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I2= I3= A A =A the inverse is: A =

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Name_________________________________ Algebra 2 Lesson 4-5/4-5 Inverses 2x2 and 3x3 Recall the number 1 is the multiplicative identity for any real number a. That is: , in other words, the product of a number and the multiplicative identity is the number. Well, our square matrices also have multiplicative identities too. The matrix identity is called, the multiplicative identity matrix; it is equivalent to ��1�� in matrix terminology. So, a matrix multiplied by I is equal to the matrix. The identity matrix of a 2x2 and a 3x3 square matrix are:
I2=
and
I3=
Note: the identity matrix is Identified with a capital I and a subscript indicating the dimensions; it consists of a diagonal of ones and the corners are filled in with zeros. Example: Multiply A by the identity matrix Inverses: A number times its inverse (A.K.A. reciprocal) is equal to 1 so is a matrix times its inverse equal to ��1.�� When two matrices are multiplied, and the product is the identity matrix, we say the two matrices are inverses. Example: Is B the inverse of A?: A= and B= If B is the inverse then AB should equal the identity matrix, does it? For matrices the notation for the inverse of a matrix is A
-1
. In other words:
A A
-1
=A
-1
A=I (remember I, identity, is the ��1�� for matrices)
Well, how do we find the inverse? We do scaler multiplication with the value of times a mixed-up version of matrix A!! Look below to see what I mean, it is not that bad��.. For matrix A=
the inverse is: A
-1
=
since we have det A in the denominator, the determinant cannot be equal to 0. So, a matrix with a determinant of 0 has no inverse and is called a singular matrix. Example: Find the inverse of the matrix, if it is defined: A=
1. check to see det ��0: det A= 8-6=2 2. set up inverse equation (note: switch a and d, and make c and b opposite sign)

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Well, what good is an inverse matrix? Yesterday we discussed how inverse matrices are used in data encryption. We can also use the inverse of a matrix to solve a system of equations. This process is in fact quite similar to solving an equation such as 5x=20. Multiply each side by 1/5 (the inverse of 5) in order to solve for x. To solve a matrix equation, Multiply each side by 1. , so we are left with X on the left side which is what we are solving for. So: 2. WARNING!!! You must always keep the order of the matrices uniform! A-1B is NOT the same as B A-1! Example: Solve the matrix equation for X so multiply each side by the inverse: To calculate the inverse: det A = Find = As with 2x2 matrices, when we multiply a 3x3 matrix with its inverse, we will get the identity matrix, I3. So we can also show that a 3x3 matrix is the inverse of another 3x3 matrix in the same fashion as our 2x2 example. The methods for finding 2x2 inverses also holds true for 3x3 inverses, BUT we use a calculator : 1. Using a calculator, enter the data for a 3x3 matrix and the matrix located on the right side of the equal sign 2. Now to calculate the inverse hit 2nd MATRIX select the matrix you want the inverse for and hit ENTER 3. Hit x-1 (for example: [A]-1) ENTER the view screen will show the inverse of the 3x3 matrix. 4. With the matrix inverse on the screen hit * (times)2nd Matrix [B] ENTER (will show Ans *[B], that is our inverse times the B matrix). The resulting matrix will be our answer, the matrix that equals X. Below shows how matrix equations may be solved by using the inverse. Example: Solve the matrix equation: 1. Find A-1using the calculator = A-1 2. solve for X X= A-1 B X =1

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PRACTICE 1. Solve: 4. Solve: 2. Determine if the matrix has an inverse: 3. Are the matrices multiplicative inverses?
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