operations as part of a larger force or as an independent platoon mission.


Reconnaissance platoons normally conduct area security missions to protect high-value
targets. Whether and how much protection the target requires depends on METT-TC. The
reconnaissance platoon leader must integrate his elements into the overall security plan
for the area he must protect. Area security operations rely on various techniques. They
may include reconnaissance, security, defensive tasks, and offensive tasks.


FM 3-21 .94

a. When deploying for area security, the platoon generally moves into a coil
formation around the point, area, or asset it must secure. It orients vehicle positions on
likely enemy avenues of approach. If the platoon has engineer support, the engineers dig
in the vehicle positions; if not, the vehicles occupy hasty fighting positions.

b. To further improve the position, the reconnaissance platoon employs hasty
protective minefields, wire, and other obstacles, as appropriate and available. It emplaces
wire obstacles outside grenade range of friendly positions. Once it sets up vehicle
positions and obstacles, the platoon develops a fire plan. This plan includes integrated
indirect fires. It submits the plan to higher headquarters.

c. In addition to setting up the reconnaissance platoon position around the asset to be
secured, the platoon also employs patrols and OPs to enhance security (Figure 5-11).
Reconnaissance patrols and combat patrols learn the AO, gain information on enemy
forces, and destroy small dismounted enemy reconnaissance elements. The platoon
deploys OPs to observe likely avenues of approach, to provide early warning of enemy
activity, and to aid in control of indirect fires.







Figure 5-11. Platoon area security dispositions.


A company or larger organization usually performs convoy or route security missions.
Convoy security provides protection for a specific convoy. Route security aims at
securing a specific route for a designated period of time, during which multiple convoys
may use the route. These missions include numerous tasks (such as escort,
reconnaissance, and combat reaction forces) that become missions for subordinate units.
The size of the unit performing the convoy or route security operation depends on a


FM 3-21.94

number of factors, including the size of the convoy, the terrain, and the length of the

a. Route Reconnaissance. When the reconnaissance platoon conducts a route
reconnaissance as part of a route security operation, it is done in the same manner as
discussed in Chapter 4 of this manual. In this mission, the reconnaissance platoon leader
focuses on the route's trafficability and on enemy forces that might influence the route.
The reconnaissance platoon must plan to call for engineer assets to aid in breaching
point-type obstacles. Command-detonated devices pose a major threat during route

b. Echeloning OPs. Echeloning OPs is a technique used during route security to
screen the route after it has been reconnoitered. Its use is similar to the technique for
reconnaissance operations covering lateral and boundary routes.

(1) All elements of the platoon OPs are part of route security to help secure the route
or convoy. The platoon employs OPs on critical portions of the route or on key avenues
of approach to the route. The OPs provide early warning if an enemy element tries to
interdict the route or convoy.

(2) Echeloning OPs differs from a conventional screen in that OPs orient on the route
rather than on the friendly main body (Figure 5-12). OPs have little ability to destroy
small enemy forces that try to influence the route. They acquire the enemy and then direct
either reaction forces or indirect fire to destroy the enemy.

Lead Team
Route reconnaissance

Team A .

outposts IF^IX


Team B

outposts dominating


Figure 5-12. Reconnaissance platoon echeloning OPs.

c. Convoy Escort. The reconnaissance platoon may perform a convoy escort
mission either independently or as part of a larger unit's convoy security mission. The
convoy escort mission requires that the platoon provide the convoy with limited close-in
protection from direct small arms fire. Platoon vehicles include military CSS and C2
vehicles. Leaders must carefully evaluate the enemy before assigning a convoy escort


FM 3-21 .94

mission to reconnaissance platoons. The following considerations apply during convoy
escort operations.

(1) Command and Control. Command and control is especially critical during
convoy escort because of the task organization inherent to the mission. If the battalion
commander expects the reconnaissance platoon to engage in combat operations, he places
the reconnaissance platoon under the convoy commander's control during the escort
mission. The relationship between the convoy commander and the reconnaissance
platoon leader must provide for unity of command and effort.

(a) The platoon leader must issue a complete OPORD to all vehicle commanders in
the convoy before the mission. This is vital; the commander may have task-organized the
convoy from a variety of units, so many of the vehicles may lack tactical radios.

(b) The OPORD should follow the standard five-paragraph OPORD format, with
special emphasis on the following subjects:

• Order of march.

• Actions on contact.

• Chain of command.

• Communications and signals.

• Actions on vehicle breakdown.

• Actions at a halt.

• Route of march (this should include a sketch for each vehicle commander).

(2) Tactical Disposition. The platoon must post security during convoy escort
missions in all directions and throughout the length of the convoy. Thus, reconnaissance
platoon elements and any combat or CS attachments must disperse throughout the convoy
formation. Engineer assets should locate toward the front to respond to obstacles. The fire
support team (FIST) or combat observation lasing team (COLT) team should locate near
the platoon leader. The platoon normally uses the column formation because of its
inherent speed and ease of movement (Figure 5-13).

Colt Element




Team B

Team C

Team A

Figure 5-13. Reconnaissance platoon escorting a convoy.

(3) Actions at an Ambush. Ambush is one of the most effective ways to interdict a
convoy. Therefore, the convoy escort must prepare to counter such a threat. The platoon
must react to an ambush quickly, overwhelmingly, and decisively. All escort and convoy
elements must execute the ambush as a drill, taking care to avoid fratricide. The convoy
escort drill should include the following actions.

(a) As soon as the platoon detects an enemy force, the escort vehicles act. They first
seek covered positions between the convoy and the enemy. As quickly as possible, they
suppress the enemy with the highest possible volume of fire. They send contact reports to
higher headquarters (Figure 5-14).


FM 3-21.94

(b) Elements of the escort force may remain with the convoy main body. They
usually do so when the convoy consists mostly of nonmilitary elements such as private
organizations or local civilian agencies. Not only do these elements normally have no
weapons, but also they usually lack communications capabilities. This makes linking up
with the main body difficult.

(c) The convoy commander retains control of the convoy vehicles and maintains
radio contact with the security force. At the same time, he moves the convoy along the
route as fast as possible.

(d) The convoy abandons and pushes off the route any damaged or disabled vehicles
(Figure 5-15, page 5-20).

(e) The escort leader (the reconnaissance platoon leader) submits spot reports. He can
request needed reinforcements, and he can also call for and direct indirect fires and air
support, if available.

A. Vehicles action toward ambush
and suppress enemy.

B. Convoy continues to move
at increased speed.

/ \ ' Ambush position

Figure 5-14. Convoy escort actioning toward ambush.


FM 3-21 .94

Convoy — ^ '


A. Platoon clears damaged vehicle.

B. Convoy moves out of kill zone.

C. Platoon continues suppressive fire.

D. Artillery on ambush site suppresses
and obscures enemy.


Figure 5-15. Convoy moving out of kill zone.

(4) Actions after Clearing the Kill Zone. Once the convoy clears the kill zone, the
escort chooses one of the following COAs based on the composition of the escort and the
strength of the enemy force:

• Continue to suppress the enemy while combat reaction forces move to support
(Figure 5-16).

• Break contact and move out of the kill zone (Figure 5-17). Generally,
reconnaissance platoons should move out of the kill zone as soon as the
convoy clears it. However, the platoon should break contact only with the
approval of its higher commander.

Reconnaissance platoon
base of fire directs artillery

Combat reaction force attacks

Figure 5-16. Escort suppressing ambush for reaction force.


FM 3-21.94


Platoon breaks
contact by team

Vehicle and artillery smoke
obscures movement

WTjK— r^** suppresses
/\\ \ enemy

, A \ Ambush
¥% ' J»4r position

Figure 5-17. Escort breaking contact.

(5) Actions During a Short Halt. The convoy may have to make a short halt for a
number of reasons. During the short halt, the escorting unit remains on full alert,
regardless of what the convoy vehicles do. If the convoy halted for any reason other than
for an obstacle, the escort unit takes the following actions.

(a) The convoy commander signals the short halt and transmits the order via tactical

(b) The convoy assumes a herringbone formation.

(c) Escort vehicles take up protective positions forward, to the rear, and to the flanks
(up to 100 meters beyond the convoy vehicles) and orient their weapon systems outward.
They remain at the highest readiness condition (REDCON), that of REDCON-1.
Meanwhile, they establish dismounted local security (Figure 5-18, page 5-22). The
vehicles being escorted pull into the protected area in the center of the road, between the
escort vehicles.

(d) The convoy receives the order to move out. Convoy vehicles reestablish the
column formation, leaving space for the escort vehicles (Figure 5-19, page 5-22). The
escort vehicles join the column. Local security continues dismounted (Figure 5-20, page

(e) Once all elements have moved into column formation, local security personnel
mount. The convoy continues to move.


FM 3-21 .94

Figure 5-18. Convoy assuming herringbone formation.

Figure 5-19. Convoy moving back into column formation.


FM 3-21.94



' Escorts occupy their ,
i position in column v -.
Route "A " " - - ^

^__>CZHZ>C_>^i^pC_>CZhCDC_l H




Local security stays in place

Figure 5-20. Escort vehicles rejoining column.

(6) Actions at Obstacles. Obstacles pose a major threat to convoys. The enemy can
use obstacles to harass the convoy by delaying it. In some terrain, an obstacle can stop the
convoy altogether. In addition, the enemy can use an obstacle or series of obstacles to
channel or stop the convoy for an ambush.

(a) The route reconnaissance moves ahead of the convoy to identify obstacles. The
reconnaissance element either breaches or locates bypasses around obstacles. Sometimes,
the platoon cannot mount a route reconnaissance ahead of the convoy. At other times, the
reconnaissance element may fail to detect the enemy or its obstacles. In these cases, the
convoy must try to reduce or bypass the obstacle itself.

(b) When a convoy must deal with an obstacle itself, it faces a two-sided problem.
First, the convoy's vulnerability increases when it stops. Second, the escort force is
unable to provide security while working to overcome or bypass the obstacle. Security
becomes critical, so the convoy and escort must act quickly.

(7) Actions at a Point-Type Obstacle. When the lead security element identifies a
point-type obstacle, the following actions are taken.

(a) The convoy commander directs a short halt. He establishes dismounted local
security and overwatch on the obstacle. Convoy vehicles remain on the road; escort
elements move to the flanks to provide security.

(b) The convoy commander relays a spot report to higher headquarters. He requests
combat reaction, engineer (if he does not already have it), and aerial reconnaissance
support. He also alerts artillery units to prepare to provide fire support. With the help of
these assets, he can get the convoy moving again sooner, which will reduce its
vulnerability. The convoy commander must always assume that the enemy maintains
overwatch and cover on the obstacle.

(c) Escort forces form a reconnaissance team. They begin reconnaissance for a
bypass while at the same time maintaining all-round security for the convoy (Figure 5-21,
page 5-24).


FM 3-21 .94

(d) At the same time, an additional reconnaissance team (consisting of escort
elements, engineers, or both) moves forward to conduct an obstacle reconnaissance.
Because of limited time and assets, the convoy need not establish far-side security before
it reconnoiters the obstacle.





o o o <^

Team moves
to find bypass

Escort elements
combine dismounts
for obstacle

C5 Cj C^ ^


NOTE: Security of convoy is weakened
by reconnaissance

Figure 5-21. Escort teams conducting obstacle reconnaissance and
reconnaissance for a bypass.

(e) Once the reconnaissance element has completed all reconnaissance, the convoy
commander chooses and executes a COA to continue the mission. Possible COAs include
the following:

• Bypass the obstacle.

• Breach the obstacle with the assets on hand.

• Breach the obstacle with reinforcing assets.

(f) The convoy commander executes the best COA and continues the mission.


The reconnaissance platoon can occupy up to three short-duration OPs, one per team, for
up to 12 hours if the teams are at full strength. For extended periods (12 hours or longer),
the reconnaissance platoon occupies long-duration OPs by sections, which limits long-
duration OPs to a maximum of two. In addition, the platoon can array OPs either in linear
positions or in depth. Depth is the preferred method for maintaining contact with a
moving threat. Linear placement is effective when the threat is not moving; it provides
maximum eyes on the threat.


Employment of OPs entails accomplishment of selected critical tasks .

a. Determine the Type of OP. Determine the type of OP (mounted, dismounted, or
a combination) depending on requirements for either maximum stealth or rapid


FM 3-21.94

b. Position the OPs. Position the OPs either in linear positions or in depth to allow
for observation of the assigned sector. Several factors affect proper positioning, including
the following:

• The need for observation from several OPs to reduce the chance of the enemy
entering the sector undetected.

• A requirement for the platoon to observe the entire sector by placing OPs
along the enemy's most likely avenues of approach.

c. Select Positions. Select a position for each OP that affords the best possible force
protection. Selection criteria include the following:

• Covered and concealed routes to and from the OP.

• Unobstructed observation of the assigned area.

• Effective cover and concealment.

• Sites that avoid natural lines of drift and that do not call attention to or skyline

d. Occupy the OP. The platoon should employ the most secure method of moving
into position; dismounted occupation is the preferred method. Occupation steps include
the following:

Establish overwatch.

Reconnoiter the position.

Establish security.

Clear the site and ensure sector visibility.

Establish vehicle hide positions.

Develop sector sketches.

e. Man the OP. The reconnaissance platoon leader must ensure that each OP has the
necessary personnel and equipment to perform the following tasks:

Observe the assigned area.

Provide force protection (including planning and preparation for contact and
actions on contact).
Report information.
Call for and adjust indirect fire,
f Maintain Security. Conduct local reconnaissance patrols to cover dead space,
provide local security, and observe avenues of approach and NAIs from different vantage

g. Employ Active and Passive Protective Measures. Reconnaissance elements are
extremely vulnerable in the OP. Their best self-defense is not to be seen, heard, or
otherwise located by the enemy.

h. Improve the Position. The reconnaissance platoon can enhance OP protection

• Digging in the OP position.

• Camouflaging the position.

• Installing communications equipment.

• Emplacing hasty obstacles.


FM 3-21 .94


The types of OPs are dismounted, mounted, and a combination of mounted and

a. Dismounted OPs. The dismounted OP provides maximum stealth and thus has
the greatest likelihood of remaining undetected by the enemy. The disadvantages of the
dismounted OP are the time it takes if the reconnaissance troops must remount and move
and the lack of optics capability if a ground-mounted thermal device is not available. If
rapid movement or displacement is anticipated, the OP should mount or remain mounted.

b. Mounted OPs. These offer the advantages of rapid movement and vehicle optics
and protection. Because the enemy can more easily detect them, however, they are
potentially less effective than dismounted OPs.

c. Combination OPs. The reconnaissance platoon can employ an OP that combines
the advantages of both the dismounted and mounted types. For example, the vehicle can
monitor a particular NAI while other crewmen dismount to observe an enemy
dismounted avenue of approach. The combination OP can offset the limitations and
vulnerabilities of the others, but some of these weaknesses may still apply, including lack
of mobility and ease of enemy detection.


OPs may be placed on the battlefield either in a linear configuration or in depth.

a. Linear Placement. Linear placement (Figure 5-22) allows the reconnaissance
platoon to observe the assigned sector from several OP sites, reducing the chance of the
enemy entering the sector without being observed. This method works well when the
reconnaissance platoon has been assigned a large sector with few avenues of approach or
is in desert-type terrain.

Figure 5-22. Linear positioning of OPs.

b. In-Depth OP Placement. In-depth OP placement (Figure 5-23) allows the
reconnaissance platoon to observe the entire sector by placing OP sites where the platoon
can observe the most likely avenues of approach in the sector as well as along the sector
flanks. This method works well when the reconnaissance platoon is assigned a sector
with several avenues of approach or is in heavily wooded terrain. In-depth placement
allows for redundancy in observation and better coverage of the sector.


FM 3-21.94

Figure 5-23. In-depth positioning of OPs.


Based on METT-TC factors, the battalion commander's guidance, and staff input, the
reconnaissance platoon leader selects the general location for the platoon's OPs. From his
analysis, he determines how many OPs he must establish and where he must position
them to allow long-range observation along the avenues of approach assigned by his
commander and to provide depth through the sector. Section and team leaders select the
exact position for each OP on the ground. OPs should have the following characteristics.

a. Covered and Concealed Routes to and from the OP. Soldiers must be able to
enter and leave the OP without being seen by the enemy.

b. Unobstructed Observation of the Assigned Area or Sector. Ideally, the fields
of observation of adjacent OPs overlap to ensure full coverage of the sector.

c. Effective Cover and Concealment. Leaders should select positions with cover
and concealment to reduce the vulnerability of their elements on the battlefield. They
may need to pass up a position with favorable observation capability but with no cover
and concealment in favor of a position that affords better survivability.

d. A Location That Will Not Attract Attention. OPs should not be sited in
locations such as a water tower, an isolated grove of trees, or a lone building or tree.
These positions draw enemy attention and may be used as enemy artillery TRPs. The OPs
should also be located away from natural lines of drift along which a moving enemy
force can be expected to travel. Such locations might include a route on the floor of a
valley or a site near a major highway.

e. A Location That Does Not Skyline the Observers. Avoid hilltops. Position OPs
further down the slope of the hill or on the side, provided there are covered and concealed
routes into and out of the position.


FM 3-21 .94


The reconnaissance platoon leader selects a technique to move to the screen line based on
his analysis of METT-TC. Unless the area has already been cleared, the platoon should
conduct a zone reconnaissance to the screen line. This is the most secure method of
moving to the screen line but also the most time-consuming. The following steps provide
an example of how the reconnaissance platoon might occupy an OP.

a. A reconnaissance section stops short of its OP site. The section leader directs the
drivers into positions to overwatch the general OP site and any terrain the enemy could
use to dominate movement into or out of the position (Figure 5-24).

b. The reconnaissance section leader dismounts with four soldiers, two from each
vehicle. Drivers and team leaders remain on their vehicles to overwatch the dismounted
personnel as they move forward to reconnoiter the OP.

c. The section leader moves the dismounted soldiers to the OP site, establishes
security overwatching the far side of the site, and checks the site for mines, booby traps,
and enemy personnel. He verifies that he can observe his sector or area of responsibility
from this site and determines which exact position is best for the OP.

d. The section leader selects hide positions and fighting positions for his two
vehicles. Once the area around the OP is cleared and secure, he signals the vehicles
forward to move into their fighting positions.

e. The driver and a soldier from each vehicle mark each vehicle's position using a
GPS and appropriate marking device.

f The section or team leader and the vehicle commander complete and check the
sector sketch. Each vehicle then moves back out of its fighting position into a hide
position. The section leader checks the sketches to ensure they provide complete
coverage of the sector and provides the platoon leader a digital or hard copy of the
sketches. Sector sketches or range cards allow the OP to use the vehicle's thermal sights
for observation; they are also a valuable reference if the vehicle is ordered to fight.

Figure 5-24. Vehicles overwatching a potential OP site.


A minimum of two soldiers man each OP. They must be equipped to observe the area,
report information, provide their own security, and call for and adjust indirect fire. One
observes the area while the other provides local security, records information, and sends
reports to the section, team, or platoon leader. The two soldiers should switch jobs every


FM 3-21.94

20 to 30 minutes because the observer's effectiveness decreases quickly after that time.
Essential equipment for the OP includes the following:

• Map of the area.

• Compass.

• Communications equipment (wire, radio, or both).

• Observation devices (such as binoculars, observation telescopes, and night-
vision devices including Javelin CLU thermal sights for observation.). See
Appendix F, Javelin Employment.

• SOI extract.

• Report formats.

• Weapons (personal, crew-served M249 SAW or M240B MG (see Appendix
G, M240B Machine Gun and M249 SAW Employment) and or light AT
weapons, or Javelin AT weapons if augmented (see Appendix F, Javelin
Employment) and mines, if necessary.

• Seasonal uniform and load-carrying equipment (LCE).

• Appropriate NBC equipment to achieve the highest mission-oriented
protective posture (MOPP) level prescribed in the OPORD.


Once the section leader has established the OP and assigned the soldiers their sectors of
observation, the section improves the position.

a. Sector Sketch. The section leader prepares a sector sketch (Figure 5-25, page 5-
30). This sketch is similar to a fighting position sketch but with some important
differences. As a minimum, the sketch includes—

• A rough sketch of key and significant terrain, including NAIs and avenues of

Location of the OP.
Location of the hide position.

Locations of vehicle fighting and observation positions.
Alternate positions (hide, fighting, observation).
Routes to and from the OP and fighting positions.
Sectors of observation.
Preplanned artillery targets.
TRPs for direct fire.

Prepared spot reports and calls for fire, based on trigger points and projected
locations where the enemy will first be seen.


FM 3-21 .94



Figure 5-25. Section leader's OP sketch.

b. Improvements. Personnel manning the OP site begin digging in to provide
protection from indirect and direct fires. They also camouflage the position, install wire
communications equipment and directional antennas for FM communications, and
emplace hasty obstacles for local protection. Vehicle commanders and drivers
reconnoiter the routes to their fighting or observation positions and alternate positions,
perform maintenance, and camouflage vehicles and positions.


The soldiers occupying the OP use wire, radio, or land warrior (LW) systems (or a
combination) as their primary means of communications. Wire is the most secure means
of communication, but it may not be the most practical means based upon the current
tactical situation and mission duration.


As noted, soldiers are extremely vulnerable in an OP; their best self-defense is not to be
seen, heard, or otherwise located by the enemy. They employ active and passive
measures to protect themselves from enemy detection and direct and indirect fires.

a. Covered and Concealed Position. The first step is to locate the OP in a covered
and concealed position to reduce the chance of being seen by the enemy. The soldiers add
camouflage to the position to enhance natural concealment. If they have enough time,
they dig in the position and add overhead cover to increase survivability against enemy
fires. The soldiers enforce strict light and noise discipline and reduce activity in and
around the OP to essential movement only. All vehicles remain hidden because the
enemy can easily identify their large signatures. Soldiers in the OP also must maintain
secure communications.

b. Early Warning. To provide early warning of enemy movement around the screen
line or OP position, the soldiers emplace their PEWS in areas that they cannot observe or
in the dead spaces between OPs. Trip flares and M18A1 claymore mines provide
additional early warning and protection from enemy personnel.


FM 3-21.94


Active patrolling around and between OPs also enhances security. Patrols give the
platoon the ability to observe areas that cannot be observed from the OPs and to clear the
area around the OP of enemy elements. A patrol can be executed by a minimum of two
dismounted crewmen from the vehicles in the hide position.

a. Security Patrols. To discover enemy elements that might have observed the
occupation, the platoon executes security patrols as soon as possible after occupying the
position. The patrols reconnoiter favorable observation positions that might be occupied
by the enemy. Route selection is critical when organizing these patrols; the soldiers must
assume that the OP position is under observation.

b. Enemy Compromise. OPs cannot always avoid enemy detection so they must
take actions to limit their vulnerability. Covered positions provide protection from enemy
fires, and vehicle dispersion further reduces the effects of these fires. The vehicles in the
fighting positions extricate the soldiers from the OP if the position is identified and
attacked by the enemy.


Extended OPs are fixed surveillance positions that require the soldiers to remain at the
site for up to 72 hours without relief or rotation of reconnaissance teams. They provide
the maximum degree of stealth available to the soldier from a stationary position. Vehicle
placement is not in direct support of the OP. Infiltration and exfiltration, accomplished
using any method of aerial and dismounted movement, is the primary method of
occupying and departing the OP. Once the OP is occupied, movement around the OP
ceases until mission is complete, evacuation is required, or exfiltration begins. This
paragraph addresses the process of selection, construction, and occupation of extended
OPs used in permissive and nonpermissive operational environments.

a. Site Selection. In choosing where to position extended OPs, the reconnaissance
platoon must ensure that the sites—

• Afford adequate visual and electronic line-of-sight target observation and

security for the observers.

Have as wide a field of view and as little dead space as possible.

Are not near natural lines of drift or in terrain that would naturally draw the

attention of enemy forces, such as on top of a flat rock face on a hill.

Have covered and concealed exit and entry points.

Are far enough downwind from the target and inhabited areas to minimize the

olfactory detection of the position by dogs or people. (Keep in mind that wind

direction often changes at various times of the day.)

In general, are as close to, or distant from, the target as mission and security

considerations dictate.

Afford effective overhead and side cover and concealment.

Can support execution of battle drills if the observers must break enemy


Support reliable communications between the observers and their main body,

security element, and communications element.

Are, above all, in a location that is not obvious to enemy forces.


FM 3-21 .94

b. Multiple Positions. If the reconnaissance platoon cannot find all these features in
a single position (for example, daytime versus nighttime requirements), it may have to
select separate positions suited to the types of surveillance needed. Multiple positions
must be mutually supporting so that if one position is compromised, observers in the
other position can continue the surveillance mission and warn the rest of the platoon.
Further, if the positions are not being used during the day, the platoon should keep them
under observation. If this is not possible, then the platoon should not reuse that position
the following night. This practice prevents the soldiers from walking into an ambush
while trying to reoccupy the position. Another consideration in the use of separate
positions is that observers must avoid establishing patterns and trails while moving to and
from the different positions.


Several construction techniques are common to all observation positions. These
techniques are included in SOPs and practiced during normal training.


The primary task in constructing any position is the removal of excess dirt. Excavated
soil expands in volume. In dry climates, the subsurface soil contains the most water,
which causes the soil to be a different color. Thus, this soil must be camouflaged.
Construct underground positions before the early morning dew develops. Discarding
excess soil before the dew sets in aids in the camouflage process. Consider the effect of
the sun drying out the excess soil. This dried soil may need to be camouflaged. The main
technique for camouflaging soil, using plastic sheeting or a poncho, entails the following

a. Lay out the sheeting alongside the position.

b. Place the topsoil to one side of the sheeting. Remember that the topsoil only
extends a few centimeters below the surface. Save as much of the vegetation as possible.

c. Dig out the remaining soil. Do not mix the topsoil with subsoil from the hole.

d. Fill sandbags with the (loose) soil dug from the hole and use them to reinforce the
sides of the position.

e. Fill surrounding depressions, ruts, or ditches with the remaining excess soil. If
this is not possible, spread the soil lightly on the surface in an area away from the
position. Avoid putting the excess soil in creeks or streams that may wash the dirt down
the waterway and attract unwanted attention.

f After the overhead cover is constructed and waterproofed, replace the topsoil.
Spread vegetation, leaves, deadfall, or other local materials about the area to complete the
camouflage of the position.

g. The final step in the process is to pick up the sheeting used to contain the soil.
Check the vegetation under the sheeting to ensure that it was not matted down under the
weight of the soil. If matting has occurred, take the time to brush it with a branch to
return it to its natural state.

h. As time passes, continually check the vegetation and soil around the position to
ensure that they appear natural. Loose soil often falls through small holes in the ground
and results in strange-looking, funnel-shaped holes. Check vegetation to ensure it blends
with the surrounding area. Remove or replace dead vegetation.


FM 3-21.94


Remember that vegetation is critical to blending the OP with surrounding terrain.
Replanting and watering vegetation during initial position construction can eliminate the
need to continually replace wilted plants.

a. Grasses. When removing topsoil, save the grass. Use an entrenching tool or
shovel to remove the grass in clumps by cutting a circle about 5 to 15 centimeters around
the section to be saved. Pry the roots and soil up from the bottom. When replacing the
grass around the position, pattern the placement after the natural design. Shake the grass
slightly to loosen the roots, then replace it at ground level. If water is available, a small
amount placed on the grass will lessen the shock of replanting and extend the life of the

b. Plants and Bushes. Medium-sized plants or bushes will aid the security of the
position. Not only will the plants add to the camouflage of the position, but they will also
discourage vehicle and foot movement over the top of the position. The main
disadvantage to using plants on top of the position is that the plants may die or fall over
due to the shallow depth of the overhead cover.

c. Deadfall. Deadfall can restrict movement in much the same way as can the plants
and bushes discussed above. If used, it must be reinforced with dirt. The use of deadfall
as part of the overall camouflage effort presents several disadvantages.

(1) In most regions of the world, deadfall is used for home heating, cooking, and
construction. If the position has this fuel near it, the risk of discovery is increased. The
only options available to OP personnel if they are discovered by a non-hostile civilian is
emergency exfiltration and activation of the evasion and escape (E&E) plan. Either
course of action will result in termination of the mission.

(2) Cover from small arms fire is very limited when using deadfall. Most trees
decompose quickly on the ground. Modern small arms fire will easily pass through these
rotten trees.


Depending on the soil condition in the area of operations, the sidewall of the position
may require some type of shoring or support to prevent cave-ins. A variety of material for
support of the walls is available, such as local timber, branches, deadfall, plastic sheeting,
and ponchos. The primary means for supporting the sides, however, is the use of
sandbags. These lightweight bags serve a variety of uses and conform to almost any
shape required. The exact number of bags required depends on the size and overall design
of the position. When cross-bracing sandbagged walls, use freshly cut green timber or a
prefabricated support such as PVC pipe, conduit, or other like items. (Examples of cross-
bracing and revetments can be found in FM 5-34.)


Whenever possible, the unit should assemble prefabricated kits to aid in the construction
of the required positions. These kits need not be taken into the operational area; rather,
they are assembled as a stockpile from which elements can draw mission-specific
equipment during isolation. Items in these kits include the following:


FM 3-21 .94

• Schedule-80 PVC pipe, elbows, straight connectors, three- and four-way
connectors, and PVC cement. This strong, lightweight material can be formed
into a multitude of shapes and designs. It can be used to build the frame of the
overhead cover or to form cross bracing.

• Parachute suspension line. This material serves many uses, such as being
interwoven to produce a frame for overhead cover.

• Sandbags.

• Assorted tapes, cords, and ropes.

• Plastic bags with press-together "zippers" for closing. These items can be used
for general storage.

• Half-meter square pieces of 1 -centimeter plywood. This lightweight material
is excellent for constructing overhead cover, platforms for use in trees, and
insulation when operating on ice and snow. The squares are painted to match
the terrain in which they are used.

• Plastic sheeting. Heavy-gauge plastic sheeting fills many roles. If plastic
sheeting is not available, the heavy-duty plastic bags used to cover pallets
work well.

• Hand tools, such as D-handle shovels, hacksaws, hammers, and small bow

• Plastic or aluminum tent stakes. These items save time during construction of
the position.

• Canvas and camouflage netting.

• Mirrors or periscopes.



During tactical operations, the reconnaissance platoon must be prepared to establish OPs
in various operational environments. This section discusses OPs in urban and
mountainous terrain and during area security missions.


An urban or built-up area forms the economic and cultural focus for the surrounding area.
It is characterized by a concentration of people and manmade structures and facilities.
Because of the generally limited fields of vision, urban operations normally require more
positions than rural operations. (See FM 3-06.11 as well as the discussion of urban
operations in Chapter 6 of this manual.)

a. Position Selection. As with other observation and surveillance positions, METT-
TC factors dictate the selection of urban OPs. Soldiers can construct fixed urban positions
in occupied and abandoned buildings, on water tanks, behind shrubbery, on factory
chimneys, or in the attics of multistory buildings or other tall structures. If the position is
to be set up in an undamaged part of the urban area, they should select buildings of solid
construction with serviceable stairs and basements that can be equipped for the rest and
shelter of personnel.

(1) Soldiers should avoid wooden and significantly deteriorated buildings because of
the risk of injury from fire or structural failure. Fixed positions should not be in buildings


FM 3-21.94

that will attract the enemy's attention; instead, they should be placed in rubble, yards, and

(2) When occupying the position, soldiers must look for booby traps and mines. If
they detect such devices, they must be prepared to take proper precautions, including
disabling the devices, if possible or marking the area if the devices cannot be disabled.

b. Construction. Position construction may consist simply of being able to look out
of a suitable viewing port, or it can be much more elaborate. Considerations and actions
should include the following:

• Emphasize operations security (OPSEC) while constructing the position.

• Fill windows, doors, and other openings (such as bullet holes not used for
observation) with bricks, fragments of building materials, or sandbags if

• Remove flammable objects. These may be used for early warning or defensive

• Establish communications between buildings by hard wire. If available, fiber-
optic cables (telephones) offer better security.

• Identify and construct rapid departure routes.

c. Avoiding Detection. Because of the higher concentration of people, security
forces, lighting, and movement, forces in urban areas must take additional precautions to
avoid detection during surveillance activities. Considerations for detection avoidance
include the following:

(1) At least two soldiers are required in occupying the OP.

(2) If operating from an occupied dwelling, do not consume more electric power,
water, and heat than average for the normal occupants.

(3) Employ OPSEC to negate or evade enemy electronic countermeasures (ECM).
For example, technological advances make it possible for mobile units operating from the
street to electronically survey a building and detect and identify very small sources of
energy. Such capabilities are increasingly widespread and are often found in built-up
areas of even marginally developed countries, especially in the "security states" of the
Third World.


Rugged, poorly trafficable terrain, steep slopes, and elevations that allow observation of
surrounding terrain characterize mountainous areas. The number of observers and
positions required may increase in mountainous terrain due to the relatively limited fields
of vision compared to flat terrain. On the other hand, in areas above the tree line or where
lower elevations lack vegetation, the number of observers needed may decrease. A
careful study of the target area will give a good indication of the requirements. For a
general discussion of operations in mountainous areas, see FM 3-97.6.

a. Position Selection. Mountain terrain provides many places for cover and
concealment. Position selection is not guided by the height of a given mountain but by
irregular fields of observation, dead space, cover and concealment, and the limits of the
observation equipment used by the soldiers.

b. Systems of Observation. Soldiers may employ a circular, multi-tiered system of
observers. To increase daytime viewing capability, positions are placed not only laterally


FM 3-21 .94

but also with vertical dispersion. This layering of positions also reduces the need for
movement when changing from daytime to nighttime operations (Figure 5-26).

Figure 5-26. Overlapping mountain observation sites.

c. Construction. Irregular terrain in mountains often affords natural hiding places
for observers. In most mountainous areas, the rocky nature of the ground makes it
difficult and often impossible to dig belowground positions. In those cases, boulders and
loose rocks can be used to construct aboveground, low- walled positions called "scrapes."
When constructing these positions, exercise the same degree of care in camouflage as in
the case of all other types of construction. The position must blend in with its
surroundings and not be detectable from any angle. Trimming back the lower branches on
the undergrowth with a wire saw, shears, or knife often enhances fields of view.

d. Night Observation. At night, sending out additional observers into valleys and
hollows enhances observation. Observation from below, facing upward against the
background of the sky, often gives better results. In addition, the soldiers should
supplement night observation by monitoring. Monitoring is more effective in
mountainous areas than on flat terrain because sounds are often funneled to the head of
valleys and are perceptible at great distances. Sounds in the mountains can be deceptive,
however. Various obstructions can reduce their volume and change their direction.

e. Snow. In mountainous areas where snow is expected or known to be on the
ground, soldiers can use certain tactics to reduce the problems associated with operations
in the snow. Some of these tactics are discussed in the following paragraphs.

(1) Melting Conditions. Observers should choose positions that are in shaded areas,
on slopes facing away from the equator (north in the Northern Hemisphere, south in the
Southern Hemisphere). In moderate temperatures, the heat generated from the observers'
bodies melts the snow on the cover of the position. The result is an observable muddy
area in snow. Such muddy areas are common around trees, where the heat of the day can
cause melting snow to fall to the ground and melt the snow on the ground around the tree.
(The melting snow falling off the trees often can be used as a water source. Unlike frozen
snow, it does not require melting over a heat source.) The shadows found around rock
outcropping and trees can aid in hiding the foot trails leading to the work area and
position. The shade aids in an even melt.

(2) Snow Compression. Walking compresses snow under each footprint, and the
compressed snow melts at a slower rate than the surrounding snow. This effect is like the
difference between crushed ice and cubed ice in a drink. The loose, crushed ice melts


FM 3-21.94

faster than the dense cubes. In areas where the snow melts fast, such as a sunny side of a
hill, the compressed snow leaves footprints or trails leading to the position.

(3) Avalanche Danger. The constant daytime melting and nighttime refreezing of
snow on slopes often results in avalanches. Soldiers should use shadowed areas and
slopes to reduce the risk of avalanches. Most danger areas are well known and are often
plotted on military and civilian maps.


Observation posts on the ground are camouflaged to resemble such features as stumps,
fallen trees, and bushes. For enhanced surveillance, the soldiers locate the position to
overwatch the intersection of fire lanes, roads, and footpaths on the edge of sparsely
wooded areas and natural clearings. When available, obstacles such as creeks, ditches, or
steep slopes should be located between the position and the probable route of enemy
security forces. At night, even a small creek disrupts a force's formations, causes it to
make noise, and generally slows its progress. Monitoring of the target area is critical to
accomplishing the mission and providing soldiers with operational security. Observers in
a well-camouflaged position can monitor the target using several types of ground

a. Spider Hole. This type of position is similar to a fighting position with overhead
cover. The dimensions are normally about 0.75 meters wide by 1.2 meters long and 1 to
1.5 meters deep. The observer can adjust the dimensions to meet his needs. This one-man
position is normally established on a line or ring to provide support and enhance security.
If using this type of OP, the platoon must use a minimum of two mutually supporting
holes (Figure 5-27).



Figure 5-27. Spider hole OP.

b. Scrape. A scrape (Figures 5-28 and 5-29, page 5-38) is the enlargement of a
depression in the ground to allow one man to occupy a position. Scrapes are hasty in
nature and require little preparation. Often used during darkness, scrapes provide the
observer with a position where he can better use his optical devices. The observer
removes as many of the signs of occupation as possible when he leaves. He obscures the
area by brushing matted grasses, displaced dirt, and footprints. Overhead cover such as a


FM 3-21 .94

poncho provides limited protection from the elements. If using this type of OP,
reconnaiss ance platoon must use a minimum of two mutually supporting scrape s.





Figure 5-28. Scrape OP.



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Figure 5-29. Example scrape plan.

c. Tent-Type Position. Larger than a spider hole, this position is constructed for
more than one observer. Supports for the overhead cover are made from a variety of
material. Branches, aluminum conduit, parachute suspension line, or fiberglass rods all
work well as a frame for the cover. A slight arch in the cover multiplies the available
space on the inside of the position. The observers avoid grossly breaking the ground
plane with the apex of the position (Figure 5-30).


FM 3-21.94









Figure 5-30. Tent-type observation post.

d. Underground Position. The safest type of OP for the reconnaissance soldier is
the underground position. The complexity of design and the effort required to construct
the position are the primary disadvantages. When the section or team plans to use
underground positions, soil type is a critical planning consideration that must not be
overlooked during mission preparation. For example, when only light equipment (such as
shovels and entrenching tools) is available, underground positions can only be
constructed in loose soils.

e. Bunker-Type Position. This position requires extensive construction time and
material to complete. The observer can construct the underground bunker-type position
using a prefabricated kit. This kit includes the tools needed to excavate and cut local
materials such as trees and logs. The kit also contains plastic sheeting for waterproofing
the roof, walls, and floor. The sheeting can also be used to reinforce loose soil in the
position. Depending on the soil in the area, however, sandbags are often required to shore
up the sides of the position; sandbags also lessen the accumulation of condensation
produced when plastic sheeting is used (Figure 5-31).











Figure 5-31. Bunker-type underground observation post.

f Cave. A cave can provide the observer with a ready-made observation position;
however, it presents special problems. First, caves attract attention. They are often shown


FM 3-21 .94

on maps or are known to the local populace. Locals often use caves for shelter and
sometimes for storage. Caves also attract animals. Bats, birds, snakes, and larger animals
use caves for shelter, and the unsanitary conditions resulting from their presence present
medical risks to reconnaissance personnel. Furthermore, early warning devices may be
activated and attract the attention of local enemy forces. Use of caves increases the
chance of discovery and is avoided in all but emergency situations.


Construction and manning of checkpoints, roadblocks, and observation points are high-
frequency tasks for infantry units. The reconnaissance platoon may be required to
establish area security during stability operations.

• Checkpoints. A checkpoint is a predetermined point used as a means of
controlling movement, such as a place where military police check vehicular
or pedestrian traffic, to enforce circulation control measures and other laws,
orders, and regulations. (Figure 5-32, page 5-42, shows an example of a
deliberate checkpoint.)

• Roadblocks. A roadblock is used to limit the movement of vehicles along a
route or to close access to certain areas or roads. Checkpoints and roadblocks
can be either deliberate or hasty, with the primary difference being the extent
of planning and preparation conducted by the establishing force.

• Observation Posts. An OP is a position from which military observations are
made or fire directed and adjusted and which has appropriate
communications. They are both overt (conspicuously visible, unlike their
tactical counterparts) and deliberately constructed. Observation posts are
similar in construction to bunkers and are supported by fighting positions,
barriers, and patrols.

a. Purposes. The reconnaissance platoon may be directed to establish a checkpoint,
roadblock, or OP for the following reasons:

To show a military presence to all parties and to the population in the area.

To survey all activity in the terrain, along roads, and in inhabited areas.

To check and or inspect and register all personnel and vehicles in and out of

the controlled area.

To survey airspace, coastal areas, airfields, cease-fire lines, and borders.

To deter illegal movement.

To create an instant roadblock.

To control movement into the area of operations or on a specific route.

To prevent smuggling of contraband.

To enforce the terms of peace agreements.

To ensure proper use of routes by both civilian and military vehicles.

b. Planning and Establishment. The layout, construction, and manning of
checkpoints, roadblocks, and OPs should reflect the factors of METT-TC, especially the
time available for emplacing them. The following procedures and considerations may


FM 3-21.94

Position the checkpoint or roadblock where it is visible and where traffic

cannot turn back, get off the road, or bypass without being observed.

Position a combat vehicle off the road, but within sight, to deter resistance to

soldiers manning the checkpoint. The vehicle should be in a hull-down

position and protected by local security. It must be able to engage vehicles

attempting to break through or bypass the checkpoint.

Place obstacles in the road to slow or canalize traffic into the search area.

Establish a reserve.

Establish wire communications in the checkpoint area to connect the

checkpoint bunker, the combat vehicle, the search area, security forces, the

rest area, and any other elements involved in the operation.

Designate the search area. If possible, it should be below ground to provide

protection against incidents such as the explosion of a booby-trapped vehicle.

Establish a parking area adjacent to the search area.

If applicable, checkpoint personnel should include linguists.

Establish an early warning system around the perimeter of the OP (trip flares,

empty cans, dry branches, and so on).

Prepare shelters and defensive positions.


FM 3-21 .94

Figure 5-32. Example of a deliberate checkpoint.

c. Manning Observation Posts and Checkpoints. When manning OPs and
checkpoints, proper order and a systematic approach must be emphasized. Personnel
must behave so that no misunderstanding occurs. The personnel manning the checkpoint
must be in complete control of the surrounding terrain.


FM 3-21.94

(1) Although the OP is usually manned on a 24-hour basis, it may be manned only by
day or night. During darkness, at least two persons must be in the OP position—one
observes while the other is resting. In remote areas, or if the situation in the area is tense,
more personnel man the OP for security and observation.

(2) A minimum of two soldiers should man the checkpoint, depending on traffic and
the general situation. One soldier examines people and vehicles; the other soldier covers
the area where people and vehicles are checked. The soldier covering the other area is
armed and has easy access to radio and telephone. If more soldiers are manning the
checkpoint, one of them should be ready to set up obstacles to stop vehicles trying to
force their way through the checkpoint.

d. Communications. All OPs and checkpoints are connected to their unit or directly
to the battalion operations center by radio and telephone. A spare radio and batteries
should be supplied to the OP and checkpoint, especially to remote OPs located in
dangerous areas. Radio and telephone checks are carried out at least twice every 24 hours
(three times is recommended). Special code words must be prepared for use in certain
situations. Conversation must be coded. Reserve frequencies must be available. OPs and
checkpoints of great operational value may be connected by direct landline to ensure
rapid coordination in urgent situations.

e. Equipment. Many items are used to reinforce a roadblock, checkpoint, or OP.
Some of the recommended equipment includes—

• Barrels filled with sand, water, or heavy concrete blocks (emplaced to slow
and canalize vehicles).

• Concertina wire (emplaced to control movement around the checkpoint).

• Secure facilities for radio and wire communications with the controlling

• First aid kit or a medic if available.

• Sandbags for defensive positions.

• Bunker construction material.

• Binoculars, night vision devices, and or flashlights.

• Long-handled mirrors (used to inspect vehicle undercarriages).

• Signs stating the speed limit into and out of the checkpoint. (The text of these
signs must be written in English and the local language.)

Elements manning a deliberate checkpoint may require access to specialized equipment
such as:

• Floodlights.

• Duty log.

• Flag and unit sign.

• Barrier pole that can be raised and lowered.

• Generators with electric wire.

f Control. During periods in which the civilian administration is not functioning,
refugees will be traveling routinely throughout the area. All soldiers participating in these
operations must fully understand the procedures for appropriately identifying personnel
and for controlling personnel and vehicles moving through their AO.

(1) Personnel Identification. People who have permission to enter a sector are
regulated by special instructions to the patrol conducting the operation. Often local and
civilian employees, mayors, and chiefs of tribes in villages in the AO are given special


FM 3-21 .94

identification (ID) cards and may pass without being checked. These special ID cards
must be registered. The primary reasons for checking people will be for identification and
to prevent illegal items being brought into the AO through the checkpoint. Personnel
must identify themselves with an ID card, passport, and so on. Such ID cards are written
in the local language. Examples of different ID cards must be kept in the checkpoint.

(2) Personnel Control. Personnel control is conducted in different ways. Soldiers
manning the checkpoint should watch for people acting strangely or with bulging
clothing. If there is a danger of car bombs, special attention should be paid to cars
containing only one person. When conducting body searches, soldiers should feel along
clothes and not just pat them. Special attention must be paid to the lower parts of the back
and from the shoes up to the knees. Armpits also must be checked. The wide trousers
used by some cultures should be carefully examined. Soldiers also should check boots
and hats.

(3) Checking Women and Clerical Personnel. Making a body search of women and
clerical personnel is often difficult in Moslem countries and may lead to strong reactions.
The commander must thoroughly discuss this with mayors and other leaders, and the
procedure used must be consistent with agreements and treaties. Women usually are only
checked with a metal detector. Elderly women often may remain in the vehicle during
inspection of a car. If there is a suspicion that the "rules" are being misused, then other
and better checks must be made. The battalion commander makes these decisions.


FM 3-21.94



American and foreign doctrines reflect that military training must give
more attention to urban combat. Urban areas are the power centers, and
urban terrain is expected to be the most common type of area of
operations for future American forces throughout the world. Recent
deployments in Panama, Somalia, Kosovo, and Bosnia, as well as
developments in Afghanistan, have shown the need for units to be
proficient in warfighting in urban and complex terrain. The increasing
focus on urban terrorism and civil disorder emphasizes that combat in
built-up areas is unavoidable.

Expanding urban development affects military operations as the
terrain is altered. Urban and complex close terrain pose significant
problems for all types of military forces, but platoons and squads in the
SBCT must be capable of leveraging combat power to achieve decisive
results. The increased population and accelerated growth of cities have
made the problems of combat in built-up areas an urgent requirement for
the US Army. This chapter discusses the tools necessary for understanding
the urban environment and for planning and executing missions, including
reconnaissance, in the urban area.


This section discusses the characteristics and definitions of urban operations. Throughout
history, military planners have viewed cities as centers of gravity and sources of national
strength. Cities are population centers; transportation and communication hubs; key
nodes of industrial, financial, and information systems; seats of government; and
repositories of wealth. Because the US has worldwide interests that directly relate to
global security, deployments into urban environments are likely to become more
frequent. These urban operations will serve a variety of tactical purposes—to neutralize or
stabilize extremely volatile political situations, to defeat an enemy force that has sought
protection afforded by urban terrain, and to provide assistance to allies in need of support.
The reconnaissance platoon is an essential element in providing friendly forces with the
real-time information and situational understanding they need to defeat the enemy in the
urban environment. The commander must examine two key questions that affect the
mission of the reconnaissance platoon and the battalion:

• Is it essential that maneuver forces be employed in the urban environment?

• How can forces apply combat power in the most efficient manner in an urban


Urban operations (UO) are defined as all military actions, combat and noncombat,
conducted on terrain where manmade construction affects the tactical options. These
operations may involve noncombatants, so the ROE and use of combat power are
normally more restrictive than under other conditions of combat. Because of political
change, advances in technology, and the Army's role in maintaining world order, UO


FM 3-21 .94

now takes on new dimensions. Infantrymen conduct urban combat operations under many
varying conditions across the spectrum of conflict from major theater war through SSC to
stability operations and support operations. These conditions range from large-scale,
high-intensity combat through isolated actions against armed belligerents mixed with
noncombatants to peace operations that resemble dangerous police work more than
combat. The following terms and definitions provide clarity and focus for commanders
conducting tactical planning for combat in an urban environment. They describe the US
force's degree of sensitivity to political considerations during the operation being

a. High-Intensity UO Conditions. Under high-intensity UO conditions, combat
actions are conducted against a determined enemy occupying prepared positions or
conducting planned attacks. These conditions require the coordinated application of the
full combat power of the SBCT. An infantry unit's mission is normally to seize, secure,
clear, or defend urban terrain, engaging and defeating the enemy using any force
necessary. High-intensity UO represents the high end of the combat spectrum. Units must
be trained for it because high-intensity UO conditions can be casualty-intensive for both
sides. Even though the full, integrated firepower of the SBCT is brought to bear on the
enemy, leaders must still try to limit unnecessary destruction and casualties among
noncombatants. A recent example of high-intensity UO conditions is the Russian
experience in Grozny.

b. Precision Small-Scale Contingency Operations in Urban Conditions. Under
precision SSC urban conditions, conventional forces conduct combat operations to defeat
an enemy mixed with noncombatants. Units conduct combat operations carefully to limit
noncombatant casualties and collateral damage while still achieving the military

(1) Noncombatant and Political Considerations. Under these conditions, either the
enemy is mixed with the noncombatants or political considerations require the ROE to be
more restrictive than under high-intensity UO conditions. It also requires specific tactics,
techniques, and procedures for precise use of combat power (as in Operation Just Cause).
Some of this combat can be quite violent for short periods.

(2) Focus and Restraint. Forces accepting the need to focus and restrain the combat
power mark this type of operation. The platoon or section leader may bring
overwhelming force to bear but only on specific portions of the urban area occupied by
the enemy. He may choose different TTP to remain within the bounds of the more
restrictive ROE. This is complicated by the fact that, due to an asymmetrical threat, a
precision operation could occur while a high-intensity operation occurs in another part of
the city. UO requires strict accountability of individual and unit actions through strict
ROE. This requires soldiers to be disciplined and trained.

c. Stability and Support Operations in UO Conditions. Under these conditions,
infantry units conduct stability and support operations that can easily turn into combat
operations (for example, Somalia). Stability operations and support operations may
include humanitarian assistance, evacuation of American nationals, or peacekeeping
operations. Recent examples include the operations in Monrovia and Bosnia. (Stability
operations and support operations are also covered in FM 7-98, FM 100-23, and FM 90-
8. Lesson plans for many of these techniques are in TC 7-98-1.)


FM 3-21.94


Although each operational environment encountered by the reconnaissance platoon has
its own distinct characteristics, urban areas are the most complex. There are two primary
factors that influence the complexity of urban operations. One is the manmade terrain and
supporting infrastructur. These are covered later in this discussion. The other factor is the
density of noncombatants in close proximity to combat forces. Of these two key urban
factors, noncombatants and the human dimension are the most important and, potentially,
the most confusing. HUMINT, which focuses on gaining an understanding of how the
local populace feels toward friendly and enemy forces, is a major part of the
reconnaissance platoon's effort. The following discussion describes characteristics
unique to the urban environment and the enemy as well as considerations that the
reconnaissance platoon must take into account during preparation and planning.

a. Urban Considerations. Urban terrain presents operational challenges in an
extraordinary mix of horizontal, vertical, interior, exterior, and subterranean settings.
Four aspects of this physical dimension merit special consideration.

(1) Airspace over the City. Airspace provides a rapid avenue of approach into the
urbanized area. While aviation assets are unaffected by obstacles such as rubble, they
must consider towers, signs, power lines, and other obstructions to flight. Soldiers can
locate these obstructions, determine how they can serve as passive air defense measures,
and provide a hazards overlay for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) units and other
aviation assets. The reconnaissance platoon can also identify and mark potential pickup
zones (PZs) and landing zones (LZs).

(2) Buildings. Buildings provide cover and concealment, limit or enhance fields of
fire, and restrict or block movement of ground forces. Soldiers must identify buildings
that serve as key terrain (for example, as communications nodes or dominant vantage
points) throughout the urban area. They must consider rooftops a separate and unique
threat. Whenever possible, TUAV or aviation reconnaissance of rooftops can identify
threats and help to preempt enemy action.

(3) Streets. Streets afford avenues of approach and are the primary means for rapid
ground movement in an urban area. Forces traveling along streets, however, are often
canalized by buildings and have little space for maneuver off the main thoroughfares. The
reconnaissance platoon must identify trafficability of streets (lateral and parallel) within
the area of operations. This includes determining the width and weight capabilities of
streets throughout the urban area to assist follow-on forces in their planning.

(4) Subterranean Systems. Subterranean systems can easily be employed as avenues
of approach and supply routes for dismounted elements. Friendly forces must identify
subways, sewers, cellars, and utility systems in the urban area. They can then develop an
understanding of how the enemy may use these systems to conduct ambushes,
counterattacks, infiltration, and sustainment operations. Entrances and exits to
subterranean areas should be mapped as part of an overlay.

b. Types of Urban Terrain. The urban area is classified into six types of
urban terrain.

(1) Dense, Random Construction. Dense, random construction is typical of the old
inner city pattern with narrow, winding streets radiating from a central area in an
irregular manner. Buildings are located close together and frequently close to the edge of
a roadway.


FM 3-21 .94

(2) Closed-Orderly Block Areas. This type of city block typically has wider streets
that form rectangular patterns. The buildings frequently form a continuous front along the
blocks. Inner-block courtyards are common.

(3) Dispersed Residential Areas. Normally adjacent to closed-orderly block areas in
Europe, this pattern consists of row houses or single-family dwellings with yards,
gardens, trees, and fences. Street patterns are normally rectangular or curving.

(4) High-Rise Areas. High-rise areas are typical of modern construction in larger
cities and towns. They consist of multistoried apartments, separated open areas, and
single-story buildings. Wide streets are laid out in rectangular patterns. These areas are
often adjacent to industrial-transportation areas or interspersed with closed-orderly block

(5) Industrial-Transportation Areas. These are generally located on or along major
rail and highway routes in urban complexes. Older complexes may be located within
dense, random construction or closed-orderly block areas. New construction normally
consists of low, flat-roofed factory and warehouse buildings. High-rise areas providing
worker housing are normally located adjacent to these areas throughout the Orient.
Identification of transportation facilities within these areas is critical. These facilities,
especially rail facilities, pose significant obstacles to military movement.

(6) Permanent or Fixed Fortifications and Other Military Installations. Examples
of permanent or fixed fortifications include the Hue Citadel and the Siegfried and
Maginot Lines. While most of these types of fortifications are found in Western Europe, a
number can be found in the Balkans, Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South America.
Fortifications in the United States are mostly of the coast-defense type. Permanent-type
fortifications can be made of earth, wood, rock, brick, concrete, steel-reinforced concrete,
or any combination of these. Some of the latest variants have been built underground and
employ heavy tank or warship armor, major caliber and other weapons, internal
communications, service facilities, and NBC overpressure systems.

c. The Enemy in the Urban Area. Trends indicate increasing availability and
integration of sophisticated technology and unorthodox operational approaches by
potential opponents in urban operations. To offset their inherent weaknesses, enemy
forces seek the advantage in urban and complex terrain by remaining dispersed and
decentralized; they adapt their tactics to counter the response of US forces and their allies
most effectively.

(1) Organizations and Capabilities.

(a) Other Forces. In addition to conventional forces, the enemy in urban areas may
include the following:

• Unconventional forces.

• Paramilitary forces.

• Militia and special police organizations.

• Organized crime organizations.

(b) Enemy Force Employment. Enemy forces employ the full range of military
ordnance and organizations from small arms, mortars, machine guns, antiarmor weapons,
and mines to very capable mechanized and armored forces equipped with current-
generation equipment. The enemy uses these various approaches to counter the
technological and numerical advantages of US and allied systems and forces. In addition,
enemy forces seek to exploit constraints placed on US forces because of cultural bias,


FM 3-21.94

media presence, ROE, ROI, and distance from the crisis location. Urban environments
also provide many passive dangers such as disease from unsanitary conditions and
psychological stresses.

(c) Most Dangerous Opponent. The most dangerous potential opponents remain those
who have the capacity to execute full-scale combat actions escalating to a major theater
of war. They employ weapons of mass destruction wherever possible. Such organizations
as special operations forces (SOFs), state-controlled terrorist elements, paramilitary units,
and guerilla forces are part of a strategy of simultaneous, distributed operations both
inside and outside of the area of operations. They use mines and unexploded ordnance to
demoralize and hamper US forces.

(2) Enemy Tactics. While the nature of active threats vary widely among specific
urban areas, many principles and techniques are common to all such elements. This
discussion examines several operational and tactical tenets that may be used against US
forces in the urban environment.

(a) Local Populace. The populace of a given urban area represents an aspect of key
terrain: the side that manages it best has a distinct advantage. Enemy forces use the
population to provide camouflage, concealment, and deception for their operations.
Guerilla and terrorist elements look no different from other members of the community.
Even conventional and paramilitary forces often adopt a civilian look to confuse friendly
forces. The civilian populace can also actively provide cover for enemy forces, enhancing
their mobility in proximity to US positions.

(b) Moral Responsibility. Enemy forces take advantage of the moral responsibilities
of US and ally units, attempting to make the civilian populace a burden on their logistical
and force protection resources. Local residents also serve as a key intelligence source for
enemy forces that attempt to use civilians with access to US bases or perimeters to gain
information on friendly dispositions, readiness, and intent.

(c) Information War. Enemy forces take advantage of the media to turn the
sentiments of the civilian populace of other countries against US forces. Print and
broadcast reporters and photographers, video cameras, Internet web sites, and cellular
telephones are examples of tools the enemy can use to influence popular opinion.

(d) Key Facilities. Enemy forces identify key facilities and then use them to shape the
area of operations in their favor. Examples of facilities that the enemy may target to gain
a position of advantage against US forces include telecommunication sites, water
treatment plants, and power generation and transmission sites.

(e) Physical Environment. Enemy forces take advantage of every aspect of the urban
environment to attack US forces. Rooftops and tall buildings afford vantage points and
ambush positions that exceed the maximum elevation capability of many friendly weapon
systems. Elevated attack positions allow the enemy to strike vehicles at their most
vulnerable points and to use enfilading fire against exposed dismounted soldiers.
Basements and other subterranean areas provide covered and concealed positions that
allow movement and access throughout the area of operations. Many of these positions
are below the minimum depression capability of friendly vehicles and weapons.

d. Civilian Considerations. Analyzing the information gained on the civilian
populace is an important factor in determining courses of action for higher headquarters.
The platoon leader analyzes the information collected and assesses what actions are
necessary to control the impact of civilians. Options that the reconnaissance platoon


FM 3-21 .94

leader can recommend to higher headquarters include screening civilians, prohibiting
unauthorized movement, diverting or controlling refugee movements, and evacuating
civilians. Information requirements for the platoon consist of the following:

• Political affiliations and grievances.

• Ethnicity.

• Factions.

• Cultural distinctions.

• Living conditions.

• Religious beliefs.

• Attitude toward US forces (friendly, neutral, or hostile).


The planning phase for urban operations entails two key actions: collecting and analyzing
existing intelligence and developing the plan.


During the planning phase, the reconnaissance platoon leader assesses his assigned
reconnaissance objectives and conducts his urban IPB. To begin developing the situation,
the platoon collects and analyzes existing intelligence, including map and aerial images
(IMINT) and HUMINT. The platoon begins mapping the urban area as part of the
planning phase.

a. Before entering an urban environment, reconnaissance elements should develop
urban operations sketches. These reconnaissance products, usually created as overlays,
serve several purposes. The sketches are an important supplement to existing maps which
in most cases do not show the level of detail necessary for effective situational
understanding. The sketches also allow the reconnaissance platoon leader to track his
elements with greater accuracy and to give precise location updates to higher
headquarters. The ultimate goal is to hand off the sketch to the battalion for use by
leaders and soldiers at all levels of the operation.

b. In developing urban operations sketches and overlays, the reconnaissance platoon
should attempt to gain access to city planner or civil engineer maps which provide
detailed information on the urban area. The platoon then conducts initial map and aerial
photograph reconnaissance to pinpoint key terrain and other important locations in the
area of operations. Figure 6-1 shows an example of photoreconnaissance, which focuses
on areas such as the following:

(1) Sites that may serve as potential safe havens for enemy forces, including—

• Hospitals.

• Police stations.

• Embassies.

• Other facilities that are nominally friendly but that could harbor enemy

(2) Hazardous areas such as—

• Construction sites.

• Dangerous intersections.

• Bridges.

• Areas of criminal activity.


FM 3-21.94

(3) Major terrain features, including—

• Bridges.

• Parks.

• Industrial complexes.

• Airports.

(4) Subterranean features such as—

• Sewers/utility systems.

• Subway systems.

• Underground water systems.

Figure 6-1. Initial photoreconnaissance in urban operations.

c. Once this basic reconnaissance is complete, the reconnaissance unit uses the
available maps and photographs to refine the information and translate it into a form that
can be transferred to the urban operations sketch. This process includes incorporating a
reference system to identify buildings and streets. Naming and numbering conventions
should be simple (for example, odd number buildings on left side of street, even numbers
on right street) to allow for ease of navigation and orientation in the urban environment.
Street names should not be used as references as the signs can be removed or changed to
confuse friendly forces.

d. The reconnaissance elements add graphic control measures and identify sites of
tactical and operational significance (Figure 6-2, page 6-8). The reconnaissance platoon
leader can then use the accumulated information to develop a detailed urban operations


FM 3-21 .94

sketch (Figure 6-3). He must ensure that the sketches the platoon develops and uses are
consistent with those used throughout the battalion.

e. The sketches are distributed both within the unit and to higher and adjacent
elements. The platoon leader must ensure that every soldier has an understanding of the
sketch and reference system since individual vehicles and sections may have to execute
operations on their own. As the reconnaissance platoon conducts operations in the urban
area, it confirms the accuracy of the sketch and adds more detail as necessary.

Figure 6-2. Refinement of urban operations photoreconnaissance.


FM 3-21.94

Figure 6-3. Urban operations sketch.


Once the reconnaissance platoon leader has collected and analyzed existing intelligence,
he and his subordinates then develop the plan for completing the reconnaissance.

a. Intelligence Collection Plan. The collection plan begins with the reconnaissance
platoon obtaining all available information, including that from internal military forces
and SOFs. In particular, the platoon gathers information on locations of reliable sources
near the urban area that can be used to gain the most current situation within the area of
operations. In diverse multiethnic areas, it is important for platoon soldiers to have an
understanding of how the different segments of the local populace will react to them
during the course of operations.

(I) Approach Routes. Based upon his current information, the platoon leader
identifies the best approach route into the urban area, locations or obstacles to be avoided,
sources within the urban area, and any other specific areas of interest. The use of tactical
questioning is an invaluable skill in validating the information from HUMINT sources.
Depending on the mission and the information gained initially, the reconnaissance
platoon may have to conduct infiltration using surveillance teams to observe areas of
interest or conduct target acquisition. It must develop thorough plans for the surveillance
teams, covering security considerations such as exfiltration routes, immediate support
(direct or indirect), and evasion corridors. Surveillance positions should be placed in low-
activity areas and occupied during limited visibility to reduce the possibility of
compromise. Sustainment considerations are also critical; these include the duration of


FM 3-21 .94

the surveillance mission and required logistical support (such as food, water, and
batteries). The surveillance teams must have redundant communications for successful
operations (refer to the following discussion of communications in the urban

(2) Gaining Information. After analyzing the mission and the commander's intent,
the reconnaissance platoon leader determines how to gain the information required within
its AO. The information-gathering process is conducted progressively from outside the
urban area to inside the urban area. As the platoon gains information from the outer ring
of the area of operations, it updates the focus of the collection plan and refines the
reconnaissance and surveillance objectives within the urban area. The urban situation can
change quickly, leading to compromise or attack; it is essential that reconnaissance units
continuously maintain a current COP. The platoon continues to collect and corroborate
information as it approaches the urban area. The platoon leader then determines whether
to use reconnaissance or surveillance to gather information on or in the objective areas.

b. Reconnaissance. The reconnaissance platoon leader must decide on the stealthy
or aggressive method of reconnaissance. Mounted or dismounted patrols are used in
conjunction with other surveillance assets to gain information required by the mission.

c. Surveillance. The reconnaissance platoon uses surveillance to collect information
on or in objectives. Locating surveillance positions within the urban area requires
thorough planning to ensure teams are not compromised and that the platoon can assist in
extraction, if necessary. Communications are of vital importance to the surveillance team;
therefore, redundancy must be incorporated into the collection plan. Security
considerations for the team, such as exfiltration routes, immediate support (direct or
indirect), and evasion corridors, are essential. Surveillance positions should be placed in
low-activity areas and occupied during limited visibility to reduce possibility of
compromise. The duration of the surveillance mission must also be considered for
sustainment of the team (considering items such as food, water, and batteries). The
selection of the hide site and surveillance site(s) depends on METT-TC. The following
are considerations for site selection:

• Can the team place the designated surveillance target(s) under continuous and
effective observation and within the range of surveillance devices to be used?

• Will the surveillance site have to move if weather and light conditions

• Does the area provide concealment and entrance and exit routes?

• Are there dominant or unusual terrain features nearby?

• Is the area wet, is there adequate drainage, or is the area prone to flooding?

• Is the area a place the enemy would want to occupy?

• Is the site silhouetted against the skyline or a contrasting background?

• Are there roads or trails nearby?

• Are there other natural lines of movement nearby (gullies, draws, or any other
terrain for easy foot movement)?

• Could the team be easily trapped in the site?

• Are there any obstacles to prevent vehicle movement nearby (roadside ditch,
fence, wall, stream, or river)?

• Are there any inhabited areas in the prevailing downwind area?

• Are there any suitable communication sites nearby?


FM 3-21.94

• Is the site in the normal line of vision of enemy personnel in the area?

• Is there a source of water in the area?

d. Infiltration. Plans for infiltration are based on the requirement for conducting
movement to the AO with the least risk of detection.

(1) Select concealed primary or alternate routes based on detailed map
reconnaissance, aerial photographs, ground reconnaissance, and data on the enemy
situation from other sources.

(2) Avoid obstacles, populated areas, silhouetting, enemy positions, main avenues of
approach, and movement along heavily populated routes and trails.

(3) The time of infiltration should be during reduced visibility and reduced alertness.
The time is especially important during critical phases such as moving through populated

(4) Soldiers must know routes, rally points (and alternates), time schedules, danger
areas, and the enemy situation. These are critical to speed and stealth.

(5) The team should have centralized coordination to ensure that all crewmen act in
accordance with cover and deception plans. Infiltration by land is characterized by
centralized planning and decentralized execution.

e. Exfiltration. The principles of route selection, movement formations, and
movement security are observed during movement to the extraction site.

(1) The time that a team remains in the urban area of operations depends on its
mission, composition, and equipment. The exfiltration is critical from a standpoint of
morale and mission accomplishment. Plans for extraction are made before the operation,
with alternate plans for contingencies such as the evacuation of sick or injured personnel.
During the mission, the team leader may encounter an unforeseen situation that may
demand the utmost flexibility, discipline, and leadership.

(2) Each team is given code words in the OPORD for use during exfiltration. For
example, one code word may mean that the team is at its PZ. Another may mean that
both the primary and alternate PZs are compromised and to abort the extraction.

(3) When a team has missed a certain number of required transmissions, the
command assumes that the team has a communication problem, is in trouble, or both. At
that time, a no-communication resupply and exfiltration plan is used.

(4) Exfiltration of the team may be by means other than linkup with their vehicles.
The OPORD may specify dismounted exfiltration or linkup with friendly forces in an
offensive operation. Any of these means may also be planned as alternatives in the event
the team cannot be extracted by their vehicles or to avoid capture.

(5) Soldiers must be trained in exfiltration techniques so they can walk out either
singly or in groups.

f Communications. Communications in the urban environment requires detailed
planning. Because of the effects of urban terrain, the reconnaissance platoon leader must
plan for redundant communications that will allow the reconnaissance platoon freedom of
movement. In simplest terms, to communicate effectively and continuously, he must
minimize the limitations imposed by the urban environment and maximize the
advantages of existing civil communications. The reconnaissance platoon should follow
this general rule: if you cannot communicate where you are, move until you can.

(1) Terrain. The first step is to identify terrain along the approach route and in the
urban area of operations that supports line of sight (LOS) communications. Manmade


FM 3-21 .94

structures can create problems for single-channel radios; they may inhibit LOS radio
communications by absorbing or reflecting transmitted signals. One solution is to
establish retrans sites on supporting terrain or structures to facilitate C2 during the
reconnaissance platoon's initial entry into the urban area. The platoon continues to
identify structures within the urban area that can support retrans sites as it moves within
the area of operations. If retrans teams are not available, unit vehicles must position
themselves to maintain communications with all elements. TUAV retrans capabilities
should be requested and coordinated for redundancy. The battalion should also plan to
request and coordinate use of aviation assets for C2 and retrans, if available.

(2) Advantages. The urban environment may have exploitable advantages such as the
availability of electrical power and commercial telecommunications networks. Electrical
power generation stations and other emergency power systems are normally found in
protected structures and are often usable in UO. Enclosed areas offer excellent
concealment and protection of communications and other C2 support equipment.
Extensive commercial communications networks composed of miles of protected
underground cable connecting central telephone exchanges are likely to be available, as
are numerous types of public service radio nets (such as those used for police, fire, civil
defense, and taxi radios). These systems have existing antennas and retransmission

g. Fire Support. The reconnaissance platoon leader must plan for employment of
indirect fires in the urban area of operations.

(1) Mortar Fires. Mortars are the most responsive indirect fires available to infantry
commanders and leaders. Their mission is to provide close and immediate fire support to
the maneuver units. Mortars are well suited for combat in urban areas because of their
high rate of fire, steep angle of fall, and short minimum range. The platoon leader must
plan mortar support with the fire support element (FSE) as part of the total fire support
system. (See FM 7-90 for detailed information on the tactical employment of mortars.)

(a) Role of Mortar Units. The role of mortar units is to deliver suppressive fires to
support maneuver, especially against dismounted infantry. Mortars can be used to
obscure, neutralize, suppress, or illuminate during urban combat. Mortar fires inhibit
enemy fires and movement, allowing friendly forces to maneuver to a position of
advantage. The most common and valuable use for mortars is often harassment and
interdiction fires. One of their greatest contributions is interdicting supplies, evacuation
efforts, and reinforcement in the enemy rear just behind his forward defensive positions.
During World War II and the recent Middle East conflicts, light mortar high explosive
(HE) fires have been used extensively during urban combat to deny the use of streets,
parks, and plazas to enemy personnel. Finally, mortars can be used, with some
limitations, against light armor and structures. Effectively integrating mortar fires with
dismounted maneuver is key to successful combat in an urban area.

(b) Communications. Initially, radio is the primary means of communication during
urban combat, but an increased use of wire, messenger, and visual signals will be
required. However, wire usually is the primary means of communication between the
forward observers, fire support team, fire direction center, and mortars since these
elements are close to each other. Also, FM radio transmissions in urban areas are likely to
be erratic. Structures reduce radio ranges; however, remoting the antennas to upper floors
or roofs may improve communications and enhance operator survivability. The use of


FM 3-21.94

radio retransmissions is another technique that may apply. A practical solution is to use
existing civilian systems to supplement the unit's capability, understanding that this is an
unsecure method of communication.

(c) Magnetic Interference. In an urban environment, all magnetic instruments are
affected by surrounding structural steel, electrical cables, and automobiles. Minimum
distance guidelines for the use of the M2 aiming circle (FM 23-90) are difficult to apply.
To overcome this problem, an azimuth is obtained to a distant aiming point. From this
azimuth, the back azimuth of the direction of fire is subtracted. The difference is indexed
on the red scale and the gun manipulated until the vertical cross hair of the sight is on the
aiming point. Features such as the direction of a street may be used instead of a distant
aiming point.

(d) High-Explosive Ammunition. During urban combat, mortar HE fires are used
more than any other type of indirect fire weapon. Although mortar fires often are targeted
against roads and other open areas, the natural dispersion of indirect fires will result in
many hits on buildings. Leaders must use care when planning mortar fires during urban
operations to minimize collateral damage.

• HE ammunition, especially the 120-mm projectile, gives good results when
used against lightly built structures within cities. However, it does not perform
well against reinforced concrete found in larger urban areas.

• When using HE ammunition in urban fighting, only point-detonating fuzes
should be used. The use of proximity fuzes normally should be avoided
because the nature of urban areas causes proximity fuzes to function
prematurely. Proximity fuzes, however, are useful in attacking some targets
such as OPs on tops of buildings.

(e) Illumination. In the offense, illuminating rounds are planned to burst above the
objective. If the illumination were behind the objective, the enemy troops would be in the
shadows rather than in the light. In the defense, illumination is planned to burst behind
friendly troops to put them in the shadows and place the enemy troops in the light.
Buildings reduce the effectiveness of the illumination by creating shadows. Continuous
illumination requires close coordination between the observer and fire direction center
(FDC) to produce the proper effect by bringing the illumination over the defensive
positions as the enemy troops approach the buildings (Figure 6-4, page 6-14).


FM 3-21 .94


Figure 6-4. Illumination during urban operations.

(f) Special Considerations. When planning the use of mortars, the reconnaissance
platoon leader must consider the following:

• Forward observers (FOs) should be positioned where they can get the
maximum observation so target acquisition and adjustments in fire can be best
accomplished. This is not necessarily on tops of buildings.

• The reconnaissance platoon leader must understand ammunition effects to
correctly estimate the number of volleys needed for the specific target
coverage. Also, the effects of using white phosphorus may create unwanted
smoke screens or limited visibility conditions that could interfere with the
tactical plan.

• Observers must be able to determine dead space in urban terrain. Dead space
is the area in which indirect fires cannot reach the street level because of
buildings. This area is a safe haven for the enemy. For mortars, the dead space
is about one-half the height of the building.

(2) Field Artillery. During urban combat, field artillery (FA) provides direct support
(DS), general support (GS), and general support-reinforcing (GS-R) to infantry units.


FM 3-21.94

(For further discussion on the employment of field artillery in urban terrain, see FM 3-

(a) When FA supports fighting in urban areas, fire support coordination measures
necessary to provide adequate yet safe support must be considered carefully due to the
close proximity of friendly forces to the enemy. When planning for fire support, leaders
should consider the following:

• The increased cover and concealment afforded by the terrain.

• Ground observation is limited in urban areas.

• Adjusting fires is difficult since buildings block the view of adjusting rounds.

• Acquiring targets is difficult in urban terrain because the enemy has many
covered and concealed positions and movement lanes.

• Forward observers must be able to determine where and how large the dead
spaces are.

• The use of air burst fires is an effective means of clearing snipers from

(b) Employing artillery in the direct- fire mode to destroy fortifications (Figure 6-5,
page 6-16) should be considered, especially when assaulting well-prepared enemy
positions. Also, restrictive fire support coordination measures, such as a restrictive fire
area or no-fire area, may be imposed to protect civilians and critical installations.

• The 155-mm self-propelled howitzer is extremely effective in neutralizing
concrete targets with direct fire.

• Concrete-piercing 155-mm rounds can penetrate 36 inches of concrete at
ranges up to 2,200 meters.

• When employing artillery in the direct-fire mode and maneuvering the self-
propelled howitzers within the urban area, it is important that the infantry
secure them because they do not have any significant protection for their


FM 3-21 .94

Figure 6-5. Artillery in direct fire role.

NOTE: When employing these weapon systems, leaders must be aware of the
explosive effects and fragmentation fallout as well as the blast-over pressure
and how these will affect the infantry on the ground. (For more specific
information on the effects of weapons, see FM 3-06.1 1.)

(3) Precision-Guided Munitions. The reconnaissance platoon must also be prepared
to employ precision-guided munitions from other sources, including Army artillery and
joint and allied military services. This may entail use of laser or infrared (IR) designator
equipment or use of special augmentation. The platoon leader must ensure that no-fire
areas (NFAs) are placed on all surveillance positions and that critical friendly zones are
coordinated along reconnaissance routes. The following are some fire support
considerations for urban operations; they are by no means all-inclusive:

• Identify who controls each fire support asset.

• Exchange fire plans and observer plans with adjacent units.

• Develop observer plans to include OPs in buildings, location of laser
designators, and overwatch of trigger points.

• Identify location of hazardous sites (both above and below ground), fuel and
industrial storage tanks, gas distribution lines, and any other area where
incendiary effects of detonating artillery and mortar rounds will start fires.

• Identify the general construction or composition of the buildings and road
surfaces (these may impact the type of munitions used).

• Determine where building masking, overhead power lines, or towers degrade
GPS and compass functioning.


FM 3-21.94

• Determine if use of obscurants and illumination will favor friendly units or the

• Determine whether buildings or structures will require fire support personnel
to carry or use equipment not normally carried (for example, field expedient
antennas, climbing rope, wire gloves, axes, or sledgehammers).

• Identify the requirements for radar coverage.

h. Combat Service Support. To preclude compromise, surveillance teams carry
required supplies into the area of operations on their vehicles. They avoid unnecessary
movement in their area of operations. Some missions, however, may require additional
supplies that cannot be carried on the vehicles. Resupply operations for deployed
surveillance teams are planned and coordinated during the planning phase.

(1) Resupply. When resupply is required, a drop point is established. It should be well
away from the hide site and the surveillance site, but in a position that is available to all
teams. Caches should be used in these instances. Units should standardize the contents of
caches so all teams understand what is available. Example items to be carried in the cache
include the following:

• Emergency Class I items.

• Batteries (radio/night vision devices [NVDs]).

• Class VIII items.

• Nonsensitive mission-specific items.

(2) Maintenance. In the urban area of operations, self-recovery within the platoon
will be necessary. Vehicles should have towing cables and shackles attached and be
configured for immediate recovery. The platoon identifies a secured maintenance
collection point outside the urban area during planning and coordinates with battalion for
maintenance support. All vehicle crews must know this location.

(3) Medical. Organic medical support in the reconnaissance platoon is limited to self
aid and buddy aid. Due to the remote deployment of teams, primary medical care is not
readily available. All soldiers should receive combat lifesaver and emergency medical
technician training.

(4) Medical Evacuation. Additional medical support is requested as needed. When
possible, medical evacuation of team members is delayed until the whole team is
evacuated from the area of operations. Wounded team members are sent directly to the
nearest medical facility that can provide definitive care and treatment. Combat stress is
another medical aspect with which reconnaissance teams must cope. Due to the nature of
reconnaissance missions, the teams are subjected to stress in many ways. Some of these
factors are listed below.

(a) Limited Visibility (darkness, smoke, fog, rain, snow, ice, and glare). This requires
the extended use of night-vision devices.

(b) Disrupted Sleep Cycles. Performance suffers from the disruption of the normal
sleep schedule.

(c) Mental Fatigue. This results from having to make decisions of serious
consequences in too little time with too little information while exposed to danger.

(d) Physical Fatigue. This results from conducting physical activity excessive to
current conditioning or at a strenuous level without rest.

(5) Combat Stress. Combat stress is not solely a medical problem. It is also a
command problem in terms of reduced performance and personnel lost from duty. It is a


FM 3-21 .94

command responsibility to take actions to increase the individual team member's
resistance to stress. This can be done through extensive training under simulated combat
conditions and a high level of physical fitness. Proper nutrition is also a major factor in
coping with stress. Soldiers should have a healthy, balanced diet not only during combat
operations but also before the mission begins.


The execution phase entails four key actions, which are examined in this section:

• Approach the urban AO .

• Employ dismounted surveillance teams.

• Conduct reconnaissance.

• Conduct assessment of the AO.


The platoon conducts information-gathering operations outside of the urban area to gain
information on the objective. Depending on the time available, the reconnaissance
platoon develops the urban situation progressively as it moves from the surrounding area
toward the city. The battalion may refine objectives and routes as it gains and analyzes
information. If available, TUAVs conduct aerial reconnaissance of routes and objective
areas. TUAVs focus on unit entry points to determine the enemy situation, including
obstacles in the urban area, ambush positions on rooftops, or movement of personnel and
vehicles as reconnaissance units approach.


The primary method of employing surveillance teams is in a hide or surveillance site.
However, the terrain, mission, and location of the site may dictate that the teams establish
a separate surveillance site (or sites) to effectively observe the area.

a. Hasty Sites. These are sites the team plans to occupy for a short period (generally
less than six hours). This occurs most often during target-acquisition missions.

b. Urban Surveillance Sites. Surveillance teams can construct fixed urban hide
sites in occupied and abandoned buildings, in water tanks, in shrubbery, on warehouse
rooftops, or in attics of multistory buildings or other tall structures. If possible, teams
should avoid wooden buildings and buildings in a significantly deteriorated condition
because of the risk of injury from fire and structural failure.

c. Hasty Subsurface Sites. A hasty subsurface site is constructed when there is not
enough time to construct a complete subsurface site. The site is especially useful when
there is little natural cover and concealment. Considerations in the employment of hasty
subsurface sites include the following:

• Lower profile than surface surveillance sites.

• Better protection against small-arms weapons and indirect fires.

• Excellent camouflage.

• Requirement to conceal soil.

• Greater time required to construct.

• Construction noise.


FM 3-21.94


The fundamentals of reconnaissance described in Chapter 4 are applicable in an urban
environment, but the type of information and the method by which it is collected takes on
a new form. The reconnaissance platoon develops an understanding of the regional, local,
and neighborhood-level situation. The soldiers must learn how the urban area operates
and who the sources of power or influence are. Examples include the following:

• The formal and informal political power structure.

• Police, secret police, and intelligence agencies.

• Criminal organizations.

• Military and paramilitary structures.

• Key terrain.

• Sensitivities of the populace.


The platoon leader receives and analyzes the information gathered by the reconnaissance
and surveillance teams. He then assesses the AO according to the mission and intent of
higher. The assessment includes, but is not limited to, these elements:

Enemy composition and activity.

Areas of vulnerability to friendly forces.

Key terrain.

Approach routes for mounted and dismounted forces.

Entry points or points of penetration.

Support positions for direct and indirect systems.

Civilian disposition.

Density and composition of urban area.

Hazard areas (fuel storage, natural gas lines, chemical production sites).

Communication facilities.

Retrans sites.

Intent of civilian populace (stay or flee).


The efforts of the reconnaissance platoon can be a critical factor in shaping the urban area
of operations and in maximizing the effectiveness of the battalion (and, therefore, the

a. Reconnaissance Platoon Tasks. A summary of the reconnaissance platoon's
tasks in the urban environment includes the following:

• Develop and distribute UO sketches.

• Reconnoiter recommended entry points and routes.

• Maintain surveillance on key objectives.

• Conduct target acquisition.

• Assist in isolation of the AO by conducting screening operations (or
establishing checkpoints) on the perimeter.

• Perform continuous information gathering during the operation. Especially
vital to the battalion effort is information on personnel attempting to leave or
enter the urban area.


FM 3-21 .94

b. Mission Accomplishment. The reconnaissance platoon achieves the end state of
its reconnaissance effort when two critical questions are answered:

• Is it essential to conduct operations in the urban environment?

• If so, how can the battalion employ combat power in the most efficient


The nature of urban operations makes it infantry-centric; however, the urban battle
should never be exclusively an infantry fight. A powerful combined arms team properly
employed in an urban area will enhance mission accomplishment. It is imperative that the
leadership of the reconnaissance platoon have a full understanding of the capabilities of
other supporting assets in order to successfully accomplish its reconnaissance mission in
urban terrain. This section discusses the more common combat multipliers available to
infantry units during the execution of UO.


Based on the considerations of the METT-TC analysis and the operational ROE, a
situation may arise that requires the attachment of tanks in direct support of the SBCT
infantry battalion mission. This paragraph discusses tactics and techniques used by
infantry units when working with armored vehicles.

a. Task Organization for Mechanized Operations. Leaders must understand the
principles of employing infantry and armor forces to maximize their capabilities and
ensure mutual support. Support from the armored vehicles enhances maneuver by the

(1) The infantry assists the mechanized forces by infiltrating to clear obstacles or key
enemy positions and to disrupt the enemy defense. It provides security for the armored
vehicles by detecting and suppressing or destroying enemy antitank weapons. It
designates targets and spots the impact of fires for tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles

(2) Mechanized forces support the infantry by moving with it along an axis of
advance and providing a protected, fast moving assault weapons system. They suppress
and destroy enemy weapons, bunkers, and tanks by fire and maneuver (Figure 6-6). They
also provide transport when the enemy situation permits.

(3) Armored vehicles should never be maneuvered individually. The smallest
maneuver level for armor is a section (two vehicles).


FM 3-21.94

Figure 6-6. Tank in direct support of infantry.

NOTE: For further discussion concerning the strengths, limitations, and employment
considerations of armor with the infantry, see FM 3-06.1 1.

b. Weapon System Considerations. While operating in concert with armored
forces, the infantry leader must be knowledgeable of the capabilities, limitations, and
effects of the armor weapon systems. He must understand the dangers these systems pose
to his soldiers when operating together and ensure that his soldiers are briefed about these
dangers. Figure 6-7, page 6-22, shows the difference in the capabilities of the BFV and
the M1A1/A2 tank with regard to fields of fire on urban terrain. Note that the BFV can
engage a target 9 to 10 stories high at 20 meters, whereas an M1A1/A2 tank requires 90

(1) Bradley Fighting Vehicles.

(a) The primary role of the BFV in an urban environment is to provide suppressive
fires and to breach exterior walls. The vehicle's armor-piercing rounds can be very useful
in urban terrain. They can penetrate concrete up to 16 inches thick and can easily
penetrate brick structures. They are highly effective against earthen- and sandbag-
reinforced structures.

(b) The BFV can elevate its 25-mm gun to about +60 degrees and depress the gun to
about -10 degrees.

(c) The crew has limited visibility to the sides and rear and no visibility to the top
when buttoned up.

(d) The BFV can be outfitted with an external phone hookup for communications
with accompanying infantry.

(e) The 25-mm gun, firing antipersonnel (AP), HE, and even target practice-tracer
(TP-T) rounds, can be used effectively against enemy-occupied buildings and

(2) Mi-Series Tanks.

(a) Normally, the primary ammunition for the main gun in the urban environment is
the high explosive antitank (HEAT) round. It is the most effective round against masonry
and will penetrate all but the thickest reinforced concrete. A HEAT round will create a


FM 3-21 .94

hole in masonry or concrete large enough for a man to fit through but will not cut the
reinforcing steel bars. A HEAT round is also effective against earthen- and sandbag-
reinforced strong points. A 120-mm HEAT round does not become armed until it is about
36 feet from the end of the gun tube.

(b) Multipurpose antitank (MP AT) rounds will penetrate masonry and concrete but
are less effective than HEAT rounds against heavier structures.

(c) Sabot ammunition has limited use against non-vehicular targets, and its discarding
petals endanger accompanying infantry. Sabot petals create a hazard area extending 70
meters on either side of the gun target line for a distance of one kilometer.

(d) The external M2 HB (cal. 50) machine gun can elevate to +36 degrees; however,
to fire the cal. 50 on the M1A2 Abrams, the tank commander must be exposed to enemy

9-1 Oth stor y





Figure 6-7. Fields of fire on urban terrain.

NOTE: When employing these weapon systems to support the infantry assault, leaders
must be aware of the explosive effects and fragmentation fallout as well as the
blast-over pressure and how these will affect the infantry on the ground. (For
more specific information on the effects of weapons, see FM 3-06.1 1.)


Normally an engineer squad will be attached to an infantry company. Most engineer
manual-labor tasks (for example, preparing fighting positions) will have to be completed
by infantry units with reinforcing engineer heavy-equipment support and technical
supervision. (For further discussion on the employment of engineers with the infantry,
see FM 3-06.11.)

a. Offensive Missions. During offensive operations, an engineer sapper team may
be attached to the reconnaissance platoon for specific missions. They may be required to
conduct the following tasks in support of the platoon:

• Use explosives to destroy fortifications and strong points that cannot be
reduced with the maneuver unit's organic assets.

• Locate and remove mines that may hamper the unit's movement.


FM 3-21.94

• Conduct breaching operations.

b. Defensive Missions. Engineers may perform the following tasks in support of the
platoon during the defense of an urban area:

• Construct complex obstacle systems.

• Assist in the preparation of defensive positions and strong points.

NOTE: When employing demolitions along side the infantry assault, leaders must be
aware of the explosive effects and fragmentation fallout as well as the blast-
over pressure and how these will affect the infantry on the ground. (For more
specific information on the effects of weapons, see FM 3-06.1 1.)


Infantry units may receive support by a variety of attack helicopters, including (but not
limited to) the AH-64A, AH-64D, OH-58D, and MH-6. Attack helicopters can provide
area fire to suppress targets and precision fire to destroy specific targets or breach
structures. Attack helicopters provide real-time reconnaissance information through
direct viewing of the area of operations. This facilitates the platoon leader's ability to
effectively coordinate and integrate all aspects of the mission. Attack helicopters can also
assist with ISR and close air support (CAS) integration and communications using their
advanced suite of sensors and radios. Other supporting helicopters, such as the UH-60,
CH-47, and MH-47, may also have weapons systems (7.62-mm machine gun, cal. 50
machine gun, 7.62-mm mini-gun) that aid in the suppression of enemy forces when
operating in urban terrain. Operational control of attack helicopter units will remain at
battalion level or higher; however, attack helicopters may conduct direct air-to-ground
coordination with companies and platoons during combat operations. (For further
discussion on the supporting role of the attack helicopter, see FM 1-114 and FM 3-


The tactical use of antiarmor weapons does not change in the urban environment but how
they are employed does change. Some employment limitations include—

• Stand-off.

• Displacement after engagements.

• Ability to fire in-depth engagements.

• More obstacles that may interfere with the flight of the AT weapons (such as
chicken wire in windows and or door ways, power lines.)

• Increased danger zones.

• All-round security.

For further discussion on the employment of antiarmor weapons in the urban
environment, see FM 3-06.1 1.

a. Although antiarmor weapons are primarily designed to destroy armored vehicles,
they also can be used to damage or destroy fortifications. Additionally, they can be used
for ballistic breaching of doorways and the walls of lightly constructed buildings to create
entry points. They also may be used for creating deceptions just before the assault
element enters the actual initial breach (entry) point. The larger systems (tube-launched,
optically tracked, wire-guided [TOW] missiles and Javelin) that have highly magnified


FM 3-21 .94

day and thermal sights can be used to detect snipers and to disrupt or kill them with long-
range missiles.

b. Engaging targets from an enclosure creates unique hazards. Before positioning
soldiers in enclosures (combat only), leaders must consider several factors that affect
safety. Only in combat, and when no other tactical option exists, should antiarmor
weapons be fired from an enclosure. If antiarmor weapons must be employed this way,
the enclosure must meet the following minimum requirements:

• Construction of wood or stucco buildings must be sturdy to reduce the damage
that will occur.

• All objects and debris must be removed from the rear of the weapon because
the backblast will cause loose objects to fly around the enclosure, possibly
injuring someone.

NOTE: When employing these weapon systems to support the infantry assault, leaders
must be aware of the explosive effects and fragmentation fallout as well as the
blast-over pressure and how these will affect the infantry on the ground. (For
more specific information on the effects of weapons, see FM 3-06.1 1.)


The characteristics of urban areas and the nature of urban warfare impact on both the
effectiveness of the sniper weapons system and how the system may be employed. The
sniper must consider the location of the target in relation to his position and whether he or
the target is inside or outside the building. The sniper also must consider the structural
configuration of the buildings in his area of operation. The basic classes of structures
encountered in an urban area are concrete, masonry, and wood. However, any one
building may include a combination of these materials. All buildings offer the sniper
concealment, though the degree of protection varies with the materials used.

a. Selecting Positions and Targets. Leaders will provide the sniper with the general
area of operation (building or group of buildings) in which to position, but the sniper
selects the best position for his specific engagements. Sniper positions should cover-


Friendly routes.

Likely avenues of approach.

Gaps in the final protective fires.

Dead space.

Other areas that may provide the enemy an advantage.

The sniper also selects numerous alternate and supplementary positions to cover his areas
of responsibility. The sniper should think three-dimensionally. Because the urban
environment poses a three-dimensional battlespace, the sniper should anticipate the threat
from any direction at any time.

b. Offensive Missions. Offensive operations carry the fight to the enemy to destroy
his capability and will to fight. The sniper can prove to be a key combat multiplier by
neutralizing enemy targets that threaten the success of the attack. During offensive
operations snipers—


FM 3-21.94

• Conduct countersniper operations.

• Overwatch movement of friendly forces and suppress enemy targets that
threaten the moving forces.

• Place precision fire on enemy crew-served weapons teams and into exposed
apertures of bunkers.

• Place precision fire on enemy leaders, armored vehicle drivers or
commanders, FOs, radiotelephone operators (RATELOs), or other designated

• Place precision fire on small, isolated, bypassed elements.

• Place precision fire on enemy forces that are withdrawing or threatening a

• Assist in screening a flank using supplemental fires.

• Dominate key terrain by controlling access with fires.

(1) To increase security and surprise, snipers must move covertly into position in an
objective area long before the main attack forces arrive. Once the assault begins, snipers
may need to reposition due to masking of fires by friendly forces. A detailed evaluation
must be made when determining where and how the snipers would be most beneficial to
the mission.

(2) Upon consolidation of forces on the objective area, the snipers may be displaced
forward to new positions for security. These positions may not necessarily be on the
objective. From these positions the snipers conduct observation and provide early
warning to the friendly unit. They also will provide precision fire against bypassed enemy
positions, enemy counterattacks, or other enemy positions that could impede the unit's
ability to exploit the success of the mission.

c. Defensive Operations. When employed properly, snipers can effectively enhance
a commander's defensive fire plan. After analyzing the terrain, snipers should provide the
commander with recommendations for their employment. Snipers are capable of
performing the following tasks during defensive operations:

• Cover obstacles, minefields, roadblocks, and pre-positioned demolitions.

• Perform counterreconnaissance (terminate enemy reconnaissance efforts).

• Engage enemy OPs, exposed armored vehicle commanders, and AT weapons

• Engage enemy vehicles' optics to degrade vision and disrupt movement.

• Engage enemy crew-served weapons.

• Disrupt follow-on units with long-range precision fire.

(1) Snipers should be positioned to cover one or more avenues of approach into the
defensive position. They can be used to enhance security, allowing the platoon leader to
concentrate his combat power against the most likely enemy avenue of approach. Snipers,
with their optics for target acquisition and their long-range engagement capability, will
compliment the unit's machine guns. Snipers also may be used in an economy-of-force
role to cover a dismounted enemy avenue of approach into positions the unit cannot

(2) Multiple sniper teams can be positioned for surveillance and mutual support. If
possible, they should establish positions in depth for continuous support during the fight.
The sniper's rate of fire neither increases nor decreases as the enemy approaches.


FM 3-21 .94

Specific targets are systematically and deliberately engaged; accuracy is never sacrificed
for speed.

(3) When supporting a strongpoint defense, the sniper teams should be positioned
outside the defensive position to allow for freedom of movement. Their primary mission
is to conduct observation tasks or independent harassing engagements against enemy
reconnaissance elements or induce the enemy to move into a predetermined engagement


FM 3-21.94



Tactical enabling operations are specialized missions that are planned
and conducted to achieve or sustain a tactical advantage and that are
executed as part of an offensive, defensive, stability, or support mission. In
addition to reconnaissance, surveillance, and screens, the reconnaissance
platoon may assist the battalion in occupying assembly areas and may
participate in air assault operations and in conducting passage of lines,
linkups, and relief -in-place missions. The complexity of these operations
requires special planning and training considerations. In providing this
specialized support, the reconnaissance platoon follows standardized
procedures. This chapter discusses the role of the reconnaissance platoon
and establishes techniques and procedures for these specialized missions.


Linkup is an operation that entails the meeting of friendly ground forces (or their leaders
or designated representatives). The platoon conducts linkup activities independently or as
part of a larger force. Within a larger unit, the reconnaissance platoon may lead the
linkup force. Linkup operations may occur during the following situations, among others:

• Advancing forces reaching an objective area previously secured by air assault,
airborne, or infiltrating forces.

• Units conducting coordination for a relief in place.

• Cross-attached units moving to join their new organization.

• Units moving forward during a follow and support mission with a fixing

• A unit moving to assist an encircled force.

• Units converging on the same objective during the attack.

• Units conducting a passage of lines.

• Units conducting reconnaissance forward of the main body.

a. Phases of the Linkup Operation. The linkup consists of three phases.

(1) Phase 1, Far Recognition Signal. The units or elements involved in the linkup
establish communications before they reach direct-fire range. The lead element of each
linkup force monitors the communications channels of the other friendly element.

(2) Phase 2, Coordination. Before initiating movement to the linkup point, the
elements must coordinate necessary tactical information to include the following:

Command relationship.

Known enemy situation.

Type and number of friendly vehicles.

Disposition of stationary forces (if either unit is stationary).

Routes to the linkup point and rally point (if used).

Fire control measures.

Near recognition signal(s).

Communications information.

CS coverage.


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• CSS responsibilities and procedures.

• Finalized location of the linkup point and rally point (if used).

• Any special coordination such as maneuver instructions or requests for medical

• Visual linkup signals or alternate locations for linkup due to contact.

(3) Phase 3. Movement to the Linkup Point and Linkup. All units or elements
involved in the linkup must enforce strict fire control measures to help prevent fratricide.
Linkup points and restrictive fire lines must be recognizable by moving and converging
forces. Linkup elements take these actions:

• Conduct far recognition using FBCB2 or FM radio.

• Conduct short-range (near) recognition using the designated signal.

• Complete movement to the linkup point.

• Establish local security at the linkup point.

• Conduct additional coordination and linkup activities as necessary.

b. Planning Considerations. When planning a linkup, the reconnaissance platoon
leader follows standard troop-leading procedures. Digitization assists units in transferring
information and using common graphics between the two units conducting the linkup.
Both units exchange digital graphics before the actual linkup.

(1) To aid navigation and fratricide prevention, the RV's navigation system allows
constant tactical situational updates between elements conducting the linkup operation.
For example, the moving element or vehicle can monitor the location of the stationary
unit and linkup site using the position updates and digital graphics displayed on the
commander's tactical display or land warrior system. Furthermore, the stationary unit can
monitor the moving unit's location as it moves along the prescribed route to the linkup
point by monitoring position updates on the CTD or LW system. As the moving force
closes on the linkup site, the stationary force is more aware of its presence and location,
thus reducing the possibility of fratricide. The moving unit does the same type of
monitoring to reduce fratricide potential.

(2) In addition to digital equipment, OTN equipment also enhances execution of the
linkup operations and reduces the likelihood of fratricide by use of night vision devices.

(3) Once the moving unit arrives close to the linkup location, the stationary unit
should challenge it digitally, visually, or with audible sounds. For example, the stationary
unit can give the moving unit a series of flashes using an infrared source during limited
visibility. The moving force responds with a pre-coordinated number of flashes. The two
units may also use a digital or verbal challenge and response.


A passage of lines is an operation in which one element passes through the position of
another. The direction of travel relative to the enemy determines whether a passage is
forward or rearward. An example of a rearward passage is a covering force withdrawing
through the forward edge of the main battle area (MBA). An example of a forward
passage is an exploitation force moving through the element that initially conducted the
attack in order to relieve it. As part of a passage of lines, the reconnaissance platoon
conducts liaisons, provides guides, reconnoiters routes, and establishes screens. Once the
reconnaissance platoon leader knows the commander's requirement, he assigns specific
missions to the sections. The platoon leader should locate where he can monitor and


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control the actions of the platoon. Each section must know the sequence of events, the
times they will occur, and the exact location of the passage. The platoon leader ensures
the section knows whether it must link up with the platoon leader or execute the follow-
on mission. The controlling headquarters is responsible for planning and coordinating a
passage of lines involving the platoon. In some situations, as when the platoon is using
multiple passage routes (such as a separate route for each section or team), the platoon
leader must take responsibility for planning and coordinating each phase of the operation.

a. Planning Considerations. In planning passage of lines, the reconnaissance
platoon leader must consider the following tactical factors and procedures:

(1) The passage should facilitate transition to follow-on missions through the use of
multiple lanes or lanes wide enough to support doctrinal formations for the passing units.

(2) Deception techniques, such as the use of smoke, may be employed to enhance
security during the passage. The controlling commander must clearly define the battle
handover criteria and procedures used during the passage. His order should cover the
roles of both the passing unit and the stationary unit and the use of direct and indirect
fires. If necessary, he also specifies the location of the battle handover line (BHL) as part
of the unit's graphic control measures. For a forward passage, the BHL is normally the
LD for the passing force. In a rearward passage, it is normally a location in direct fire
range of the stationary force. In general, a defensive handover is complete when the
passing unit is clear and the stationary unit is ready to engage the enemy. Offensive
handover is complete when the passing unit has deployed and crossed the BHL.

(3) The passing and stationary units coordinate obstacle information including the
locations of enemy and friendly obstacles, existing lanes and bypasses, and guides for the

(4) Responsibility for CSS actions such as vehicle recovery or casualty evacuation in
the passage lane must be clearly defined for both passing and stationary units.

(5) To enhance command and control during the passage, the platoon will collocate a
command and control element, normally the platoon leader or platoon sergeant, with a
similar element from the stationary or moving unit.

b. Reconnaissance and Coordination. Detailed reconnaissance and coordination
are critical in a passage of lines, both in dealing with the planning factors outlined
previously and in ensuring the passage is conducted quickly and smoothly. The platoon
leader normally conducts all necessary reconnaissance and coordination for the passage.
At times, he may designate the platoon sergeant or section leader to conduct liaison
duties for reconnaissance and coordination. Items of information to coordinate include—

• Unit designation and composition; type and number of passing vehicles and

• Passing unit arrival time(s).

• Location of attack positions or assembly areas (should be confirmed by

• Current enemy situation.

• Obstacles.

• Stationary unit's mission and plan (to include OP, patrol, and obstacle

• Location of movement routes, contact points, passage points, and passage


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• Guide requirements.

• Order of march.

• Anticipated actions on enemy contact.

• Requirements for supporting direct and indirect fires, including the location.

• NBC conditions.

• Available CS and CSS assets and their locations.

• Communications information (to include frequencies, digital data, and near
and far recognition signals).

• Criteria for battle handover and location of the BHL.

c. Forward Passage of Lines. In a forward passage, the passing unit first moves to
an assembly area or an attack position behind the stationary unit. Designated liaison
personnel move forward to link up with guides and confirm coordination information
with the stationary unit. Guides lead the passing elements through the passage lane.

(1) The platoon conducts a forward passage by employing tactical movement. It
moves quickly, uses appropriate dispersal and formations whenever possible, and keeps
radio traffic to a minimum.

(2) The platoon holds its fire until it passes the BHL or designated fire control
measure unless the commander has coordinated fire control with the stationary unit. Once
clear of passage lane restrictions, the unit consolidates at a rally point or attack position
and conducts tactical movement in accordance with its orders.

d. Rearward Passage of Lines. Because of the increased risk of fratricide during a
rearward passage, coordination of recognition signals and fire restrictions is critical. The
passing unit contacts the stationary unit while it is still beyond direct fire range and
conducts coordination as discussed previously. The platoon emphasizes near recognition
signals and location of the BHL and may use additional fire control measures such as
NFAs to further minimize the risk of fratricide. After coordination, the passing unit
continues tactical movement toward the passage lane. If the stationary unit provides
guides, the passing unit may conduct a short halt to link up and coordinate with them.
The passing unit moves quickly through the passage lane to a designated location behind
the stationary unit.


A relief in place is an operation in which one force replaces another. A relief-in-place
operation is planned, coordinated, and controlled at battalion. The battalion commander
or S3 determines the role of the reconnaissance platoon during a relief. The platoon
normally provides guides, conducts initial coordination, and relieves the outgoing force's
reconnaissance platoon. Before they relieve the outgoing force's reconnaissance platoon,
the platoon assists with relief of other elements.

a. Planning Considerations. In planning a relief in place, the platoon leader—

• Issues a FRAGO.

• Uses an advance party composed of key leaders to conduct detailed
reconnaissance and coordination.

• As the relieving unit, adopts the outgoing unit's normal pattern of activity as
much as possible.

• As the relieving unit, determines when the platoon will assume responsibility
for the outgoing unit's position.


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• As the relieving unit, collocates platoon headquarters with the relieved unit's

• Maximizes OPSEC to prevent the enemy from detecting the relief operation.

• Plans to transfer excess ammunition, wire, petroleum, oil, lubricants, (POL)
and other material of tactical value to the incoming unit

• Controls movement by reconnoitering, designating, and marking routes and
providing guides.

b. Coordination. The incoming and outgoing leaders must meet to exchange tactical
information, conduct a joint reconnaissance of the area, and complete other required
coordination for the relief. The two leaders must address passage of command and jointly
develop contingency actions for enemy contact during the relief. This process will
normally include coordination of—

• Location of vehicle and dismounted OPs (to include hide, alternate, and
supplementary positions).

• Enemy situation.

• The outgoing unit's tactical plan, to include graphics, platoon and section fire
plans, and individual vehicles' sector sketches.

• Fire support coordination, including indirect fire plans and the time of relief
for supporting artillery and mortar units.

• Types of weapons systems being replaced.

• Time, sequence, and method of relief.

• Location and disposition of obstacles and what time responsibility will be

• Supplies and equipment to be transferred.

• Movement control, route priority, and placement of guides.

• Command and signal information.

• Maintenance, logistical support, and evacuation, if necessary, for disabled

c. Conduct of the Relief. The outgoing leader retains responsibility for the area of
operations and the mission. He exercises operational control over all subordinate
elements of the incoming unit completing their portion of the relief. Responsibility can
pass to the incoming commander when all elements of the outgoing unit are relieved and
adequate communications are established. Relief of individual elements can be conducted
in one of two ways:

(1) By Alternate Element Position. The relieving element occupies a position
separate from the relieved element.

(2) By Alternate Vehicle Position or OP. The relieving element occupies vehicle
positions or OPs in the same zone or sector as the relieved element. There are two relief
methods: sequential (elements relieved one at a time) and simultaneous (all elements
relieved at one time):

(a) Sequential. This is the most time-consuming method. The relieving unit moves to
an assembly area to the rear of the unit to be relieved. Subordinate elements are relieved
one at a time, in any order, with the relief generally following this sequence:


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• The outgoing and incoming units collocate their headquarters to facilitate
command and control and transfer of equipment, ammunition, fuel, and water.

• The first element being relieved (such as a team) moves to its alternate vehicle
position or OP while the relieving element moves into the outgoing element's
primary positions. The incoming element occupies the appropriate positions.

• Incoming and outgoing elements complete the transfer of equipment and

• The relieved element moves to the designated assembly area behind the

• Once each outgoing element clears the release point en route to its assembly
area, the next relieving element moves forward.

(b) Simultaneous. This is the fastest but least secure method. All outgoing elements
are relieved at once, with the incoming unit normally occupying existing positions. The
relief takes place in this general sequence:

• Outgoing elements move to their alternate OPs or vehicle positions.

• Incoming elements move along designated routes to the outgoing elements'
primary positions.

• Units complete the transfer of equipment and supplies.

• Relieved elements move to the designated unit assembly area.


Stay-behind operations can be used as a part of defend or delay missions. In the defense,
once the enemy's combat units have passed, his weakest point (CS and CSS units) can be

a. Types. The two types of stay-behind operations are unplanned and deliberate.

(1) An unplanned stay-behind operation is one in which a unit finds itself cut off from
other friendly elements for an indefinite time without specific planning or targets and
must rely on its organic assets.

(2) A deliberate stay-behind operation is one in which a unit plans to operate in an
enemy-controlled area as a separate and cohesive element for a certain amount of time or
until a specified event occurs. This type of operation requires extensive planning. The
reconnaissance platoon and sections normally conduct planned stay-behind operations as
part of larger units.

b. Planning. During troop-leading procedures, the planners must consider the

(1) Task Organization. The stay -behind unit includes only the soldiers and
equipment needed for the mission. It needs minimal logistics support and can provide its
own security. It must be able to hide easily and move through restricted terrain. RVs may
or may not be a part of the stay-behind forces.

(2) Reconnaissance. This is most important in a stay-behind operation. Reporting
tasks and information requirements can include suitable sites for patrol bases, hide
positions, OPs, caches, water sources, dismounted and mounted avenues of approach, kill
zones, engagement areas, and covered and concealed approach routes.

(3) Combat Service Support. Because the stay-behind unit will not be in physical
contact with its supporting unit, supplies of rations, ammunition, radio batteries, water,


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and medical supplies are cached. The controlling headquarters establishes provisions for
casualty and enemy prisoner of war (EPW) evacuation.


The battalion's tactical plan may require the reconnaissance platoon to participate in air
assault operations. The platoon has the ability to be airlifted as part of a larger operation,
but it does not have the resources to plan the overall operation. The battalion is the lowest
level with sufficient personnel to plan, coordinate, and control an air assault operation.
When company-size or lower operations are conducted, the planning takes place at
battalion or higher headquarters. (Refer to FM 90-4 for more information.) Successful air
assault execution is based on a careful analysis of METT-TC and detailed, precise reverse
planning. The basic plans comprising the reverse planning sequence developed for each
air assault operation are the ground tactical plan, landing plan, air movement plan,
loading plan, and staging plan. The battalion staff normally coordinates and develops
these plans to make the best use of available time. If time is limited, planning steps may
be compressed or conducted concurrently; detailed plans and orders may be SOPs or
lessons learned in training.

a. Ground Tactical Plan. The foundation of a successful air assault operation is the
commander's ground tactical plan, around which subsequent planning is based. The
ground tactical plan specifies actions in the objective area to accomplish the mission and
address subsequent operations. The ground tactical plan contains essentially the same
elements as for any other infantry attack but capitalizes on speed and mobility to achieve

b. Landing Plan. The landing plan must support the ground tactical plan. This plan
sequences elements into the AO, ensuring platoons arrive at designated locations and
times prepared to execute the ground tactical plan.

c. Air Movement Plan. The air movement plan is based on the ground tactical and
landing plans. It specifies the schedule and provides instructions for air movement of
soldiers, equipment, and supplies from PZs and LZs.

d. Loading Plan. The loading plan is based on the movement plan. It ensures
soldiers, equipment, and supplies are loaded on the correct aircraft. Planners of aircraft
loads maintain platoon integrity, if possible. Cross loading may be necessary to ensure
command and control assets and the weapons arrive at the LZ intact and ready to fight.
The platoon or section leader should always ensure the aircraft is loaded so dismounting
soldiers react promptly and contribute to mission accomplishment. The platoon leader
must have a bump plan to ensure essential soldiers and equipment are loaded ahead of
less critical loads in case of aircraft breakdown or other problems.

e. Staging Plan. The staging plan is based on the loading plan and prescribes the
arrival time of ground units (soldiers, equipment, and supplies) at the PZ in the order of
movement. The staging plan includes the disposition of the vehicles left in the staging
area and the platoon's linkup plan on return from the air assault mission.

(1) Disposition of Vehicles. The platoon leader must develop a security plan for the
vehicles in the staging area to last until the air assault mission is complete and the platoon
returns to the LZ. The security plan can be as simple as a coil or herringbone formation
for the platoon, or the platoon may be part of a larger unit's modified perimeter defense.
The security plan also includes instructions for linkup of the platoon with its vehicles.


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(2) Linkup of Vehicles. The platoon leader's linkup plan must be just as detailed as
the staging and loading plan. To simplify the linkup, the platoon leader must maintain
platoon integrity as much as possible. The platoon leader or company commander should
designate a linkup point for each unit to link up with its vehicles on landing. As the
aircrafts land, the units immediately move to their linkup point to continue the mission.


An assembly area is a site where a unit regroups or prepares for future operations. SOPs
cover most situations in which a unit occupies an assembly area. Normally, a
reconnaissance platoon occupies an assembly area as part of its parent unit, but it may
occupy one independently. A battalion occupies an assembly area for security while
preparing for future operations. The requirements of the reconnaissance platoon vary
according to the SOP, but the platoon normally receives the task to locate, clear, and
assist in the orderly occupation of an assembly area. The platoon precedes the battalion's
quartering party. It assesses the assembly area's suitability for occupation and, most
importantly, determines whether the enemy is in the area. Once in the assembly area, the
platoon prepares and issues orders, conducts resupply operations, repairs and maintains
vehicles and equipment, and feeds and rests its soldiers.

a. Characteristics. The battalion commander often directs the reconnaissance
platoon to find, secure, and occupy an assembly area. The reconnaissance platoon looks
for certain characteristics when selecting the assembly area:

• Concealment from overhead observation.

• Cover from direct fire.

• Good drainage and ground that will support the platoon's and parent unit's

• Adequate entrances, exits, and internal roads.

• Enough space for adequate dispersion of vehicles, personnel, and equipment.

• Adequate defensibility and fields of fire.

b. Quartering Party Responsibilities. As part of its parent unit or on its own, the
reconnaissance platoon may assume quartering party duties. Understanding these duties
makes occupying the assembly area much easier. The quartering party's mission is to
reconnoiter the area for enemy presence and booby traps, designate vehicle locations,
prepare the area for occupation, and assist units with occupation.

(1) Reconnoiter the Area. The battalion quartering party conducts a reconnaissance
of the assembly area to find enemy forces, obstacles, and NBC contamination. To prevent
enemy infiltration, the quartering party establishes OPs or security patrols to secure the
area. If the enemy situation warrants, the PL or PSG may enlarge the quartering party by
adding security personnel, which frees more soldiers to organize and mark the assembly

(2) Determine Suitability of Assembly Area. After the quartering party secures the
area, the quartering party officer in charge (OIC) or noncommissioned officer in charge
(NCOIC) conducts a reconnaissance to verify its suitability and to position guides and
markings. They can do this along with the initial area reconnaissance. When checking the
position for suitability, the quartering party analyzes—

• Cover and concealment.

• Drainage.


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• Routes into and out of the area.

• Internal routes.

• Defensibility.

• Fields of fire.

(3) Search for Alternate. If the area is unsatisfactory, the reconnaissance element
immediately starts looking for an alternate site to recommend to the commander. The
OIC or NCOIC should contact the commander at once to report his actions and
recommendations and to request further instructions.

(4) Organize the Area. The quartering party designates positions on the ground for
the various elements within the assembly area. It chooses sites consistent with the
commander's guidance, unit SOP, and follow-on missions. The quartering party also
chooses frontages for the various elements. The frontages must allow for terrain
considerations and adequate defensive coverage.

(5) Improve and Mark Entrances, Exits, and Internal Routes. Once the quartering
party organizes the assembly area, it marks positions. It also reconno iters and marks
routes from the RP to the assembly area. To facilitate easy movement, it marks well the
actual entrance and exit for the assembly area. To prevent excessive movement that could
create a large unit signature, it designates and marks internal routes. Unit SOP should
dictate the marking system used; examples include chemlights, engineer tape, unit
tactical signs, flashlights, VS-17 panels, and thermal tape.

(6) Mark or Remove Obstacles and Mines. Ideally, the battalion commander should
know whether the enemy is or has been in the proposed area. He may suspect the
presence of mines or CBUs in the assembly area and plan for obstacle and mine
clearance. Then, before the quartering party departs, the battalion commander sends
combat engineers to check the area with mine-detecting equipment, which may include
pioneer tools, demolitions, or engineer vehicles. He must allow sufficient time for the
quartering party to finish before the main body arrives. If the area selected contains
numerous obstacles, the battalion commander should choose another area to reconnoiter.

(7) Prepare Assembly Area. The quartering party prepares the assembly area to make
the occupation of the new positions swift and efficient. The guides are positioned
between the RP and the assembly area entrance so that they can meet their unit as it
crosses the RP. They must know the proper route from the RP to the new positions to
quickly move their unit through the RP and into the assembly area. Once in the new area,
the guides direct the vehicles to their tentative positions.

(8) Accomplish Additional Assigned Tasks. If the battalion commander assigns other
tasks, the quartering party performs them as well. The commander should prioritize these
tasks. If he does not, the quartering party leader ranks the tasks from most to least
important. Additional tasks might include establishing priorities of work, providing
security for the command group, testing firing weapons, and aiding in traffic control.

c. Occupation of the Assembly Area. When a unit arrives at an assembly area, all
elements move off the route of march and clear the RP without slowing or halting. The
platoon leader should keep this in mind as he posts guides, selects routes, and allocates
space in the assembly area. After a march serial clears the route, it can adjust vehicle
positions without holding up traffic.


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d. Actions in the Assembly Area. As soon as the reconnaissance platoon occupies
its area, it executes the following priority of tasks:

(1) Positions vehicles.

(2) Establishes local security.

(3) Establishes lateral contact with vehicles on the flanks.

(4) Develops range cards or sector sketches.

(5) Camouflages positions.

(6) Performs preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS).

(7) Enforces security. Assembly areas require constant security, especially noise and
light discipline and limiting vehicular access to the assembly area. As soon as it is in
position, the platoon replaces initial local security with OPs.

e. Departure from the Assembly Area. Departing an assembly area is a critical
and often overlooked task. A well-organized departure sets the reconnaissance platoon up
for its next mission. A poorly organized departure can cause delays and other problems
that may adversely affect the reconnaissance platoon's mission before it begins. The
departure requires thorough planning and preparation, including a walk-through
rehearsal. As part of the preparation, a thorough police call must be conducted. This
ensures that all evidence of the unit's occupation is removed and denies the enemy any
equipment, supplies, or other items that might be of tactical or intelligence value. Leaders
must carefully supervise execution of the departure to ensure that no delays occur.


FM 3-21.94



The battalion commander is responsible for effective combat support.
Mortars, artillery, air defense artillery, combat engineers, and aviation
assets provide CS for the platoon. The battalion commander decides how
to employ assets based on his estimate of the situation. He attaches
supporting elements to the SBCT infantry reconnaissance platoon, or he
places CS elements under operational control, in direct support, or in
general support of the platoon. The reconnaissance platoon leader must
know the employment considerations and abilities of all CS assets.


Fire support is the collective and coordinated use of indirect fire weapons and armed
aircraft in support of the battle plan. Fire support assets include mortars, field artillery
cannons and rockets, Army aviation, close air support, and naval surface fire support.
Support can be lethal or non-lethal (smoke or illumination). Indirect fire support
procedures do not change significantly with the infantry carrier vehicle- (ICV) equipped
infantry battalion except that fire support should be more responsive. Additionally, the
mortars organic to the battalion provide the earliest and most responsive fires to the
reconnaissance platoon.


Digitization improves the reconnaissance platoon's ability to conduct fire support
planning. The platoon leader receives the battalion indirect fire plan on his CTD as soon
as the battalion FSO enters it into the database on his hand-held terminal unit (HTU). No
longer must the reconnaissance platoon leader wait until the final OPORD is issued to
receive the fire support overlay.

a. The platoon leader calls up the operational graphics and the latest enemy
situational graphics to aid with his planning, enters the platoon's proposed targets into his
CTD, and forwards them to the battalion FSO. The FSO reviews the proposed targets
with the battalion S3. The S3 accepts, rejects, or adjusts the platoon leader's proposed
targets and forwards to the battalion commander for his approval.

(1) If the battalion commander accepts or adjusts the targets, he incorporates them
into the battalion fire support plan and forwards the targets to the brigade FSO.

(2) It is the FSO's responsibility to clean up the digital fire support graphics. The
FSO ensures only valid targets remain on the digital fire support graphics.

b. Once the battalion and company finalize the targets, the battalion FSO puts out a
net call to inform the platoon leader that the fire support graphics are finalized. All
leaders must review the digital fire support graphics so they are familiar with any changes
and to ensure graphics are updated for subsequent fire missions

c. Fire support planning is conducted concurrently with maneuver planning at all
levels. Battalions typically use top-down fire support planning with bottom-up refinement
of the plans. The battalion commander develops guidance for fire support in terms of task
and purpose. In turn, the fire support planner determines the method to be used in


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accomplishing each task. He also specifies an end state that quantifies task

d. Individual fire support assets incorporate assigned tasks into their fire plans. Units
tasked to initiate fires must refine and rehearse their assigned task. This means the
platoon leader refines the platoon's assigned portion of the fire support plan to ensure the
designated targets will achieve the intended purpose. He also conducts rehearsals to
prepare for the mission and, as specified in the plan, directs the platoon to execute its
assigned targets.


A clearly defined maneuver purpose enables the maneuver commander to articulate
precisely how he wants indirect fire to affect the enemy during different portions of the
battle. This in turn allows fire support planners to develop an effective plan to support the
intended purpose. They can determine each required task (in terms of effects on target),
the best method for accomplishing each task (in terms of a fire support asset and its fire
capabilities), and a means of quantifying accomplishment.

A carefully developed method of fire is equally valuable during execution of the fire
support mission; it assists not only the firing elements but also the observers responsible
for monitoring the effects of the indirect fires. With a clear understanding of the intended
effects, fire support assets and observers can work together effectively, planning and
adjusting fires as necessary to achieve the desired effects on the enemy. The following
paragraphs describe several types of targeting effects associated with fire support tasks.

a. Final Protective Fire Planning. Final protective fires (FPFs) are designed to
create a final barrier, or "steel curtain," to prevent a dismounted enemy from moving
across defensive lines. They are fires of last resort and take priority over all other fires.
The employment of FPFs presents several potential problems. They are linear fires, with
coverage dependent on the firing sheaf of the fire support asset(s). In addition, while
FPFs may create a barrier against penetration by enemy infantry, armored vehicles may
simply button up and move through the fires into the friendly defensive position. FPFs
are planned targets with a clearly defined purpose. FPF planning is normally delegated to
the company that is allocated the support.

b. Target Refinement. The platoon leader is responsible for employing indirect
fires in his zone or sector. The most critical aspect of this responsibility is target
refinement, in which he makes changes to the fire support plan to ensure targets
accomplish the battalion commander's intended battlefield purpose. Rather than merely
executing targets without regard to the actual enemy situation, the platoon leader must be
ready to support the commander's intent by adjusting existing targets or nominating new
targets that will allow engagement of specific enemy forces.

c. Fire Support Preparation. As noted, although the battalion commander
establishes target tasks and purposes and allocates appropriate fire support assets, the
platoon leader must ensure execution of assigned targets. Successful execution demands
detailed preparation that focuses on areas covered in the following paragraphs.

(1) Observation Plan. In developing the observation plan, the platoon leader must
ensure both a primary observer and an alternate observer for redundancy to cover all
targets. The plan must provide clear, precise guidance for the observers. Positioning is
perhaps the most important aspect of the plan.


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(a) Observers' positions must allow them to see the trigger for initiating fires as well
as the target area and the enemy forces on which the target is oriented. The platoon leader
also must consider other aspects of observer capabilities including available equipment,
communication, and security of the teams.

(b) In addition to providing the specific guidance outlined in the observation plan, the
platoon leader must ensure each observer understands the target task and the purpose. For
example, observers must understand that once the first round impacts, the original target
location is of no consequence. They must orient on the targeted enemy force to ensure
that fires achieve the intended battlefield purpose.

(2) Rehearsals. The platoon leader is responsible for involving his observers in
platoon- and battalion-level rehearsals. He also should use rehearsals to ensure the
platoon's primary and backup communications systems adequately support the plan.

(3) Target Adjustment In the defense, the commander should confirm target location
by adjusting fires as part of engagement area development.


The main indirect fire support available to the reconnaissance platoon includes mortars
and field artillery (Table 8-1, page 8-4). This section discusses the responsibilities,
considerations, and procedures for employing all the indirect-fire assets supporting the
platoon. (FM 6-30 discusses in detail how to call for and adjust indirect fires.)


FM 3-21.94

81 -mm




81 -mm




155 -mm























RANGE (m):






HE M760




































30 RPM

15 RPM





























FIRE (rd/min):







RANGE (m):

























AP - Armor Piercing

MO - Multioption - VT, PD, DLY

APICM - Antipersonne

)l Improved

MT - Mechanical Time

Conventional Muniti


MTSQ - Mechanical Time Super Quick

CHEM -Chemical

NUC - Nuclear

CP - Concrete Piercin


PD - Point Detonating

CPHD - Copperhead

RAP - Rocket Assisted Projectile

DLY - Delay

RD - Round

DPICM - Dual Purpos

e Improved

RP - Red Phosphorus

Conventional Muniti


RPM - Rounds per Minute

FASCAM - Family of J

icatterable Mines

SMK -Smoke

HE - High Explosive

TIME - Adjustable Time Delay

HEP-T - High Explosiv

/e Plastic Tracer

VT - Variable Time

ILLUM - Illumination

WP - White Phosphorus

MIN - Minute

Table 8-1. Indirect fire weapons capabilities.


The fire-planning process begins at higher echelons and continues down through the
company FSOs and other key personnel, to include the reconnaissance platoon leader.
The effectiveness of this process depends on continuous interaction and feedback from
the lower echelons upward. Key functions include refinement and confirmation of target
locations and execution of events. Specific responsibilities include those listed on the fire
support execution matrix. The matrix shows the leader who bears responsibility for each


FM 3-21.94

target, when the responsible party should execute the target, and what means (artillery,
mortars, CAS) he or they should use. Table 8-2 shows an example of a battalion fire
support execution matrix. It shows maneuver elements along the left side and the
different phases of the mission along the top. It shows the platoon's role throughout the
operation. The preparer should always include the platoon as a subunit in the matrix.







(Set conditions for

(B Company

(C Company



breach from SBF 01 )




AE0001 (PK

AE0002 (PK

O/O shift

O/O lift AE0003.




AE0001 to
AE0003 (PK
10204810) and
lift AE0002.



Mortar smoke.




Recon platoon

FSO (primary)/ 1st

AE0003: FSO

FSO (primary)/ 3d


will initially call

platoon leader

(primary)/ 2d

platoon leader

for and adjust


platoon leader


fires; FSO


adjusts upon

arrival at SBF;

1st platoon

leader is backup.


C Company

On-call at SBF.

B Company

C Company

crosses PL

crosses PL




consolidation on


Disrupt enemy on

Obscure enemy to

Disrupt MRB

Protect the assault


prevent interference

reserve to

force (C


with B Company's

protect the


maneuver of A


assault force (C

Company to SBF



Table 8-2. Example of a battalion fire support matrix.


The battalion fire support execution matrix may require the platoon to call for and adjust
its own indirect fire support. The matrix also might designate platoon targets. The platoon
uses these preplanned artillery targets to call for and adjust indirect fire. Either a soldier
or an FO can prepare and request a call for fire. However, to receive immediate indirect
fire support, the observer must plan targets and follow proper call-for-fire procedures. If
available, he should use a GPS and laser range finder. The call for fire must include
certain elements and might include others.

a. Required Elements. Calls for fire must include—

(1) Observer Identification and Warning Order. Observer identification tells the
FDC who is calling. It also clears the net for the duration of the call. The warning order
tells the FDC the type of mission and the method of locating the target. The types of
indirect fire missions are—


FM 3-21.94

• Adjust fire— Use this command when uncertain of target location.

• Fire for effect— Use this command for rounds on target; no adjustment.

• Suppress— Use this command to obtain fire quickly.

• Immediate suppression— Use this command to indicate the platoon is already
being engaged by enemy; must give target identification.

(2) Target Location Methods. The observer sends the target location as six digits
(letters and numbers). Before the first adjusting rounds are fired, the observer gives the
direction in mils. The FDC must know the observer's exact location. The observer sends
observer-target (OT) direction (to the nearest 10 mils) from his position to the target. He
specifies which target location method to use:

• Grid (Figure 8-1).

• Polar (Figure 8-2).

• Shift from a known point (Figure 8-3).

• Range shifts and lateral shifts (Figure 8-4).





Z57, This is 271 , Adjust Fire, Over.

This is Z57, Adjust Fire, Out.

Grid NK1 8051 3, Over.

Grid NK1 8051 3, Out.

Infantry Platoon in the open,
ICM in effect, Over.

Infantry Platoon in the open,
ICM in effect, Over.





Z, 2 rounds, Target, AF1027, Out.

Z, 2 rounds, Target is AF1027, Over.

Direction 1680, Out.

Direction 1680, Over.

NOTE: Send direction before or with the first subsequent correction.

Figure 8-1. Example fire mission (grid).




Z56, This is Z31 , Fire for effect, Polar.

This is Z56, Fire for effect, Polar, Out.

Direction 4520, Distance 2300,
Down 35, Over.

Direction 4520, Distance 2300,
Down 35, Over.

Infantry Company in the open,
ICM, Over.

Infantry Company in the open,
ICM, Over.




Y, VT, 3 rounds, Target, AF2036,

Y, VT, 3 rounds, Target, AF2036,

Figure 8-2. Example fire mission (polar plot).


FM 3-21.94




H66, This is H44, Adjust Fire,
Shift AA7733, Over.

This is H66, Adjust Fire,
Shift AA7733, Out.

Direction 5210, Left 380, Add 400,
Down 35, Over.

Direction 5210, Left 380, Add 400,
Down 35, Out.

Combat OP in open, ICM in effect,

Combat OP in open, ICM in effect,




H, 1 round, Target AA7742,

H, 1 round, Target AA7742,

NOTE: Shift from a known point is performed when the observer and FDC have a
common known point. The observer sends OT line, then determines the
lateral and range shifts.

Figure 8-3. Example fire mission (shift from a known point).


Range shifts are ADD or DROP from a known point;
Lateral shifts are LEFT or RIGHT from a known point.

Figure 8-4. Lateral and range shifts.


FM 3-21.94

(3) Target Description. Give a brief description of the target using the acronym

• Size and or Shape.

• Nature and or Nomenclature.

• Activity.

• Protection and or Posture.

b. Optional Elements. A call for fire also might include the following information:

(1) Method of Engagement. The method of engagement consists of danger-close (if
applicable) and distribution, ammunition, and trajectory (DAT).

(2) Method of Fire and Control. The method of fire and control indicates the desired
manner of attacking the target, whether the observer wants to control the time of delivery
of fire and whether he can observe the target. The observer announces methods of fire
and control:

• At My Command—fire at observer's command.

• When Ready—standard method of fire control.

• Cannot Observe— fire will not be observed.

• Time on Target— rounds land at specified time.

• Continuous Illumination— FDC determines when to fire.

• Coordinated Illumination— observer determines when to fire.

• Cease Loading— used when two or more rounds are in effect (causes loader to
stop loading).

• Check Firing— temporary halt in firing.

• Continuous Fire— will continue to fire unless told to stop.

• Repeat— will repeat last data fired by the firing unit.

(3) Refinement and End of Mission. The observer should observe the results of the
fire for effect (FFE) and then take whatever action is necessary to complete the mission:

• Correct any adjustments.

• Record as target.

• Report battle damage assessment.

(4) Danger-Close. Danger-close information is included when applicable:

• Field artillery and mortars— Danger-close target is within 600 meters of
friendly troops.

• Naval gunfire— Danger-close target is within 750 meters when using 5 -inch or
smaller guns (1,000 meters for larger naval guns).

• Method of adjustment— During danger-close missions, the FO uses only the
creeping method of adjustment (corrections of no more than 100 meters).


Once he calls for fire, the observer adjusts the fire onto the target. If he has accurately
located the target, he requests fire for effect. If the observer cannot locate the target
(because of deceptive terrain, lack of identifiable terrain features, poor visibility, or an
inaccurate map), he adjusts the impact point of the rounds. One artillery piece or mortar
adjusts fire. The observer chooses an adjusting point: for a destruction mission (precision
fire), the target is the adjusting point; for an area target (area fire), the observer picks a
well-defined adjusting point close to the center. The observer spots the first and each


FM 3-21.94

successive adjusting round, and he sends range and deviation corrections back to the FDC
until rounds hit the target. The observer spots by relating the round's point of impact to
the adjusting point. (See FM 6-30 for a more detailed discussion of adjusting mortar and
artillery fire.)

a. Deviation Spotting. Deviation (left or right) spotting involves measuring the
horizontal angle (in mils) between the burst and the adjusting point (Figure 8-5). A burst
to the right (left) of the target is spotted as "(so many) mils right (left)." The observer
uses an angle-measuring device to determine deviation. He might use the mil scale on his
binoculars (Figure 8-6) or his fingers and hand (Figure 8-7, page 8-10).





Figure 8-5. Deviation spotting.


^A �� �� �� �� ��


%V>* i i | i i


SCALE ^^^^^^^^^0

Figure 8-6. Mil scale on M17 binoculars.


FM 3-21.94

HILL 905





Figure 8-7. Hand and fingers used to determine deviation.

(1) On binoculars, the horizontal scale is divided into 10-mil increments and is used
for measuring horizontal angles. The vertical scales in the center and on the left of the
reticle are divided into 5 -mil increments and are used for measuring vertical angles. The
scale on the right, if present, is no longer used.

(2) A burst on the OT line is spotted as "line." Deviation (left or right) should be
measured to the nearest 5 mils for area targets, with measurements taken from the center
of the burst. Deviation for a destruction mission (precision fire) is estimated to the nearest
mil. (Figure 8-8 shows the adjusting point at the center of the binocular horizontal scale.)


FM 3-21.94



Figure 8-8. Deviation spotting with binoculars.

b. Deviation Correction. Deviation correction is the distance (in meters) the burst
must be moved left or right to be on line between the observer and the target. Once the
mil deviation has been determined, the observer converts it into a deviation correction (in
meters). He sends it to the FDC either when sending the range correction for the next
adjusting round or when calling for fire for effect.

(1) The deviation correction is determined by multiplying the observed deviation in
mils by the distance from the observer to the target in thousands of meters (the OT
factor). The result is expressed to the nearest 10 meters (see Example 1 on page 8-12). A
minor deviation correction (10 to 20 meters) should be made in adjustment of precision


FM 3-21.94

(2) In adjustment of area fire, small deviation corrections (20 meters or less) can be
ignored except when a small change determines a definite range spotting. Throughout the
adjustment, the observer moves the adjusting rounds close enough to the OT line so that
range spotting is accurate.

(3) If the OT distance is greater than 1 ,000 meters, round to the nearest thousand and
express it in thousands of meters (Example 2). If the OT distance is less than 1,000
meters, round to nearest 100 meters and express it as a decimal in thousands of meters
(Example 3).


Observer deviation 20 mils

OT distance 2,000 meters

OT factor 2

Observer deviation x OT factor = deviation correction.

20 x 2 = 40 meters

OT distance 4,200 meters— OT factor 4.0

OT distance 2,700 meters — OT factor 3.0

OT distance 800 meters— OT factor 0.8

c. Angle T. Angle T (Figure 8-9) is the angle formed by the intersection of the
gun-target line and the OT line with its vertex at the target. If angle T is 500 mils or
greater, the FDC should tell the observer. If this occurs, the observer continues to use the
OT factor to make his deviation corrections. If he sees that he is getting more of a
correction than he has asked for, the observer should consider cutting the corrections to
better adjust rounds onto the target.


FM 3-21.94



Figure 8-9. Angle T.

d. Range Spotting. Range spotting (short or over) requires adjusting the range to
obtain fire on the target. An adjusting round's burst on or near the OT line gives a
definite range spotting. If he cannot make a definite spotting, the observer announces a
"lost" or "doubtful" spotting. In these situations only, he gives the deviation correction to

(1) "Over. " The observer sees the burst beyond the adjusting point.

(2) "Short " The observer sees the burst between himself and the adjusting point.

(3) "Target. " The observer sees the burst hit the target. He uses this spotting only in
precision fire (destruction missions).

(4) "Range Correct." The observer believes that the burst occurred at the correct

(5) "Doubtful. " The observer sees the burst but cannot tell whether it occurred over,
short, target, or range correct.

(6) "Lost, Over" or "Lost, Short. " The observer cannot see the burst, but he knows
that it occurred beyond or short of the adjusting point.

e. Range Correction. With each successive correction, the adjusting round lands
over or short of the adjusting point, but closes on the target.

(1) Bracketing. Bracketing brings fire on a target. Time is important, especially while
targets move or seek cover from fire. Accuracy of data and speed of adjustments


FM 3-21.94

determine the effectiveness of the fire. To reduce adjustment time, the observer tries to
bracket the target with the first two or three adjusting rounds.

(2) Successive Bracketing. The observer calls FFE when a range correction brings
the round within 50 meters of the adjusting point. He also calls FFE when the firer splits
a 100-meter bracket; for example, "Drop 50, fire for effect." This technique is called
successive bracketing (Figure 8-10). When bracketing, the observer uses the following
guide to determine his first range correction:

• OT between 1,000 to 2,000 meters—add or drop at least 200 meters.

• OT greater than 2,000 meters—add or drop at least 400 meters.

INITIAL ROUND__ — — • — + 1


Figure 8-10. Successive bracketing technique.

(3) Hasty Bracketing. The effect on the target decreases as the number of rounds
used in adjustment increases. Successive bracketing ensures that FFE rounds hit within
50 meters of the adjusting point. Hasty bracketing offers a quicker alternative to
successive bracketing. A successful hasty bracket depends on a thorough terrain analysis,
which gives the observer an accurate initial target location. For his first correction, the
observer receives a bracket similar to that used for successive bracketing. Once the


FM 3-21.94

observer receives the initial bracket, he uses it like a yardstick to determine the
subsequent correction. He then sends the FDC the correction to move the rounds to the
target and to fire for effect (Figure 8-11). Hasty bracketing improves with observer
experience and judgment.

"DROP 1,000"





Figure 8-11. Hasty bracketing technique.

(4) Creeping Method. In danger-close situations the observer uses the creeping
method of adjustment. The observer calls for the first round, deliberately overshooting
the target. He adjusts rounds in 100-meter increments or less until the fire hits the target
(Figure 8-12, page 8-16). This method requires more time and ammunition than other
methods; therefore, the observer uses it only when he must consider safety first.


FM 3-21.94


Figure 8-12. Creeping method of adjustment.


The battalion mortar platoon has both 120-mm and 81 -mm mortars. The company has
120-mm and 60-mm mortars. The battalion and company mortars provide immediate
indirect fire support. Using mortars, the platoon can quickly place a heavy volume of
accurate, sustained fire on the threat. Mortar rounds can strike targets that low-angle fires
cannot reach. These include targets on reverse slopes, in narrow ravines or trenches, and
in forests or towns, among others. The platoon will receive the preponderance of indirect
fire support from mortars.

a. Types of Mortar Support. Mortars provide the following types of effective

(1) Suppression. The platoon can fire HE rounds to force the enemy to button up or
move to a less advantageous positions. Only a direct hit, however, will destroy an
armored vehicle.

(2) Smoke. The platoon uses white phosphorus (WP) rounds for obscuration and
screening. Mortar smoke builds up more rapidly than artillery smoke. To obscure the
enemy's vision, the platoon places smoke on or just in front of his positions. Placing
smoke between the enemy and the platoon's position conceals platoon movement. Mortar
smoke marks enemy positions to aid in friendly maneuver and to orient direct fires.
Scouts must be careful, however, not to allow smoke to work against them by marking
their own positions for enemy gunners.

(3) Illumination. The platoon uses illumination rounds to light an area or enemy
position during periods of limited visibility. Illumination increases the effectiveness of
image-intensification devices, which helps with gathering information, adjusting artillery,


FM 3-21.94

and engaging enemy targets. The platoon also uses ground-burst illumination to mark
enemy positions and to provide a thermal target reference point (TRP) for control of fires.
The platoon must use illumination carefully so as not to illuminate friendly positions.
Because US night-vision devices work better than those of most potential adversaries, the
platoon may not need to illuminate the battlefield at all. Doing so could cause more harm
than good by revealing friendly positions.

b. Capabilities and Limitations. The advantages of using the mortar platoon
include its close working relationship with the platoons, fast response time, and
availability for low-density targets. The limitations of mortars are—

• Short-range capability only.

• Few types of ammunition available.

• Mortar elements can carry only limited amounts of ammunition.

• FDC and mortar tubes cannot be linked to AFATDS.


The platoon must know how to use artillery support to its best advantage. Artillery often
offers the best way to impede and disrupt enemy formations and suppress enemy
positions. It can provide immediate, responsive, and accurate fires with a wide variety of
munitions. The platoon may receive FA priority of fire.

a. Capabilities. In support of the platoon, FA elements can~

• Provide fires in all weather conditions and on all types of terrain.

• Shift and mass fires rapidly.

• Support the battle in depth with long-range fires.

• Provide a variety of conventional shell and fuze combinations.

• Provide continuous fires by careful positioning and timely displacement.

b. Limitations. FA support has the following limitations:

• Limited capability against moving targets.

• May require large amounts of ammunition to destroy point targets.

• Firing signature makes it vulnerable to detection.

c. Munitions. FA employs a wide variety of munitions that the platoon can tailor to
engage different types of targets.

(1) High-Explosive. The best targets for HE rounds include personnel, field
fortifications, and vehicles.

(2) Smoke. The best uses for smoke include obscuring and screening friendly

(3) Illumination. Ideally, these illuminate only the threat, not friendly forces.

(4) White Phosphorus. This volatile material effectively obscures friendly soldiers or
actions, marks locations, and burns obstacles and equipment.

(5) Cannon-Launched Guided Projectiles. These projectiles (Copperheads) work
best against point targets.

(6) Improved Conventional Munitions. Improved conventional munitions (ICM)
work best against personnel targets.

(7) Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions. These munitions work best
against personnel and light armored vehicles in the open.

(8) Scatterable Mines. These include area denial munitions for use against personnel
and remote antiarmor mines for use against armored vehicles. An FA battery cannot mix


FM 3-21.94

other fire missions with scatterable mine missions. Scatterable mines require slightly
more lead time than other FA-delivered munitions.

NOTE: The commander or leader must consider the danger to friendly troops in areas
where friendly forces fire AP munitions. The potential dud rate of ICM makes
maneuver in the area of an ICM field hazardous.


The battalion fire support element consists of the fire support officer, an assistant FSO
(A/FSO), a senior fire support noncommissioned officer (FSNCO), an assistant FSNCO,
and two fire support specialists. The FSE assists the battalion commander and S3 with
planning, integrating, coordinating, and executing all types of available supporting fires
during tactical operations. The FSE is the commander's primary fire support coordinator
and provides a direct link to the battalion's indirect fire support systems and supporting
artillery units. The FSE is the primary fire support coordination element for the
reconnaissance platoon. During specific missions or when special munitions engagements
require on-target designation, the battalion commander may OPCON or attach a fire
support team to the platoon. The FIST is organic to the SBCT infantry company. The
FIST's command-and-control link with the artillery makes it a valuable resource.

a. The FSE serves as the net control station (NCS) on the battalion fire support net.
The FIST relays the call for fire to supporting artillery on a digital net (AFATDS) or
sends the fire mission to the mortar platoon or section. The command net allows the FIST
to monitor unit operations. It links the FIST to the commander and platoon leaders for
planning and coordination. The battalion FSO is the unit fire support coordinator. While
the maneuver commander is responsible for integrating fire support and maneuver, the
FSO must understand the scheme of maneuver as well as the battalion commander does.
Based on the commander's guidance, the FSO devises his fire support plan, which must
be presented to the commander for approval. FSO responsibilities include the following:

• Plan, coordinate, and execute fire support.

• Advise the company commander on fire support matters to include
capabilities, limitations, and employment of all fire support assets available to
support his operation.

• Ensure the battalion fire support plan is developed as an integral part of the
battalion OPORD and or operation plan (OPLAN) and that essential fire
support tasks (EFSTs) are adequately addressed in the maneuver rehearsals.

• Make recommendations to integrate fire support assets (FA and mortars) into
the maneuver commander's battle plan.

• Keep key personnel informed of pertinent information (by spot reports and
situation reports).

• Train the FIST and FOs in applicable fire support matters.

• Request, adjust, and direct all types of fire support.

• Ensure the fire support plan and or execution matrix is prepared and
disseminated to key personnel.

• Advise the commander on positioning and use of mortars.


FM 3-21.94

• Allocate FOs and other observers to maintain surveillance of target and named
areas of interest.

• Integrate and employ combat observation lasing teams into planned

• Plan, direct, and manage the employment of observer platforms and laser
equipment where they will best support the commander's concept of

• Provide emergency control of CAS and naval gunfire (NGF) in the absence of
qualified personnel.

b. The FIST is organized, equipped, and trained to provide a fire support advisor and
coordinator. It also provides a communications link to all available fire support assets.


The reconnaissance platoon can request indirect fire in several ways. The battalion SOP
should specify which method it will use. The reconnaissance platoon leader must also
coordinate with the battalion FSO, FSE, or both, on which of these methods the platoon
will employ.

a. Mortar Requests. The platoon can send requests for mortar fire directly to the
mortars on the battalion heavy mortar net. The FSE monitors these requests (Figure 8-

b. Artillery Requests. The platoon can send requests for artillery fire directly to the
FA battalion on a fire direction net; the FSE monitors the requests (Figure 8-14, page 8-





( 1 J Reconnaissance element sends report to platoon leader (platoon net).

C?\ Platoon leader forwards report to battalion TOC (battalion command or battalion
K ' Ol net).

2B) Reconnaissance element sends fire request directly to battalion mortars.

©Battalion FSE monitors battalion mortar net and approves the request by silence
or disapproves the request by giving a check fire to the mortar FDC.

Figure 8-13. Platoon requesting fire from battalion mortars.


FM 3-21.94

1 ) Reconnaissance element sends report to platoon leader (platoon net).

C7\ Platoon leader forwards report to battalion TOC (battalion command or batttalion
* J Ol net).

[2B) Reconnaissance element sends fire request directly to FA battalion (designated
fire direction net).


Battalion FSE monitors FA battalion fire direction net and approves the request by
silence or disapproves the request by giving a check fire on the fire direction net.

Figure 8-14. Platoon requesting fire from FA battalion.

c. Quick Fire Channel. A quick fire channel is established to directly link an
observer (or other target executor) with a weapon system (Figure 8-15). Quick fire
channels may be either voice or digital nets. Quick fire channels within a maneuver
brigade are normally established on FA or mortar nets. These channels are designed to
expedite calls for fire against high profile targets (HPTs) or to trigger preplanned fires.
Quick fire channels also may be used to execute fires for critical operations or phases of
the battle. Examples include linking a COLT with a battery or platoon FDC for
counterreconnaissance fires or an AN-TPQ-37 radar with the multiple launch rocket
system (MLRS) battery FDC for counterfires. Copperhead missions can best be executed
by using quick fire channels.


FM 3-21.94



• •





Figure 8-15. Quick fire channel illustrating sensor-to-shooter link.


All services can provide CAS to the battalion. CAS missions are flown against hostile
targets near friendly forces. The forward air controller (FAC) is the battalion
commander's expert in planning, requesting, and executing CAS missions. The FAC
serves as a link between the maneuver element and the attacking aircraft. The platoon
may provide information that the FAC or tactical air control party (TACP) uses to target
enemy forces. Soldiers may provide emergency control if an FAC, FSO, or FO is not
available (the battalion commander accepts responsibility for friendly casualties). This is
possible only with aircraft equipped with FM radios. Most US Air Force, Navy, and
Marine Corps fixed-wing aircraft only have UHF radios (A/OA-10, F16, AV-8B, F-14,
F/A-18, and AC-130). (For additional information, see FM 6-30.) The platoon also may
provide information on battle damage as observed. Figure 8-16 shows the format for
assessing and reporting battle damage.










Figure 8-16. Format for battle damage assessment.

a. AC-130 Gunship. If the enemy air defense is low, the battalion requests CAS
from an AC-130 gunship. The AC-130 provides effective fires during day and night
operations and flies CAS and special operations. The aircraft contains one 40-mm gun,
two 20-mm guns, two 7.62-mm mini-guns, and one 105-mm howitzer. It is equipped with
sensors and target acquisition systems that include forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR)
and low-light television.


FM 3-21.94

b. Marking Friendly Positions. Whenever possible, friendly positions are marked
to enhance safety and to provide target area references. Methods of marking friendly
positions are shown in Table 8-3, pages 8-23 and 8-24.


FM 3-21.94












Easily identifiable, may compromise
friendly position, obscure target, or
warn of fire support employment.
Placement may be difficult due to






Easily identifiable, may compromise
friendly position, obscure target, or
warn of fire support employment.
Placement may be difficult due to
structures. Night marking is greatly
enhanced by the use of IR reflective








Easily identified, may wash out







Avoids compromise of friendly
location. Dependent on weather and
available light and may be lost in
reflections from other reflective
surfaces (windshields, windows,






Highly visible to all. Compromises
friendly position and warns of fire
support employment. Effectiveness
is dependent upon degree of urban






Visible to all with NVGs. Less likely
to compromise than overt light.
Effectiveness dependent upon degree
of urban lighting.

(below .4





Effectiveness dependent upon degree
of urban lighting.


(above .4





Less affected by ambient light and
weather conditions. Highly effective
under all but the most highly lit or
worst weather conditions. IZLID-2 is
the current example.






Highly visible to all. Risk of
compromise is high. Effectiveness
dependant upon degree of urban






Highly effective with PGM. Very
restrictive laser acquisition cone and
requires line of sight to target. May
require pre-coordination of laser

Table 8-3. Methods of marking friendly positions.


FM 3-21.94












May compromise position. May be
difficult to distinguish mark from
other gunfire. During daytime use,
may be more effective to kick up
dust surrounding target.






Ideal friendly marking device for
AC-130 and some USAF fixed
wing (not compatible with Navy or
Marine aircraft). Least impeded by
urban terrain. Can be used as a TRP
for target identification.
Coordination with aircrews
essential to ensure equipment and
training compatibility.






Visible by all. Effectiveness
dependent upon degree of urban






Visible to all NVDs. Effectiveness
dependent upon degree of urban
lighting. Coded strobes aid in






Visible by all. Easily identified by







Visible to all NVDs. Easily
identified by aircrew.






Not readily detectable by enemy.
Very effective except in highly lit






Provides temperature contrast on
vehicles or building. May be
obscured by urban terrain.






Only visible during daylight. Easily
obscured by structures.








Easily masked by urban structures
and lost in thermal clutter. Difficult
to acquire, can be effective when
used to contrast cold background or
when aircraft knows general






Provides unique signature. May be
obscured by structures. Provides a
distinct signature easily recognized.
Effectiveness dependent upon
degree of urban lighting.






Provides unique signature. May be
obscured by structures.
Effectiveness dependent upon
degree of urban lighting.

Table 8-3. Methods of marking friendly positions (continued).


FM 3-21.94


The primary mission of attack helicopter units is to destroy armor and mechanized forces.
Employing attack helicopters in combined arms operations increases the lethality of
ground maneuver forces.

a. Aircraft Characteristics. The AH-64A Apache, the AH-64D Longbow Apache,
the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, and the AH-1W or AH-1Z (USMC) are employed in attack
operations. Table 8-4 provides a comparison of the weapon systems and armaments on
these attack helicopters. (The table also lists weaponry for the AH-1 Cobra which is no
longer in the active Army inventory but might be used to provide attack support in joint
operations with U.S. Marine units.)



Hellfire/TOW l






Cal .50




chain gun

AH-1 2




AH-64A 3




AH-64D 3

4 16




OH-58D 2 ' 3





AH-1W/Z 5

Range (Max)

8 km

3,750 m

5+ km

8 km

2 km

2 km

4 km

Numbers in each column indicate the maximum load for each system.

1 The AH-1 uses the TOW missile as its armor engagement weapon instead of the
Hellfire missile.

This aircraft carries one weapon system on each side (Hellfire, TOW, or both; air-to-
air Stinger; and 2. 75 -inch rocket).

3 Aircraft has a laser for target designation and an ATHS.

4 Hellfire/Hellfire II.

USMC helicopters will have varied weapons loads. During coordination, request on-
board weapon status.

Table 8-4. Helicopter weapon systems.

b. Close Combat Attack. The close combat attack is a technique for directing lethal
fires within the context of a preplanned mission. It does not replace the integrated
military decision-making process (MDMP) between ground maneuver and aviation

(1) To request immediate close combat attack, the ground unit in contact executes a
face-to-face coordination or uses a radio transmission to provide a situation update to the
attack aircraft (METT-TC permitting). This situation update contains essential elements
from the aviation close combat attack coordination checklist (Figure 8-17, page 8-26).

(2) After receipt of a request for immediate close combat attack, the attack team
leader informs the ground unit leader of the battle position, attack-by-fire position, or the


FM 3-21.94

series of positions his team will occupy that will provide the best observation and fields
of fire into the engagement or target area. The attack team leader then provides the
ground maneuver unit leader with his concept for the team's attack on the objective.

(3) Upon mission completion, the attack team leader provides the ground maneuver
commander a battle damage assessment (BDA) of the intended target.


1. Enemy situation — specific target identification.

2. Friendly situation — location and method of marking friendly positions.

3. Ground maneuver mission and scheme of maneuver.

4. Attack aircraft scheme of maneuver.

5. Planned engagement area and BP/SBF position.

6. Method of target marking.

7. Fire coordination and fire restrictions.

8. Map graphics update.

9. Request for immediate aviation close fight support — used for targets
or for ground-to-air target handoff.

Figure 8-17. Close combat attack coordination checklist.


The two core qualities of the SBCT are high mobility and the ability to achieve decisive
action through dismounted infantry assault. At the tactical level, overmatching mobility is
critical to the success of the force . Given the significance of tactical mobility to the
SBCT's successful operations, the SBCT engineers are essential.


The SBCT's organic medium engineer company (MEC) provides embedded, responsive
mounted and dismounted maneuver support. The MEC supports the maneuver force—the
SBCT infantry battalions and companies. It readily integrates into maneuver operations
and organizations at all levels based on the analysis of tasks required. It is an agile
organization that assures freedom to maneuver on the battlefield within the combined
arms team framework. The MEC has three combat mobility platoons, one mobility
support platoon, and a company headquarters section. The MEC normally task-organizes
its platoons to infantry battalions and companies in a specific command-support
relationship to provide a mission-specific, tailored package. It performs mounted and
dismounted engineer tasks equally well.

a. Combat Mobility Platoon. The combat mobility platoon is normally the lowest-
level engineer unit that can effectively accomplish independent mounted engineer
missions and tasks. It is the basic building block of engineer force allocation and task
organization. A combat mobility platoon is normally task-organized to support an
infantry battalion, but it may support an infantry company based on METT-TC analysis.
The combat mobility platoon may receive augmentation in the form of special equipment


FM 3-21.94

from the mobility support platoon. Engineer platoon-specific common-platform
equipment includes engineer squad vehicles (ESVs) with mountable rollers or blades,
mine-clearing line charges (MICLICs), and multiple-delivery mine systems (Volcanos)
(Figure 8-18). The combat mobility platoon's engineer squads carry a variety of
explosives and demolitions. The engineer squad is normally the minimum force required
to provide effective dismounted support to the infantry. The squad is the engineer
organization most likely to support the reconnaissance platoon, particularly during
offensive operations.




Figure 8-18. Three combat mobility platoons.

b. Mobility Support Platoon. The mobility support platoon consists of a platoon
headquarters section and three equipment-based mobility sections (Figure 8-19, page 8-
28), equipped with light assault bridges, light earthmovers (deployable universal combat
earthmovers [DEUCEs]), and high mobility engineer excavators (HMEEs). Unlike the
combat mobility platoon, it is not organized to operate independently during offensive
operations. The mobility support platoon provides the commander with specialized
equipment capabilities to weight the main effort and to perform specialized mobility
tasks. Each section is structured to provide equipment augmentation, focused on reducing
enemy obstacles and fortifications, to each of the three combat mobility platoons. Each
section has gap-crossing, obstacle-reduction, special-tool, and heavy-blade capabilities.
The mobility support platoon provides a limited capability for countermobility,
survivability, and sustainment operations.


FM 3-21.94



Figure 8-19. Mobility support platoon.


Engineer missions fit into one of three categories: mobility, countermobility, and
survivability. (Table 8-5 shows the tasks included in each of these categories.) An
engineer may be attached to a reconnaissance platoon for specific missions. Engineers
conduct reconnaissance, evaluate obstacles, and use demolitions and field expedients.




Breaching obstacles.

Constructing obstacles to

Constructing crew-served

Clearing minefields.

turn, fix, block, or disrupt

weapons and vehicle fighting

Clearing routes.

enemy forces.


Expedient gap crossing.

Constructing combat roads or


Table 8-5. Engineer missions.


At the tactical level, overmatching mobility is critical to the success of the force.
Engineers support infantry by performing obstacle reduction and route construction and
or improvement.

a. Obstacle Reduction. Reduction is the creation of lanes through or over an
obstacle to allow an attacking force to pass. The number and width of lanes created varies
with the factors of METT-TC. The lanes must allow the assault force to rapidly pass
through the obstacle. The breach force will reduce, proof (if required), mark, and report
lane locations and the lane marking method by unit SOP. Engineers cannot reduce an
obstacle until the obstacle has been identified, effective suppression and obscuration are
in place, and the point of breach is secure. (For detailed discussions of breaching see FM


FM 3-21.94

b. Route Construction and Improvement. Engineers have a limited capability to
construct, improve, and maintain roads, bridges, and fords. In addition to providing
mobility support during offensive operations, engineers can enhance mobility during
defensive operations by focusing on the ability to shift forces. Enhancements to mobility
during defensive operations include:

• Mobility between primary, alternate, and supplementary battle positions.

• Mobility of reserves to reinforcing positions.

• Mobility of reserves in the counterattack.


Engineers construct obstacles that prevent the enemy from successfully executing his
scheme of maneuver. Commonly used obstacles include minefields, wire obstacles,
antitank ditches, road craters, abatises, and log cribs. Engineers also can reinforce
restricted terrain and existing obstacles to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the enemy.


The survivability plan will be synchronized with the battalion countermobility plan. The
platoon should prepare by marking vehicle positions, identifying leaders to supervise
position construction, and designating guides for the blade movement between positions.
Platoons will execute the commander's plan for priority of the survivability effort. This
plan should specify the following:

• Level of survivability of each subordinate unit.

• Priority of survivability support by specific unit, type of weapon system, or

• Type of position to be dug for a unit or type of weapon system.


In reconnaissance operations, an engineer squad can be in DS to a reconnaissance
platoon. The engineer squad aids in mobility operations and provides technical advice to
the platoon leader as to what effort and equipment it will take to breach a certain
obstacle. The platoon leader relays this information back to the battalion to aid in its
breaching preparations. The actual breaching abilities of an engineer squad are limited to
manual and explosive methods. (The platoon provides security for the engineer squad
while it conducts breaches.) The engineer squad can—

• Conduct route and bridge classification.

• Aid in locating bypasses around obstacles.

• Conduct limited breaching operations through log cribs, abatis, and


The air defense and aviation coordination cell's (ADACC's) air and missile defense
(AMD) analysis determines if the SBCT will be task organized with air defense assets
from a divisional short-range air defense (SHORAD) battalion. Even if the SBCT and
subsequently the SBCT infantry battalion receive air defense assets, it is unlikely that the
reconnaissance platoon will be task-organized with any of the air defense assets.
However, Avengers and Linebackers may operate in and around the battalion AO in


FM 3-21.94

support of brigade assets. Therefore, the reconnaissance platoon must conduct its own air
defense operations, relying on disciplined passive air defense measures and the ability to
actively engage aerial platforms with organic weapons systems.


The systems that may operate in and adjacent to the battalion AO are the Avenger, man-
portable air defense systems (MANPADS), and Linebacker (Table 8-6). All systems can
operate as MANPADS Stinger teams. The battalion may be supported by an air defense
platoon equipped with Avengers or MANPADS. The air defense platoon is responsible
for providing DS, GS, or GS-R coverage to the battalion.

Man-Portable System


Personnel: 2-man crew

Basic load: 6 missiles basic load w/ M998


Acquisition/range: Visual

Engagement range: 5 km

Engagement altitude: 3 km +

Mutual support: 2 km +

Bradley Linebacker

Personnel: 4-man crew

Basic load: 10 missiles (4 ready to fire, 6 stowed)

Acquisition/range: Visual/thermal

Engagement range: 5 km (Stinger), 2500 m 25-

mm, 900 m coax

Engagement altitude: 3 km +

Mutual support: 3 km

Emplacement time: Fire on the move

Reload time: 4 minutes


Personnel: 2 man crew

Basic load: 8 ready-to-fire missiles, 250 rds .50 cal

Acquisition/range: Visual/FLIR 9-10 km, laser

range finder

Engagement range: 5 km +, .50 cal range: 6,470 m

Rate of fire: 1025 rpmEngagement altitude: 3 km


Mutual support: 3 km

Emplacement time: 6 min, can remote operations

out to 50 meters

Table 8-6. Air defense systems.

a. Stinger. Although other SHORAD systems support divisional units, the SBCT
infantry battalion reconnaissance platoon is most likely to be supported by the Avenger
(Figure 8-20) or a MANPADS (Figure 8-21, page 8-32). Stinger is designed to counter
high-performance, low-level, ground attack aircraft, helicopters, and observation and
transport aircraft.


FM 3-21.94

(1) The Avenger's combined arms mission is to provide protection to combat forces,
combat support elements, and other critical assets from attack. The Avenger is designed
to counter hostile cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and low-flying, high-speed,
fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters attacking or transiting friendly airspace. The Avenger
provides the battalions with highly mobile, dedicated air defense firepower. The Avenger
is equipped with two standard vehicle-mounted launchers (SVML) which carry four
Stinger missiles each and have the following capabilities:

• The modified fire control subsystem fires and the SVML allow the Avenger to
shoot on the move.

• The Avenger weapon system has an unobstructed, 360-degree field of fire and
can engage at elevations between -10 and +70 degrees.

• The .50 cal machine gun affords a measure of self-protection by providing
additional coverage of the Stinger missile's inner launch boundary.

• Avenger's sensor package (FLIR, carbon dioxide, eye-safe laser range finder,
and a video autotracker) provides target acquisition capability in battlefield
obscuration, at night, and in adverse weather.

• The two-man crew remains in the vehicle under armor protection.

• Targeting data is provided by the forward area air defense (FAAD) command,
control, communications, and intelligence (C3I).

• The Avenger system allows shoot-on-the-move and slew-to-cue capability.

• In the event of launcher system damage or failure or static mode, the system
maintains dismounted Stinger missile capability.

• The firing sequence is entirely automated, including super-elevation and lead,
so that the gunner only needs to push the fire button to initiate the fire
sequence and immediately select and prepare the next missile for firing.

Figure 8-20. AVENGER.

(2) The MANPADS Stinger missile system employs a two-man crew (crew chief and
gunner). The MANPADS team normally has assigned transportation. Unit leaders must
consider carefully the consequences before separating a Stinger team from its vehicle.
Stinger teams operating away from their vehicles have no more than two missiles
available for resupply.


FM 3-21.94











4,000 METERS














Figure 8-21. Stinger MANPADS air defense system.

b. Early Warning Alerts. If the brigade has an attached SHORAD battery, the
platoon will receive early warning alerts from the SHORAD battery and its elements. The
SHORAD C3I Sentinel radar team can broadcast early warning of threat air activity to
SHORAD elements (battery, platoon, or section), to FA fire units, and to air defense
liaison officers (LNOs). The SHORAD battery will then provide voice early warning on
the brigade command net. If METT-TC factors permit, the SHORAD platoon provides
voice early warning to the battalions. The Sentinel radar (Figure 8-22) provides a 360-
degree detection capability for various air tracks (rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft, UAVs,
and cruise missiles) to a range of 40 kilometers. The Sentinel radar is normally OPCON
to the respective SHORAD battery commander.


FM 3-21.94





Figure 8-22 Sentinel radar system.


In offensive situations, air defense elements accompany the main attack. They may
maneuver with the battalion's lead companies, orienting on low-altitude air avenues of
approach. When the unit is moving or in a situation that entails short halts, air defense
elements should remain within the platoon's organic weapon system maximum ranges to
assure mutual support. The Stinger gunners (MANPADS) can dismount to provide air
defense when the unit reaches the objective or pauses during the attack. In the defense,
air defense elements may establish BPs based on available IPB information and the
commander's scheme of maneuver.


The weapons control status (WCS) describes the relative degree of control in effect for
air defense fires. It applies to all weapons systems. The weapons control status is dictated
in the task force OPORD and may be updated based on the situation. The three levels of
control are:

a. Weapons Free. Crews can fire at any air target not positively identified as
friendly. This is the least restrictive WCS level.

b. Weapons Tight. Crews can fire only at air targets positively identified as hostile
according to the prevailing hostile criteria.

c. Weapons Hold. Crews are prohibited from firing except in self-defense or in
response to a formal order. This is the most restrictive control status level.


FM 3-21.94


Air defense warnings (ADWs) include—

• RED - Air or missile attack imminent or in progress.

• YELLOW - Air or missile attack probable.

• WHITE - Air or missile attack not likely.

While air defense warnings cover the probability of hostile air action over the entire
theater of war or operations, local ADWs describe with certainty the air threat for a
specific part of the battlefield. Air defense units use these local warnings to alert Army
units to the state of the air threat in terms of "right here, right now." There are three local
air defense warning levels:

• DYNAMITE - Air platforms are inbound or are attacking locally now.

• LOOKOUT - Air platforms are in the area of interest but are not threatening.
They may be inbound, but there is time to react.

• SNOWMAN - No air platforms pose a threat at this time.

NOTE: The area air defense commander routinely issues ADWs for dissemination
throughout the theater of war or operations. These warnings describe the
general state of the probable air threat and apply to the entire area.


Reaction procedures include both passive and active air defense measures.

a. Passive Air Defense. Passive air defense is the platoon's primary method for
avoiding enemy air attack. Passive air defense consists of all measures taken to prevent
the enemy from detecting or locating the unit, to minimize the target acquisition
capability of enemy aircraft, and to limit damage to the unit if it comes under air attack.
Target detection and acquisition are difficult for crews of high-performance aircraft, and
the platoon can exploit this advantage. In most cases, enemy pilots must be able to see
and identify a target before they can launch an attack.

(1) Guidelines. The platoon should follow these guidelines to avoid detection or limit
damage if detected:

• When stopped, occupy positions that offer cover and concealment and dig in
and camouflage vehicles that are exposed.

• When moving, use covered and concealed routes.

• Disperse vehicles as much as possible to make detection and attack more

• Wipe out track marks leading to vehicle positions and eliminate or cover the
spoil from dug-in positions.

• If moving when an enemy aircraft attacks, disperse and seek covered and
concealed positions.

• Do not fire on a hostile fixed-wing aircraft unless it is clear that the aircraft
has identified friendly elements. Premature engagement compromises friendly

• Designate air guards for every vehicle and position; establish and maintain
360-degree security.

• Establish an air warning system in the unit SOP, including both visual and
audible signals.


FM 3-21.94

(2) Procedures. When the platoon observes fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, or UAVs
that could influence its mission, it initially takes passive air defense measures unless the
situation requires immediate active measures. Passive air defense measures normally
means that each platoon initiates its React to Air Attack Battle Drill; however, the
commander can initiate specific passive measures if necessary. Refer to the passive air
defense guidelines for the company discussed earlier in this section.

NOTE: Passive air defense also includes the platoon's preparations for conducting
active air defense measures.

Passive air defense involves these three steps:

• Step 1 - Alert the battalion with a contact report.

• Step 2 - Deploy or take the appropriate actions. If the battalion is not in the
direct path of an attacking aircraft, the commander orders the companies to
seek cover and concealment and halt with at least a 100-meter interval
between vehicles. The platoon also may be ordered to continue moving as part
of the battalion.

• Step 3 - Prepare to engage. Fighting vehicle crews prepare to engage the
aircraft with machine gun or main gun fire on order of the commander or their
platoon leader.

b. Active Air Defense. The platoon avoids engaging enemy aircraft if possible. If
engagement is unavoidable, the platoon uses a technique known as volume of fire (Figure
8-23, page 8-36). This technique is based on the premise that the more bullets a unit can
put in the sky, the greater the chance the enemy will fly into them. Even if these fires do
not hit the enemy, a "wall of lead" in the sky can intimidate enemy pilots, causing them
to break off their attack, or it can distract them from taking proper aim. One of the most
important points about volume of fire is that once the lead distance is estimated, the
soldier must aim at the estimated aiming point and fire at that single point until the
aircraft has flown past it. The soldier maintains the aiming point, not the lead distance.
Once the soldier starts firing, he does not adjust his weapon. The platoon leader
establishes the aiming point based on the type of aircraft that is attacking (Figure 8-24,
page 8-36).


FM 3-21.94

>i 1 '

1 t V v

Figure 8-23. Volume of fire.























Figure 8-24. Aim points.


FM 3-21.94



NBC assets within the SBCT are limited; therefore, it is imperative that the platoon
practices the fundamentals of NBC defense, avoidance, protection, and decontamination
in order to survive on a contaminated battlefield.


The NBC reconnaissance platoon organic to the cavalry squadron (RSTA) is the only
internal NBC reconnaissance available to the SBCT. The NBC reconnaissance platoon
can locate, identify, and mark areas of contamination. Since NBC reconnaissance assets
are limited, the SBCT infantry reconnaissance platoon must plan for alternate means of
conducting NBC reconnaissance.


For operational decontamination, the platoon must request support from the battalion's
decontamination team, which is equipped with the modular decontamination system
(MDS). Thorough decontamination operations require the support of an external
decontamination platoon. (For a more detailed discussion of decontamination
requirements, refer to FM 3-5.)


FM 3-21.94



Combat service support elements arm, fuel, fix, feed, equip, and provide
health service support, transportation, and personnel for the reconnaissance
platoon. The reconnaissance platoon leader is responsible for supervising
CSS within the reconnaissance platoon, and the PSG is the CSS operator for
the reconnaissance platoon. He advises the platoon leader on the logistical
requirements and informs the platoon leader of the platoon 's logistical
status. The team leaders assist the PSG.


The reconnaissance platoon has no organic CSS assets. The PSG coordinates directly with
the headquarters and headquarters company's XO or first sergeant ( 1 SG) or the battalion S4
for all CSS. He is the main recipient for all maintenance, supply, and personnel reports.

a. The reconnaissance platoon presents complex logistical considerations for the
battalion staff. The reconnaissance platoon normally operates forward of the battalion. It
deploys earlier and stays away longer than other battalion elements. During combat
operations, the PSG coordinates directly with the 1 SG or S4 to discuss support requirements
and problems.

b. The HHC commander and the battalion staff plan and coordinate for all CSS. The
HHC 1SG, supply sergeant, PSG, and team leaders implement the logistical plan. The
reconnaissance platoon's SOP should address the duties and responsibilities to standardize
routine and recurring CSS operations.


This paragraph focuses on specific individual responsibilities within the platoon's CSS

a. Platoon Sergeant. As the platoon's main CSS operator, the platoon sergeant
executes the platoon's logistical plan based on platoon and HHC SOPs. The platoon
sergeant's CSS duties include—

• Participating in CSS rehearsals at the company or battalion level and integrating
CSS into the platoon's maneuver rehearsals.

• Receiving, consolidating, and forwarding all administrative, personnel, and
casualty reports to the first sergeant as directed or IAW unit SOP.

• Obtaining supplies, equipment (except Class VIII), and mail from the supply
sergeant and ensuring proper distribution.

• Supervising evacuation of casualties, enemy prisoners of war, and damaged

• Maintaining the platoon's manning roster.

• Using the FBCB2 system for recurring reports and coordination of CSS assets
moving forward.

b. Team and Section Leader. Each team and section leader's CSS duties include—

• Ensuring that crews perform proper maintenance on all assigned equipment.


FM 3-21.94

• Compiling personnel and logistics reports for the platoon and submitting them to
the platoon sergeant as directed or IAW unit SOP.

• Obtaining supplies, equipment (all classes), and mail from the platoon sergeant
and ensuring proper distribution.

c. Platoon Medic. The platoon's medic is attached to the platoon from the HHC's
medical platoon. His duties include—

• Supervising triage for injured, wounded, or ill friendly personnel and EPWs.

• Providing first aid for and stabilizing injured, wounded, or ill personnel.

• Evacuating seriously wounded personnel under the direction of the platoon

• Assisting in training the platoon's combat lifesavers in first-aid procedures.

• Requisitioning Class VIII supplies, including combat lifesaver bags and first-aid
kits, for the platoon's combat lifesavers.

• Recommending locations for the casualty collection points (CCPs).

• Supervising the platoon's combat lifesavers.


Planning CSS operations is primarily a HHC- and battalion-level resupply operation. While
the HHC commander and executive officer plan the operation, the platoon leader is
responsible for his platoon's execution of the plan at platoon level, and the platoon sergeant
executes the plan at the team and vehicle level.

a. Development of the CSS Plan. The platoon leader begins development of his CSS
plan by determining exactly what he has on hand to accurately predict his support
requirements. This process is important not only in confirming the validity of the CSS plan
but also in ensuring the platoon submits support requests as early as possible. The platoon
leader formulates his CSS execution plan and submits support requests to HHC based on his
reconnaissance plan and the desired end state of the platoon at the end of the planned

b. Operational Questions. The CSS plan should provide answers to operational

(1) Types of Support. Based on the nature of the operation and specific tactical factors,
what types of support will the platoon need?

(2) Quantities. In what quantities will this support be required?

(a) Will emergency resupply be required during the mission?

(b) Does this operation require prestock supplies?

(3) Enemy. What are the composition, disposition, and capabilities of the expected
enemy force? How will these affect CSS operations during the mission?

(a) Where and when will the expected contact occur?

(b) What are the platoon's potential losses based on the nature and location of expected

(c) What impact will the enemy's special weapons capabilities (such as NBC) have on
the mission and on expected CSS requirements?

(d) Will the platoon be required to capture enemy soldiers and equipment? How many
EPWs are expected, and where?


FM 3-21.94

(4) Terrain and Weather. How will terrain and weather affect CSS operations during the

(a) What ground will provide the best security for maintenance and CCPs?

(b) What are the platoon's vehicle and casualty evacuation routes?

(c) What are the battalion's dirty routes for evacuating contaminated personnel, vehicles,
and equipment?

(5) Time and Location. When and where will the platoon need CSS?

(a) Based on the nature and location of expected contact, what are the best sites for the

(b) Where will the EPW collection points be located?

(6) Requirements. What are the support requirements, by element and type of support?

(a) Which section has priority for emergency Class III resupply?

(b) Which section or team has priority for emergency Class V resupply?

(7) Risk Factor. Will the tempo of the mission permit support elements to conduct
resupply operations in relative safety? If no lulls are expected, how can the platoon best
minimize the danger to the CSS vehicles providing the required support?

(8) Resupply Technique. Based on information developed during the CSS planning
process, which resupply technique should the platoon use: routine, emergency, or prestock?

c. Classes of Supply Considerations. The platoon sergeant obtains supplies and
delivers them to the platoon. The platoon leader establishes priorities for delivery, but
combat demands that Class I, III, V, and IX supplies and equipment take priority because
they are the most critical to successful operations.

(1) Class I. This class includes rations, water, and ice. It also includes gratuitous issue of
items related to health, morale, and welfare. The Daily Strength Report triggers an automatic
request for Class I supplies. Personnel in the brigade support area (BSA) prepare rations and
deliver them with the logistics package (LOGPAC). During the initial deployment, soldiers
eat meals, ready-to-eat (MREs) stored on combat vehicles. Due to the probability of long
lines of communication (LOCs) and resupply and the extended duration of reconnaissance
missions, the platoon must keep a minimum of three-to-five days' supply of rations and
water on hand for each soldier at all times. In an arid climate, the platoon should plan on at
least 8.5 gallons of water per day for each soldier. Reconnaissance vehicles should carry
extra water cans to store the three-to-five days' supply of water.

(2) Class II. This class includes clothing, individual equipment, MOPP suits, tentage,
tool sets, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment. The platoon sergeant
distributes expendable items such as soap, toilet tissue, and insecticide during LOGPAC
operations. The HHC supply sergeant normally stores the second set of MOPP suits.

(3) Class III. This class includes POL products. Unusual Class III requests go to the first
sergeant and then to the battalion combat trains.

(a) POL includes both bulk and packaged products. Examples of bulk products include
Army common fuel (JP8), diesel fuel, and motor gasoline (MOGAS).

(b) The platoon requests and receives Class III products such as 5 -gallon containers,
lubricants, grease, hydraulic fluid, cylinders of liquid and compressed gasses, and solvents in
amounts of 55 gallons or less.

(4) Class IV. This class includes construction materials, pickets, sandbags, and
concertina wire.


FM 3-21.94

(5) Class V. This class covers all types of ammunition and mines including C4 and other

(6) Class VI. This class includes personal-demand items normally sold through the
exchange system, which can include candy, soaps, cameras, and film.

(7) Class VII. This class includes major end items such as RVs, radios, and PLGRs.
Battle loss reports trigger the issuance of Class VII items. Ready-to-fight weapons systems
go forward with the LOGPAC.

(8) Class VIII. This class covers medical supplies. The battalion aid station (BAS)
replaces combat lifesaver bags and first-aid kits on a one-for-one basis. Extra medical
supplies may be needed depending on the factors of METT-TC.

(9) Class IX. This class includes repair parts and documents required for equipment
maintenance operations. Repair parts are issued in response to a specific request or are
obtained by direct exchange of repairable parts. The latter can include batteries for NVDs
and man-portable radios. In combat situations, exchange and cannibalization are normal
ways to obtain Class IX items.

(10) Class X. This class includes materials to support nonmilitary programs such as
agricultural and economic development. Division level or higher will provide the platoon
with instructions for requesting and issuing Class X supplies.

(11) Miscellaneous. This category covers anything that does not fall in one of the existing
classes of supply.


Resupply operations fall into one of three classifications: routine, emergency, or prestock.
The HHC and platoon SOPs specify cues and procedures for each method. The platoon
rehearses resupply operations during platoon training exercises. The actual method selected
for resupply in the field depends on METT-TC factors.

a. Routine Resupply. Routine resupply operations cover items in Classes I, III, V, and
IX; mail; and other items requested by the platoon. When possible, the platoon should
conduct routine resupply daily. Ideally, it does so during periods of limited visibility.
Although the RV is designed to operate over extended periods of time (72 hours) without
Class III resupply, the platoon leader should refuel at every available opportunity, based
upon the factors of METT-TC.

(1) The LOGPAC technique offers a simple, efficient way to accomplish routine
resupply operations. The key feature of LOGPAC, a centrally organized resupply convoy,
originates at the BSA. The convoy carries all items needed to sustain the platoon for a
specific period (usually 24 hours) or until the next scheduled LOGPAC. The battalion SOP
will specify the LOGPAC 's exact composition and march order.

(2) As directed by the HHC commander or XO, the first sergeant establishes the platoon
resupply point. He uses either the service station or tailgate method, and he briefs each
LOGPAC driver on which method to use. When he has the resupply point ready, the first
sergeant informs the platoon leader or PSG. The platoon leader then directs each section or
team to conduct resupply based on the tactical situation.

(a) The service station method that may be used during mounted operations (Figure 9-1)
allows the vehicles and their teams to move individually, or by section, to a centrally located
resupply point. Depending on the tactical situation, a vehicle, section, or platoon moves out
of its position, conducts resupply operations, and moves back into position. This process


FM 3-21.94

continues until the entire platoon has received its supplies. In using this method, vehicles
enter the resupply point following a one-way traffic flow. Only vehicles that require
immediate maintenance stop at the maintenance holding area. Vehicles move through each
supply location. The crews rotate individually to eat, pick up mail and sundries, and refill or
exchange water cans.


Figure 9-1. Mounted service station resupply method.

(b) The service station resupply method (Figure 9-2, page 9-6) for use during dismounted
operations requires the soldiers to leave their observation posts. Selected soldiers move to
the platoon resupply point, conduct resupply, and return to their OPs. This technique is used
when contact is not likely and for the resupply of one or several classes of supplies.


FM 3-21.94

PL Blue

PL Green

PL Red

PL Blue

PL Green

Figure 9-2. Dismounted service station resupply method.

NOTE: The platoon order should state the sequence for moving teams or portions of
teams out of position.

(c) In assembly areas, the first sergeant normally uses the tailgate method (Figure 9-3).
Combat vehicles remain in their vehicle positions, or they back out a short distance to allow
trucks carrying Class III and V supplies to reach them. Individual soldiers rotate through the
feeding area. While there, they pick up mail and sundries and refill or exchange water cans.
They centralize and guard any EPWs. They take soldiers killed in action (KIA) and their
personal effects to the holding area where the HHC first sergeant assumes responsibility for


FM 3-21.94

Team A

Team B


4 Team C




Figure 9-3. Tailgate resupply method.

(d) During operations when the platoon is separated from its vehicles and in contact, or
when contact is imminent, the in-position resupply method may be required to ensure
adequate supplies are available to the teams. This method requires HHC to bring forward
supplies or equipment (or both) to individual positions. The platoon normally will provide a
guide to ensure the supplies (Class V) are distributed to the most critical position first. This

• Is used when an immediate need exits.

• Is used to resupply single classes of supply.

• Enables leaders to keep team members in their OPs.

NOTE: If resupply elements cannot move near platoon positions, platoon members may
need to help the resupply personnel move supplies and equipment forward.

b. Emergency Resupply. Occasionally (normally during combat operations), the
platoon might have such an urgent need for resupply that it cannot wait for a routine
LOGPAC. Emergency resupply could involve NBC equipment as well as Classes III, V,
VIII, and water.

c . Prestock Resupply. In defensive operations and at some other times, as appropriate,
the platoon most likely will need prestocked supplies, also known as pre-positioned or
"cached" resupply. Normally, the platoon only pre-positions Class IV and V items, but they
also can pre-position Class III supplies. The platoon must refuel their vehicles before they
move into an AO for mission execution or while moving out of their AO.


FM 3-21.94

(1) Reconnaissance Operations. During reconnaissance, the platoon can establish cache
points along the intended routes of advance or near the objective. However, this method is
rarely used.

(2) Security Operations. During security operations, the reconnaissance platoon can set
up cache points throughout the AO. These points should be in each alternate or
supplementary OP and at other locations throughout the depth of the sector.

(3) Patrolling. During patrols, the platoon can set up cache points early or during the
patrol itself. To avoid carrying a heavy load during an operation, soldiers may drop items not
needed at the objective en route and then recover them on their return. This technique could
be used for supplies, wounded personnel, or transportation assets (boats and vehicles). The
platoon must maintain security by using different routes to recover the items, by ensuring
items are camouflaged, and by leaving soldiers at the cache site to guard the supplies.

(4) Criteria. The following criteria should be considered when planning to use caches or
pre-position supply points.

(a) When selecting a possible cache point, consider if the point can be located by simple
instructions that are clear to someone who has never visited the site. A point may be ideal in
every respect, but if it has no distinct or permanent landmarks within a readily measurable
distance, it should not be used. The point should have primary and alternate routes that avoid
detection by anyone in the area. Also, consider the effects the weather will have on the cache
point. For example, seasonal changes in the foliage may leave the point and routes exposed.

(b) Caches can be concealed above or below ground. An above ground point is easier to
use, but it is more likely to be discovered by the enemy, civilians, or animals. There is
always a security risk in using a cache point; therefore, it should be inspected for signs of
enemy activity and secured before use. The cache site may have been booby-trapped, or it
may be under enemy observation.


Aerial supplies can be delivered by Air Force aircraft or by Army helicopters. The Air Force
uses the container delivery system (CDS). (For more information on CDS operations, refer to
FM 55-60. For more information on the use of Army helicopters, refer to FM 57-38.) The
reconnaissance platoon should have soldiers that are trained in the use of Air Force aircraft
and Army helicopters.

a. Airlanding supplies is the quickest and most accurate method of delivery. However,
it poses an added risk to the helicopter and can attract enemy infantry or artillery fire into the
resupply landing zone.

b. The airdrop of supplies poses less risk to the aircraft, but this can result in supplies
being widely dispersed or lost, which increases the time needed for recovery and resupply.

c. Unless conducting resupply in an area under friendly control and away from direct
enemy observation, the platoon should conduct resupply away from the battalion in an area
that can be defended for a short time.

d. The reconnaissance platoon identifies potential LZs within its area of operations.
These LZs can be used for routine or emergency resupply or for evacuation of personnel and
equipment. Once the reconnaissance platoon recovers its resupply, it moves to another
location to consume or distribute those supplies. Security is essential during resupply



FM 3-21.94

The soldier's load is a crucial concern of the reconnaissance platoon leader. How much is
carried, how far, and in what configuration are important mission considerations. The
platoon leader should require soldiers to carry only mission-essential equipment. All other
equipment should be loaded in the RVs and used for contingencies. This not only reduces the
soldier's load for the majority of the operation but also relieves the burden on the platoon
leadership regarding resupply. The RVs, in effect, act as rolling caches and arms rooms. This
makes the platoon much more flexible with the added ability to conduct static
reconnaissance and to shift to mounted reconnaissance with almost no transition time. All
the materials needed are on the RV so there is less of a need for resupply, refit, or
reorganization based on equipment. The reconnaissance platoon must not be overloaded with
equipment that covers all possible contingencies, and that is the rationale of the mobile arms
room concept. However, the battalion supply system must still be able to deliver contingency
supplies. See FM 3-21.11 for detailed discussions on load planning, calculating, and
management techniques used to assist leaders and soldiers in organizing tactical loads to
ensure safety and combat effectiveness.


The platoon's combat load varies by mission and includes the supplies physically carried
into the fight. The HHC commander directs some minimum requirements for the combat
load. The unit SOP or the platoon leader specifies most items. The basic load includes
supplies kept by the platoon for use in combat. The quantity of most basic load supply items
depends on how many days in combat the platoon might have to sustain itself without
resupply. For Class V ammunition, the higher commander or SOP specifies the platoon's
basic load.


Proper maintenance keeps all materiel, equipment, and vehicles in serviceable condition.
This includes performing preventive maintenance checks and services, inspecting, testing,
servicing, repairing, requisitioning, recovering, and evacuating. Repair and recovery are
accomplished as far forward as possible. When the platoon cannot repair equipment on the
site, it moves it to the rear to a maintenance recovery point. Maintenance tasks are divided
into three levels: unit (operator and organizational), DS and GS, and depot. The platoon
leader, however, is mainly concerned with unit maintenance and repair of equipment in DS
maintenance. Maintenance responsibilities are divided among the following positions:
a. Platoon Leader. The platoon leader—

• Ensures all platoon weapons, equipment, and vehicles (NVDs, mine detectors,
communications equipment) are combat-ready or reported as non-mission-
capable to the commander.

• Knows the present status of equipment to include document numbers and job
order numbers. He informs the battalion staff when the status of critical
equipment changes.

• Develops and supervises a maintenance training program.

• Ensures equipment and soldiers have the appropriate technical manuals (TMs)
and that soldiers are trained and supervised during maintenance operations.


FM 3-21.94

• Ensures unit-level PMCS are performed on assigned equipment IAW the
appropriate operator TMs.

b. Platoon Sergeant. The PSG —
Directs and supervises unit maintenance of platoon equipment.
Helps the platoon leader comply with his responsibilities and assumes them in
his absence.

Coordinates with the designated maintenance element for operator-level repair
and requests organizational-level and DS-level maintenance.
Supervises and accounts for platoon personnel during maintenance periods.
Ensures the platoon uses repair parts soon after receipt.

Collects and consolidates the platoon's maintenance status in the field and gives
the appropriate reports to maintenance personnel.
Keeps the platoon leader informed of maintenance and logistics status.

c. Team Leader. The team leader—
Constantly updates the PSG on maintenance and logistical status of team

Ensures soldiers complete and update DA 5988-E forms IAW unit SOPs. Ensures
priority of maintenance effort is to mission-essential equipment.
Ensures soldiers receive proper training in PMCS procedures and that they
perform PMCS on equipment IAW the applicable TM.


Recovery is required when equipment or vehicles are damaged and cannot be quickly
repaired on site. The platoon conducts self-recovery using tow bars or tow cables, and unit
maintenance recovery personnel also conduct recovery. The platoon evacuates damaged or
inoperable equipment. When this is not possible, the platoon destroys the equipment after
gaining higher approval.

a. Evacuation. The platoon can carry or transport most damaged equipment until
battalion or supporting elements can pick it up.

b. Destruction. Instructions for destroying each item of equipment are found in the
operator TMs. Pre-determined destruction criteria is established in the battalion SOP. When
time permits, the reconnaissance platoon leader requests permission from the battalion


When combat begins and casualties occur, the platoon first must provide initial treatment to
those wounded in action (WIA). Combat lifesavers, platoon medics (when attached), or any
other soldier qualified in first aid treatment can do this.

a. Wounded in Action. Vehicle commanders and team leaders arrange for evacuation
of WIAs to the CCP. The platoon normally sets up the CCP in a covered and concealed
location to the rear of the platoon position. At the CCP, the platoon medic conducts triage on
all casualties, takes steps to stabilize their condition, and starts the process of moving them
to the rear for more treatment.

NOTE: Before the platoon evacuates casualties to the CCP or beyond, leaders should
remove all key operational items and equipment from their persons. This


FM 3-21.94

includes SOI, maps, position-locating devices, and laser pointers. Every unit
should establish an SOP for handling the weapons and ammunition of its WIA.

b. Killed in Action. The platoon leader designates a location for the collection of
soldiers killed in action. All personal effects remain with the body, but the team leader or
vehicle commander removes and safeguards any equipment and issue items. He keeps these
until he can turn the equipment and issue items over to the platoon sergeant. The platoon
sergeant turns over the KIA to the HHC first sergeant. As a rule, the platoon should not
transport KIA remains on the same vehicle as wounded soldiers.


Proper handling of paperwork is necessary for both efficiency and morale. The battalion
personnel and administration center (PAC) provides most of the administrative support.
Information is passed from the reconnaissance platoon to the PAC through the S 1 or the
PAC supervisor. Though the system is informal, the information must be accurate and
timely. The reconnaissance platoon administration consists of personnel services and
replacement operations.

a. Personnel Service Support. Although personnel service support (PSS) provides
many services automatically, the reconnaissance platoon leader and PSG are responsible for
ensuring the platoon receives these services.

(1) Services. The PSS performs these services:
Awards and decorations.
Leaves and passes.
Command information.

Religious services.
Financial services.
Legal assistance.
Rest and relaxation.

(2) Record Changes. The reconnaissance PSG is responsible for reporting or requesting
changes in personnel records, promotions and reductions, and classifications or

(3) Strength Accounting Report. Based on local SOP, the platoon sends a strength
accounting report to battalion headquarters over the administrative/logistics (A/L) net,
detailing strength by officer, enlisted, and attached personnel. The battalion uses these
reports to determine the quantity of rations, water, and ammunition for the reconnaissance
platoon, so the accuracy of the reports is important. At higher echelons, these reports
determine who receives priority for replacement troops.

(4) DA Form 1156. The platoon completes this form (Figure 9-4, page 9-12 and 9-13)
when a casualty occurs or as soon afterward as the tactical situation permits. Each soldier
should keep one of these forms (with his personal and unit identification information filled
in) in a common location such as in the top pocket of his battle dress uniform (BDU). If a
casualty occurs, the soldier's team leader usually prepares the form and gives it to the PSG.
The PSG then forwards the completed form to the battalion S 1 or medical personnel. On the


FM 3-21.94

form, the team leader briefly describes how, when, and where the casualty occurred, what
the soldier was doing at the time, and who or what inflicted the wound. If the team leader
does not know how the casualty occurred, he obtains this information from a soldier who
does know. He completes DA Forms 1155 (Figure 9-5, pages 9-13 and 9-14) and 1156
within 24 hours or as soon as the tactical situation permits. The battalion SI uses this
information to inform the casualty's next of kin and to provide a statistical base for analysis
of friendly or enemy tactics.


(AR 600-10)









10*10 z ocrxx



7-6 /A/



7 TYPE OF CASUALTY (Check applicable box(es))
















�� YES �� NO




BA/ A/D grAP/OA/

*To be indicated by medical personnel only.

DA FORM 1156, 1 JUN 66


Figure 9-4. Example completed DA Form 1156 (front).


FM 3-21.94

8. WITNESSES WHO SAW INCIDENT OR IDENTIFIED REMAINS. (Nam* grade, service number and unit)

JEFF RLiE/ALWALD E6 023-45-6739. £CF PLF 7-6 /AL
J/MBO KELLER E4 222-22-2222 SCF PLF 7-6 /AL

9. REMARKS {(Additional circumstances, any religious ministration performed, etc.)

10. FOR USE BY CO. OR MED. OFF. (only for
casualties not the result of hostile action)





20 ocfxx

(CO or Med. Off.)



(Pers. Off.)





Figure 9-4. Example completed DA Form 1156 (back).


(AF 600-10)




�� MI5 £fe|MIA �� CAP I I PET

[ | DEAD (Rema'na not recovered)






2030, L2ALOVXX

coordinates and nearby town)

AB L22 344 F/LLDA, FR$







WAS HE married' (II *o. give wile's name Dl O HE HAVE any CHILDREN? (II eo. give
i( known) namee II known)


(such a» tattoost or birthmarks)




DA FORM 11 55, 1 Jun 66


Figure 9-5. Example completed DA Form 1155 (front).


FM 3-21.94

8. CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING INCIDENT (If known, include cause of death or condition
when last seen, and how identified)




12- DATE





B CO, 7-6 /AL



Figure 9-5. Example completed DA Form 1155 (back).

b. Replacement Operations. Integrating replacements into the reconnaissance platoon
is important. Reconnaissance platoon replacements come from the rifle companies, which
provide the platoon with experienced soldiers who are familiar with a combat environment,
battalion SOPs, and the chain of command. The platoon leader and PSG welcome each
soldier to the platoon, explain the unit standards, and introduce the soldier to his team leader.
The PSG obtains battle roster information and ensures the HHC 1SG has the information.

(1) The team leader introduces the soldier to the team and then briefs him on duty
positions. He also ensures the soldier has a serviceable and zeroed weapon, ammunition,
MOPP gear, and essential equipment. This in-briefing also includes recent, current, and
planned activities of the team and platoon.

(2) The soldier is briefed on SOPs and special information concerning the area of
operations. He may be given a form letter to send to his next of kin. The letter tells them
where to mail letters and packages and how to use the American Red Cross in emergencies,
and it introduces the chain of command.


Evacuation of multiple casualties makes the platoon combat ineffective since dismounted
soldiers must move the casualty from the injury site to the RV for evacuation. Thus, although
the reconnaissance platoon has the organic assets to evacuate casualties, it emphasizes
prevention, particularly preventing soldiers from becoming combat ineffective due to disease
and non-battle injuries. By understanding and applying the principles of field hygiene,
preventing weather-related injuries, and paying attention to environmental conditions,
leaders can reduce casualties (FM 21-10 and FM 21-11).


FM 3-21.94

a. Health and Hygiene. Any litter casualty in a dismounted recon team severely
degrades that team's ability to perform its mission. Team leaders must maintain high
standards of health and hygiene by ensuring that soldiers—

• Shave daily so their protective masks will seal.

• Bathe and change clothes regularly to prevent disease.

• Treat cuts and scratches before they become infected.

• Check hands and feet regularly to avoid trench foot, blisters, frostbite, or
immersion foot.

• Drink water and eat balanced meals.

b. Casualties. The platoon leader must plan for casualty treatment and evacuation, and
he must establish CCPs in the AO. Coordination between the platoon leader, PSG, and
supporting medical platoon must occur before the mission. Soldiers and leaders must receive
training in first-aid procedures. Units must train combat lifesavers in order to provide
enhanced first-aid treatment for casualties.

(1) Treatment of serious casualties means stabilizing the soldier until he can be
evacuated. Selected team members who are trained as combat lifesavers assist in treating and
evacuating casualties. Team members are part of the platoon's aid and litter team(s) and
assist with first-aid treatment as a secondary mission. The PSG supervises this process.

(2) Casualties are treated where they fall (or under nearby cover and concealment) by an
aidman (if attached) or combat lifesaver and then collected at the platoon CCP. The CCP is
identified by the platoon leader in the OPORD and is usually collocated with the RVs. Once
casualties are collected, treated, and triaged (ranked by precedence—urgent, priority, and
routine), the evacuation begins. Casualties are evacuated from the platoon CCP by any
means available— RV if possible, then ground ambulance, then air ambulance. Medical
evacuation vehicles from battalion are the primary outside transportation assets used for
evacuation. Ambulances (ground and air) should pick up casualties as far forward as possible
(or as the tactical situation permits). Deceased soldiers are evacuated by backhaul operations
on supply vehicles, not in ambulances or medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) helicopters.
(Figure 9-6, page 9-16, shows an example format for requesting air MEDEVAC.)


FM 3-21.94



Used for emergency cases that need to be evacuated
as soon as possible, and in no case more than two
hours, to save life, limb, and eyesight.


Used when the patient should be evacuated within
four hours or his medical condition will deteriorate to
such a degree that he will become an URGENT


Used when evacuation is required, but condition is
not expected to deteriorate seriously within the next
24 hours


Used when the condition is not urgent or priority, but
evacuation is required as soon as possible to avoid
endangering the requesting unit's tactical mission.
















Figure 9-6. Example format for aeromedical evacuation request.

(3) In rough terrain or on patrols, aid and litter teams can evacuate casualties to CCPs, or
they can carry casualties with the platoon until transportation arrives. Casualties with minor
wounds can either walk or assist in carrying the seriously wounded.

(4) The platoon SOP should include the following:

• Duties and responsibilities of key personnel in planning and executing casualty

• Priorities of evacuation.

• Provisions for retrieving and safeguarding weapons, ammunition, and equipment.

(5) Paragraph 4 of the OPORD should provide the following:

• Location of CCPs (battalion, HHC, platoon).

• Procedures and responsibilities for MEDEVAC.

• Planned use of nonmedical transportation assets (RVs) for evacuation.


FM 3-21.94

• Procedures for treating and evacuating EPWs and civilian casualties.

• Communication nets for evacuation requests.


Prisoners of war are good sources of combat information. EPWs are processed and quickly
evacuated to the rear. When enemy soldiers surrender or are captured, the platoon or team is
responsible for taking them into custody and controlling them until evacuation is complete.

a. Procedure. In any tactical situation, the platoon will have specific procedures and
guidelines for handling prisoners and captured material. The five-"S" procedure reminds
soldiers about the basic principles for handling EPWs, which include tagging prisoners and
all captured equipment and materiel:

• Search.

• Segregate.

• Silence.

• Speed.

• Safeguard.

b. Enemy. The platoon leader directs teams to take EPWs to an intermediate collection
point. The teams then turn the EPWs over to other personnel (HHC or 1SG with guards),
who evacuate them to the battalion collection point. If no one is available, teams are directed
to evacuate EPWs to a collection point. Leaders should avoid this method since it detracts
from the platoon's ability to accomplish its main purpose—reconnaissance. If an EPW is
wounded and cannot be evacuated through medical channels, the platoon leader notifies

(1) A surrendering enemy soldier should never be approached. He could have a weapon
hidden nearby, or he could be booby-trapped. The enemy soldier is gestured forward until
there is no doubt that he is surrendering rather than trying to lure friendly soldiers into an
ambush. A thermal sight may be used to locate possible ambushes. When searching an EPW,
one soldier covers the EPW with a weapon, while another soldier searches him. Soldiers
must not wear a weapon when searching the EPW . The searching soldier must not get
between the EPW and the soldier covering him.

(2) The rights of EPWs have been established by international law, which the US has
agreed to obey. Once an enemy soldier shows he wants to surrender, he should be treated
humanely. It is a court-martial offense to physically or mentally harm, mistreat, or needlessly
expose an EPW to fire.

(3) The senior officer or NCO on the scene is legally responsible for the care of EPWs,
ensuring EPWs are processed IAW the five "S" procedures (see paragraph a above). If the
reconnaissance platoon cannot evacuate an EPW within a short time, it must provide him
with food, water, and medical treatment. It does not offer him nonessential comfort items
such as coffee or cigarettes, which could affect the interrogation procedures.

(4) Before evacuating the EPW, the platoon attaches a tag to him (Figure 9-7, page 9-
1 8). The platoon may need to make tags from materials available on the battlefield.

(5) Captured enemy documents and equipment are excellent sources of information.
Documents include maps, orders, records, or photographs. If captured items are not properly
handled, the information could be lost or delayed until it is useless. Documents and
equipment are evacuated to the battalion collection point as rapidly as possible. Each item is


FM 3-21.94

tagged (Figure 9-8, page 9-19). If the item was found on an EPW, his name is included on
the tag, and the item is given to the guard. The guard delivers the item and the EPW to the
battalion collection point.

(6) Evacuating EPWs can take a lot of time. The platoon leader notifies battalion when
processing EPWs. When doing so slows mission accomplishment, he contacts battalion and
requests guidance.

c. Civilians. Civilians who are captured as the result of curfew violations or suspicious
actions are detained and treated the same as EPWs. The platoon evacuates them to the
battalion collection point IAW the five "S" procedure.




RANK( ) CfO.( r tQUT

'0&.IA*/ <?2-








99 s




( ) I

NAME ( )


UNIT ( )





( 1 I



( )


( ) Z






UNIT ( ~)


( )

( >





( )

( )


( )



NOTE: See STANAG 2044 for
reproducible copy.

On the back of the lower part should
be written in red letters: ATTACH TO

Total tag should measure
approximately 30 x 10 centimeters.

Figure 9-7. Example of a standardized EPW tag.


FM 3-21.94



(grid coordinates)

H Ct>togtc*_

PW FROM WHOM TAKEN Nt£,0L/*t f*ttfZflol//0/f

Figure 9-8. Example of a document and equipment tag.


FM 3-21.94



Patrols are missions to gather information, to conduct combat
operations, or to establish a presence in an area of operations as part of a
stability operation. The reconnaissance platoon usually conducts these
operations as part of a larger effort. The infantry reconnaissance platoon
normally conducts two types of patrols: reconnaissance and presence. The
reconnaissance platoon must also be prepared to execute combat patrols
based upon the factors of METT-TC. This chapter describes the planning
considerations used in preparation for patrols, conduct of patrols, and
establishment of and actions taken in a patrol base.

Section I. GENERAL

The SBCT reconnaissance platoon has the ability to transport its sections to positions of
advantage to conduct patrolling and to assist in sustainability operations. The platoon leader
should, if possible, integrate fires from the RV as a support or security position. The RV
sections can also perform communications relay. Most patrols are conducted dismounted, but
the vehicles can support the operation or be left in a hide position or in the company AA.
The information discussed in this section applies to all types of patrols.


To accomplish the patrolling mission, a platoon or team must perform specific tasks. As with
other missions, the leader assigns tasks in accordance with his estimate of the situation. He
identifies those tasks the platoon must perform and decides which elements will perform
them. Where possible, the leader should maintain team integrity. The terms "element" and
"team" refer to the teams, or buddy teams, that perform the described tasks. The leader must
plan carefully to ensure that he has identified and assigned all required tasks in the most
efficient way. Platoons conducting patrols include the common and specific elements and
teams for each type of patrol. The following elements are common to all patrols.

a. Headquarters Element. The headquarters consists of the platoon leader, a
RATELO, and platoon sergeant. It may consist of other attachments that are assigned or that
the platoon leader decides that he or the platoon sergeant must control directly.

b. Aid and Litter Team. Aid and litter teams are responsible for treating and
evacuating casualties.

c. Enemy Prisoner of War Search Team. EPW teams are responsible for controlling
enemy prisoners and battlefield detainees IAW the five-S procedure (Chapter 9) and the
leader's guidance.

d. Surveillance Team. The surveillance team keeps watch on the objective from the
time that the leader's reconnaissance ends until the unit deploys for actions on the objective.
They then join their element.

e. Compass Man. The compass man assists in navigation by ensuring the lead fire team
leader remains on course at all times. The compass man should be thoroughly briefed. His
instructions must include an initial azimuth with subsequent azimuths provided as necessary.
The platoon or team leader also should designate an alternate compass man.



f. Pace Man. The pace man maintains an accurate pace at all times. The platoon or
team leader should designate how often the pace man is to report the pace. The pace man
should also report the pace at the end of each leg. The platoon or team leader should also
designate an alternate pace man.


Leaders plan and prepare for patrols using the troop-leading procedures. Leaders identify
required actions on the objective and then reverse plan to the departure from friendly lines
and forward to the reentry of friendly lines while making a tentative plan. They normally
receive the OPORD in the battalion TOC where communications are good and key personnel
are available. Because patrols act independently, move beyond the direct-fire support of the
parent unit, and operate forward of friendly units, coordination must be thorough and

a. Items to be considered by the company commander and platoon leader are—

• Changes or updates in the enemy situation.

• Best use of terrain for routes, rally points, and patrol bases.

• Light and weather data.

• Changes in the friendly situation.

• The attachment of soldiers with special skills or equipment (for example,
engineers or interpreters).

• Use and location of landing zones.

• Departure and reentry of friendly lines.

• Fire support on the objective and along the planned routes, including alternate

• Rehearsal areas and times. The terrain for the rehearsal should be similar to that
at the objective, to include buildings and fortifications if necessary.

• Signal plan to include call signs, frequencies, code words, pyrotechnics, digital
communication instructions, as well as the challenge and password.

b. The platoon leader or battalion staff coordinates with the unit through which his
platoon or team will conduct its forward and rearward passage of lines.

c . The battalion S3 coordinates patrol activities with the leaders of other units that will
be patrolling in adjacent areas at the same time.


As the platoon leader completes his plan, he considers the following:

a. Essential and Supporting Tasks. The leader ensures that he has assigned all
essential tasks to be performed on the objective, at rally points, at danger areas, at security or
surveillance locations, along the route(s), and at passage lanes.

b. Movement and Execution Times. The leader estimates time requirements for
movement to the objective, leader's reconnaissance of the objective, establishment of
security and surveillance, completion of all assigned tasks on the objective, movement to an
objective rally point to debrief the platoon, and return to and through friendly lines.

c. Primary and Alternate Routes. The leader selects primary and alternate routes to
and from the objective (Figure 10-1). The return routes should differ from the routes to the


FM 3-21.94

Figure 10-1. Primary and alternate routes.

d. Signals. The leader should consider the use of special signals. These include arm-
and-hand signals, flares, voice, whistles, radios, and infrared equipment. All signals must be
rehearsed so that all soldiers know what they mean.

e. Challenge and Password Forward of Friendly Lines. The platoon can use
digital technology to inform units that it can track their progress, and as a redundancy it can
use challenge and password. The platoon leader can also designate a running password. This
code word alerts a unit that friendly soldiers are approaching in a less than organized manner
and possibly under pressure. This may be used to get soldiers quickly through a
compromised passage of friendly lines. The running password is followed by the number of
soldiers approaching, for example "Warrior six." This prevents the enemy from joining a
group in an attempt to penetrate a friendly unit.

f Location of Leaders. The leader considers where he and the platoon sergeant and
other key leaders should be located for each phase of the patrol mission. The platoon
sergeant normally is with the following elements for each type of patrol:

• On a raid or ambush, he normally controls the support element.

• On an area reconnaissance, he normally stays in the ORP.

• On a zone reconnaissance, he normally moves with the reconnaissance element
that sets up the linkup point.

g. Actions on Enemy Contact. Unless required by the mission, the platoon avoids
enemy contact. The leader's plan must address actions on chance contact at each phase of the
patrol mission. The platoon's ability to continue the mission will depend on how early
contact is made, whether the platoon is able to break contact successfully (so that its
subsequent direction of movement is undetected), and whether the platoon receives any
casualties as a result of the contact.

(1) The plan must address the handling of seriously wounded soldiers and KIAs.

(2) The plan must address the handling of prisoners who are captured as a result of
chance contact and who are not part of the planned mission.

h. Contingency Plans. The leader leaves for many reasons throughout the planning,
coordination, preparation, and execution of his patrol mission. Each time the leader departs



without radio or wire communications, he must issue a five-point contingency plan. The
contingency plan includes—

• Where the leader is going.

• Who he is taking with him.

• The amount of time he plans to be gone.

• The actions to be taken if the leader does not return.

• The unit's and the leader's actions on chance contact while the leader is gone.


When departing friendly lines, the platoon leader or battalion staff must coordinate with the
commander of the forward unit and the leaders of other units that will be patrolling in the
same or adjacent areas. This coordination includes signal plan, fire plan, running password,
procedures for departure and reentry lines, dismount points, initial rally points, departure and
reentry points, and information about the enemy.

a. The platoon leader provides the forward unit leader with the unit identification, the
size of the patrol, the departure and return times, and the area of operation.

b. The forward unit leader provides the platoon leader with the following:

• Additional information on terrain.

• Known or suspected enemy positions.

• Likely enemy ambush sites.

• Latest enemy activity.

• Detailed information on friendly positions and obstacle locations to include the
location of OPs.

• Friendly unit fire plan.

• Support that the unit can provide (for example, fire support, guides,
communications, and reaction force).

c. In his plan for the departure of friendly lines, the leader should consider the following
sequence of actions:

• Making contact with friendly guides at the contact point.

• Moving to the coordinated initial rally point.

• Completing final coordination.

• Moving to and through the passage point.

• Establishing a security-listening halt beyond the friendly unit's final protective

d. If the platoon is dismounted, it should remain in single file. The platoon sergeant
follows directly behind the guide so that he can count each soldier who passes through the
passage point. He gives the count to the guide, tells him how long to wait at the passage
point (or when to return), and confirms the running password. If the platoon makes contact
after it is past the departure point, it fights through. Soldiers return to the departure point
only if they become disorganized. They then reoccupy the initial rally point, and the leader
reports to higher headquarters.



FM 3-21.94

A patrol base is a position set up when a team or platoon conducting a patrol halts for an
extended period. Patrol bases should be occupied no longer than 24 hours, except in an
emergency. The platoon or team never uses the same patrol base twice. Platoons or teams
use patrol bases—

• To stop all movement to avoid detection.

• To hide during a long, detailed reconnaissance of an objective area.

• To eat, clean weapons and equipment, or rest.

• To plan and issue orders.

• To reorganize after infiltrating an enemy area.

• To have a base from which to conduct several consecutive or concurrent
operations such as ambush, raid, reconnaissance, or security.

a. The leader selects the tentative site from a map. Plans to establish a patrol base must
include selecting an alternate patrol base site. The alternate site is used if the first site is
unsuitable or if the patrol must unexpectedly evacuate the first patrol base.

b. Leaders planning for a patrol base must consider the mission and passive and active
security measures. The leader plans for—

Observation posts.

Communication with observation posts.

Defense of the patrol base.

Withdrawal from the patrol base to include withdrawal routes and a rally point or

rendezvous point or alternate patrol base.

A security system to make sure that specific soldiers are awake at all times.

Enforcement of camouflage, noise, and light discipline.

The conduct of required activities with minimum movement and noise.

c. The leader avoids—
Known or suspected enemy positions.
Built-up areas.

Ridges and hilltops, except as needed for maintaining communication.
Roads and trails.
Small valleys.


A rally point is a place designated by the leader where the platoon moves to reassemble and
reorganize if it becomes dispersed. (See FM 7-8 for more information.) The leader physically
reconnoiters routes to select rally points whenever possible. He selects tentative points if he
can only conduct a map reconnaissance, and he confirms them by actual inspection as the
platoon moves through them. The most common types of rally points are initial, en route,
objective, reentry, and near- and far-side rally points. Soldiers must know which rally point
to move to at each phase of the patrol mission. They should know what actions are required
there and how long they are to wait at each rally point before moving to another.

a. Initial Rally Point An initial rally point is a place inside of friendly lines where a
unit may assemble and reorganize if it makes enemy contact during the departure of friendly
lines or before reaching the first en route rally point. The commander normally selects the
initial rally point.



b. En Route Rally Point The leader designates en route rally points every 100 to 400
meters (based on the terrain, vegetation, and visibility). When the leader designates a new en
route rally point, the previously designated en route rally point is no longer in effect. To
preclude uncertainty, if contact is made immediately after the leader designates the new en
route rally point (within 25 -50m) the soldiers should move to the previously designated en
route rally point. There are three ways to designate a rally point:

(1) Physically occupy it for a short period. This is the preferred method.

(2) Pass by at a distance and designate using arm-and-hand signals.

(3) Walk through and designate using arm-and-hand signals.

c. Objective Rally Point. The ORP is a point out of sight, sound, and small-arms range
of the objective area. It is normally located in the direction that the platoon plans to move
after completing its actions on the objective. The ORP is tentative until the objective is
pinpointed. Actions at or from the ORP include—

• Reconnoitering the objective.

• Issuing a FRAGO.

• Disseminating information from reconnaissance, if contact was not made.

• Making final preparations before continuing operations such as recamouflaging;
preparing demolitions; lining up rucksacks for quick recovery; preparing EPW
bindings, first aid kits, and litters; and inspecting weapons.

• Accounting for soldiers and equipment after actions at the objective are

• Reestablishing the chain of command after actions at the objective are complete.

(1) Occupation of an ORP by a Team. In planning the occupation of an ORP, the team
leader considers the following sequence.

(a) The team halts beyond sight, sound, and small-arms weapons range of the tentative
ORP (200 to 400 meters in good visibility, 100 to 200 meters in limited visibility).

(b) The team leader positions security.

(c) The team leader issues a five-point contingency plan before departure.

(d) The team leader moves forward with a compass man and one member of each
element to confirm the location of the ORP and determine its suitability.

(e) The team leader positions an information gathering soldier in the ORP at 12 o'clock
and a control and security soldier at 6 o'clock. He issues them a contingency plan and
returns with the compass man.

(f) He then leads the team into the ORP and positions the information-gathering element
from 9 to 3 o'clock and the control and security element from 3 to 9 o'clock.

NOTE: The team may also occupy the ORP by force. This requires more precise
navigation but eliminates separating the team.

(2) Occupation of an ORP by a Platoon. The platoon leader should consider the same
sequence in planning the occupation of an ORP. He brings a soldier from each team on his
reconnaissance of the ORP and positions them at the 10,2, and 6 o'clock positions. The first
team in the order of march establishes the base leg (10 to 2 o'clock). The trailing teams
occupy from 2 to 6 o'clock and 6 to 10 o'clock, respectively.


FM 3-21.94

d. Reentry Rally Point. The reentry rally point (RRP) is located out of sight, sound,
and small-arms weapons range of the friendly unit through which the platoon will return.
This also means that the RRP should be outside the final protective fires of the friendly unit.
The platoon occupies the RRP as a security perimeter.

e. Near- and Far-Side Rally Points. These rally points are on the near and far side of
danger areas. If the platoon makes contact while crossing the danger area and control is lost,
soldiers on either side move to the rally point nearest them. They establish security,
reestablish the chain of command, determine their personnel and equipment status, and
continue the patrol mission, link up at the ORP, or complete their last instructions.


The plan must include a leader's reconnaissance of the objective once the platoon or team
establishes the ORP. During his reconnaissance, the leader pinpoints the objective; selects
security, support, and assault positions for his teams; and adjusts his plan based on his
observation of the objective. Each type of patrol requires different tasks during the leader's
reconnaissance. The platoon leader will take different elements with him. The leader must
plan time to return to the ORP, complete his plan, disseminate information, issue orders and
instructions, and allow his teams to make any additional preparations.


The platoon could be mounted or dismounted at the reentry rally point. The same
considerations apply for coordination. The platoon leader should consider the following

a. The platoon halts in the RRP and establishes security.

b. The platoon leader radios the code word advising the friendly unit of its location and
that it is ready to return. The friendly unit must acknowledge the message and confirm that
guides are waiting before the platoon moves from the RRP.

c. If radio communications are not possible, the platoon leader, a RATELO, and a two-
man security element (buddy team) move forward and attempt to contact an OP using the
challenge and password. The OP notifies the friendly unit that the platoon is ready to return
and requests a guide.

d. If the platoon leader cannot find an OP, he moves with the RATELO and security
element to locate the coordinated reentry point. He must move straight toward friendly lines,
never parallel to them. All lateral movement should be outside of small-arms weapons range.

NOTE: The platoon leader should attempt this procedure only during daylight. At night
he should use other backup signals to make contact with friendly units. The
preferred method is to wait until daylight if contact with the friendly unit cannot
be made as planned, but this is METT-TC dependent.

e. The platoon leader uses far and near recognition signals to establish contact with the

f The platoon leader signals (radio) the platoon forward or returns and leads it to the
reentry point. He may post the security element with the guide at the enemy side of the
reentry point.



g. The platoon sergeant counts and identifies each soldier as he passes through the
reentry point.

h. The guide leads the platoon to the assembly area.

i. The platoon leader reports to the command post of the friendly unit. He tells the
commander everything of tactical value concerning the friendly unit's area of responsibility.

j. The platoon leader rejoins the platoon in the assembly area and leads it to a secure
area for debriefing.


Immediately after the platoon or team returns, personnel from higher headquarters conduct a
thorough debrief. This may include all members of the platoon or the leaders, RATELO, and
any attached personnel. The debriefing normally is oral. Sometimes a written report is
required. Information on the written report should include—

• Size and composition of platoon conducting the patrol.

• Mission of the platoon (type of patrol, location, and purpose).

• Departure and return times.

• Routes. Use checkpoints, grid coordinates for each leg, or include an overlay.

• Detailed description of terrain and enemy positions identified.

• Results of any contact with the enemy.

• Personnel status at the conclusion of the patrol.


This section discusses the types of patrols the SBCT reconnaissance platoon may be
expected to conduct.


Reconnaissance patrols provide timely and accurate information on the enemy and terrain.
They confirm the leader's plan before it is executed. The commander must brief the platoon
leader the specific information requirements for each mission. The three types of
reconnaissance patrols are area, zone, and route.

a. Area Reconnaissance Patrol. An area reconnaissance is conducted to obtain
information about a specific location and the area around it. The location may be given as a
grid coordinate, an objective, on an overlay. In an area reconnaissance, the platoon or team
uses surveillance or vantage points around the objective from which to observe it and the
surrounding area. In planning for an area reconnaissance mission, the platoon leader
considers the following sequence of actions.

(1) The leader may include a surveillance team in his reconnaissance of the objective
from the ORP. He positions the surveillance team while on the reconnaissance. The
subordinate leader responsible for security establishes security at the ORP and positions
other security teams as required on likely enemy avenues of approach into the objective area.

(2) If required, the leader positions other surveillance elements about the objective. He
may move them on one route posting them as they move, or he may direct them to move on
separate routes to their assigned locations.


FM 3-21.94

(3) After observing the objective for a specified time, all elements return to the ORP and
report their observations to the leader or the recorder. Once all information is collected, it is
disseminated to every soldier.

b. Zone Reconnaissance Patrol. A zone reconnaissance is conducted to obtain
information on enemy, terrain, and routes within a specified zone. Zone reconnaissance
techniques include the use of moving elements, stationary teams, or multiple area
reconnaissance actions.

(1) Moving Elements. The leader plans the use of teams moving along multiple routes to
cover the entire zone. Methods for planning the movement of multiple elements through a
zone include the fan, the box, converging routes, and successive sectors.

(a) Fan Method. The leader first selects a series of ORPs throughout the zone. The
platoon establishes security at the first ORP. Each team moves from the ORP along a
different fan-shaped route that overlaps with others to ensure reconnaissance of the entire
area (Figure 10-2). The leader maintains a reserve at the ORP. When all teams have returned
to the ORP, the platoon leader collects and disseminates all information to every soldier
before moving on to the next ORP.


Figure 10-2. Fan method.

(b) Box Method. The leader sends his teams from the ORP along routes that form a
boxed-in area (Figure 10-3, page 10-10). He sends other teams along routes through the
area within the box. All teams meet at a link-up point at the far side of the box from the



Figure 10-3. Box method.

(c) Converging Routes Method. The leader selects routes from the ORP through the zone
to a linkup point at the far side of the zone from the ORP (Figure 10-4). Each team moves
along a specified route and uses the fan method to reconnoiter the area between routes. The
leader designates a time for all teams to link up.



Figure 10-4. Converging routes method.

(d) Successive Sector Method. The leader may divide the zone into a series of sectors
(Figure 10-5). Within each sector, the platoon uses the converging routes method to


FM 3-21.94

reconnoiter to an intermediate linkup point where it collects and disseminates the
information gathered to that point before reconnoitering the next sector.


Figure 10-5. Successive sector method.

(2) Stationary Teams. Using this technique, the leader positions surveillance teams in
locations where they can collectively observe the entire zone for long-term, continuous
information gathering. He must consider sustainment requirements when developing his
soldiers' load plan.

(3) Multiple Area Reconnaissance. The leader tasks each of his teams to conduct a
series of area reconnaissance actions along a specified route.

c. Route Reconnaissance Patrol. A route reconnaissance is conducted to obtain
detailed information about one route and all the adjacent terrain or to locate sites for
emplacing obstacles. A route reconnaissance is oriented on a road, a narrow axis such as an
infiltration lane, or a general direction of attack. Engineers normally are attached to the
infantry unit for a complete route reconnaissance, although infantry can conduct a hasty
route reconnaissance without engineer support. A route reconnaissance results in detailed
information about trafficability, enemy activity, NBC contamination, and aspects of adjacent
terrain from both the enemy and friendly viewpoint. In planning a route reconnaissance, the
leader considers the following:

(1) The preferred method for conducting a route reconnaissance is the fan method
described above. The leader must ensure that the fans are extensive enough to reconnoiter
intersecting routes beyond direct- fire range of the main route (Figure 10-6, page 10-12).

(2) The platoon should use a different return route.

(3) If all or part of the proposed route is a road, the leader must treat the road as a danger
area. The platoon moves parallel to the road using a covered and concealed route. When
required, reconnaissance and security teams move close to the road to reconnoiter key areas.



Figure 10-6. Route reconnaissance using fans.


Combat patrols are conducted to destroy or capture enemy soldiers or equipment; to destroy
installations, facilities, or key points; or to harass enemy forces. They also provide security
for larger units. The two types of combat patrol missions are ambush and raid.

a. Organization. The platoon leader organizes the platoon with all assets available to
include the reconnaissance teams, RVs, and attachments to complete the mission. Besides
the common elements, combat patrols also have the following elements and teams.

(1) Assault Element. The assault element seizes and secures the objective and protects
special teams as they complete their assigned actions on the objective.

(2) Security Element. The security element provides security at danger areas, secures the
ORP, isolates the objective, and supports the withdrawal of the rest of the platoon once it
completes its assigned actions on the objective. The security element may have separate
security teams, each with an assigned task or sequence of tasks.

(3) Support Element. The support element provides direct fire support and may control
indirect fires for the platoon.

(4) Breach Element. The breach element breaches the enemy's obstacles when required.

(5) Demolition Team. Demolition teams are responsible for preparing and exploding the
charges to destroy equipment, vehicles, or facilities on the objective.

(6) Search Team. The assault element may comprise two-man (buddy team) or four-man
(fire team) search teams to search bunkers, buildings, or tunnels on the objective. These
teams may search the objective or kill zone for casualties, documents, or equipment.

b. Leader's Reconnaissance. In a combat patrol, the leader has additional
considerations for the conduct of his reconnaissance of the objective from the ORP. He is
normally the assault element leader. He should also take the support element leader, the
security element leader, and a surveillance team (a two-man team from the assault element).

(1) The leader should designate a release point halfway between the ORP and the
objective. Teams separate at the release point and move to their assigned positions. The
release point should have wire communications with the ORP and be set up so that other
elements can tie into a hot loop there.

(2) The platoon leader should confirm the location of the objective and determine that it
is suitable for the assault or ambush. He notes the terrain and identifies where he can place
mines or Claymores to cover dead space. He notes any other features of the objective that
may cause him to alter his plan.


FM 3-21.94

(3) If the objective is the kill zone for an ambush, the leader's reconnaissance party
should not cross the objective because to do so will leave tracks that may compromise the

(4) The platoon leader should confirm the suitability of the assault and support positions
and routes from them back to the ORP.

(5) The platoon leader should post the surveillance team and issue a five-point
contingency plan before returning to the ORP.

c. Ambush. An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position on a moving or
temporarily halted target. Ambushes are classified by category—hasty or deliberate; by type-
point, area, or antiarmor; and by formation— linear or L-shaped. The leader uses a
combination of category, type, and formation in developing his ambush plan.

(1) Planning. The key planning considerations include—

• Covering the entire kill zone by fire.

• Using existing or reinforcing obstacles (Claymores and other mines) to keep the
enemy in the kill zone.

• Protecting the assault and support elements with mines, Claymores, or

• Using security elements or teams to isolate the kill zone.

• Assaulting into the kill zone to search dead and wounded, assemble prisoners,
and collect equipment. (The assault element must be able to move quickly
through its own protective obstacles.)

• Timing the actions of all elements of the platoon to preclude loss of surprise.

• Using only one team to conduct the entire ambush and rotating teams over time
from the ORP. This technique is useful when the ambush must be manned for a
long time.

(2) Formations. The leader considers either the linear or L-shaped formations in
planning an ambush.

(a) Linear. In an ambush using a linear formation, the assault and support elements
deploy parallel to the enemy's route. This positions both elements on the long axis of the kill
zone and subjects the enemy to flanking fire. This formation can be used in close terrain that
restricts the enemy's ability to maneuver against the platoon or in open terrain, provided a
means of keeping the enemy in the kill zone can be effected.

(b) L-Shaped. In an L-shaped ambush, the assault element forms the long leg parallel to
the enemy's direction of movement along the kill zone. The support element forms the short
leg at one end of and at right angles to the assault element. This provides both flanking fires
(long leg) and enfilading fires (short leg) against the enemy. The L-shaped ambush can be
used at a sharp bend in a trail, road, or stream. It should not be used where the short leg
would have to cross a straight road or trail.

d. Hasty Ambush. A platoon or team conducts a hasty ambush when it makes visual
contact with an enemy force and has time to establish an ambush without being detected.
The actions for a hasty ambush must be well rehearsed so that soldiers know what to do on
the leader's signal. They must also know what action to take if detected before they are ready
to initiate the ambush. In planning and rehearsing a hasty ambush, the platoon leader should
consider the following sequence of actions.



(1) Using visual signals, any soldier alerts the platoon that an enemy force is in sight.
The soldier continues to monitor the location and activities of the enemy force until his team
or team leader relieves him.

(2) The platoon or team halts and remains motionless.

(3) The leader determines the best nearby location for a hasty ambush. He uses arm-and-
hand signals to direct soldiers to covered and concealed positions. The leader designates the
location and extent of the kill zone.

(4) Security elements move out to cover each flank and the rear. The leader directs the
security elements to move a given distance, set up, and rejoin the platoon on order or after
the ambush (the sound of firing ceases). At team level, the two outside buddy teams
normally provide flank security as well as fires into the kill zone.

(5) Soldiers move quickly to covered and concealed positions, normally 5 to 10 meters
apart. Soldiers ensure that they have good observation and fields of fire into the kill zone.

(6) The leader initiates the ambush when the majority of the enemy force enters the kill
zone. (If time and terrain permit, the team or platoon may place out Claymores and use them
to initiate the ambush.)

NOTE: If the enemy detects a soldier, the soldier initiates the ambush by firing his
weapon and alerting the rest of the platoon by saying ENEMY RIGHT (LEFT or

(7) Leaders control the rate and distribution of fires. The leader orders cease-fire when
the enemy force is destroyed or ceases to resist, and he directs the assault element to move
into the kill zone to conduct a hasty search of the enemy soldiers. All other soldiers remain
in place to provide security.

(8) The security elements rejoin the platoon after the assault element has cleared through
the kill zone. The platoon withdraws from the ambush site using a covered and concealed
route. The platoon returns to the ORP in effect, collects and disseminates all information,
reorganizes as necessary, and continues the mission.

e. Deliberate Ambush. A deliberate ambush is conducted against a specific target at a
predetermined location. The types of deliberate ambushes are point, area, and antiarmor. The
leader requires detailed information in planning a deliberate ambush:

• Size and composition of the targeted enemy unit.

• Weapons and equipment available to the enemy.

• The enemy's route and direction of movement.

• Times that the targeted unit will reach or pass specified points along the route.

(1) Point Ambush. In a point ambush, soldiers deploy to attack an enemy in a single kill
zone. The platoon leader must ensure that all elements and weapons systems are sited. In
conjunction with the PSG, the platoon leader must have positive C2 of security, support, and
assault elements. If using RVs, the platoon leader may or may not integrate their fires but
should plan and coordinate dismount, remount, or hide positions for the vehicles, if used.

(2) Area Ambush. The area ambush is a dynamic ambush. Soldiers deploy in two or
more related point ambushes based on real-time intelligence. There are three techniques used
in employing area ambushes.

Sequential (linear in nature).


FM 3-21.94

• Concentrated (centralized in nature).

• Distributed (decentralized in nature).

The platoon leader should consider the following sequence of actions when planning a
deliberate area ambush.

(a) A platoon is the smallest unit to conduct an area ambush. Platoons conduct area
ambushes where enemy movement is largely restricted to trails or streams.

(b) The platoon leader should select one principal ambush site around which he
organizes outlying ambushes. These secondary sites are located along the enemy's most
likely approach to and escape from the principal ambush site. Team-sized elements normally
are responsible for each ambush site.

(c) The platoon leader must determine that the best employment of all weapon systems
and vehicle platforms is used.

(d) Isolating teams are responsible for outlying ambushes and do not initiate their
ambushes until after the principal ambush is initiated. They then engage to prevent enemy
forces from escaping or reinforcing.

(3) Antiarmor Ambush. Platoons conduct antiarmor ambushes to destroy one or two
armored vehicles. The antiarmor ambush is organized around the platoon's antiarmor
capabilities and supporting assets. The leader must consider additional weapons available to
supplement the platoon's fires. The leader must carefully position all antiarmor weapons to
ensure the best shot (rear, flank, or top). The remainder of the platoon must function as
support and security elements in the same way that they do for other combat patrols.

(a) In an antiarmor ambush, the platoon leader selects a general site for the ambush that
restricts the movement of armored vehicles out of the kill zone. The leader should attempt to
place his elements so that an obstacle is between them and the kill zone.

(b) The leader should consider the method for initiating the antiarmor ambush. The
preferred method is to use a command-detonated antiarmor mine placed in the kill zone. The
armor-killer teams, typically equipped with the platoon's Javelins, attempt to kill the first
and last vehicles in the column. All other weapons open fire once the ambush has begun.

(c) The leader must consider how the presence of dismounted enemy will affect the
success of his ambush. Because of the speed with which other armored forces can reinforce
the enemy in the ambush site, the leader should plan to keep the engagement short and the
withdrawal quick. The platoon will not clear through the kill zone as in other ambushes.

f. Raid Patrol. The raid patrol is a combat patrol whose mission is to attack a position
or installation for any or all of these purposes:

• Destroy the position or installation.

• Destroy or capture troops or equipment.

• Liberate personnel.

(1) Surprise, firepower, and violent action are the keys to a raid.

(a) Surprise is best achieved by attacking—

• When the enemy may least expect an attack.

• When visibility is poor.

• From an unexpected direction, such as from the rear or through a swamp or other
seemingly impassable terrain.

(b) Fire is concentrated at critical points to suppress the enemy.



(c) Violence is best achieved by gaining surprise, by using massed fire, and by attacking

(2) The patrol moves to the ORP as described for a reconnaissance patrol. The ORP is
secured, the leaders conduct reconnaissance, and plans are confirmed. Elements and teams
move to their positions. If possible, their movements are coordinated so that all reach their
positions about the same time. This improves the patrol's capability for decisive action if the
enemy detects the patrol early.

(3) The teams of the security element move to positions from which they can secure the
ORP, give warning of enemy approach, block avenues of approach into the objective area,
prevent enemy escape from the objective area, or perform any combination of these tasks
within their capability.

(a) As the assault and support elements move into position, the security element keeps
the leader of the patrol informed of all enemy action. It shoots only if detected or on the
leader's order.

(b) Once the assault starts, the security element prevents enemy entry into, or escape
from, the objective area.

(c) When the assault is completed, the security element covers the withdrawal of the
assault and support elements to the ORP. It withdraws itself on order or on a prearranged

(4) The support element moves into position so that it can suppress the objective and
shift fire when the assault starts. It normally covers the withdrawal of the assault element
from the immediate area of the objective. It withdraws itself on oral order or on signal.

(5) The assault element deploys close enough to the objective to permit immediate
assault if detected by the enemy. As supporting fire is lifted or shifted, the assault element
assaults, seizes, and secures the objective. It protects demolition teams, search teams, and
other teams while they work. On order or signal, the assault element withdraws to the ORP.

(6) At the ORP, the patrol reorganizes and moves about 1,000 meters away to
disseminate information. During reorganization, ammunition is distributed, casualties are
treated, and status reports are given.


US forces increasingly are deployed in support of stability and support missions all around
the world. The RV-equipped infantry platoon conducts a presence patrol much the same as a
combat patrol, and the planning considerations are much the same. The primary difference is
that the patrol wants to be seen both as a show of force and to lend confidence and stability
to the local population of the host nation. As its name implies, this patrol is constituted to
effect a presence. A presence patrol can be used only if a peace agreement has been
negotiated between belligerents. The presence patrol is armed, and it conducts the planning
and preparation necessary for combat operations at all times. The patrol would be used as a
component of a larger force conducting stability and or support operations. The platoon
could be tasked to conduct mounted or dismounted patrols planned by the higher HQ to
accomplish one or more of the following:

• Confirm or supervise an agreed cease-fire.

• Gain information.

• Cover gaps between OPs or checkpoints.

• Show a stability force presence.


FM 3-21.94

• Reassure isolated communities.

• Inspect existing or vacated positions of former belligerents.

• Escort former belligerents or local populations through trouble spots.


FM 3-21.94




This appendix provides leaders the necessary data to use overlays,
symbols, and formulas in their reconnaissance efforts.


Figure A-l (pages A-2 through A-6) outlines a variety of symbols that soldiers can use to
illustrate reconnaissance data on their overlays. Figure A-2, page A-7, shows an example
of how these graphics are used in the overlay. Figure A-3, page A-8, shows symbols for
various materials, facilities, equipment, and services. (These graphics are adapted from
information provided in FM 5-170.)


FM 3-21.94

Symbols for use in the reconnaissance overlay


Description and criteria


i :




— ►

BYPASSES: Are local alternate routes which
enable traffic to avoid an obstruction. Bypasses
are classified as EASY, DIFFICULT, or
IMPOSSIBLE. Each type bypass is represented
symbolically on the line extending from the
symbol to the main location and defined as

BYPASS EASY: The obstacle can be crossed
within the immediate vicinity by a US 5-ton truck
(or NATO equivalent) without work to improve the

BYPASS DIFFICULT: The obstacle can be
crossed within the immediate vicinity, but some
work will be necessary to prepare the bypass.

BYPASS IMPOSSIBLE: The obstacle can only be
crossed by one of the following methods:

(1) Repairofitem, such as bridge.

(2) New construction.

(3) Detour using an alternate route that
crosses the obstacle some distance


STEEP GRADES: (An obstruction.) Any grade
7% or higher. Actual % of grade will be shown.
Arrows always point uphill, and length of arrow
represents length of grade if map scale permits.

(The percent of slope is written to the right of
the arrow.)


OBSTACLES: Are natural or
manmade restrictions which
impede the flow of traffic along a
designated route.




Figure A-1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols.


FM 3-21.94

Symbols for use in the reconnaissance overlay


Description and criteria


radius —


SHARP CURVE: Any curve with a radius of 25
meters or less is an obstruction. All curves with a
radius less than 45 meters are reportable.




of curves >fc£

> f V

( ^ Sharpest

curve radius

SERIES OF SHARP CURVES: The figure to the I
left indicates the number of curves; that to the
right, the minimum radius of curvature in meters.



Number critical points in order
and describe them on DA Form

CRITICAL POINT: A key geographic point or
position important to the success of an
operation; a point in time, a crisis or turning
point, or any point along a route of march where
interference with troop movement may occur.


Traveled way

CONSTRICTION: (An obstruction.) Any reduction
in the traveled way below the minimum required.
The figure to the left indicates the width of the
constriction; that to the right, the total constricted
length, both in meters.

Total constricted


way width


way width
and sidewalks











UNDERPASSES: Show shape of structure (obstruction) when overhead
clearance is less than 4.3 meters.


ROUTE DESIGNATION: Civil or military
route designation. Written in parentheses
along route.

Figure A-1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).


FM 3-21.94

Symbols for use in the reconnaissance overlay


Description and criteria


Full NATO Bridge Symbol

Two-way class


Serial number

Width of
traveled way


One-way class
Overall length

Bypass condition
Bridge location


When full NATO bridge symbol is used on an overlay, the additional information
column on the DA Form 1249 will not contain bypass length, traveled way width, or
overhead clearance.


Abbreviated Bridge Symbol


Load classification

Serial number
When abbreviated symbol is used, DA Form 1249 must be attached.


Minimum and maximum
overhead clearance




= Q

„Tunnel length


Traveled way width/plus sidewalk

TUNNEL: (Includes manmade snow sheds.) Show the shape of structure or
obstruction when overhead clearance is less than 4.3 m.

Figure A-1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).


FM 3-21.94

Symbols for use in the reconnaissance overlay


Description and criteria


Left ba

Direction of flow
Right bank

FORD: All fords are considered as obstructions to traffic.
Type of ford: V- Vehicular
P- Pedestrian

Seasonal limiting factors:

X- No seasonal limitation except for limited duration sudden flooding.
Y- Significant seasonal limitations.

Approach conditions:

Nature of bottom:

M- Mud C- Clay

G- Gravel R- Rock


S- Sand

P- Artificial paving


Left approach



/ Type / R '9 nt approach
/ / conditions

Deadweight I yy
capacity /

FERRY: All ferries are
considered as
obstructions to traffic.

Type of ferry:

V- Vehicular
P— Pedestrian

Approach conditions:

�� Difficult

LIMITS OF SECTOR: Limits of reconnoitered
sector or of route having some road classification

Figure A-1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).


FM 3-21.94

Symbols for use in the reconnaissance overlay


Description and criteria


s^ v^ 3 s^r

Level grade

Overhead obstruction



Passing trains will interrupt traffic flow. The figure indicates overhead clearance.


Load class




\ Bridge

Traveled way width
(underline if below
standard for specific


Road vehicle
use adaptation

Figure A-1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).


FM 3-21.94

Example of an overlay pertaining to a route from UT83430500 to UT87570508









Figure A-2. Example of overlay graphics.


FM 3-21.94


Stocks of bricks and other
clay products


Electrical supply


Aggregate (including
gravel, slag)


Civil engineering




Cement concrete


Glass stock


Gypsum and lime


Industrial gasses



Mobile heavy
construction equipment


Quarrying equipment


Water purification
equipment (civilian)

Building contractors


— 4, 1 1 H !►*—

Factory symbol plus
plant product

Stores handling and
transportation equipment

i i i




Possible military water point

Iron and steel stock



Asphalt and bituminous






Cordage, nets, yarns


Powered hand-tools


Steel rolling mills and


Established military
water point


Forestry equipment


Engineering workshops
Wire stock


Building hardware
Utility (civilian)


3®C 3©C <T)C

Stocks of roof covering


Gas Electric

Figure A-3. Material, facility, equipment, and service symbols.


FM 3-21.94


This paragraph covers formulas for the reconnaissance platoon to use in water crossing
operations and in determining the slope of a road or other piece of terrain. The
information is adapted from FM 5-34.

a. Formulas for Water Obstacles.

(1) Width. Scouts can measure the width of a river or stream using one of several
available methods:

• Stretching a string or measuring tape across the river or stream.

• Using a map scale.

• Using a compass and the basic mathematical computation illustrated in Figure

(2) Velocity. Scouts can measure the velocity of the current of a river or stream using
the procedures shown in Figure A-5, page A- 10.

b. Slope Computation. To determine the slope of a piece of ground, whether it is an
established roadway or a cross-country route, soldiers use a clinometer. If a clinometer is
not available, they use the slope computation formula, which requires using one of the
following methods to determine horizontal and vertical distances (Figure A-6, page A-

• Compute horizontal and vertical distances based on the map scale and contour
differences for the road or terrain.

• Estimate horizontal and vertical distances using pacing and eyesight (hasty

1. Select prominent objectB (e.g., tree) on far bank.

2. Stand at point A, opposite B, and read azimuth X��.

3. Move up or down stream to a point C so that azimuth to B equals

4. Distance AC then equals gap AB.

Figure A-4. Measuring stream width with a compass.


FM 3-21.94

1. Measure distance AB.

2. Throw floating object into stream at C.

3. Determine time required for object to float
distance AB.

Velocity 3

AB (meters)

Time to float from A' to B" (seconds)

Figure A-5. Measuring stream velocity.


Vertical distance

% slope = — x100

H Horizontal distance


Find H by scaling it off the map. Find V by contour differences.



Your height: 1.75 m

1 pace: .75 m

V = 2x1.75 = 3.5 m

H = (75 + 125) (.75) = 150 m

% of slope = M. x 100 = 2.3%

NOTE: Vertical distance and horizontal distance
must be in the same units.

Figure A-6. Slope computation (road gradient).


FM 3-21.94


Soldiers can use the following tables for converting English measurements to their metric
equivalents. Table A-l lists conversions for common distance measurements (inches to
centimeters; feet to meters; yards to meters; miles to kilometers). Table A-2, page A-12,
shows conversions of miles per hour to kilometers per hour. Table A-3, page A-12, refers
to field-expedient antenna lengths.



1 inch =

2.54 centimeters

1 foot

= 0.30 meters

2 inches =

5.08 centimeters

2 feet

= 0.61 meters

3 inches =

7.62 centimeters

3 feet

= 0.91 meters

4 inches =

10.16 centimeters

4 feet

= 1.22 meters

5 inches =

12.70 centimeters

5 feet

= 1.52 meters

6 inches =

15.24 centimeters

6 feet

= 1.83 meters

7 inches =

17.78 centimeters

7 feet

= 2.13 meters

8 inches =

20.32 centimeters

8 feet

= 2.44 meters

9 inches =

22.86 centimeters

9 feet

= 2.74 meters

10 inches =

25.40 centimeters

10 feet

= 3.05 meters

20 inches =

50.80 centimeters

20 feet

= 6.10 meters

30 inches =

76.20 centimeters

30 feet

= 9.14 meters

40 inches =

101.60 centimeters

40 feet

= 12.19 meters

50 inches =

127.00 centimeters

50 feet

= 15.24 meters

60 inches =

152.40 centimeters

60 feet

= 18.29 meters

70 inches =

177.80 centimeters

70 feet

= 21.34 meters

80 inches =

203.20 centimeters

80 feet

= 24.38 meters

90 inches =

228.60 centimeters

90 feet

= 27.43 meters

100 inches =

254.00 centimeters

100 feet

= 30.48 meters



1 yard =

0.91 meters

1 mile

1.61 km

2 yards =

1.83 meters

2 miles

= 3.22 km

3 yards =

2.74 meters

3 miles

= 4.83 km

4 yards =

3.66 meters

4 miles

6.44 km

5 yards =

4.57 meters

5 miles

8.05 km

6 yards =

5.49 meters

6 miles

9.66 km

7 yards =

6.40 meters

7 miles

= 11.27 km

8 yards =

7.32 meters

8 miles

= 12.87 km

9 yards =

8.23 meters

9 miles

= 14.48 km

10 yards =

9.14 meters

10 miles

= 16.09 km

20 yards =

18.29 meters

20 miles

= 32.19 km

30 yards =

27.43 meters

30 miles

= 48.28 km

40 yards =

36.58 meters

40 miles

= 64.37 km

50 yards =

45.72 meters

50 miles

= 80.47 km

60 yards =

54.86 meters

60 miles

= 96.56 km

70 yards =

64.00 meters

70 miles

= 112.65 km

80 yards =

73.15 meters

80 miles

= 128.75 km

90 yards =

82.30 meters

90 miles

= 144.84 km

100 yards =

91.44 meters

100 miles

= 62.14 km

Table A-1. English to metric distance measurement conversions.


FM 3-21.94



1 mph

1.609 kmph

2 mph

3.22 kmph

3 mph

4.83 kmph

4 mph

6.44 kmph

5 mph

8.05 kmph

6 mph

9.66 kmph

7 mph

11.27 kmph

8 mph

12.87 kmph

9 mph

14.48 kmph

10 mph

16.09 kmph

15 mph

24.14 kmph

20 mph

32.19 kmph

25 mph

40.23 kmph

30 mph

48.28 kmph

35 mph

56.33 kmph

40 mph

64.37 kmph

45 mph

72.42 kmph

50 mph

80.47 kmph

55 mph

88.51 kmph

60 mph

96.56 kmph

65 mph

104.61 kmph

70 mph

112.65 kmph

75 mph

120.70 kmph

100 mph

160.94 kmph

Table A-2. Miles per hour to kilometers per hour conversions.




2.38 meters (7 feet 10 inches)


2.23 meters (7 feet 4 inches)


2.10 meters (6 feet 1 1 inches)


1 .98 meters (6 feet 6 inches)


1 .87 meters (6 feet 2 inches)


1 .78 meters (5 feet 1 inches)


1 .66 meters (5 feet 5 inches)


1 .55 meters (5 feet 1 inch)


1 .46 meters (4 feet 9 inches)


1 .37 meters (4 feet 6 inches)


1 .30 meters (4 feet 3 inches)


1 .23 meters (4 feet inches)


1.17 meters (3 feet 1 inches)


1.12 meters (3 feet 8 inches)


1 .05 meters (3 feet 5 inches)


.99 meters (3 feet 3 inches)


.94 meters (3 feet 1 inch)

Table A-3. Operating frequency and wire element length.


FM 3-21.94



The reconnaissance platoon must be able to operate under limited
visibility conditions. This appendix discusses the equipment and
techniques used to operate in darkness, smoke, dust, fog, heavy rain, or
heavy snow. Limited visibility can result in decreased target acquisition
capability, difficulty in distinguishing friendly from enemy units, difficulty
in controlling movement, and reduced target acquisition times.


In addition to normal planning, limited visibility operations require special emphasis on
the following:

• Simple tactical plans while maintaining the necessary level of detail.

• Plans for the potential use of illumination and smoke.

• Surveillance with night vision and infrared devices.

• Greatest use of available daylight for reconnaissance.

In selecting a means to employ illumination or smoke, leaders must determine the type of
assets that are available, to include capabilities and limitations. They plan for more than
one means since enemy action, changes in weather, other missions, or logistical
constraints might prevent the use of any one type.


Night-vision devices (Table B-l, page B-2) aid surveillance/target engagement when
darkness, vegetation, weather, camouflage, or obscurants limit natural vision. The degree
of assistance depends on the type of technology and the visibility conditions. For
example, image intensification devices dominate the battlefield and provide the best
results under clear air and good ambient light conditions, but they are defeated by bad
weather, darkness, and battlefield obscurants. Thus, thermal imagery devices are used in
conditions that defeat image intensifiers. Thermal imagery can also penetrate camouflage.
Remote sensors are employed in dead space or in situations of long distances. The
reconnaissance platoon should use thermal imagery devices whenever possible to provide
the best surveillance and engagement capability.


FM 3-21 .94






Night-Vision Sight,
Individual Weapon

300-400 m

WEIGHT: 6 lb.
10.4 degrees

(See NOTE.)


Night-Vision Sight,
Crew-Served Weapon

Starlight: 800 m
Moonlight: 1,000 m

WEIGHT: 16 1b.
FOV: 6 degrees

(See NOTE.)


Tripod or vehicle
mounted sight

Starlight: 1,200m
Moonlight: 2,000 m

WEIGHT: 34 lb.
FOV: 9 degrees

(See NOTE.)


Night-Vision Sight,
Individual Weapon

Starlight: 400 m
Moonlight: 600 m

WEIGHT: 3.9 1b.
FOV: 15 degrees

(See NOTE.)


Night-Vision Sight,
Crew-Served Weapon

Starlight: 1,000 m
Moonlight: 1,200 m

WEIGHT: 7.5 lb.
FOV: 9 degrees

(See NOTE.)


Night-Vision Goggles

Starlight: 75 m
Moonlight: 300 m

WEIGHT: 1.9 1b.
FOV: 40 degrees



Night-Vision Goggles

Starlight: 150 m
Moonlight: 300 m

WEIGHT: 1.5 1b.
FOV: 40 degrees

(See NOTE.)


Thermal Dragon Sight

1,200 m

WEIGHT: 22 lb.

Penetrates all
conditions of limited
visibility and light
foliage. Has short
battery and coolant
bottle life.


(CLU) of the Javelin AT
weapon system.

Over 3,000 m

Weight (CLU only) 14.1

Sight magnification 4X
day, 4X and 9X night

Infrared crossover.

When temperature of
soil, water, concrete,
and vegetation are
approximately the
same, CLU
performance is
degraded (twice in a
24-hr period).


Thermal TOW Sight

3,000 m

WEIGHT: 18.7 1b.

Same as AN/TAS-5.


Thermal Night
Observation Device

3,000 m

WEIGHT: 58.4 lb. with

Penetrates all
conditions of limited
visibility and light
foliage. Has short
battery and coolant
bottle life.


Intensifies natural

7X50 or 6X30

Require some type of
visible light.


Infrared Aiming Light

150 m

WEIGHT: 9 Ib.Used with
AN/PVS-5 or AN/PVS-7
mounts on M16

Detectable. Permits
aimed fire during

NOTE: This night-vision device performs poorly in dark, obscured, or adverse weather

conditions. Bright light, such as that from street lights or headlights, defeats it. Eye
fatigue occurs after 3 to 5 hours.

Table B-1. Night vision devices.



FM 3-21.94






Handheld Thermal


Vehicles: 1,000 m

Personnel: 400 m

WEIGHT: 10.8 1b.

Penetrates all
conditions of limited
visibility and light



50 m

Vehicles: 10,000 m
Personnel: 6,000 m

WEIGHT: 112 1b.

Detectable. Degraded
by heavy rain, snow,
dense foliage, and high
winds. Line of sight.
Has 50-foot remote
capability. Difficult to


Radar: Very Short

50 m

Vehicles: 3,000 m
Personnel: 1500 m

WEIGHT: 18 1b.

Audible and visual

Detectable. Can be
operated and
transported by one
man. Degraded by
heavy rain, snow,
dense foliage, and high
winds. Reduced
effectiveness during
wind-blown rain. Line
of sight. Has 30-foot
remote capability.


Platoon Early Warning

Detects target 1 5 m
from sensor. Two
types of sensors in
each set distinguish
personnel or
vehicles. Covers a
frontage of 250 m.
Can be placed up to
1 ,500 m from

WEIGHT: 13 1b.

Nine ground sensors
relay to monitor through
wire or radio connection.

When connected by
wire, is not detectable.
Easy to operate. Not
affected by climatic
conditions. Animals
can interfere with

Table B-1. Night vision devices (continued).


This paragraph discusses the types of equipment that can be used during limited visibility
and the factors to consider when employing them.

a. Binoculars. Binoculars are most effective in clear air. Even during reduced
visibility, however, they are better than the unaided eye.

b. Remotely Employed Sensors. Remotely employed sensors (REMS), such as the
PEWS, are critical to effective security in limited visibility. They may be employed to
monitor avenues of approach, possible assembly areas, DZs, LZs, obstacles, and dead
space forward of or between OPs. REMS have a limited range; therefore, careful analysis
of where to position sensors is most important. When they are positioned parallel to the
avenue of approach, REMS can detect the direction, rate of march, composition, and size
of a force passing the sensors.

c. Thermal Imagery Devices. Thermal imagery devices lose some effectiveness
during heavy rain, dense fog, or smoke. Therefore, they must be integrated with other
devices to provide effective detection. Thermal imagery devices are affected by
temperature gradients between the target and the target background.


FM 3-21 .94

d. Image Intensification Devices. The range of image intensification devices
depends on surrounding light levels. Low light levels, rain, fog, smoke, and dust may
reduce the effectiveness of image intensification devices. Low light levels during periods
of otherwise clear air can be overcome by illuminating with invisible light and by using
image intensifiers. Infrared light provides enough light to allow the image intensifiers to
be effective. However, looking directly at a visible light source causes the device to shut
off. Operators of image intensification devices develop eye fatigue and lose their unaided
night vision (see paragraph B-14).

e. Ground Surveillance Radar. Radar energy produced by GSR penetrates light
camouflage, light foliage, smoke, haze, light rain and snow, and darkness. It cannot
penetrate dense undergrowth, trees, or heavy foliage. Radar sets have only a line-of-sight
capability. High winds can make the radar unusable, and heavy rain or snow restricts
radar detection abilities. A well-trained operator, however, can lessen these effects. Radar
is effective during good visibility as well as bad. Its use should be planned for all
operations—not just night operations or when expecting smoke.

(1) Normally, radar is located on dominant terrain. A radar site and an OP can be
collocated, but soldiers who operate the radar should not be detailed as ground observers
except in emergencies. The radar is dug in and camouflaged. The reconnaissance platoon
leader (or S2) selects the general location for the radar site. The ground surveillance
section leader or team leader then chooses the specific site within that location.

(2) The team's senior radar operator prepares radar surveillance cards. One copy of
this card is forwarded to the S2 for use in preparing or modifying his surveillance plan.

(3) Radar can be used for the following purposes:

• To search avenues of approach, possible enemy attack positions, assembly
areas, or other sectors. It can be used continuously to determine location, size,
and nature of enemy activity.

• To monitor point targets such as bridges, defiles, or road junctions. It can be
used to determine quantity, type, direction, and rate of target movement
through the point.

• To extend a patrol's observation abilities by enabling the patrol to survey
distant points or areas of special interest.

• To provide warning of enemy activity near friendly positions or routes.

• To detect partly obscured targets.

• To aid in controlling movement during limited visibility by monitoring course
headings or vectoring.

• To increase the effectiveness of fire support by correctly locating targets. It
can also be used to survey target areas immediately after fires are lifted, to
detect enemy activity, and to determine the effectiveness of fire.

• To detect enemy radar.

• To limit the enemy's ability to detect radar and mask the emitter. Terrain is
used to mask the emitter, if possible. The radar is placed in a reverse-slope
position with its sector off to the flank(s). Radar that is left on is easier to
detect. The flicker technique (alternately turning radar off and on) can help
avoid enemy detection.



FM 3-21.94


The reconnaissance platoon leader plans the use of NVDs and surveillance devices to
obtain the best coverage of his area of operations and to make best use of the abilities of
the various devices (Figure B-l). A typical mix might include REMS to cover out-of-
sight objectives and dead space, night-vision sights for close range, radar for long-range
line of sight, and thermal imagery to penetrate smoke and for use in low-light conditions.


Meters 75 15 250 300 400

kWN Starlight

500 600

| Moonlight


Figure B-1. Device integration.


Soldiers avoid detection by the enemy by moving stealthily. Defensive measures include
cover and concealment, use of appropriate camouflage devices and methods, concealment
of actions with smoke, and thermal and visual decoys.


When night vision devices are not available, artificial light is the simplest way to operate
on a battlefield during darkness. The intent is to illuminate or silhouette the enemy force
without illuminating friendly elements and to prevent the illuminating force from being
adversely affected by its own light source. Platoon leaders must know the characteristics
of available artificial illumination systems (Table B-2, page B-6). They must also know
how darkness, weather, and terrain influence these systems. The platoon leader must
exercise positive control over the use of various illumination means since illumination in
one area might have an unfavorable effect on elements elsewhere. He must also obtain
approval from the battalion before using illumination. Artificial light is divided into two
categories: visible and invisible light.

a. Visible Light. Visible light requires no special equipment other than the light
source itself. It is used to continue operations begun during daylight, to assist troops that
are untrained, or to offset an enemy advantage in NVDs. It is the simplest method of


FM 3-21 .94

operating during darkness. The disadvantage of using visible light is that it permits the
enemy to see the friendly force.

b. Invisible Light. Invisible light comes from a near-infrared source, ultraviolet
light, or pink light filter. It is normally impossible to see this light with the unaided eye.
Although it is visible to NVDs, invisible light has greater security than visible light.


Approximate Diameter of

Usable Range of

Illumination (meters)

Approximate Period of
Illumination (seconds)

White Star Parachute



Illuminating Grenade



Trip Flare



40-mm White Star Parachute



60-mm Mortar



81 -mm Mortar



120-mm Mortar


50 to 60

105-mm Howitzer



155-mm Howitzer



Air Force Drop Flare



Naval Gunfire, 5 Inch

350 to 550

45 to 52

Table B-2. Available light sources.


Various considerations govern the use of artificial light sources.

a. Ground Flares. Ground flares are mainly defensive, are good for early warning,
and can be detonated remotely by pull-pin or trigger-release devices. Ground flares are
not suitable for continuous illumination.


Ground flares may start fires.

b. Illuminating Shells (Parachute-Supported Flares). After the parachute opens,
windspeed, direction, and the amount of obscurant determine what ground area is lighted.
Shells are normally set to detonate at a height of burst that allows the flare to burn out
just before it reaches the ground. Drifting flares can illuminate friendly forces; therefore,
the detonation point must be adjusted either by offsetting it or lowering the height of
burst. If grass or brush fire is a hazard, the height of burst is not lowered. Strong winds
require that the rate of fire be increased for continuous illumination. Fog, dust, smoke,
and falling snow decrease the intensity of the illumination. Therefore, low-airburst shells
can be used as navigational aids even though they provide little illumination.



Avoid detonating illumination over or to the rear of friendly
elements. This could silhouette friendly troops.


Smoke is used to blind the enemy, to break contact with the enemy, to signal, or to

a. Obscuration Smoke. Obscuration smoke is placed on or near enemy positions to
interfere with observation and fire. It is usually delivered by indirect fire such as artillery
or mortars. Use of obscuration smoke on the enemy could cause him to reduce speed, to
change direction, to deploy prematurely, or to increase radio transmissions.

b. Screening Smoke. Screening smoke is intended to conceal friendly forces and to
help break contact with the enemy.

c. Marking and Signaling Smoke. Marking and signaling smoke is used to mark
reference points, targets, or positions. Colored or WP smoke is usually used.

d. Deceptive Smoke. To confuse or mislead the enemy, deceptive smoke is used in
coordination with other actions by creating the illusion that a tactically major event is
occurring. It is used with other deceptive measures such as electronic deception.


Smoke can affect both the psychological and physiological aspects of soldiers' activities.
Therefore, it can also affect combat operations.

a. Psychological Effects. Screening smoke near friendly positions to reduce enemy
observation can help maintain morale when soldiers are aware of its purpose. However,
soldiers operating in smoke can develop fear or anxiety due to the lack of visibility to
detect the enemy, to see adjacent units, or to distinguish terrain features. This causes
orientation problems. Smoke tends to isolate individuals or groups and degrades their
ability to fight. Soldiers in this situation are vulnerable to deception through other sensory
perceptions such as sound. Leaders at all levels can suffer these effects and, due to the
need for constant and detailed command and control, can suffer mental exhaustion in a
short time.

b. Physiological Effects. Though smoke produced by mechanical generators or
munitions might not produce immediate physiological effects, extended exposure to large
concentrations can produce secondary effects such as shortness of breath, inflammation
of the respiratory system, dizziness, vertigo, or vomiting. Donning the protective mask
limits these effects. Vertigo can be overcome by leaving the smoke area or by getting
close to the ground. Chemical agents can also be delivered with smoke. The leader must
analyze the risk of masking, which may be unnecessary and may cause command and
control problems.


Battalion may direct the reconnaissance platoon to assist in smoke operations. Unless
directed by battalion, the platoon uses smoke only in situations in which they must break
contact. By limiting vision, smoke degrades the ability of soldiers and combat forces to
maneuver, fight, and visually communicate. Furthermore, it restricts observation of


FM 3-21 .94

surrounding terrain and of other combat elements on the battlefield. The natural tendency
of a vehicle driver is to avoid entering smoke, to move out of or around it, or to slow
movement upon entering it.


White phosphorus and hexachloroethane (HC) are the two predominant types of smoke
used today.

a. Field Artillery. Field artillery smoke ammunition includes both WP and HC
(Table B-3).

b. Mortars. Mortars provide good initial smoke coverage due to their high rate of
fire, but their small basic load size limits the size and duration of the screen mortars can
provide. The only type of smoke round delivered by mortars is WP (Table B-4).

c. Smoke Pots, Smoke Grenades, and M203 Dual-Purpose Weapons (Smoke
Round). A variety of smoke-producing items are available to the battalion through
standard issue. Due to their limited ranges, these smoke producers are useful only for
close obscuration requirements.


















1/2 min

1 to 1 1/2 min





1 to 1 1/2 min

4 min






1/2 min

1 to 1 1/2 min





1 to 1 1/2 min

3 min




Average Obscuration Length (m) Per

Table B-3. Artillery smoke ammunition.
















1/2 min

1 min






1/2 min

1 min






1/2 min

45 sec




* The 1 20-mm mortar is a better smoker than the 1 05-mm
Howitzer firing WP.

** The 60-mm smoke round currently in inventory is the M302E2
(maximum range: 1,448 m).

Average Obscuration Length (m) Per

Table B-4. Mortar smoke ammunition.


Electro-optical systems allow soldiers to engage any target they can see with direct fire
out to 3,750 meters. They also improve the soldiers' ability to see and engage targets at
night. The use of smoke at night is effective in defeating electromagnetic energy-
producing systems, thus making it an important element in night operations.



a. Electro-optical systems normally found on the battlefield include—

• Handheld thermal viewers.

• Wire-guided, optically tracked antitank missiles and nights ights.

• Laser range finders.

• Television-seeker missiles and bombs.

• Heat-seeking missiles.

b. All electro-optical systems work by radiating or receiving electro-optical energy.
Smoke affects these systems by reflecting, absorbing, scattering, or attenuating
(weakening) electromagnetic energy.


To overcome the problems generated when soldiers cannot see the battlefield, the platoon
leader and his subordinate leaders must employ other techniques to control their

a. Identification. Recognition means include radio, infrared, and radar. These are
used with other established audible and visual signals.

b. Movement. Visual contact should be maintained; soldiers should maintain closer
intervals. NVDs allow soldiers to retain good dispersion while maintaining visual
contact. The leaders should reduce rate of movement and establish SOPs for audible and
visual signals.

c. Navigation. Guides should be used whenever possible.

(1) Use radar or low-light sources to mark boundaries.

(2) Use radar, infrared beams, and landmarks to maintain direction.

(3) Use preplanned artillery spotting rounds to help determine location and direction.


Dark adaptation is the process by which the human body increases the eyes' sensitivity to
low levels of light. Soldiers adapt to darkness at varying degrees and rates. During the
first 30 minutes in the dark, eye sensitivity increases about 10,000 times, but not much
after that.

a. Dark adaptation is affected by exposure to bright light such as matches,
flashlights, flares, or vehicle headlights. Full recovery from these exposures can take up
to 45 minutes.

b. Using night-vision goggles impedes adaptation. However, if a soldier adapts to
the dark before donning the goggles, he gains full dark adaptation within two minutes
when they are removed.

c. Soldiers must also know that color perception decreases at night. They may be
able to distinguish light and dark colors depending on the intensity of reflected light.
Visual sharpness is also reduced. Since visual sharpness at night is one seventh of what it
is during the day, soldiers can see only large, bulky objects. This means that object
identification at night is based on generalized contours and outlines. Depth perception is
also affected.


Darkness affects the senses of sight, hearing, and smell. Sharpening these senses requires
training. Soldiers must know how their eyes function at night to use them best.


FM 3-21 .94

a. Night- Vision Scanning. Dark adaptation is only the first step toward making the
best use of night vision. Scanning enables soldiers to overcome many of the physiological
limitations of their eyes. It can also reduce visual illusions. This technique involves
looking from right to left or left to right using a slow, regular scanning movement (Figure
B-2). At night, soldiers must avoid looking directly at a faintly visible object when trying
to confirm its presence.








Figure B-2. Typical scanning pattern.

b. Off-C enter Vision. The method of viewing an object using central vision is
ineffective at night. This is due to the night blind spot that exists during low illumination.
Soldiers must learn to use off-center vision. This method requires viewing an object by
looking 10 degrees above, below, or to either side of it rather than directly at it (Figure B-




FM 3-21.94

k * . \ f


H: "A* : • >�� %


^i.' A j" *


r . . ^

* 1

I?*! r 1


»M*^» ft*

*•<£.. .

l&f"» ii*

, JB **«

^i . a^y^*^'








Figure B-3. Off-center viewing technique.

c. Bleach-Out Effect. Even when soldiers practice off-center viewing, the image of
an object bleaches out and becomes a solid tone when viewed longer than two to three
seconds. By shifting the eyes from one off-center point to another, the soldier can
continue to pick up the object in his peripheral field of vision.

d. Shape of Silhouette. Visual sharpness is reduced at night; therefore, soldiers
must recognize objects by shape or outline. Knowing the design of structures that are
common to the area of operations enhances the success of the operation.


FM 3-21.94



Risk is the chance of injury or death for individuals and damage to or
loss of vehicles and equipment. Risk, or the potential for risk, is always
present in every combat and training situation the reconnaissance platoon
faces. Risk management must take place at all levels of the chain of
command during each phase of every operation; it is an integral part of
all tactical planning. The reconnaissance platoon leader, NCOs, and all
other reconnaissance platoon soldiers must know how to use risk
management, coupled with fratricide reduction measures, to ensure that
the mission is executed in the safest possible environment within mission

The primary objective of risk management is to help units protect their
combat power through accident prevention, enabling them to win the
battle quickly and decisively with minimal losses. This appendix outlines
the process leaders use to identify hazards and implement a plan to
address each identified hazard. It also includes a detailed discussion of
the responsibilities of the platoon 's leaders and individual soldiers in
implementing a sound risk management program. For additional
information on risk management, refer to FM 100-14.


This section outlines the five steps of risk management. Leaders of the reconnaissance
platoon should never approach risk management with "one size fits all" solutions to the
hazards the platoon will face. Rather, in performing the steps, they must keep in mind the
essential tactical and operational factors that make each situation unique.


A hazard is a source of danger. It is any existing or potential condition that could entail
injury, illness, or death of personnel; damage to or loss of equipment and property; or
some other sort of mission degradation. Tactical and training operations pose many types
of hazards. The reconnaissance platoon leader must identify the hazards associated with
all aspects and phases of the platoon's mission, paying particular attention to the factors
of METT-TC. Risk management must never be an afterthought; leaders must begin the
process during their troop-leading procedures and continue it throughout the operation.
Table C-l, page C-2, lists possible sources of risk that the reconnaissance platoon might
face during a typical tactical operation. The list is organized according to the factors of


FM 3-21.94



• Duration of the operation.

• Complexity and clarity of the plan. (Is the plan well-developed and
easily understood?)

• Proximity and number of maneuvering units.


• Knowledge of the enemy situation.

• Enemy capabilities.
> Availability of time and resources to conduct reconnaissance.


• Visibility conditions, including light, dust, fog, and smoke.

• Precipitation and its effect on mobility.

• Extreme heat or cold.

• Additional natural hazards (broken ground, steep inclines, water


• Equipment status.

• Experience the units conducting the operation have working

• Danger areas associated with the platoon's weapon systems.

• Soldier and leader proficiency.

• Soldier and leader rest situation.

• Degree of acclimatization to environment.

• Impact of new leaders or crewmembers.

• Friendly unit status.

« NATO or multinational military actions combined with U.S. forces.


• Time available for troop-leading procedures and rehearsals by

• Time available for PCCs/PCIs.


• Applicable ROE orROI.

• Potential stability and support operations involving contact with
civilians (such as NEOs, refugee or disaster assistance, or

• Potential for media contact and inquiries.

• Interaction with host nation or other participating nation support.

Table C-1. Examples of potential hazards.


Hazard assessment is the process of determining the direct impact of each hazard on an
operation (in the form of hazardous incidents). Use the following steps.

a. Determine which hazards can be eliminated or avoided.

b. Assess each hazard that cannot be eliminated or avoided to determine the
probability that the hazard can occur.

c. Assess the severity of hazards that cannot be eliminated or avoided. Severity,
defined as the result or outcome of a hazardous incident, is expressed by the degree of
injury or illness (including death), loss of or damage to equipment or property,
environmental damage, or other mission-impairing factors (such as unfavorable publicity or
loss of combat power).


FM 3-21.94

d. Taking into account both the probability and severity of a hazard, determine the
associated risk level (extremely high, high, moderate, and low). Table C-2 summarizes
the four risk levels.

Based on the factors of hazard assessment (probability, severity, and risk level, as


well as the operational factors unique to the situation), complete the risk management
worksheet. Refer to FM 100-14 for an example of a completed risk management



Extremely High (E)

Mission failure if hazardous incidents occur in


Significantly degraded mission capabilities in
terms of required mission standards. Not
accomplishing all parts of the mission or not
completing the mission to standard (if hazards
occur during mission).

Moderate (M)

Expected degraded mission capabilities in terms
of required mission standards. Reduced mission
capability (if hazards occur during the mission).

Low (L)

Expected losses have little or no impact on
mission success.

Table C-2. Risk levels and impact on mission execution.


This step is accomplished in two substeps: develop controls and make risk decisions.
These substeps are accomplished during the "make a tentative plan" step of the troop-
leading procedures.

a. Developing Controls. After assessing each hazard, develop one or more controls
that will either mitigate the hazard or reduce the risk (probability, severity, or both) of
potential hazardous incidents. When developing controls, consider the reason for the
hazard, not just the hazard by itself.

b. Making Risk Decisions. A key element in the process of making a risk decision
is determining whether accepting the risk is justified or, conversely, is unnecessary. The
decision-maker (the reconnaissance platoon leader, if applicable) must compare and
balance the risk against mission expectations. He alone decides if the controls are
sufficient and acceptable and whether to accept the resulting residual risk. If he
determines the risk is unnecessary, he directs the development of additional controls or
alternative controls; as another option, he can modify, change, or reject the selected COA
for the operation.


Controls are the procedures and considerations the unit uses to eliminate hazards or
reduce their risk. Implementing controls is the most important part of the risk
management process; this is the chain of command's contribution to the safety of the
unit. Implementing controls includes coordination and communication with appropriate
superior, adjacent, and subordinate units and with individuals executing the mission. The
reconnaissance platoon leader must ensure that specific controls are integrated into


FM 3-21.94

OPLANs, OPORDs, SOPs, and rehearsals. The critical check for this step is to ensure
that controls are converted into clear, simple execution orders understood by all levels. If
the leaders have conducted a thoughtful risk assessment, the controls will be easy to
implement, enforce, and follow. Examples of risk management controls include the

• Thoroughly brief all aspects of the mission, including related hazards and


Conduct thorough precombat checks (PCCs) and precombat inspections (PCIs).

Allow adequate time for rehearsals at all levels.

Drink plenty of water, eat well, and get as much sleep as possible (at least 4 hours

in any 24-hour period).

Use buddy teams.

Enforce speed limits, use of seat belts, and driver safety.

Establish recognizable visual signals and markers to distinguish maneuvering


Enforce the use of ground guides in assembly areas and on dangerous terrain.

Establish marked and protected sleeping areas in assembly areas.

Limit single-vehicle movement.

Establish SOPs for the integration of new personnel.


During mission execution, leaders must ensure that risk management controls are
properly understood and executed. Leaders must continuously evaluate the unit's
effectiveness in managing risks to gain insight into areas that need improvement.

a. Supervision. Leadership and unit discipline are the keys to ensuring that effective
risk management controls are implemented.

(1) All leaders are responsible for supervising mission rehearsals and execution to
ensure standards and controls are enforced. In particular, NCOs must enforce established
safety policies as well as controls developed for a specific operation or task. Techniques
include spot checks, inspections, SITREPs, confirmation briefs, buddy checks, and close

(2) During mission execution, leaders must continuously monitor risk management
controls to determine whether they are effective and to modify them as necessary.
Leaders must also anticipate, identify, and assess new hazards. They ensure that
imminent danger issues are addressed on the spot and that ongoing planning and
execution reflect changes in hazard conditions.

b. Evaluation. Whenever possible, the risk management process should also include
an after-action review (AAR) to assess unit performance in identifying risks and
preventing hazardous situations. Leaders should then incorporate lessons learned from
the process into unit SOPs and plans for future missions.


FM 3-21.94


Leaders and individuals at all levels are responsible and accountable for managing risk.
They must ensure that hazards and associated risks are identified and controlled during
planning, preparation, and execution of operations. The reconnaissance platoon leader
and senior NCOs must look at both tactical risks and accident risks. The same risk
management process is used to manage both types. The reconnaissance platoon leader
alone determines how and where he is willing to take tactical risks. With the assistance of
the PSG, NCOs, and individual soldiers, the reconnaissance platoon leader manages
accident risks.


Despite the need to advise higher headquarters of a risk taken or about to be assumed, the
risk management process may break down. Such a failure can be the result of several
factors; most often, it can be attributed to the following:

• The risk denial syndrome in which leaders do not want to know about the risk.

• A soldier who believes that the risk decision is part of his job and does not want
to bother his platoon leader or section leader.

• Outright failure to recognize a hazard or the level of risk involved.

• Overconfidence on the part of an individual or the unit in the capability to avoid
or recover from a hazardous incident.

• Subordinates who do not fully understand the higher commander's guidance
regarding risk decisions.


The reconnaissance platoon leader gives the platoon direction, sets priorities, and
establishes the command climate (values, attitudes, and beliefs). Successful preservation
of combat power requires him to embed risk management into individual behavior. To
fulfill this commitment, the platoon leader must exercise creative leadership, innovative
planning, and careful management. Most importantly, he must demonstrate support for
the risk management process.

a. The reconnaissance platoon leader and others in the platoon chain of command
can establish a command climate favorable to risk management integration by taking the
following actions:

• Demonstrate consistent and sustained risk management behavior through
leadership by example and emphasis on active participation throughout the
risk management process.

• Provide adequate resources for risk management. Every leader is responsible
for obtaining the assets necessary to mitigate risk and for providing them to
subordinate leaders.

• Understand his and his soldiers' limitations as well as the unit's capabilities.

• Allow subordinates to make mistakes and learn from them.

• Prevent a "zero defects" mindset from creeping into the platoon's culture.

• Demonstrate full confidence in subordinates' mastery of their trade and their
ability to execute a chosen COA.

• Keep subordinates informed.

• Listen to subordinates.


FM 3-21.94

b. For the reconnaissance platoon leader, subordinate leaders, and individual
soldiers, responsibilities in managing risk include —

• Making informed risk decisions. Establish and then clearly communicate risk
decision criteria and guidance.

• Establishing clear, feasible risk management policies and goals.

• Training the risk management process. Ensure that subordinates understand
the who, what, when, where, and why of managing risk and how these factors
apply to their situation and assigned responsibilities.

• Accurately evaluating the platoon's effectiveness, as well as subordinates'
execution of risk controls during the mission.

• Informing higher headquarters when risk levels exceed established limits.


FM 3-21.94



Fratricide is defined as the employment of friendly weapons that
results in the unforeseen and unintentional death or injury of friendly
personnel or damage to friendly equipment. Fratricide avoidance is the
platoon leader's responsibility. All leaders across all operating systems
assist him in accomplishing this mission. This appendix focuses on actions
the reconnaissance platoon leader and his subordinate leaders can take
with current resources to reduce the risk of fratricide.

More than any other maneuver element, reconnaissance platoons are
at risk of being victims of fratricide. The reconnaissance platoon is
particularly vulnerable because it often maneuvers in dispersed elements
forward and to the flanks of other friendly combat forces. In a battalion,
companies often do not keep up with the plan or with the disposition of the
reconnaissance platoon. For these reasons, situational understanding on
the part of all reconnaissance leaders, particularly the platoon leader, is
critical not only to mission success but also to survival.

In any tactical situation, it is critical that every platoon member know
where he is and where other friendly elements are operating. With this
knowledge, he must anticipate dangerous conditions and take steps either
to avoid them or to mitigate them. The platoon leader must always be
vigilant of changes and developments in the situation that may place his
sections and teams in danger. He must also ensure that all reconnaissance
sections' or teams' positions are constantly reported to higher
headquarters so that all other friendly elements are aware of where they
are and what they are doing. No-fire areas can be designated to control
friendly direct and indirect fire into areas in which the reconnaissance
platoon is or will be operating. When the platoon leader perceives a
potential fratricide situation, he must personally use the higher net to
coordinate directly with the friendly element involved.


The underlying principle of fratricide avoidance is simple: Leaders who know where
their soldiers are, and where they want them to operate, can minimize the risks inherent
in combat operations. At the same time, leaders must avoid at all costs any reluctance to
employ, integrate, and synchronize all required operating systems at the critical time and
place. They must avoid becoming tentative out of fear of fratricide; rather, they strive to
eliminate fratricide risk through tough, realistic, combined arms training in which each
soldier and unit achieves the established standard. Training allows units and soldiers to
make mistakes and learn from them with the goal of reducing or eliminating the risk of
errors occurring in combat. A key role of the reconnaissance platoon training program is
to teach sections and teams what, when, and where to engage the enemy. Eliminating the
risk of fratricide is no less critical as a training standard than are other mission
requirements. All leaders must know all aspects of the applicable training standard,
including fratricide avoidance, and must ensure that their soldiers train to that standard.


FM 3-21.94


Fratricide results in unacceptable losses and increases the risk of mission failure; it
almost always affects the unit's ability to survive and function. Units experiencing
fratricide suffer these consequences:

• Loss of confidence in the unit's leadership.

• Increasing self-doubt among leaders.

• Hesitancy in the employment of supporting combat systems.

• Over supervision of units.

• Hesitancy in the conduct of night operations.

• Loss of aggressiveness in maneuver.

• Loss of initiative.

• Disrupted operations.

• General degradation of unit cohesiveness, morale, and combat power.


The following paragraphs discuss the primary causes of fratricide. Leaders must identify
any of the factors that may affect their units and then strive to eliminate or correct them.

a. Failures in the Direct Fire Control Plan. Failures occur when units do not
develop effective fire control plans, particularly in the offense. Units may fail to
designate engagement areas or to adhere to the direct fire plan, or they may position their
weapons incorrectly. Under such conditions, fire discipline often breaks down upon
contact. An area of particular concern is the additional planning that must go into
operations requiring close coordination between mounted elements and dismounted

b. Land Navigation Failures. Units often stray out of assigned sectors, report
wrong locations, and become disoriented. Much less frequently, they employ fire support
weapons in the wrong location. In either situation, units that unexpectedly encounter
another unit may fire their weapons at the friendly force.

c. Failures in Combat Identification. Vehicle commanders and machine gun crews
cannot accurately identify the enemy near the maximum range of their systems. In
limited visibility, friendly units within that range may mistake one another as the enemy.

d. Inadequate Control Measures. Units may fail to disseminate the minimum
necessary maneuver control measures and direct fire control measures. They may also
fail to tie control measures to recognizable terrain or events. As the battle develops, the
plan cannot address branches and sequels as they occur. When this happens,
synchronization fails.

e. Failures in Reporting and Communications. Units at all levels may fail to
generate timely, accurate, and complete reports as locations and tactical situations
change. This distorts the common operating picture at battalion and brigade level
(available on FBCB2) and can lead to erroneous clearance of fires.

f Weapons Errors. Lapses in individual discipline can result in fratricide. These
incidents include charge errors, accidental discharges, mistakes with explosives and hand
grenades, and use of incorrect gun data.


FM 3-21.94

g. Battlefield Hazards. A variety of explosive devices and materiel may create
danger on the battlefield— unexploded ordnance, booby traps, and unmarked or
unrecorded minefields, including scatterable mines. Failure to mark, record, remove, or
otherwise anticipate these threats leads to casualties.

h. Reliance on Instruments. A unit that relies too heavily on systems such the
FBCB2 and GPS devices will find its capabilities severely degraded if these systems fail.
The unit will be unable to maintain situational understanding. To prevent potential
dangers when system failure occurs, the reconnaissance platoon leader must ensure that
he and his platoon use a balance of technology with traditional basic soldier skills in
observation, navigation, and other critical activities.


The measures outlined in this paragraph provide the platoon with a guide to actions it can
take to reduce or prevent fratricide risk. These guidelines are not directive in nature nor
are they intended to restrict initiative. Commanders and leaders must learn to apply them
as appropriate based on the specific situation and METT-TC factors.

a. Principles. At the heart of fratricide reduction and avoidance are five key

(1) Identify and Assess Potential Fratricide Risks during the Troop-Leading
Procedures. Incorporate risk reduction control measures in the OPORD and applicable

(2) Maintain Situational Understanding. Focus on areas such as current intelligence,
unit locations/dispositions, obstacles, contamination such as ICM and NBC, SITREPs,
and METT-TC factors. FBCB2 provides the reconnaissance platoon with a distinct
advantage in situational understanding.

(3) Ensure Positive Target Identification. Review vehicle and weapons
identification cards. Become familiar with the characteristics of potential friendly and
enemy vehicles, including their silhouettes and thermal signatures. This knowledge
should include the conditions, including distance (range) and weather, under which
positive identification of various vehicles and weapons is possible. Enforce the use of
challenge and password, especially during dismounted operations.

(4) Maintain Effective Fire Control. Ensure fire commands are accurate, concise,
and clearly stated. Make it mandatory for soldiers to ask for clarification of any portion
of the fire command that they do not completely understand. Stress the importance of the
chain of command in the fire control process and ensure soldiers get in the habit of
obtaining target confirmation and permission to fire from their leaders before engaging
targets they assume are enemy elements. Know who will be in and around the area of

(5) Establish a Command Climate that Emphasizes Fratricide Avoidance. Enforce
fratricide avoidance measures, placing special emphasis on the use of doctrinally sound
TTP. Ensure constant supervision in the execution of orders and in the performance of all
tasks and missions to standard.

b. Guidelines and Considerations. Additional guidelines and considerations for
fratricide reduction and avoidance include the following:

(1) Recognize the signs of battlefield stress. Maintain unit cohesion by taking quick,
effective action to alleviate stress.


FM 3-21.94

(2) Conduct individual, leader, and collective (unit) training covering fratricide
awareness, target identification and recognition, and fire discipline.

(3) Develop a simple, executable plan.

(4) Give complete and concise operation orders. Include all appropriate recognition
signals in paragraph 5 of the OPORD.

(5) To simplify operation orders, use SOPs that are consistent with doctrine.
Periodically review and update SOPs as needed.

(6) Strive to provide maximum planning time for leaders and subordinates.

(7) Use common language (vocabulary) and doctrinally correct standard terminology
and control measures.

(8) Ensure thorough coordination is conducted at all levels.

(9) Plan for and establish effective communications.

(10) Plan for collocation of command posts (CPs) whenever it is appropriate to the
mission, such as during a passage of lines.

(11) Make sure ROE are clear.

(12) Conduct rehearsals whenever the situation allows adequate time to do so.

(13) Be in the right place at the right time. Use position location/navigation devices
(GPS and POSNAV), know your location and the locations of adjacent units (left, right,
leading, and follow-on), and synchronize tactical movement. If the platoon or any
element becomes lost, its leader must know how to contact higher headquarters
immediately for instructions and assistance.

(14) Establish, execute, and enforce strict sleep and rest plans.


FM 3-21.94




Nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons can cause casualties, destroy
or disable equipment, restrict the use of terrain, and disrupt operations. They
can be used separately or in combination to supplement conventional
weapons. The reconnaissance platoon must be prepared to operate on an
NBC-contaminated battlefield without degradation of the platoon's overall
effectiveness. This appendix prescribes active and passive protection
measures to avoid or reduce the effects of NBC weapons.


Chemical agents cause casualties, degrade performance, slow maneuver, restrict terrain, and
disrupt operations (Table E-l). They can cover large areas and may be delivered as a liquid,
vapor, or aerosol and can be disseminated by artillery, mortars, rockets, missiles, aircraft
spray, bombs, land mines, and covert means.







Mask and BDO

Mask and BDO




M8A1, M256A1,
CAM, M8 and M9

M256A1.CAM, M8
and M9 paper


Odor (freshly
mowed hay)


Difficult breathing,
drooling, nausea,
convulsions, and
blurred vision

Burning eyes,
stinging skin,
irritated nose

Convulsions and

Coughing, nausea,
headache, and
tight chest



Blisters skin,
respiratory tract


Floods and
damages lungs


Mark 1 NAAK

As for 2d and 3d
degree burns


Keep warm and
avoid movement


M291 and flush
eyes with water

M291 and flush
eyes with water



Table E-1. Characteristics of chemical agents.


a. Toxins. Toxins are poisonous substances produced from living organisms. Toxins—

• Can be synthesized (artificially produced).

• Mirror the symptoms of nerve agents.

• Present 8-12 hours of tactical concern (destroyed by sun).

• Can be fast acting (neurotoxins) or slower acting (cytotoxins).

b. Pathogens. These are infectious agents that cause disease in man and animals, such
as bacteria, viruses, and rickettsiae. Pathogens have the following characteristics:

Delayed reaction (incubation 1-21 days).


FM 3-21.94

• Multiply and overcome natural defenses.

• Vectors (diseased infected insects) circumvent protective clothing and prolong

c. Protection from Biological Attack. Protective measures against biological attack
include the following:

• Up-to-date immunizations.

• Good hygiene.

• Area sanitation.

• Physical conditioning.

• Water purification.


a. Effects. The following are effects of nuclear detonations:

(1) Blast. High-pressure shock wave crushes structures and causes missiling damage.

(2) Thermal Radiation. Intense heat and extremely bright light causes burns, temporary
blindness, and dazzle.

(3) Nuclear Radiation . Energy released from nuclear detonation produces fallout in the
form of initial and residual radiation, both of which can cause casualties.

(4) Electromagnetic Pulse. Surge of electrical power occurs within seconds of a nuclear
detonation and damages electrical components in equipment (radios, radar, computers, and
vehicles) and weapons systems (TOW, Javelin,).

b. Protection from Nuclear Attack. Cover and or shielding offers the best protection
from the immediate effects of a nuclear attack. This includes cover in fighting positions,
culverts, and ditches. Soldiers should cover exposed skin and stay down until the blast wave
passes and debris stops falling. Immediately after a nuclear attack, the platoon leader should
begin continuous monitoring for radiation using the AN/VDR-2 radiacmeter.


Protect the force by adhering to three tenets of NBC defense: contamination avoidance,
protection, and decontamination.

a. Contamination Avoidance. Avoiding NBC attacks and hazards is the key to NBC
defense. Avoidance allows commanders to shield soldiers and units, thus shaping the
battlefield. It involves both active and passive measures. Passive measures include training,
camouflage, concealment, hardening positions, and dispersion. Active measures include
detection, reconnaissance, alarms and signals, warning and reporting, marking, and
contamination control.

b. NBC Reconnaissance. NBC reconnaissance is the detection, identification,
reporting, and marking of NBC hazards. NBC reconnaissance consists of search, survey,
surveillance, and sampling operations. Due to the limited availability of the M93 FOX
reconnaissance vehicle, consider, as a minimum, the following actions when planning and
preparing for NBC reconnaissance:

• Use the IPB process to orient on NBC threat NAIs.

• Pre-position reconnaissance assets to support requirements.

• Establish command and support relationships.

• Assess the time and distance factors for the conduct of NBC reconnaissance.


FM 3-21.94

Report all information rapidly and accurately.

Plan for resupply activities to sustain NBC reconnaissance operations.

Determine possible locations for post-mission decontamination.

Plan for fire support requirements.

Enact fratricide prevention measures.

Establish MEDEVAC procedures.

Identify NBC warning and reporting system (NBCWRS) procedures and

c. NBC Protection. NBC protection is an integral part of operations. Techniques that
work for avoidance also work for protection (for example, shielding soldiers and units and
shaping the battlefield). Other activities that comprise protection involve sealing or
hardening positions, protecting soldiers, assuming mission-oriented protective posture (Table
E-2), reacting to attack, and using collective protection. Individual protective items include
the protective mask, battle dress overgarments (BDOs), green vinyl overboots, and gloves.
The corps or higher level commander establishes the minimum level of protection.
Subordinate units may increase this level as necessary, but they may not decrease it.

MOPP Levels























Avail **







Avail **

Avail **






Avail **

Avail **

Avail **

Avail **




Avail **

Avail **




* Items avail to soldier within 2 hours w/replacement avail within 6 hours
** Items must be positioned within arm's reach of the soldier
*** Never "mask only" if nerve or blister agent is used in AO

Table E-2. MOPP levels.

d. NBC Decontamination. Use of NBC weapons creates unique residual hazards that
may require decontamination (decon). In addition to the deliberate use of these weapons,
collateral damage, natural disasters, and industrial emitters may require decontamination.
Contamination forces units into protective equipment that degrades performance of
individual and collective tasks. Decontamination restores combat power and reduces
casualties that may result from exposure, thus allowing commanders to sustain combat

(1) Principles of Decontamination. Use the four principles of decontamination when
planning decon operations:

• Decon as soon as possible.

• Decon only what is necessary.

• Decon as far forward as possible (METT-TC dependent).

• Decon by priority.

(2) Levels of Decontamination (Table E-3, page E-4).

(a) Immediate. Immediate decontamination requires minimal planning. It is a basic
soldier survival skill and is performed in accordance with STP 21-1-SMCT. Personal


FM 3-21.94

wipedown removes contamination from individual equipment using the M291. Operator
spray down uses the on-board decon apparatus with DS2 (Mil or Ml 3) to decontaminate
surfaces that an operator must touch or contact to operate the equipment.

(b) Operational. Operational decontamination involves MOPP gear exchange and
vehicle spray down. MOPP gear exchange should be performed within six hours of being
contaminated when thorough decon cannot be performed. Vehicle washdown should be
performed within one hour of being contaminated when the mission does not permit
thorough decon. The process removes gross contamination and limits the spread of

(c) Thorough. Thorough decontamination involves detailed troop decontamination
(DTD) and detailed equipment decontamination (DED). Thorough decontamination is
normally conducted by company-size elements as part of restoration or during breaks in
combat operations. These operations require support from a chemical decontamination



Best Start Time




Skin Decon

Within 1 minute of


Prevents agents
from penetrating*

Personal Wipedown

Within 15 minutes

Individual or

Operator Spraydown

Within 30 minutes


MOPP Gear Exchange**

Optimal within 6
hours, but NLT 24


Temporary relief
from MOPP4.

Limit agent spread

Vehicle Washdown***



When mission allows/

Decon PLT

Long-term MOPP
reduction with
minimal risk



* The techniques become less effective the longer they are delayed.
** Performance degradation and risk assessment must be considered when exceeding 6 hours. See FM 3-

4 for information on BDO risk assessment.
*** Vehicle washdown is most effective if started within one hour.

Table E-3. Comparison data for decontamination levels.

(3) Decontamination Planning Considerations. Leaders should include the following
when planning for decontamination:

• Plan decon sites throughout the width and depth of the sector.

• Tie decon sites to the scheme of maneuver and templated NBC strikes.

• Apply the principles of decontamination.

• Plan for contaminated routes.

• Plan for logistics and resupply of MOPP, mask parts, water, and decon supplies.

• Plan for medical concerns to include treatment and evacuation of contaminated

• Maintain site security.


FM 3-21.94



The Javelin provides accurate, medium-range antiarmor fire for the
SBCT infantry platoon. The Javelin is used in offensive operations to
provide precision direct fires that suppress or destroy enemy armored
vehicles and destroy fortifications. In defensive operations, the Javelin
may be used to overwatch obstacles, destroy armored vehicles, and force
the enemy commander to dismount prematurely, exposing his infantry to
small arms and indirect fires. The Javelin can destroy targets from
medium ranges (65 to 2,000 meters), including helicopters and fortified
positions. The platoon leader also can use the Javelin 's imaging infrared
(I R) sight capability to conduct surveillance of critical avenues of
approach in all types of weather. The Javelin also may be used to engage
bunkers, buildings, and other fortified targets commonly found during
combat in built-up areas.


The Javelin is a dual-mode (top attack or direct attack), man-portable antitank missile
with an increased capability to engage and defeat tanks and other armored vehicles
(Table F-l). The Javelin has a missile contained in a disposable launch tube/container and
a reusable tracker and is a fire-and-forget weapon system. Additionally, the Javelin has a
soft launch that significantly reduces the visual and acoustical signature of the missile.

NOTE: The Javelin will replace the Dragon on a one-for-one basis in infantry and
engineer units with no additional changes in current force structure.

Type System:

Fire and Forget

Carry Weight (Total):

49.2 lb (day & night)

Command Launch Unit:

14.1 lb (day & night)

Missile (w/launch tube):

35.2 lb


Man portable

Ready to Fire:

Less than 30 sec.

Reload Time:

Less than 20 sec.

Method of Attack:

Top attack or direct attack (top attack is normal)


Top-attack mode: 150m-2000m

Direct-attack mode: 65-2000m

Fighting Position Restrictions:

lm x 2m, ventilation is recommended

Guidance System:

Imaging Infrared or PR seeker


Integrated Day/Night sight unit

Time of Flight:

1,000m = approx. 4.6 sec

2,000m = approx. 14.5 sec

Sight Magnification:

4X day, 4X wide field of view and 9X narrow

field of view night

Table F-1. Javelin technical characteristics.


FM 3-21.94

a. Command Launch Unit. The nondisposable section of the Javelin is the CLU
(Figure F-l). The Javelin's night sight and day sight are integrated into one unit. The
imaging infrared or PR sight has a 2,000-meter plus range, under most conditions, which
greatly increases target acquisition by the infantryman. The sight can operate for over
four hours on a single battery and requires no coolant bottles. It has a built-in test
capability that alerts the gunner if the system is not functioning properly during











Figure F-1. Command launch unit.

b. Missile. The missile is contained in a disposable launch tube. It has a passive
imaging infrared system that locks on to the target before launch and is self-guiding. It
uses a tandem shaped-charge warhead and a two-stage solid propellant with a low
signature, soft-launch motor, and a minimum smoke flight motor. The launch tube
assembly and missile is shown in Figure F-2.


FM 3-21.94

Figure F-2. Launch tube assembly and missile.


The Javelin antitank missile has improved capabilities over the Dragon.

a. Lethality. The Javelin is more lethal than the Dragon. The Javelin's 2,000-meter
range and its tandem warhead, which defeats all known armor, enhance the Javelin's

(1) In the top-attack mode, the missile strikes the thinner armor on the top of an
armored vehicle rather than the thicker frontal and side armor plates. Top attack also
prevents an enemy target from protecting itself by moving behind frontal cover. When
used in urban areas or where obstacles might interfere with the top-attack flight path of
the missile, the Javelin also can be fired in the direct attack mode.

(2) The fire-and-forget capability of the Javelin increases the probability of a hit.
Because the gunner is no longer exposed to enemy suppressive fires while tracking the
target until impact, he can use the missile's flight time to reload in a covered and
concealed position and begin engaging another target.

b. Survivability. The Javelin's low launch signature decreases the enemy's ability
to acquire gunners when they fire the missile. All gunner engagement tasks are
accomplished before launching the missile, making time of flight irrelevant. The 2,000-
meter range also places the Javelin gunner outside the armored vehicle's effective coaxial
machine gun range. However, he is still within the range of the main gun.

(1) The Javelin uses a passive infrared system for target acquisition and lock-on. This
means that it emits no infrared or radar beam for enemy vehicles or smart munitions to
detect, further increasing the survivability of the Javelin gunner.

(2) The Javelin sight offers the commander a superior observation capability as
compared to the Dragon. The Javelin sight can detect targets in excess of 3,000 meters.

(3) Because of the Javelin's low backblast, it can be fired from smaller, harder to
locate, better protected positions that give the gunner a greater chance of remaining
undetected or, if detected, surviving any suppressive fires.

c. Agility. The Javelin is man-portable and relatively lightweight for an antitank
missile system, which allows the system to be moved about the battlefield with relative
ease. The Javelin's soft launch capability allows it to be fired from inside buildings,
bunkers, and other restricted spaces with less disruption to the gunner and less signature
to be observed by the enemy. Although flank shots are still the preferred method of
engagement, the Javelin's low signature launch and top-attack mode make frontal and


FM 3-21.94

oblique engagements more effective than in the past. These capabilities give the infantry
leader additional options in his antiarmor fires planning and positioning.

d. Flexibility. The capabilities of the Javelin give the leader more flexibility in the
use and emplacement of his antiarmor systems. This new degree of flexibility challenges
the leader to make a careful METT-TC analysis to ensure that he is taking full advantage
of the Javelin's capabilities.

(1) The greater range of the Javelin gives the leader a system that complements MGS
fires, allowing him to achieve mutual support and greater overlapping fires between the
systems. The Javelin's lethality and more than 2,000-meter range allow the MGS to
concentrate main gunfires on targets at standoff range. This allows the platoon leader to
attack the enemy throughout the depth of his formation with antiarmor fires.

(2) Engaging at maximum standoff ranges and handing off the fight to the Javelin
gunners provides more time for MGSs to be moved to alternate positions and allows the
platoon leader to mass fires at the critical time and place on the battlefield.


There are certain times when the Javelin system is not able to engage targets. These occur
either when a target is not exposed long enough for the missile seeker to achieve proper
lock-on or when atmospheric conditions interfere with the seeker.

a. Limited Visibility. Heavy rain, smoke, fog, snow, sleet, haze, and dust are
referred to as limited visibility conditions. The presence of these conditions can affect the
gunner's ability to acquire and engage targets with the Javelin, especially when using the
day sight of the CLU. The gunner should use the I 2 R sight of the CLU to acquire targets
because it provides the best target image during limited visibility conditions.

b. Infrared Crossover. Infrared crossover occurs at least twice in each 24-hour
period when the temperatures of soil, water, concrete, and vegetation are approximately
the same and the objects all emit the same amount of infrared energy. If there is little
difference in the amount of infrared energy between a target and its background, then
neither the Javelin CLU nor the missile seeker can see the target well, thus greatly
degrading the performance of the Javelin. This situation may last as long as an hour until
either the background or the target changes temperature enough to become detectable.

c. Time Space Factor. Just because a target appears in the open and within range
does not always mean a Javelin gunner can acquire it, lock on it, fire, and hit it. A vehicle
must be exposed long enough for the gunner to identify it as a target and then to achieve
target lock-on with the Javelin missile seeker. This process is not instantaneous and
varies with the skill of the gunner.


The Javelin's primary role is to destroy enemy armored vehicles. When there is not an
armored threat, the Javelin can be employed in a secondary role of providing fire support
against point targets such as bunkers and crew-served weapons positions. In addition, the
Javelin's CLU can be used alone as a night-vision device for reconnaissance, security
operations, and surveillance.

a. Mutual Support. Javelins should be positioned so they can support other Javelins
as firing pairs (Figure F-3), MGSs, or AT4s. In terrain that has multiple narrow avenues
of approach, the platoon leader may assign Javelins singly. In open terrain, the Javelin


FM 3-21.94

can be positioned to achieve overlapping sectors (Figure F-4). Mutual support prevents
the enemy from isolating a portion of the friendly unit and then concentrating on one
sector without being subjected to fire from another. When mutual support is achieved, if
one Javelin is destroyed or forced to displace, the others can continue covering the
assigned sector. As a rule of thumb, gunners normally should be positioned far enough
apart so that enemy fires directed at one can not suppress others.





Figure F-3. Employment by firing pair.

I �� \

Figure F-4. Overlapping sectors of fire.


FM 3-21.94

b. Flank Shot Engagements. Leaders should position Javelins to engage from the
flank whenever possible because—

• Armored vehicles are most vulnerable from the flank.

• The focus of the crew normally will be to the front and not to the flank.

• Armored vehicles present the largest visual and infrared target from the flank.

• The vehicle's sighting systems, laser range finder, and firepower normally are
oriented to the front, not the flank.

• Armored vehicles have less armor on the sides than on the front. This is
important when engaging in the direct-attack mode.

c. Javelin Standoff Advantage. The difference between the Javelin's maximum
range and the maximum effective range of the enemy tank's coaxial machine gun (Figure
F-5) creates an advantage in a standoff. The Javelin's maximum range is 2,000 meters.
The maximum effective range of a T-72 coaxial machine gun is 1,000 meters. The
Javelin gunner should strive to engage enemy tanks in the 1,000- to 2,000-meter range.

NOTE: Most modern tanks, as well as infantry fighting vehicles, can fire high-
explosive ammunition to suppress gunners out to 4,000 meters.


1,000 METERS



Figure F-5. Standoff range.

d. Cover and Concealment. Cover and concealment are critical to the survival of
an antiarmor weapon system and its crew. The leader responsible for Javelin employment
must analyze cover and concealment along with fields of fire and observation.

(1) Cover. Cover is protection from enemy weapons fire and may be natural or man-
made. Natural cover includes reverse slopes, ravines, and hollows. Man-made cover
includes fighting positions, walls, rubble, and craters.

(2) Concealment. Concealment is the ability to hide from enemy observation.
Soldiers should avoid unnecessary movement, stay low and observe, and present
themselves and their equipment using the lowest silhouette possible. They should alter
familiar shapes by breaking up the common outlines of the position and equipment using
vegetation and camouflage netting. They must pay attention to the varied colors and
textures of the area to ensure the position blends in with its background. Additionally,


FM 3-21.94

noises (such as engines running, talking, and moving equipment) can be heard by enemy
patrols and observation posts. Shiny surfaces can reflect light for great distances;
therefore, soldiers must be careful not to expose anything that shines.

e. Soldier's Load. When employing the Javelin in the dismounted role, the soldier's
load becomes important. With a total system weight of just under 50 pounds, the Javelin
is heavy. Although a man-portable weapon, one soldier cannot easily carry the Javelin
cross country for extended periods. Leaders should be aware of this problem and address
it as they would any other soldier's load difficulty. FM 21-18 discusses soldier's load and
cross-leveling equipment during movement to reduce the burden on soldiers. Leaders
should develop unit SOPs that identify and describe the details of unit equipment cross

f Massed Fires. Massed fires are achieved by coordinating the total effects of the
platoon's combat power at the decisive place and time to gain favorable results against
the enemy. The platoon achieves mass through mutual fire support, detailed fire control,
and fire distribution measures that synchronize all of the fires of the platoon's weapon
systems and elements. The Javelin always should be positioned so that its fires are part of
a cohesive combination including small arms, crew-served weapons, MGS, mortar and
artillery, as well as the close-in fires of the squads using AT -4 light antiarmor weapons.


Javelins provide overwatching antitank fires during the attack of a built-up area and an
extended range capability for the engagement of armor during the defense. Within built-
up areas, they are best employed along major thoroughfares and from the upper stories of
buildings to attain long-range fields of fire. The missile's minimum arming range and
flight profile could limit firing opportunities within the confines of densely built-up areas,
a. Restrictions. Ground obstacles and water do not restrict the Javelin with its fire-
and-forget capability. However, with its unique flight characteristics, overhead obstacles
can limit its use in urban terrain. In the top-attack mode, the Javelin missile requires up to
160-plus meters of overhead clearance (Figure F-6, page F-8). In the direct-attack mode,
the Javelin requires up to 60-plus meters of overhead clearance (Figure F-7, page F-8).
Gunners must ensure that sufficient overhead clearance is available along the missile
flight path before engaging targets in an urban environment.


FM 3-21.94

(METERS) 180_




500 1000 1500



Figure F-6. Javelin flight profile in top-attack mode.

Figure F-7. Javelin flight profile in direct-attack mode.

b. Dead Space. The aspects of dead space that affect Javelin fires the most are
arming distance and target and background temperature differences.

(1) The Javelin missile has a minimum arming window of 65-75 meters. Few areas in
the inner city permit fires much beyond the minimum arming distance. Ground-level
long-range fires down streets or rail lines and across parks or plazas are possible. The
Javelin may be used effectively from the upper stories or roofs of buildings to fire into
other buildings.

(2) The Javelin gunner must take into consideration the targeting dead space
sometimes caused by the background of the target and its heat signature. When firing
from the upper stories of a building towards the ground, the missile seeker sometimes
cannot discriminate between the target and surrounding rubble, buildings, or paving if
that background material has the same temperature as the target.

c. Backblast The Javelin's soft launch capability enables the gunner to fire from
within an enclosed area (Figure F-8) with a reduced danger from backblast overpressure
or flying debris. Personnel within the enclosure still should wear a helmet, protective


FM 3-21.94

vest, ballistic eye protection, and hearing protection. To fire a Javelin from inside a room,
the following safety precautions must be taken:

• Ceiling height must be at least 7 feet.

• The floor size of the room should be at least 15 feet by 12 feet.

• Window opening must be at least 5 square feet.

• Door opening must be at least 20 square feet.

• When launching a missile from an enclosure, allow sufficient room for the
missile container to extend beyond the outermost edge of the enclosure.

• All personnel in the room must be forward of the rear of the weapon.

15' ��



Figure F-8. Minimum room enclosure for Javelin firing.

d. Weapon Penetration. The warhead of the Javelin can achieve significant
penetration against typical urban targets. Penetration, however, does not mean a
concurrent destruction of the structural integrity of a position. When engaging a position
in a building, the gunner must use the direct-attack mode to hit the target. When engaging
a position or bunker in the open, the gunner may use either the top-attack or direct-attack


Each Javelin gunner should have a primary firing position and at least one alternate
position. Depending on the factors of METT-TC, a supplementary position may also be
assigned. A Javelin firing position must allow for target engagement and provide


FM 3-21.94

protection for the soldiers and the weapon system. When selecting firing positions,
leaders should consider the following:

• Cover to the front, flank, and overhead.

• Concealment from ground and aerial observation.

• Good observation and fields of fire.

• Covered and concealed routes to and between positions.

• Mutual support between squad positions and with other elements.

• Below ridgelines and crests, preferably on the sides of hills.

• Avoid positions in swampy areas and very steep hillsides as well as positions
on or near prominent terrain features.

a. Types of Javelin Positions. The platoon leader should consider what type of
positions he needs for his key weapons, including the Javelin. If time and material are
available, the standard Javelin fighting position with overhead cover should be used. If
time or material is short, then the platoon leader may opt to have his squads prepare flush
positions. This paragraph discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the two types of
Javelin positions.

(1) Standard Javelin Fighting Position with Overhead Cover. The standard Javelin
fighting position has cover to protect gunners from direct and indirect fires (Figure F-9).
It is a fairly large position with room for the Javelin gunner and another squad member
plus their equipment. The position should be concealed among irregularities in the terrain
and should be well camouflaged.

(a) The following are advantages of this position:

• Provides most protection against direct and indirect fire.

• Protects equipment from elements.

(b) The following are disadvantages of this position:

• Requires extensive Class IV items or cut timber.

• Requires extensive labor and may require engineer assistance or demolitions.

• Creates large, distinctive silhouette; difficult to hide completely in open


FM 3-21.94




Figure F-9. Standard Javelin fighting position.

(2) Flush Position. The flush position (Figure F-10, page F-12) is a hasty position
that does not provide overhead protection for the gunner during firing. The position is
basically a hole dug to approximately armpit depth. Overhead cover can be prepared
either to the center or the flanks of the position.

(a) The following are advantages of this position:

• Allows the Javelin gunner to reposition quickly.

• Is less labor intensive (more positions built in same amount of time).

• Requires less Class IV than the standard Javelin position.

(b) The following are disadvantages of the position:

• No overhead protection.

• Gunner not protected from indirect fires while in the target acquisition and
firing sequence.

• Thermal signatures of gunner and assistant gunner not hidden.

• Gunner movements are easier to detect by the enemy.


FM 3-21.94

Figure F-10. Flush fighting position.

b. Occupation of Firing Positions. Javelin gunners should be careful to avoid
detection while occupying a firing position; carelessly occupying a well-concealed
position can compromise the position.

c. Preparation. The squad should prepare and improve a firing position from initial
occupation until it is vacated. These actions include digging in, preparing a range card,
and camouflaging the position. Once the position has been dug, it must be camouflaged
using sod, leaves, brush, grass, or any other natural material. Camouflage nets or other
man-made materials also can be used, but these work best if mixed with natural materials.
Gunners must be ready to fight, even while preparing and improving the position. They
must constantly observe the sector of responsibility to allow quick reaction if the enemy
appears before the position is completely occupied.

d. Movement Between Firing Positions. Most enemy armor forces consider
antitank guided missile systems to be critical targets. They expect antitank fires and will
react immediately to suppress them. Because of this, Javelin gunners must be prepared to
move to their alternate positions when the platoon or squad leader directs. The platoon or
squad leader must coordinate the movement of their Javelins so that all of the weapons
are not moving at once. Once the enemy has been destroyed, the leader can move the
Javelins back to their primary firing position. Platoon fire plans must consider the amount
of time needed to move Javelins between positions on the battlefield. The plans also must
provide alternate methods of destroying or disrupting the enemy to offset problems
associated with movement. These alternate methods include mutual support of MK19,
M2, and MGS; incorporation of obstacles and obscurants; and employing indirect fire,
CAS, and attack helicopters, if available.


FM 3-21.94

e. Routes Between Positions. The squad leader must personally reconnoiter all
routes to alternate and supplementary positions. The routes to, from, and between
positions should offer cover and concealment and should allow the gunner to enter the
firing position from a direction opposite to the enemy's location.


US forces must engage targets quickly and efficiently to win in combat. Speed of target
engagement depends on each Javelin gunner's proficiency in acquiring targets,
identifying targets, and determining whether targets can be engaged. Dust and smoke
make locating and identifying the enemy difficult. As the battle progresses and friendly
and enemy units merge into the same maneuver area, acquiring and identifying targets
become crucial tasks. Gunners should be trained to acquire enemy targets that are
camouflaged or partially concealed by terrain, vegetation, or smoke. They should also be
trained to identify targets as friend or foe. Once soldiers know where to look, they must
know how to detect enemy targets rapidly.

a. Primary Analysis. Because the Javelin's primary targets are armored vehicles,
specifically tanks, gunners should look for terrain where these targets are most likely to
appear. Understanding armor tactics and the characteristics of armor vehicles can help
Javelin gunners recognize the terrain where these vehicles are most likely to be

(1) Enemy Analysis. The tactics of many potential adversaries stress using speed and
massive firepower to overwhelm and destroy an opposing force. This dictates a very high
average daily rate of advance. To move consistently at a high rate, armored forces require
firm ground to move rapidly and enough space to deploy, maneuver, and fire. High-speed
avenues of approach, such as road networks, broad ridges, and flat or rolling terrain,
should be observed constantly.

(2) Terrain and Weather Analysis. A detailed analysis of the terrain and weather is
useful in pinpointing armored or mechanized avenues of approach and to evaluate them
from the enemy's viewpoint. Questions that the leader should ask himself include:

• How can the enemy use this terrain?

• Where is he most likely to appear first?

Because weather significantly affects the trafficability of terrain, a ground reconnaissance
is needed to obtain current, detailed information about roads, trails, manmade objects,
density of trees and brush, and the seasonal conditions of streams and rivers. If a ground
reconnaissance is not possible, an aerial reconnaissance should be conducted or recent
aerial photographs should be used.

(3) Armored and Mechanized Vehicles' Mobility Characteristics. Javelin gunners
can more easily determine where to look for enemy armored vehicles if they know the
vehicles' mobility characteristics. If possible, tank and motorized rifle units will avoid
terrain or obstacles that can stop or impede their movement. Terrain factors that restrict
armored or mechanized vehicle mobility include—

• Slopes steeper than 30 degrees.

• Sturdy walls or embankments 3 or more feet high.

• Ditches or gullies 9 or more feet wide and 3 or more feet deep.

• Hardwood trees 10 inches or larger in diameter and 10 feet or less apart.

• Water obstacles at least 5 feet deep.


FM 3-21.94

• Very swampy or very rough, rocky terrain.

• Built-up areas where vehicles are restricted to moving on confined roads,
through park areas, or across sports fields.

b. Range Estimation. Javelin gunners do not need to know the exact range to an
enemy target before engaging; they only need to know when it is in range. To speed this
determination, gunners use a maximum engagement line. A Javelin maximum
engagement line is an imaginary line drawn across a sector's maximum allowable range
from a Javelin firing position. To determine the location of this line on the ground, the
squad leader or gunner identifies terrain features at or near maximum range. Therefore,
any target that crosses or appears short of this line should be within range. Establishing a
maximum engagement line greatly reduces target engagement times, especially for
targets that seem to be near maximum range. Several range-determination techniques can
be used to find the maximum range line or the range to specific targets.

(1) Laser Range-Finding Method. Most units and all forward observer teams should
have laser range-finders. The range from the Javelin position to an easily identifiable
terrain feature can be determined easily with the laser range finder. Once the maximum
engagement line is determined, the gunner makes a note of a terrain feature at that
location on his range card. Any vehicle nearing that feature will be in range.

(2) Object Recognition Method. Range determination by object recognition is simple
and can be accurate with training. The soldier looks at the target with his naked eye,
sights through 7X binoculars, or uses a Javelin optical sight. Targets listed in Table F-2
are recognizable out to the ranges indicated—for example, if a target can be recognized
with the naked eye as an armored or wheeled vehicle, it is probably within 2,000 meters.
When using this method, the gunner must consider terrain, visibility conditions, and
target size.






Tank crew members



Soldiers, machine gun, mortar



Antitank gun, antitank missile launchers



Tank, APC, truck (by model)



Tank, howitzer, APC, truck



Armored vehicle, wheeled vehicle



Table F-2. Range determination recognition method.

(3) Map and Terrain Association Method. The maximum engagement line can be
determined from a map. For each firing position, follow these steps:


FM 3-21.94

• Draw an arc on the map across the assigned sector of fire at 2,000 meters.

• Examine the map to identify the distinctive natural or man-made terrain
features that the line touches.

• Study the terrain in the sector of fire using binoculars or the Javelin CLU until
all the selected terrain features are located and positively identified.

• Connect these features by an imaginary line from the maximum engagement


Effective fire control requires a unit to rapidly acquire the enemy and mass the effects of
fire in order to achieve decisive results. The following principles are fundamental to
achieving effective fires. When planning and executing direct fires, the platoon leader
and squad leaders should apply these principles of fire control:

• Mass the effects of fire.

• Destroy the greatest threat first.

• Avoid target overkill.

• Employ the best weapon for the target.

• Minimize friendly exposure.

• Minimize the chances for fratricide.


Fire control measures must enable Javelin gunners to distribute or mass fires effectively
into a given area and over time. Fire control measures are the means by which the platoon
leader or subordinate leaders control fires. Application of these concepts, procedures, and
techniques assists the unit in acquiring the enemy, focusing fires on him, distributing the
effects of the fires, effectively shifting fires, and preventing fratricide. At the same time,
no single measure is sufficient to effectively control fires. At the platoon level, fire
control measures will be effective only if the entire platoon has a common understanding
of what the fire control measures mean and how to employ them. When executing direct
fires, the platoon leader and squad leaders should apply these methods of fire control:

• Ensure distribution of fires over a given area.

• Mass fires into a given area.

• Distribute fires over time.

• Mass fires in time and space.

• Designate target reference points.

• Designate trigger lines and phase lines.

• Define engagement priorities.


Because Javelin positions are selected to cover enemy armor avenues of approach, the
medium-range fields of fire afforded by these positions also enable Javelin gunners to
engage aircraft.

a. Weapons Control Status. The weapons control status established for air defense
weapons applies to Javelin gunners, too. Unless ordered otherwise, gunners should fire in


FM 3-21.94

unit self-defense only; for example, only engage aircraft that are attacking friendly

b. Self-Defense Engagements. A Javelin gunner can automatically engage an
enemy helicopter that is attacking its position. The gunner's target engagement sequence
is the same as against ground targets. The Javelin should be in the direct- attack mode
when engaging helicopters. The rotors of the helicopter may interfere with the sensors of
the missile in the top-attack mode and result in erratic flight of the missile and a target


FM 3-21.94



The M240B machine gun and the M249 squad automatic weapon
(SA W) provide the heavy volume of close and continuous fire needed to
accomplish the mission, and they can engage targets beyond the capability
of individual weapons with controlled and accurate fire. The long-range,
close defensive, and final protective fires delivered by the M240B machine
gun form an integral part of a unit's direct fire plan. This appendix
addresses the fundamental techniques of fire common to both the machine
gun and the SA W.


The machine gun is the infantry platoon's primary weapon against a dismounted enemy.
(Table G-l provides specifications for the M240B and M249.) It provides a high volume
of lethal, accurate fire to break up an enemy assault; it has limited effects against lightly
armored vehicles; and it may cause vehicle crews to button-up and operate with reduced
effectiveness. The platoon leader employs his M240B machine guns with the dismounted
element or with a rifle squad to provide long range, accurate, sustained fires under all
visibility conditions against dismounted infantry, apertures in fortifications, buildings,
and lightly armored vehicles and trucks. The M240B also provides a high volume of
short-range fire in self defense against enemy aircraft. Machine gunners use point,
traversing, searching, or searching and traversing fire to kill or suppress targets. Leaders
position machine guns to—

• Concentrate fires where they want to kill the enemy.

• Fire across the platoon front.

• Cover obstacles by direct fire.

• Tie-in with adjacent units.




7.62-mm gas operated
machine gun

5.56-mm gas operated


25.63 lb (11.1 kg)

15.07 lb (6.85 kg)


1105 mm

1040 mm standard

Muzzle Velocity

853 m/s

965 m/s

Rate of Fire

Cyclic 650-850 rds/min

Cyclic 650-850 rds/min

Effective Ranges: Point

800 m

600 m


1100 m (Tripod)

800 m

Table G-1. Specifications for M240B and M249.

a. In the offense the platoon leader has the option, based on his analysis of the
factors of METT-TC, to establish his base of fire element with one or two machine guns,
the SAW, or a combination of the two weapons. The platoon sergeant may position this


FM 3-21 .94

element and control its fires when the platoon scheme of maneuver is to conduct the
assault with the three dismounted squads.

(1) The machine gun, when placed on tripods, provides stability and accuracy at
greater ranges than the bipod. The machine gunners target key enemy weapons until the
assault element masks their fires. They also can suppress the enemy's ability to return
accurate fire or to hamper the maneuver of the assault element. They fix the enemy in
position and isolate him by cutting off his avenues of reinforcement. They then shift their
fires to the flank opposite the one being assaulted and continue to target any enemy
automatic weapons that provide mutual support to the enemy position or engage any
enemy counterattack.

(2) M240B fires also can be used to cover the gap created between the forward
element of the assaulting force and terrain covered by indirect fires when the indirect
fires are lifted and shifted. On signal, the machine gunners and the base-of-fire element
displace to join the assault element on the objective.

b. In the defense, the machine gun provides sustained direct fires that cover the most
likely or most dangerous dismounted avenues of approach and protect the unit against the
enemy's dismounted close assault. The platoon leader positions his machine guns to
concentrate fires in locations where he wants to do the most damage to the dismounted
enemy and where they can take advantage of grazing enfilade fires, stand-off or
maximum engagement range, and best observation of the target area. They provide
overlapping and interlocking fires with adjacent units and cover tactical and protective
obstacles with traversing or searching fires. When final protective fires are called for,
machine guns (aided by SAW fires) place an effective barrier of fixed, direct fire across
the platoon front.


The SAW is primarily a squad leader's weapon to use in the close fight as a light
automatic weapon. (Table G-l, page G-l, provides specifications for the M249.) The
SAW provides the rifle squads with a light automatic weapon to take with them into the
assault. These weapons fire from the bipod, from the hip, or from the underarm position.
They target any enemy supporting weapons being fired from fixed positions anywhere on
the squad's objective. When the enemy's supporting weapons have been destroyed, or if
there are none, the SAW gunners distribute their fire over that portion of the objective
that corresponds to their team's position. The SAW in the hands of a rifleman can
provide mobility and a high volume of fire up front in the assault or across the squad's
position in the defense. In the defense, the SAW adds the firepower of 10 or 20 riflemen
without the addition of manpower. Characteristically, SAWs are light, fire rapidly, and
have more ammunition than the rifles in the squad they support. Under certain
circumstances, the platoon leader may designate the SAW as a machine gun and, with
some adjustments, use it as a platoon weapon.


The fundamental techniques of automatic fire are common to machine guns and squad
automatic weapons. (For more detailed information refer to FM 3-22.68.)


FM 3-21.94

a. Techniques of Fire. Techniques of fire include direct lay, assault fire, overhead
fire, and fire from a defilade position. Only automatic rifles use assault fire. Only
machine guns can employ overhead fire.

(1) Direct Lay. Gunners and automatic riflemen use the direct-lay technique by
aligning the sights of the weapon on the target. This is the easiest and quickest means of
delivering fire.

(2) Assault Fire. Automatic riflemen use assault fire when in close combat. Assault
fire involves firing without the aid of sights using the hip, shoulder, and underarm
positions. The underarm position is best when rapid movement is required. In all three
positions, automatic riflemen adjust their fire by observing the tracer and the impact of
the bullets in the target area. Additional considerations for automatic riflemen using
assault fire include—

• Maintaining alignment with the rest of the assault element.

• Reloading rapidly.

• Aiming low and adjusting the aim upward toward the target.

• Distributing fires across the objective when not engaging enemy automatic

(3) Overhead Fire. Gunners can use overhead fire when there is sufficient low
ground between the machine gun and the target area for the maneuver of friendly forces.
Normally, overhead fires are conducted with the machine guns on tripods because they
provide greater stability and accuracy and the vertical mil angles can be measured by
using the elevating mechanism. Gunners must accurately estimate range to the target and
establish a safety limit that is an imaginary line, parallel to the target, where fire would
cause casualties to friendly soldiers. Gun crews and leaders must be aware of this safety
limit. Leaders must designate signals for lifting or shifting fires. Gunners should not
attempt overhead fires if the terrain is level or slopes uniformly, if the barrel is badly
worn, or if visibility is poor.

(4) Fire from a Defilade Position. Defilade positions protect gunners from frontal or
enfilading fires. Cover and concealment may not provide the gunner a view of some or all
of the target area. In this instance, some other member of the platoon must observe the
impact of the rounds and communicate adjustments to the gunner. Gunners and leaders
must consider the complexity of laying on the target, the gunner's inability to make rapid
adjustments to engage moving targets, the ease with which targets are masked, and the
difficulty in achieving grazing fires for a final protective line.

b. Characteristics of Fire. To help the gunner understand the characteristics of fire
for their weapons, the following definitions are helpful:

(1) Trajectory. Trajectory is the path of the bullet in flight. For the SAW, the path of
the bullet is almost flat at ranges of 300 meters or less. At ranges beyond 300 meters, the
trajectory curves as the range increases.

(2) Maximum Ordinate. This is the highest point the trajectory reaches between the
muzzle of the weapon and the base of the target. It always occurs at a point about two-
thirds of the distance from weapon to target and increases with range.

(3) Cone of Fire. This is the pattern formed by the different trajectories in each burst
as they travel downrange. Vibration of the weapon, variations in ammunition, and
atmospheric conditions all contribute to the trajectories that make up the cone of fire.


FM 3-21 .94

(4) Beaten Zone. This is the pattern formed by the rounds within the cone of fire
striking the ground or the target. The size and shape of the beaten zone changes as a
function of the range to and slope of the target. Gunners and automatic riflemen should
engage targets to take maximum effect of the beaten zone. The simplest way to do this is
to aim at the center base of the target. Most rounds will not fall over the target, and any
that fall short will create ricochets into the target.

(5) Danger Space. This is the space between the weapon and the target where the
trajectory does not rise above 1.8 meters (the average height of a standing soldier) and
includes the beaten zone. Gunners should consider the danger space of their weapons
when planning overhead fires.

c. Classifications of Automatic Weapons Fire. The US Army classifies automatic
weapons fires with respect to the ground, the target, and the weapon.

(1) Fire with respect to the ground includes—

• Grazing Fire. Automatic weapons achieve grazing fire when the center of the
cone of fire does not rise more than 1 meter above the ground. When firing
over level or uniformly sloping terrain, the SAW can attain a maximum of 600
meters of grazing fire.

• Plunging Fire. Plunging fire occurs when weapons fire at long range, when
firing from high ground to low ground, when firing into abruptly rising
ground, or when firing across uneven terrain resulting in a loss of grazing fire
at any point along the trajectory.

(2) Fire with respect to the target includes—

• Enfilade Fire. Enfilade fire occurs when the long axis of the beaten zone
coincides or nearly coincides with the long axis of the target. It can be frontal
or flanking. It is the most desirable class of fire with respect to the target
because it makes maximum use of the beaten zone.

• Frontal Fire. Frontal fire occurs when the long axis of the beaten zone is at a
right angle to the front of the target.

• Flanking Fire. Flanking fire is delivered directly against the flank of a target.

• Oblique Fire. Gunners and automatic riflemen achieve oblique fire when the
long axis of the beaten zone is at an angle other than a right angle to the front
of the target.

(3) Fire with respect to the weapon includes—

• Fixed Fire. Fixed fire is delivered against a stationary point target when the
depth and width of the beaten zone will cover the target.

• Traversing Fire. Traversing distributes fires in width by successive changes in

• Searching Fire. Searching distributes fires in depth by successive changes in

• Traversing and Searching Fire. This class of fire is a combination in which
successive changes in direction and elevation result in the distribution of fires
both in width and depth.

d. Types of Targets. Targets have both width and depth. The size of the target,
stated in terms of the number of aiming points required to engage it completely,
determines its type.


FM 3-21.94

(1) Point Target. Point targets require a single aiming point. Examples of this include
bunkers, weapons emplacements, vehicles, and troops.

(2) Area Targets. Area targets require more than one aiming point. Machine gunners
and automatic riflemen use traversing and searching (or a combination) to engage the
target. Area targets are distinguished as linear, deep, and linear with depth. Gunners and
automatic riflemen engage deep targets using searching fire. They engage linear targets
using traversing fire. Finally, they engage linear with depth targets using traversing and
searching fire.

e. Rates of Fires. Automatic weapons fire in one of three rates: rapid, sustained, or
cyclic. Normally machine gunners engage targets at the rapid rate to suppress the enemy
quickly. Thereafter, they fire at a sustained rate to conserve ammunition. Automatic
riflemen use the three-round burst, resighting their weapons as quickly as possible. In
engaging aerial targets machine gunners and automatic riflemen use the cyclic rate.

(1) Rapid Fire. Rapid fire is 200 rounds per minute in bursts of six to nine rounds at
four- to five-second intervals.

(2) Sustained Rate. Sustained fire is 100 rounds per minute in bursts of six to nine
rounds at four- to five-second intervals.

(3) Cyclic Rate. The normal cyclic rate of fire is 650 to 850 rounds per minute. To
fire the cyclic rate, the gunner holds the trigger to the rear while the assistant gunner
feeds ammunition into the weapon.

f Techniques for Automatic Weapons in the Defense. Machine gunners and
automatic riflemen use a number of techniques to ensure effective fires in defensive
operations. Some techniques tie the characteristics of the weapons to the nature of the
terrain. Others ensure distribution of fires across the squad or platoon front. Still others
facilitate the concentration of fires against likely enemy avenues of approach or in
engagement areas bounded by tactical obstacles. Finally, others aid in maintaining
accurate fires during limited visibility.

g. Field-Expedient Methods. The two most common field-expedient methods for
laying the machine gun in the bipod mode on predetermined targets are the notched-stake
or tree-crouch and the horizontal log or board technique.

(1) Notched-Stake or Tree-Crotch Technique. This technique is effective for all
conditions of visibility. It involves sighting the weapon on each target and marking the
position and elevation of the stock with a notched-stake or tree-crotch. The automatic
rifleman then scoops out a shallow groove to provide for the movement of the bipod legs
and to keep the front end of the weapon aligned.

(2) Horizontal Log or Board Technique. Automatic riflemen use this technique to
mark sector limits and engage linear targets. It is best suited for flat, level terrain and
involves placing a log or board horizontally so the weapon slides along it easily. The
board may then be notched along its length to lay the weapon on a specific target
reference point. It may also have limiting stakes placed to define the left and right limits
of the weapon.

h. Fire Control. Leaders control the engagements of their automatic weapons
through the use of control measures, coordinating instructions, and fire commands.

(1) In the offense, coordinating instructions to machine gunners include instructions
to initiate fires, a description of how the platoon leader sees the sequence of automatic
weapon engagements, and the location of other friendly soldiers in the area.


FM 3-21 .94

(2) In the defense, the leader describes the presence and subsequent action of friendly
soldiers to the front of the platoon position (scouts, passing units), the initiation and
sequence of weapon engagements, priority targets, and the planned or probable shifting
of forces to displace or counterattack.

(3) The signal to initiate fires or final protective lines (FPLs) on any occasions not
covered by planning can be handled through fire commands. Fire commands must be
clear and concise. Machine gunners and automatic riflemen repeat all fire commands.
Fire commands contain the following elements:

• Alert. The leader must specify WHO is to engage.

• Direction. The leader must clearly indicate the general direction of the target.
He may do so orally (giving a general orientation or designation of a reference
point), by pointing, or by directing fires with tracer rounds from his own
weapon. If he uses tracers, this becomes the last part of the command, and he
directs, "Watch my tracer."

• Description. While visually following the target, the leader briefly describes
the target, generally by the type of object: troops, vehicles, aircraft.

• Range. Leaders provide an estimate of the range to the target. Gunners and
automatic riflemen use this estimate to set their rear sights and to know how
far to look to identify the target.

• Method of Fire. This element includes two parts: the manipulation (class of
fire with respect to the weapon—fixed, traversing, searching, or traversing and
searching) and the rate of fire. When the leader omits the rate of fire, the
gunner assumes a rapid rate.

• Command to Open Fire. Timing the initiation of fires is important to gain
surprise. Leaders may preface the command to commence firing with "At my
command" or "At my signal." Gunners and automatic riflemen respond with
"Ready" when they have identified the target and are ready to engage. Leaders
then give the specified command or signal.

(4) Leaders adjust fires (direction, elevation, and rate), identify new targets, order
cease-fires, or terminate the alert with subsequent fire commands.

(5) Squads and platoons establish SOPs governing the activities and automatic
initiation, control, and cessation of fire for their automatic riflemen and gunners. These
SOP items can include standard targets and how often to check with leaders once they
have engaged the enemy.

i. Dead Space Considerations. Dead space defines an area where the waist of a
soldier falls below a gunner's or automatic rifleman's point of aim. The most accurate
method for determining dead space is to have one soldier walk the line of sight of the
weapon (FPL or principal direction of fire [PDF]) and make a pace count of those areas
where he encounters dead space. Dead space also can be determined by observing the
flight of tracer ammunition from a position behind and to the flank of the weapon.


FM 3-21.94



first sergeant















avenue of approach

after-action review

air defense and aviation coordination cell

air defense warning

advanced field artillery tactical data system

assistant fire support officer


air and missile defense

area of operations


Army training and evaluation program

all-source analysis system

assistant section leader












battalion aid station

battle damage assessment

battle dress overgarment

battle dress uniform

Bradley fighting vehicle

battle handover line

beginning morning nautical twilight

battle position

Russian wheeled reconnaissance vehicle

brigade support area













command and control

command, control, and communications

command, control, communications, and intelligence

close air aupport

cluster bomb unit

commander's critical information requirements

casualty collection point

container delivery system

chemiluminescent lightsticks

command launch unit


course of action

combat observation and lasing team

common operating picture

command post


FM 3-21.94












combat support

combat service support

combat service support control system

commander's tactical display

Department of the Army

danger close, distribution, ammunition, and trajectory


detailed equipment decontamination

deployable universal combat earth mover

dual-purpose improved conventional munitions

direct support

detailed troop decontamination































engagement area

evasion and escape

electronic countermeasures

end of evening nautical twilight

essential fire support task

enhanced position location and reporting system

enemy prisoner of war

engineer squad vehicle

field artillery

forward area air defense

forward air controller

Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below

fire direction center

fire for effect

fire support team

forward looking infrared radar

frequency modulated; field manual

forward observer

final protective fire

final protective line

fragmentary order

fire support element

fire support noncommissioned officer

fire support officer

ground commander's pointer

global positioning system

general support

ground surveillance radar

general support-reinforcing



FM 3-21.94









high explosive

high explosive antitank

headquarters and headquarters company

high mobility engineer excavator

high profile target


hand-held terminal unit

human intelligence















imaging infrared

interim armored vehicle

in accordance with

improved conventional munitions

infantry carrier vehicle



imagery intelligence

inertial navigation unit

intelligence preparation of the battlefield


initial rally point

intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance



Army common fuel


killed in action




kilometers per hour




load-carrying equipment


line of departure


liaison officer


limit of advance


line of communication


logistics package


line of sight


logistics release point


land warrior


landing zone




man-portable air defense system


main battle area


military decision-making process

Glossary -3

FM 3-21.94


modular decontamination system


medium engineer company


medical evacuation


mission-essential task list


mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support

available, time available, and civil considerations


maneuver control system


mobile gun system


mine clearing line charge




multiple launch rocket system


multioption fuze


motor gasoline


mission-oriented protective posture


multipurpose antitank


miles per hour




meal, ready to eat




major theater war


named areas of interest


North Atlanta Treaty Organization


nuclear, biological, chemical


nuclear, biological, chemical warning and reporting system


noncommissioned officer


noncommissioned officer in charge


net control station


no fire area


naval gun fire


not later than


night-vision device


night-vision goggles


observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, key

terrain, obstacles, and cover and concealment




obstacle intelligence


observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, key

terrain, obstacles, and cover and concealment


officer in charge


observation post


operational control


operation plan


operation order


objective rally point

Glossary -4

FM 3-21.94





































own the night

personnel and administration center

precombat check

precombat inspection

point detonating

principal direction of fire

platoon early warning system

precision guided munition

priority intelligence requirements

platoon leader; phase line (graphics)

precision lightweight GPS receiver


preventive maintenance checks and services

precision navigation system

petroleum, oil, lubricant

position navigation

platoon sergeant

personnel service support

polyvinyl chloride

pickup zone


reconnaissance and surveillance

radiotelephone operator

radio direction finding


readiness condition

remotely employed sensors


reconnaissance handover line

rally point (graphics only)

rules of engagement

rules of interaction

release point

reentry rally point

reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition

reconnaissance vehicle



intelligence officer
operations and training officer
supply officer
civil affairs officer
communications staff officer

Glossary -5

FM 3-21.94


size, activity, location, and time


size, activity, location, unit identification, time, and



squad automatic weapon


Stryker brigade combat team




short-range air defense


signal intelligence


single-channel ground and air radio system


situation report


situational template


squad leader


soldier's manual of common tasks




size, nature, activity, and protection


special operations force


signal operation instructions


standing operating procedure


suppress, obscure, secure, reduce, and assault


start point






small-scale contingency


soldier's training publication


situational understanding


standard vehicle-mounted launchers


tactical command post


tactical air control party


target area of interest


tactical internet


terrain index reference system


troop-leading procedures


technical manual


tactical operations center


tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (missile)


target practice-tracer


target reference point


tactics, techniques, and procedures


tactical unmanned aerial vehicle


unmanned aerial vehicle


United Nations


urban operations


United States


United States Air Force


FM 3-21.94

VC vehicle commander

VMS virtual memory system

w watt

WARNO warning order

WCS weapons control status

WIA wounded in action

WP white phosphorus

XO executive officer


FM 3-21.94



These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.

FM 5-34 Engineer Field Data. 30 August 1999.

DA Form 1 155 Witness Statement on Individual. 1 June 1966.

DA Form 1 156 Casualty Feeder Report. 1 June 1966.

DA Form 5988-E Equipment Inspection Maintenance Worksheet. March 1991 .


These sources contain relevant supplemental information.

FM 1-114 Air Cavalry Squadron and Troop Operations. 1 February 2000.

FM 3-06. 1 1 Combined-Arms Operations in Urban Terrain. 28 February


FM 3-21 .9 The Stryker Brigade Combat Team Rifle Squad and Platoon.

NEW. In publication.

FM 3-21.11 The Stryker Brigade Combat Team Company. NEW. In


FM 3-34.2 Combined Arms Breaching Operations. 31 August 2000.

FM 3-4 NBC Protection. 29 May 1992.

FM 3-5 NBC Decontamination. 28 July 2000.

FM 3-97.6 (FM 90-6) Mountain Operations. 28 November 2000.

FM 5-170 Engineer Reconnaissance. 5 May 1998.

FM 6-30 Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire. 16 July


FM 7-8 Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad. 22 April 1992.

FM 7-90 Tactical Employment of Mortars. 9 October 1992.

FM 7-98 Operations in a Low-Intensity Conflict. 19 October 1992.

FM 2 1 - 1 Field Hygiene and Sanitation. 2 1 June 2000.


FM 3-21.94

FM 21-11 First Aid for Soldiers. 27 October 1988.

FM 21-18 Foot Marches. 1 June 1990.

FM 3-22.68 Crew-Served Machine Guns, 5.56mm and 7.62mm.

(Supersedes FM 23-67 and FM 23-14.) NEW. In publication.

FM 23-90 Mortars. 1 March 2000.

FM 55-60 Army Terminal Operations. 15 April 1996.

FM 57-38 Pathfinder Operations. 9 April 1993.

FM 71-1 (FM 3-90.1) Tank and Mechanized Infantry Company Team. 26 January


FM 90-4 Air Assault Operations. 16 March 1987.

FM 90-8 Counterguerrilla Operations. 29 August 1986.

FM 100-14 Risk Management. 23 April 1998.

FM 100-23 Peace Operations. 30 December 1994.

FM 101-5-1 (FM 1-02) Operational Terms and Graphics. 30 September 1997.

STP 21-1-SMCT Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks Skill Level 1. 1 October


TC 7-98-1 Stability and Support Operations Training Support Package. 5

June 1997.


The following web sites were used in the preparation of this manual.

U. S. Army Publishing Agency, http://www.usapa.army.mil

Army Doctrine and Training Digital Library, http ://w ww . adtdl . army . mil



AC 130 gunship (see close air support)
action on contact

examples, 3-22 through 3-24

forms of contact, seven, 3-13

four steps, 3-14 through 3-21

infiltration, 3-29

planning, 3-12

air assault, tactical enabing operation,

air defense, combat support, 8-29


active, 8-35; 8-36 (illus)

Avenger, 8-3 1 (illus)

early warning procedures, 8-34

MANPADS, 8-31; 8-32 (illus)

passive, 8-34

Sentinel radar, 8-32; 8-33 (illus)

systems, 8-30 (illus) through 8-33

weapon control status, 8-33
ambush, 10-13 through 10-15

antiarmor, 10-15

deliberate, 10-14

hasty, 10-13
angle T (see also fire support), 8-12;

8-13 (illus)
antiarmor weapons, urban operations,

use in, 7-23
Apache helicopters, 8-25 (illus)
area reconnaissance, 4-12 through 4-19

dismounted technique, 4-14

long-range observation, 4-16; 4-17

mounted technique, 4-14

objective rally point, 4-15 (illus)

patrol, 10-8

short-range observation, 4-17; 4-18
area security, 5-15 through 5-24

convoy escort, 5-17 through 5-24
ambush, action at, 5-18; 5-19

clear kill zone, 5-20; 5-21 (illus)
command and control, 5-18
obstacles, 5-23; 5-34 (illus)
short halt, 5-21

tactical disposition, 5-18 (illus)
echelon observation posts, 5-17

platoon dispositions, 5-16 (illus)
route reconnaissance (see also
separate entry), 5-17
assembly area, tactical enabling
operations, 7-8 through 7-10
attack helicopters

fire support, CS, 8-25 (illus); 8-26

urban operations, use in, 6-23

bounding overwatch, movement

technique, 3-11 (illus); 3-12 (illus)

Bradley fighting vehicle, use in urban
operations, 6-21

bunker-type OP, 5-39 (illus)

C2 (see command and control)
CAS (see close air support)
cave, observation post, 5-39
checkpoints, security operations, 5-40

through 5-44
close air support (CAS), fire support in
CS, 8-21 through 8-24
AC 130 gunship, 8-21
battle damage assessment, 8-21

marking friendly positions, 8-22
through 8-24 (table); 8-23 (table)
combat patrol (see also ambush; see also

raid), 10-12 through 10-16
conversion tables

distance, English to metric, A-l 1

miles to kilometers per hour, A- 12

operating frequency and wire
element length, A- 12 (table)


FM 3-21 .94

COA (see course of action)

coil, movement formation, 3-6; 3-7

column, movement formation, 3-5;
3-6 (illus)
during convoy escort, 5-21; 5-22
combat service support (CSS), 9-1
through 9-19
administrative, 9-11

casualty feeder report, 9-12

(illus); 9-13 (illus)
witness statement, 9-13 (illus);
9-14 (illus)
aerial sustainment, 9-8
classes of supply, 9-3
development of plan, 9-2 through

enemy prisoners of war, 9-17

through 9-19 (illus); 9-18 (illus)
evacuation, 9-10
maintenance, 9-9

medical support, 9-14 through 9-17
aeromedical evacuation request,
9-16 (illus)
responsibilities, 9-1
resupply (see separate entry), 9-4

through 9-9
urban operations, 6-17
combat support (CS), 8-1 through 8-37
air defense (see also separate entry),

8-29 through 8-36
engineers (see also separate entry),

8-26 through 8-29
fire support (see also separate entry),

8-21 through 8-26
urban operations, 6-20 through 6-26
antiarmor weapons, 6-23
armored vehicles, 6-20 through

6-22 (illus); 6-21 (illus)
attack helicopters, 6-23
engineers, 6-22
snipers, 6-24 through 6-26
command and control (C2), 2-1 through

counterreconnaissance, techniques

during security operations, 5-13
through 5-15 (illus)
course of action (COA)

actions on contact, 3-15 through 3-23
troop-leading procedures, analysis,
2-17 through 2-20
comparison, 2-19
criteria, 2-18 (table)
selection, 2-19
steps in analysis, 2-18
CS (see combat support)
CSS (see combat service support)

enemy, analysis, during TLP, 2-14

through 2-16

combat support, 8-26 through 8-29
medium engineer company, 8-26;

8-27 (illus); 8-28 (illus)
missions, 8-28
urban operations, use in, 6-22
exfiltration, during movement, 3-30
urban operations, 6-11

FBCB2 (see force XXI battle command

brigade and below)
fire support, 8-1 through 8-26
angle T, 8-12; 8-13 (illus)
call for fire, 8-5 through 8-8; 8-6

(illus); 8-7 (illus)
close air support (see also separate

entry), 8-21 through 8-24
deviation, 8-9 (illus) through 8-12

binoculars, 8-11 (illus)

corrections, 8-11

hand/finger method, 8-10 (illus)
field artillery, 8-17
fire request chanels, 8-19 through

8-21 (illus)
indirect, 8-3; 8-4 (table)
infiltration, 3-29
matrix, 8-5 (table)
mortars, 8-16

planning, CS, 8-1 through 8-3
quick fire channel, 8-20; 8-21 (illus)
range spotting (see separate entry),


FM 3-21.94

8-13 through 8-16 (illus); 8-14
(illus); 8-15 (illus)
urban operations, 6-12 through 6-17
field artillery, 6-14 through 6-16

mortars, 6-12 through 6-14
precision guided munitions, 6-16
force XXI battle command brigade and
below (FBCB2)
architecture, 1-3; 1-4 (illus)
capabilities, 1-4

enemy activity, 1-5
enemy information, 1-4
enemy location, 1 -5
friendly information, 1-4
unreported enemy, 1-5
SBCT, 1-2

standardized reporting, 1-5; 1-6

slope, A-9; A- 10 (illus)
velocity, A-9; A- 10 (illus)
width, A-9 (illus)
FRAGO (see fragmentary order)
fragmentary order, combat orders, 2-6
fratricide avoidance, D-l through D-4

herringbone, movement formation, 3-7
convoy escort, 5-21; 5-22 (illus)

infiltration, 3-26 through 3-29

actions on contact, 3-29

planning, 3-27

rally points, 3-28

tactics, 3-27

techniques, 3-27

combination of methods, 3-29

multiple lanes, 3-29 (illus)
single lane, 3-28 (illus)

urban operations, 6-11

Javelin, F-l through F-16
CLU, F-2 (illus)
employment, firing pair, F-5 (illus)

overlapping sectors of fire, F-5
fighting position, F-l 1 (illus); F-12

flight profiles, F-8 (illus)
range determination recognition

method, F-l 4 (illus)
standoff range, F-6 (illus)
technical characteristics, F-l (table)
urban operations, use in, F-7 through

F-9 (illus)

Kiowa Warrior, 8-25 (table)

limited visibility, B-l through B-l 1

equipment, B-3

illumination, B-5; B-6 (illus); B-7

night vision, B-9 through B-l 1
(illus); B-10 (illus)

night-vision devices, B-l; B-2
(illus); B-3 (table)

smoke, B-7 through B-9
line, movement formation, 35 (illus)
linkup, tactical enabling operation, 7-1

M-l series tanks, use in urban operations

6-21; 6-22 (illus)
machine gun, M240B, G-l through G-6

actions on contact, 3-15 through 3-23
SBCT, general, 1-16
METT-TC (see mission, enemy, terrain
and weather, troops and support
available, time, and civil
mission analysis, TLP, 2-7 through

mission, enemy, terrain and weather,
troops and support available,
time, and civil considerations
(METT-TC), mission analysis,
basis, 2-7 through 2-17
mission statement, 2-4

restated, platoon leader, TLP, 2-9


FM 3-21 .94


fire support, CS, 8-16
urban operations, 6-12 through 6-14
movement, 3-1 through 3-31

actions at danger areas, 3-24 through

action on contact (see separate

entry), 3-12 through 3-24
control measures, 3-2
exfiltration (see separate entry), 3-30
formations (see separate entries), 3-3
through 3-7
dismounted, 3-3; 3-4 (illus)
mounted, 3-5 (illus); 3-6 (illus);
3-7 (illus)
infiltration (see also separate entry),

3-26 through 3-29
limited visibility navigation, 3-3
maps, 3-2
navigation, 3-1
route planning, 3-2
techniques (see separate entries),
3-7 through 3-12
move-set, movement technique, 3-12

NBC (see nuclear, biological, chemical)
nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC), E-l
through E-4
characteristics of chemical agents,

E-l (table)
combat support, 8-37
comparison data for decontamination

levels, E-4 (table)
MOPP levels, E-3 (table)

observation posts, 5-24 through 5-44
construction techniques, 5-32

through 5-34
critical tasks, 5-24
employment, 5-34 through 5-44
mountainous, 5-35 through 5-37
types of ground OPs (see
separate entries), 5-37
through 5-40
urban, 5-34
positions, 5-26 (illus)

sector sketch, 5-29; 5-30 (illus)

site selection, 5-27

types, 5-26

breach, 4-36

bypass, 4-36

convoy escort, 5-23; 5-34 (illus)

detection, 4-34

OAKOC, 2-10; 2-11 (illus)

reconnaissance, 4-34 through 4-37

types, 4-34
operation order (OPORD)

combat orders, 2-5

issue, TLP, 2-21
OPORD (see operation order)

combat, 2-4; 2-5 (table)

FRAGO, 2-6

OPORD, 2-5

TLP, 2-3

WARNO, 2-5

passage of lines, tactical enabling

operation, 7-2 through 7-4
patrolling, 10-1 through 10-17

planning, 10-2 through 10-4; 10-3

rally points, 10-5 through 10-7
types (see separate entries), 10-8

through 10-17
urban reconnaissance, dismounted,
mounted, 4-3 1
subterranean, 4-32
platoon leader responsibilities, generally,

platoon sergeant responsibilities,

generally, 1-14
presence patrol, 10-16

quick fire channel (see also fire support)
8-20; 8-21 (illus)

raid, combat patrol, 10-15


FM 3-21.94

range spotting/correction, fire support,

8-13 through 8-16
creeping method, 8-15; 8-16 (illus)
hasty bracketing, 8-14; 8-15 (illus)
successive bracketing, 8-14 (illus)
reconnaissance, 4-1 through 4-37
area (see separate entry), 4-12

through 4-19
commander's guidance, 4-6 (illus)
engagement decision, during, 4-4

handover, 4-9 through 4-12
leader's, 2-20; 4-16; 10-7; 10-12
methods, 4-6 through 4-8
obstacles (see separate entry), 4-34

through 4-37
patrol, 10-8 through 10-12
route (see separate entry), 4-24

through 4-29
sensory techniques, 4-4
urban (see separate entry), 4-29

through 4-33
zone (see separate entry), 4-19

through 4-24

reconnaissance, 4-8
types, TLP, 2-22
relief in place, tactical enabling

operation, 7-4 through 7-6
resupply, 9-4 through 9-8
emergency, 9-7
mounted service station, 9-5

prestock, 9-7
service station, 9-6 (illus)
tailgate, 9-7 (illus)
risk management, C-l through C-6
potential hazards, C-2 (table)
risk levels, C-2 (illus)
route reconnaissance, 4-24 through 4-29
actions during security operations,

control measures, 4-29 (illus)
fan, 4-25 (illus)
overlays, 4-26; 4-27 (illus)

patrol, 10-11; 10-12 (illus)
tasks, 4-27
techniques, 4-28

SAW (see squad automatic weapon)
SBCT (see Stryker brigade combat

scrape, observation post, 5-37; 5-38

security operations, 5-1 through 5-44
area (see also area security), 5-2;

5-15 through 5-24
cover, 5-1
guard, 5-1

missions, 5-3 through 5-15
observation posts (see separate
entry), 5-24 through 5-44
checkpoints, 5-40 through 5-44
screen, 5-1
surveillance techniques, 5-5 through

task organization 5-6 (illus)
counterreconnaissance, 5-8
cueing, 5-6; 5-7 (illus)
early warning, 5-7 (illus)
harrass and impede, 5-12
maintain contact, 5-9 through

5-11; 5-10 (illus)
priority, change, 5-9 (illus)
redundant coverage, 5-6 (illus)
snipers, urban operations, use in, 6-24

through 6-26
spider hole, observation post, 5-37 (illus)
squad automatic weapon (SAW), M249,

G-l through G-6
stay-behind, tactical enabling operations,

Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT)
C3, 1-2

combat orders and graphics, 1-6
combat power, 1-16
employment considerations, 1-17
FBCB2, 1-3; 1-4 (illus)
limitations, 1-8
mobility, 1-7


FM 3-21 .94

night-vision equipment, 1-7; 1-8

organization, 1-9 through 1-11; 1-10

dismounted element, 1-11 (illus)

mounted element, 1-10; 1-11

platoon headquarters, 1-10
reconnaissance section and teams,

responsibilities, 1-13 through 1-16
standardized reporting, 1-5; 1-6

survivability, 1-2
sustainability, 1-7
training considerations, 1-18
symbols, A-l through A-8

material, facility, equipment, and

services, A-8 (illus)
overlay graphics, A-7 (illus)
overlay symbols, A-2 through A-6


tent-type, observation post, 5-38; 5-39


analysis, TLP, 2-9 through 2-14
key terrain, 2-12 (illus)
OAKOC, 2-4 (illus) through

restricted, 2-9
TLP (see troop-leading procedure)
traveling, movement technique, 3-8; 3-9

traveling overwatch, movement

technique, 3-9; 3-10 (illus)
troop-leading procedure (TLP), 2-6
(illus) through 2-22
course of action, 2-17 through 2-20
criteria, 2-18 (table)
steps, in analysis, 2-18
METT-TC, 2-7 through 2-17

urban environment, 6-1 through 6-26
characteristics, 6-3 through 6-6
combat multipliers, 6-20 through

6-26 (see combat support)
CSS, 6-17
definitions, 6-1
exfiltration, 6-11
fire support (see separate entry),

infiltration, 6-11
Javelin (see also separate entry), F-7

through F-9 (illus)
planning, 6-6 through 6-18
urban operations sketch, 6-9 (illus)
urban reconnaissance, 4-29 through 4-33
dismounted teams, 4-29
patrolling, 4-3 1

WARNO (see warning order)
warning order, combat orders, 2-5

issue, TLP, 2-7
weather, METT-TC factors, TLP, 2-13
wedge, movement formation, 3-5 (illus)

zone reconnaissance, 4-19 through 4-29
dismounted, 4-21

methods, 4-21 through 4-24

converging routes, 4-22; 4-23

fan, 4-21; 4-22 (illus)
successive routes, 4-23; 4-24
mounted, 4-20
patrol, 10-8 through 10-11

moving, 10-9 through 10-11
box, 10-9; 10-10 (illus)
converging routes, 10-10

fan, 10-9 (illus)
successive routes, 10-10;
10-11 (illus)
stationary, 10-11

underground, observation post, 5-39


FM 3-21.94
18 APRIL 2003

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:


General, United States Army
Chief of Staff



Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army


Active Army, Army National Guard, and U. S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with
the initial distribution number 1 1 5895, requirements for FM 3-21 .94.

PIN: 080732-000

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