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��Teaching�� by Sharleen L. Kato


��Teaching��  
by Sharleen L. Kato 

Chapter 7

The Modern History of Education 

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Key Terms/Vocabulary 

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1. Baby Boom:  the great increase in births after the end of World War II.

 

2. Project Head Start:  a federal government program designed to help preschool children from low-income families develop the skills they need for success in kindergarten and beyond.

 

3. Bilingual Education:  education in two languages. 
 

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 4. Illiterate:  unable to read or write.  

5. Back-to-Basics Movement:  move toward focusing teaching on the basics of reading, writing, and math.

 

6. Global Economy:  the interconnection of economies of nations around the world through finance, international companies, and trade. 
 

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7. Education Standards:  statements of what students are expected to know and be able to do at certain points in their education, which are set by national organizations, states, and many school districts. Sometimes called instructional goals. 
 

8. National Standards:  standards of knowledge and skills to be mastered in specific subject areas. 
 

9.Competency Based Education:   teaching methods that require students to demonstrate their abilities in subject areas. 
 

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10. Accountability:  providing proof that standards, such as educational goals, are being achieved. 

11. Standardized Test:  tests that measure students�� performance compared to that of thousands of other students.

  
 

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 12. Charter Schools:  a public school that operates under a charter with freedom from many of the regulations that apply to traditional public schools. 

13. Career Clusters:  sixteen general career areas, each having a wide range of related opportunities.

  
 

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American Education During the

1940��s and 1950��s 

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Main points about American education during the 1940s and 1950s 

  • After World War II many troops attended college or trained to learn new skills.

 

  • There was a surge in the birth rate, known as the baby boom.
 

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To keep America competitive with the Soviet Union, Congress 

  • passed the National Defense Education Act. This made money available to improve scientific equipment for schools.
  • It encouraged schools to strengthen their math, science, and foreign language instruction.   
 

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Brown vs. the Board of Education involved:  

  • a court ruling that racial segregation of schools violated the Constitution because segregated schools were, by nature, unequal.
 

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Behaviorism involved 

  • the belief that how a person behaves is determined by that person��s experiences.
  • It was based on the theory of B.F. Skinner.  
 

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American Education During the 1960��s 

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Main points about American education during the 1960s.  

  • Baby boomers challenged the values, policies, and way of life of older adults.
  • The civil rights movement was active.  
  • On the national level, significant changes were made to improve the schools of students who were disadvantaged economically or educationally. 
 
 

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 impacted education by:  

  • formally outlawing segregation in the United States public schools and public places.
  • School districts were ordered to end segregation. Federal guidelines were issued. 
 
 

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Norman Rockwall Painting of Ruby Bridges being escorted to school by Federal Marshalls.


The elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 impacted education by: 

 

  • Federal education dollars were given to school districts based on the number of poor children enrolled. It helped equalize educational opportunities.
 
 

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Project Head Start was designed to: 

  • help preschool children from low-income families develop the skills they needed for success in kindergarten and beyond.
 
 
 

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American Education

During the 1970��s 

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Main points about American education during the 1970s: 

  • There were many foreign and domestic preoccupations. Many schools suffered from inadequate funding.
 
 

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  • Desegregation and busing involved:  forced integration. School districts assigned students to schools in proportions that would achieve integration and bused them to those schools.
 
 

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  • Bilingual education involved:  the Supreme Court ordering schools to provide basic English language classes for children who had limited English skills.
  • Gender equality involved:  prohibiting discrimination based on gender in all programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance. Title IX or the Equal Opportunity in Education Act was passed. Sports were open to girls. Career options for women were expanded. 
 
 
 

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  • Children with disabilities experienced:  Congress passing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
  • It guaranteed a free public education for children with disabilities and mandated that education provided for each child be appropriate, and take place in the least-restrictive environment.
 
 

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American Education During the 1980s 
 

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Main points about American education during 1980s:   

There was less national emphasis on education.

The gap between rich and poor widened.

Divorce rates rose.

There were more single-parent families.

Women gained more career opportunities. 
 

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American Education During the 1990s and beyond 

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  • The back to basics movement involved:  schools again emphasizing reading, writing and math in response to the A Nation at Risk report.

  

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Main points about American education during 1990s and beyond Main points about American education during 1990s and beyond : 

The Internet played a key role in education and communication.

The economy was booming and unemployment was at an all time low.

In 2008 a financial crisis began that plunged the country into financial uncertainty.

  
 

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  • The computer revolution involved:  more educational programs being developed. The declining price of computers made them more available. The development of the Internet and search engines turned computers into powerful, essential learning tools. The ability to use computers skillfully soon became a key career skill. Education, as well as information, is available at a time and place convenient to the student.
 
 

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  • Educational standards and accountability involved:  providing an objective way of evaluating student learning, effective curriculum development, and high-quality technology.  Standardized tests were used to measure student achievement and compare different groups of students or schools.

 

  • Goals 2000 involved:  President George H.W. Bush and the nation��s governors establishing six educational goals to be reached by the year 2000. Implementation was left up the states and local school districts. There was little time or opportunity to remedy the complex problems.
 
 

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  • The No Child Left Behind Act involved:  President George W. Bush��s plan for educational reform. The goal of the act was to improve performance of U.S. schools.  Increased accountability, more choices for parents when choosing schools for their children, and an increased focus on reading were important components of this act. It was controversial because it had the expectation that every child should meet state standards in reading, math, and science. Standardized tests were used. Receipt of federal educational funds were tied to school performance. It increased the variety of school options and, in some states, more charter schools were established.
 
 

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  • Competing in the global economy involves:  having a skilled and well-educated workforce.

 

  • Career clusters involve:  developing the necessary academic and technical skills identified for a cluster so that students can pursue a variety of career options within the cluster. Educators can use career clusters to create curriculum that will prepare students for successful transition from high school to postsecondary education and

    employment. 
 

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