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Irony and Hypocrisy

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Adapted from materials by Janice Bech of Lake Travis High School, Austin, TX

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1. Verbal Irony
• the use of words to express something other than and especially the opposite of the literal meaning. • In other words, you say one thing but actually mean the opposite.

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Verbal Irony
• For example, in Julius Caesar, Mark Antony repeatedly says "and Brutus is an honorable man" in the famous ��Friends, Romans, countrymen�� speech��
��but really, I think Brutus is pond scum because he stabbed Caesar!

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Verbal Irony
• In Romeo & Juliet, Juliet tells her mother, "I will not marry yet; and, when I do, I swear it shall be Romeo, whom you know I hate, rather than Paris".
��in fact, I��m secretly married to Romeo!

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The Crucible – Verbal Irony
Parris: There is a party in this church. I am not blind; there is a faction and a party. Proctor: Against you? Putnam: Against him and all authority! Proctor: Why, then I must find it and join it.
(Proctor is being ironic at first, although he protests his sincerity when challenged.)

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Verbal Irony is NOT the same thing as a lie.
With verbal irony, the speaker intends others to know that what he or she means is different or opposite from what is said.
I absolutely love my haircut and feel sensational!

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Verbal Irony often involves a SARCASTIC tone
Honey, your room is absolutely beautiful. I��ve never been prouder of you than right now!

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2. Situational Irony
• There is an incongruity--a big difference (sometimes 180 degrees)--between what is logically expected to happen and what actually happens.

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Situational Irony Examples
• An anti-technology website • A woman in need of medical help is run over by an ambulance. • Romeo and Juliet should hate each other because of the feud, but they fall in love. • At the end of Lord of the Flies, the fire that Jack intends to use to kill Ralph attracts their rescuers.

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IRONIC by Alanis Morissette
A traffic jam when you're already late A no-smoking sign on your cigarette break It's like ten thousand spoons when all you need is a knife It's meeting the man of my dreams And then meeting his beautiful wife And isn't it ironic... don't you think A little too ironic... and yeah I really do think...
Is there situational irony in this song?

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• Situational Irony = Bad Luck • What actually happens must be the opposite of or differ greatly from what was expected to happen.

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The Crucible - Situational Irony
When Hale quizzes John in Act II about the Ten Commandments.
• Considering what��s been going on in his life, the last commandment you��d logically expect John Proctor to forget is��. • the one about adultery!

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HYPOCRISY is a type of Situational Irony

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What is hypocrisy?
• The practice of professing beliefs, feelings, or virtues that one does not really hold or practice • Saying you believe one thing but then doing something that contradicts that belief

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What is hypocrisy?
• The act of condemning another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he/she demands that the accused be condemned • This is also sometimes described using the idiom--the pot calling the kettle black

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Hypocrisy Example

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3. Dramatic Irony

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3. Dramatic Irony
• A situation where a character whose knowledge is limited says, does, or encounters something of greater significance than he or she knows • In other words, when the audience knows a truth that one or more of the characters do not yet know or understand

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Dramatic Irony -
Romeo and Juliet
• At the end of this play, what do we, the
audience, know that Romeo doesn��t

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Dramatic Irony -
• There was always a lot of dramatic irony on the TV show Lost. Because of flashbacks, we as an audience often knew truths other characters had not yet learned.

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Dramatic Irony -
• Why is there dramatic irony in this story from the first frame of the movie?

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Nearly every horror movie needs Dramatic Irony to work!
• We know what��s coming��but the guy in the tie doesn��t. Dramatic Irony creates suspense!

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The Crucible – End of Act I
• By the end of Act I, when Tituba, Abigail, and other girls are accusing women in the village of witchcraft, why is there DRAMATIC
• (Remember to think
about us—the audience)

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Irony Quiz for AFTER ACT III

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Which of the Three Types of Irony does this represent?
When John Proctor brings Mary Warren before Danforth and she claims the girls�� crying out was only ��pretense����. Rev. Parris: Excellency, you surely cannot think to let so vile a lie be spread in open court!
a. verbal irony b. situational irony c. dramatic irony

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Which of the Three Types of Irony does this represent?
When Elizabeth is brought in to testify and is asked if her husband committed the crime of lechery��. Elizabeth: No, sir. (Hint: It may be more than one)
a. verbal irony b. situational irony c. dramatic irony

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Which of the Three Types of Irony does this represent?
Considering that Danforth is the Deputy Governor and a judge committed to fairness, in what way are his actions and logic often ironic? What kind of irony is at play?
a. verbal irony b. situational irony c. dramatic irony
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