Home >  Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Cr

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Cr


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 
 
 
 
 
 

Introduction to Criminology

CRJ 270

Instructor: Jorge Pierrott


Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today

AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER 

SEVENTH EDITION 

Social Conflict Theories 

9


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Chapter Objectives 

After reading this chapter, students should be able to answer the following questions:

  • What three analytical perspectives on law and social order are described in this chapter?
  • What are the central tenants of radical criminology?
  • What five emerging conflict theories discussed in this chapter purport to explain crime and criminality?
  • What are the crime-control implications of social conflict theories?

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Occupy Wall Street Movement! 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-p3zt8hP-g 

  • Social inequality – 99%s
  • What can we do in the Criminal Justice system to address economic inequality?
  • This existed throughout parts of Europe during the 1800��s.
  • Important thinkers such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels addressed these issues.
  • 1848 – The Communist Manifesto was drafted.
    • Communism would replace capitalism.

 


Law and Social Order Perspectives 

  • Various events in the 20th century conspired to change laws and create new kinds of criminal activity.
  • An understanding of the interplay between law and social order is critical to any study of social change and of theories of criminology that emphasize the role of social conflict as it underlies criminality.

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

The Consensus Perspective 

  • Most members of society agree about what is right and wrong and work together toward a common vision of the greater good.
 

continued on next slide


The Consensus Perspective 

  • Key principles
    • Most members of society believe in the existence of core values.
    • Laws reflect the collective will of the people.
    • Law serves all people equally.
    • Law violators represent a unique subgroup with distinguishing features.

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

The Pluralist Perspective 

  • Society consists of many and diverse social groups.
  • Each group has its own values, beliefs and interests.
  • A general agreement exists in reference to the usefulness of laws as a mechanism for dispute resolution
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

The Pluralist Perspective 

  • The legal system is value neutral
  • The legal system is concerned with the best interests of society

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

The Conflict Perspective 

  • Conflict is a fundamental aspect of social life – can never be fully resolved
  • Karl Marx
    • Two fundamental social classes in capitalist society
      • Bourgeoisie – ��Haves��
      • Proletariat – ��Have nots��
    • Struggle between classes is inevitable
 
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

The Conflict Perspective 

  • Society is made up of diverse social groups
  • Each group holds to differing definitions of right and wrong
  • Conflict between groups is unavoidable
  • The fundamental nature of group conflict centers on the exercise of political power
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

The Conflict Perspective 

  • Law is a tool of power and furthers the interests of those powerful enough to make it.
  • Those in power are inevitably interested in maintaining their power.

Key Conflict Thinkers 

  • George Vold
    • crime is a product of political conflict between groups
  • Ralf Dahrendorf
    • power and authority lead to conflict, which leads to change
  • Austin Turk
    • crime is the natural consequence of intergroup struggles

Radical Criminology 

  • The causes of crime are rooted in social conditions empowering the wealthy and politically organized and disenfranchising those less fortunate

Radical Criminology 

  • Outgrowth of three historical circumstances
    • Writings of 19th century social utopians
    • Rise of conflict theory in social sciences
    • Radicalization of American academia in 1960s and 1970s
  • Contemporary radical criminology suggests that the causes of crime are rooted in social conditions empowering the wealthy and politically well-organized while disenfranchising the less fortunate

 


Chambliss and Seidman 

  • The conditions of one's life affect one's values and norms.
    • Dominant groups enforce laws in order to guarantee dominance.
  • Complex societies are composed of highly disparate and conflicting sets of norms.
    • Middle class and upper class criminals are less likely to be apprehended.

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Chambliss and Seidman 

  • The probability of a given group having its particular normative system embodied in law is not equally distributed but is related to the group's political and economic position
  • The higher the group's political or economic position, the greater the probability that its views will be reflected in laws

Radical Criminology 

  • Richard Quinney
    • Almost all crimes committed by the lower classes are necessary for the survival of individual members
    • Crime is inevitable under capitalist conditions
    • The solution is the development of a socialist society
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Radical Criminology 

  • Contemporary radical criminology emphasizes social class differences as a factor in the existing propensity toward criminality.
    • Structural Marxism sees capitalism as a self-maintaining system in which the law and justice systems work to perpetuate the existing system of power relationships.
    • Instrumental Marxism sees the criminal law and justice system as tools used by the powerful to control the poor.
 
 
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Radical Criminology 

  • Structural Marxism
    • Capitalism is a self-maintaining system in which the law and the justice system work to perpetuate the existing system of power relationships
  • Instrumental Marxism
    • The criminal law and the justice system are tools that the powerful use to control the poor and to keep them disenfranchised

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critical Criminology 

  • Critical criminology forces an inquiry into how social relations lead to crime.
  • A proactive call for a radical change in the social conditions that lead to crime

Radical-Critical Criminology and Policy Issues 

  • Most radical-critical criminologists focus on promoting a gradual transition to socialism
  • Middle-range policy alternatives emphasize bringing about a justice system that is more fair and closer to the radical ideal.
  • Elliott Currie
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Radical-Critical Criminology and Policy Issues 

  • Emphasis on creating economic equality or employment opportunities to combat crime.
  • Middle-range policy alternatives include:
    • Equal justice in the bail system,
    • Abolishing mandatory sentences,
    • Prosecuting corporate crimes,
    • Reducing prison overcrowding,
    • Increasing equality within criminal justice system employment, etc.

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critique of Radical-Critical Criminology 

  • Emphasizes methods of social change at the expense of well-developed theory.
  • Fails to recognize the fair degree of consensus about the nature of crime.
  • Marxist thinkers seem to confuse issues of personal politics with social reality.
  • Does not appreciate the many problems contributing to crime.
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critique of Radical-Critical Criminology 

  • Does not explain low crime rates in some capitalist countries
  • Does not address the problems of communist countries with poor records of human rights
  • May resemble a religion more than a science

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Left Realist Criminology 

  • Faults radical-critical criminologists for romanticizing street crime and criminals
  • Shifts focus to assessment of crime and the needs of victims
  • Radical ideas must be translated into realistic social policies. 
    • Instead of seeing the police as oppressors working on behalf of the state, people should work with police to correct problems.

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critique of Left-Realist Criminology 

  • More an ideological emphasis than a theory
  • Rarely offers new testable propositions or hypotheses
  • Crime control approaches focus on needs of victimized

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Feminist Criminology 

  • Redirects criminologists' thinking to include gender awareness
  • Feminism is a way of seeing the world
    • Views gender in terms of power relationships
    • Consequences of sexism and unequal gender-based power distribution have affected fundamental aspects of social roles and personal experiences

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Strands of Feminist Thought 

  • Liberal feminism
    • Gender role socialization is the primary source of women's oppression
    • Eliminating traditional divisions of labor and power between the sexes will eliminate inequality and promote social harmony
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Strands of Feminist Thought 

  • Radical feminism
    • Patriarchy is the cause of women's oppression
    • Eliminating male domination should reduce female crime rates reduce male violence against women
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Strands of Feminist Thought 

  • Marxist feminism
    • Oppression of women caused by their subordinate working-class status in capitalist societies
  • Social feminism
    • Sees gender oppression as a consequence of the interaction between the economic structure of society and gender-based roles
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Strands of Feminist Thought 

  • Postmodern feminism
    • Questions social construction of concepts like justice and crime

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Proponents of Feminist Criminology 

  • Patriarchy
    • male dominance
  • Freda Adler and Rita Simon
    • Explain divergences in crime rates by gender as due primarily to socialization (not biology)
    • Said as gender equality increased, the criminal behavior of men and women would become more similar
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Proponents of Feminist Criminology 

  • Freda Adler and Rita Simon
    • Despite increased gender equality in the past 30 years, this has not happened
 
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Proponents of Feminist Criminology 

  • Freda Adler and Rita J. Simon
    • Gender differences in crime due to socialization
    • Expected male and female criminality would become more similar as gender equality increased
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Proponents of Feminist Criminology 

  • Carol Smart
    • Sensitized criminologists to sexist traditions in the field
    • Work led to recognition of women's issues

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Elements of Feminist Thought 

  • Gender is a social, historical, and cultural product
  • Gender and gender relations order social life and social institutions in fundamental ways
  • Gender relations and constructs of masculinity and femininity are not symmetrical
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Elements of Feminist Thought 

  • Systems of knowledge reflect men's views of the natural and social world; the production of knowledge is gendered
  • Women should be at the center, not the periphery, of intellectual inquiry

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Contributions of Feminist Scholarship 

  • Focus on gender as a central organizing principle of contemporary life
  • Importance of power in shaping social relationships
  • Sensitivity to how social context shapes relationships
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Contributions of Feminist Scholarship 

  • Recognition that social reality must be understood as a process
  • A commitment to social change as a crucial part of feminist scholarship and practice

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Proponents of Feminist Criminology 

  • Power-control theory – John Hagan
    • Power relations in society reflected at home
    • Family class structure shapes social reproduction of gender relations
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Proponents of Feminist Criminology 

  • Feminist thinkers suggest social policies such as increasing controls over male violence toward women, creating alternatives for abused women, and the protection of children

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critique of Feminist Criminology 

  • It may be a theory in formation
  • Does not explain why the gender gap in crime still exists
  • Feminist criminology is impossible because neither feminism nor criminology meet the strict requirements of formal theory building

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Postmodern Criminology 

  • Applies understandings of social change inherent in postmodern philosophy to criminological theorizing and crime control
  • Claim past approaches have failed to assess the true causes of crime or offer workable crime control solutions
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Postmodern Criminology 

  • Much postmodern criminology is deconstructionist - works toward replacing existing perspectives with ones more relevant to the postmodern era
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Postmodern Criminology 

  • Constitutive criminology (Henry and Milovanovic)
    • Crime and crime control are constructions produced through a social process
    • People shape and are shaped by their society
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Postmodern Criminology 

  • Semiotics (study of signs and symbols)
    • May be applied to notion of crime
    • Crime should be understood as an integral part of society not as something separate from it

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critique of Postmodern Criminology 

  • The terminology is vaguely defined; the approaches are incoherent and confusing
  • Postmodernism challenges traditional theories but fails to offer feasible alternatives

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Peacemaking Criminology 

  • Suggests that citizens and social control agencies need to work together to alleviate social problems and reduce crime
  • The problem of crime control is not ��how to stop crime�� but ��how to make peace��
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Peacemaking Criminology 

  • Emphasizes rising above personal dichotomies to end the political and ideological divisiveness in society

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Restorative Justice 

  • Achieve effective crime control through a peace model based on cooperation, not retribution
  • Dispute resolution programs based on participatory justice
  • Emphasize remedies and restoration rather than prison, punishment, victim neglect

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critique of Peacemaking Criminology 

  • Criticisms
    • Is naive and utopian
    • Fails to recognize the realities of crime control and law enforcement
  • Peacemaking criminology envisions positive change on the social and institutional level

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Moral Time 

  • Conflict caused by the movement of social time
  • Social time = movement in social space, changes in the amount of intimacy, inequality, diversity
  • Static conditions cannot cause crime

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Convict Criminology 

  • Body of writings by convicted felons and ex-inmates who have obtained academic credentials or who are associated with credentialled others
  • Largely issues-based and personal
  • Primary method used is based in ethnography
  • Provides recommendations for improving the justice system

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Critique of Convict Criminology 

  • Critics suggest that having been in prison distorts the criminologist's view of the field, rather than enhancing it
  • Argue that personal experience rarely gives anyone the entire picture need to understand a phenomenon
  • Focusing on injustices of prison life may keep one from appreciating the reformative effects of punishment

 


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Policy Implications of Social Conflict Theories 

  • Bringing about social change and redistributing the wealth in society will reduce crime rates
  • Radical–Marxists
    • replace existing capitalist system with a socialist economic structure
  • Peacemaking criminology
    • use of conflict resolution
 

continued on next slide


Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved 

Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger 

Policy Implications of Social Conflict Theories 

  • Left-realism and feminist criminology offer a variety of solutions ranging from reducing paternalism to recognizing the consequences of crime to victims

Set Home | Add to Favorites

All Rights Reserved Powered by Free Document Search and Download

Copyright © 2011
This site does not host pdf,doc,ppt,xls,rtf,txt files all document are the property of their respective owners. complaint#nuokui.com
TOP