Home > Chapter 1.1 A Brief History of Video Games Overview First Patent & TV History Early History The First Video Games First Vide

Chapter 1.1 A Brief History of Video Games Overview First Patent & TV History Early History The First Video Games First Vide

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Chapter 1.1 A Brief History of Video Games
PPT content from ��Introduction to Game Development�� Robert Bakie (Chapter Author) Editor Steve Rabin (Jon A Preston)
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Overview
��  Filmaker history study Orson Welles & Citizen
Kane,
»  Film more successful but Video Games are catching up.
��  Shigeru Mihamoto��s
»  Donkey Kong »  The Legend of Zelda
��  Time Line Approach ��  Other:
»  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_video_games
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First Patent & TV History
��  1947 – Thomas Godsmith, Jr. & Estle Ray
Mann filed a patent described as
»  ��Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device��
– Interactive, simulate firing of air-borne targets
��  http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/
a/Television_Time.htm (television history, 1831
electronic communication, 1862 first transmission of a still image, 1880 Bells photophone to transmit sound, 1900 ��television��, 1924 moving silhouette images)
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Early History
��  1949-1950 First Bouncing Ball program, not
interactive.
��  1952 Graphical Tic Tac Toe by AS Douglas to
demonstrate human computer interaction.
»  EDSAC computer, player competed against a
computer.
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The First Video Games
�� William Higginbotham and Tennis for
Two
» Created in 1958 for the Brookhaven National
Laboratory��s annual visitor day
» Display was an oscilloscope (side view) » Game ran on an analog computer » Sound effects were a side-effect of the relays
that made the game run
» No one realized its significance » Knob for trajectory & button for » gravity controlled ball.
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First Video Game ��
�� Steve Russell and Spacewar
» Created in 1961 at MIT for the DEC PDP-1 computer » 2 player, maneuver spaceship while trying to shoot
other player with torpedoes
» Switches to control game » Hugely popular within MIT » Required prohibitively expensive equipment ($120K) » Eventually shipped as a diagnostic program with PDP-1s » 1969 ARPANET

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Games for the Masses
�� The Advent of Home Video Games:
Ralph Baer and the Magnavox Odyssey
» 1966, initial idea for a game machine that
would work on home TVs
» Created a shooting game and ice hockey
game
» Sold to Magnavox in 1972
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Games for the Masses
�� Breaking Into the Amusement Business:
Nolan Bushnell and Atari
» Engineering major at the University of Utah » Background in coin-operated amusement
devices
» Tried to bring Spacewar to arcades as
Computer War
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Games for the Masses
�� Bringing Games to the
Masses
» Atari founded by Nolan
Bushnell in 1972
» Brought Pong to arcades » Sued by Baer and
Magnavox
» Paid a one-time license
fee of $700,000
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The Console Kings
∎  Atari and the 2600
∎ Atari VCS (1600) released in
1977
∎ Not quite the first cartridge-
based home system
∎ Open architecture allowed
easy development
∎ First to introduce licensing of
a system
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The Console Kings
�� Nintendo and Shigeru
Miyamoto
» Released Donkey Kong
arcade machine in 1981
» Released Nintendo
Entertainment System in 1985
» During late 80��s Nintendo
owned 90% of the market
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The Console Kings
�� Sega
» Created in 1952 in Japan to
sell amusement games on US army bases (Service Games)
» Released the popular Sega
Genesis in 1990
» Final console was 1999��s
Sega Dreamcast
» Now dedicated to software

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The Console Kings
�� Sony��s PlayStation
» Created out of an aborted
attempt to launch a CD-ROM based system with Nintendo
» Released PlayStation in 1994 » PlayStation 2 released in 2000,
maintaining backwards compatibility with hugely popular PS1
» PS3 and PSP current » (ATARI Jaguar (1993)
cartridges, stick in CD into cartridge
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The Console Kings
�� Microsoft and the Xbox
» Xbox released in 2001 » Based on a PC-like architecture » Initially significant money lost on
each console sold
– Foothold in living rooms world wide
» Halo and Halo 2 are its most
popular games
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Home Computers
∎  Apple Computer
∎ Founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Mike Markkula in 1976 ∎ Apple II was released in 1977 ∎ Revolutionized the home computer market
∎  Commodore
∎ Commodore Vic-20 Released in 1981 ∎ Low price and shrewd marketing lead to success ∎ Commodore 64, released in 1982, became the best selling computer
in history
∎  IBM
∎ IBM PC introduced in 1981 ∎ Moderate pricing helped it gain a foothold in the business world ∎ BIOS licensing model backfired on them, allowing cheap clones to
enter the market
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The Designers
�� Maxis and Will Wright
» SimCity released in 1989 » Other Sim games
followed (SimAnt,
SimCopter)
» Maxis becomes part of
Electronic Arts
» Released The Sims in
2000
» The Sims has sold more
than 6 million copies so far
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/ will_wright_makes_toys_that_make_worlds .html
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The Designers
�� MicroProse and Sid Meier
» Founded by Sid Meier and
��Wild Bill�� Stealey
» Concentrated on strategic
simulations in early years
» Sid Meier��s Pirates! in
1987 was Sid��s first signature game
» Genre-defining Railroad
Tycoon and Civilization
followed
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The Designers
�� Sierra and Ken and
Roberta Williams
» Created first graphical
adventure game, Mystery
House in 1980
» Great success followed with
King��s Quest series, Police Quest series, and Leisure Suit Larry series
» Published Half-Life

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The Designers
�� Origin Systems and
Richard Garriott
» Created the Ultima series » In 1997 created Ultima
Online, one of the first
Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games
» Studios disbanded in
2000 by EA
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The Phenomenons
�� Space Invaders
» Introduced to the US in 1978 » First big Japanese success » Introduced the ��High Score�� list
to video games
�� Pac-Man
» American debut in 1981 » Attempt to create a completely
non-violent game
» Generated $100 million in sales
during its lifetime
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The Phenomenons
��  The Tangled History of Tetris
» Created by Russian programmer Alexy Pajitnov
in 1985
» Became a pop culture sensation » Helped drive the success of Nintendo��s Game
Boy
��  Capcom and Resident Evil
» Capcom founded in 1979 » Created Street Fighter, Mega Man and Resident
Evil
» Resident Evil has spawned 15 variations and
sequels as well as two Hollywood movies
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The Phenomenons
∎  Square and Final Fantasy
∎ In 1987 released Final Fantasy as a last-ditch effort to
stave off bankruptcy
∎ 15 games have been released since then, selling more
than 40 million copies
∎ Computer-animated Hollywood movie released in 2001
∎  Cyan and Myst
∎ Created by Rand and Robyn Miller ∎ Released in 1993 on the Apple Macintosh ∎ Helped popularize the CD-ROM drive
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The Phenomenons
��  Pok��mon
» Created by Japanese video game enthusiast Satoshi
Tajiri
» Pok��mon Red and Green released for Nintendo Game
Boy in 1996
» Movies, TV series and multiple sequels have followed
��  The Rise and Fall of the Video Game Mascot
» Early mascots helped sell game systems » Mascots are seemingly less popular now » Over-exposure and an aging audience may be
explanations for this trend
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The Studios
�� Activision and Infocom
» Activision founded
by former Atari programmers
» Lawsuit by Atari created
the ��royalties�� system still employed by console makers today
» Merged with Infocom and
gutted it
» Still a strong player today

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The Studios
�� Electronic Arts (EA)
» Created by Trip Hawkins in
1982
» Revolutionary business plan
did three things
–  Creative talent treated like artists –  Creation of in-house tools to aid cross-platform development –  Handle own distribution
» Now the largest game software
company in the world
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The Studios
�� Interplay
» Formed in 1983 » First big hit was The Bard��s Tale in 1985 » Famous for their CRPGs, including Wasteland,
Fallout, Baldur��s Gate, Baldur��s Gate II: Shadows of Amn
» Since de-listed from the NASDAQ
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The Studios
�� LucasArts
» Formed in 1982 as
an offshoot of LucasFilm Ltd.
» Released Maniac
Mansion in 1987
» Created strong
history of adventure games and Star Wars universe games
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The Studios
�� Blizzard
» Started in 1991 by
Frank Morhaime, Allen Adham, and Frank Pearce.
» Released one of the seminal Real-Time Strategy
games, Warcraft, in 1994
» Their latest release, the MMORPG World of
Warcraft, has become the fastest selling PC game
in history
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The Studios
�� id Software
» Formed on February 1, 1991 » Successfully utilized Apogee��s shareware
formula
» Created the defining first-person shooter
with DOOM
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Genres
�� Adventure
» Sub-genres include text-based adventure and
graphical adventure
» Zork by Infocom » King��s Quest by Sierra
�� Action
» Superset of all other action-oriented genres » Typified by fast-paced combat and movement » Spacewar, Pong, and Space Invaders helped
define the genre

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A Genres
�� Action-Adventure
» Adventure games with action elements » The Legend of Zelda was first break-out hit » Jak 3, Metroid Prime 2 Echoes, and Resident
Evil 4 are modern examples of the genre
�� Platformer
» Typified by a character running and jumping
in a side-scrolling playing field
» Super Mario Bros., Sonic the Hedgehog,
Pitfall! and Super Mario 64 are examples
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Genres
��  Fighting
» Players typically fight other players or the computer
using swordplay or martial arts
» Double Dragon is an example of a side-scrolling
fighter
» Virtua Fighter, Mortal Kombat, and Street Fighter are
examples of versus fighters, where the players fight each other
��  First-Person Shooter
» Action game where player is ��behind the eyes�� of the
game character in a first-person perspective
» id Software��s Wolfenstein 3D and DOOM are the
earliest popular examples
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Genres
�� Real-Time Strategy (RTS)
» Typically, a game in which the goal is to
collect resources, build an army and combat the other player or computer
» Popularized by Westwood��s Dune 2 and
Command and Conquer and Blizzard��s Warcraft
�� Turn-Based Strategy
» Like real-time strategy games, but turn-
based
» Civilization, X-COM, Master of Orion, and
Jagged Alliance are standouts of the genre
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Genres
��  Role-Playing Game (RPG)
» The video game counterpart to pen and pencil games
like Dungeons and Dragons
» Final Fantasy, Baldur��s Gate and Wasteland are
some popular examples of the genre
��  Massively Multiplayer Role-Playing Game
(MMORPG)
» An RPG set in a persistent virtual world populated by
thousands of other players
» Ultima Online in 1997 was the first popular one » World of Warcraft is currently the most popular one
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Genres
∎  Stealth
∎ Characterized by a focus on subterfuge
and planned-out, deliberate play
∎ Metal Gear in 1987 was one the first ∎ Popular modern series include Metal Gear,
Splinter Cell, and Thief
∎  Survival Horror
∎ An action-adventure or first-person
shooter where survival elements and a fight against the undead are stressed
∎ Resident Evil is easily the most popular
series in this genre
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Genres
�� Simulation
» Based on the simulation of a system » SimCity and The Sims are example of ��God��
simulations where you control the lives of a town or a family
» Wing Commander and X-Wing are popular
space combat simulation games

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Genres
�� Racing
» Games that involve competing in a race in a
vehicle
» Typically try to re-create a real-world activity » Pole Position was first popular racing game
�� Sports
» Games that simulate the sporting experience » Breakouts include John Madden Football and
Tiger Woods�� Golf
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Genres
�� Rhythm
» Gauge player��s success based on the ability
to trigger the controls in time to the beat of music
» Sometimes require specialized controllers
such as dance pads or bongo drums
» Konami��s Dance Dance Revolution is the
pre-eminent title of the genre
» Rock Band & Guitar Hero
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Genres
�� Puzzle
» Games that combine pattern matching,
logic, strategy and luck with a timed element
» Tetris is the breakout hit of this genre
�� Mini-Games
» Short, simple games that exist within the
context of a larger game
» Mario Party and Wario Ware are popular
examples of this genre
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Genres
∎  Traditional
∎ Computerized versions of board, word, and card games ∎ Battle Chess and the Hoyle series are standouts of this
genre
∎  Educational
∎ Games designed to teach grade-school concepts to
children and young adults
∎ Oregon Trail was the first popular game in this genre ∎ The Carmen Sandiego series and Mavis Beacon
Teaches Typing are more modern popular examples
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Genres
�� Serious
» A game designed to teach real-world events
or processes to adults
» Most are privately funded » Popular with the US
Government and the medical field
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Chapter 1.2 Games and Society

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Why Do People Play Video Games?
�� Goals �� Stages �� Real-Time Interaction �� Facilitating Community
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Audience and Demographics
�� What good are demographics? �� Are they always accurate?
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Audience and Demographics: ESA 2003 Survey Results
�� Provides broad brushstrokes �� Snapshots of a particular place and
period of time
�� What information stands out?
» 50% of all Americans play games
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Audience and Demographics: ESRB
�� EC
(Early Childhood)
�� E
(Everyone)
�� E10+
(Everyone 10+)
�� T
(Teen)
�� M
(Mature)
�� AO
(Adults Only)
�� 32 different ��Content Descriptors��
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Audience and Demographics: ESRB 2003 Statistics
�� 57% of games received an E rating �� 32% of games received a T rating �� 10% of games received an M rating �� 1% received an EC rating
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Audience and Demographics: ESRB 2003 Statistics (2)
�� 70% of best-selling console games
were E or T rated
�� 90% of best-selling PC games were
E or T rated
�� Buying habits or development
habits?

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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Misleading perception of games as
being child��s play
�� Violence in video games drawing
parental attention
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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Legal Issues: Night Trap (1992)
» Undue attention given quality of
the game
» Content comparable to a B-grade
slasher movie
» Misleading press reports about the
player��s role
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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Legal Issues: Mortal Kombat
(1992)
» Featured quasi-realistic violence » Virtual gouts of blood » Home release drew attention
where the arcade release was largely ignored
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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Legal Issues: 1993 Senate hearings
» Industry was called to the carpet » Threatened with government regulation » Created a 12-point plan for self-
regulation
» Birth of the ESRB
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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Legal Issues: Doom (1994) and the
1999 Columbine Massacre
» Shooters were known to play Doom » Lawsuits were initiated against the
industry, but eventually dropped
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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Legal Issues: Grand Theft Auto: Vice
City
» Haitian-American Rights Groups protest
game content, launch Federal case
» Rockstar Games changes game content » Lawsuit moved to Florida courts in
hopes of a stringent ruling

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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Legal Issues: St. Louis County
Ordinance
» Ordinance was passed regulating game
access
» Lawsuit filed by the ESA » Judge upheld ordinance specifying that
video games did not contain speech
» Ruling was over-turned
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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Games and Youth Violence
» Current studies on games and youth
violence are not flawed and not definitive
» How does one define ��violence�� in the
context of video games?
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Societal Reaction to Games
�� Root of All Evil, or Good, Old-
Fashioned Fun?
» Games are seen as meaningless fun » Games are also seen as a troubling
source of youth violence
» Are these views contradictory?
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Cultural Issues
�� Worst��Stereotype��Ever
» Shadow Warrior (1997) lampooned
Asian cultures and stereotypes
» Japanese-American community wasn��t
amused
» Risk of offending market
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Cultural Issues: Foreign Diplomacy
��  Germany
»  The Index – List of banned games »  Partial list of controversial elements
– Nazi Iconography – Red Blood – Extreme violence
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Cultural Issues: Foreign Diplomacy
�� China
» Controversial elements
– Changing Historical Facts – Recognizing the sovereignty of disputed territories

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Cultural Issues: Foreign Diplomacy
�� Japan
» Controversial elements
– Sex – Violence
» Surprisingly, not controversial
– EA��s Medal of Honor: Rising
Sun, a game that depicted the
Pacific campaign in WWII
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Cultural Issues: Cultural Acceptance
�� The rules are . . . there are no rules
» Violence and sex may lead to a game
being banned
» . . . Or they may not » Past bans may be the only accurate
predictor of what game types are truly objectionable to a specific culture
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Society Within Games: Online Behavior
�� The Good
» Everquest Weddings
�� The Bad
» Addictive properties » Online rivalries becoming offline rivalries » Can games contribute to erratic offline
behaviors?
�� The Ugly
» Disinhibition and deindividuation occur
because of perceived anonymity.
» Crimes
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Society Within Games
�� Tools
» Moderators » Communication tools » Fan sites to discuss gameplay and
community outside of the game

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