Home > Language and Style in Writing

Language and Style in Writing




Writer��s Manual 



Westfield High School

550 Dorian Road

Westfield, NJ 07090 

Dr. Robert G. Petix


Paula Alida Roy

English Department Chairperson, Interim 2002-2003 



  Table of Contents


    Introduction. 3 

    Part 1: Writing

    Language and Style in Writing 4

    Statement on Plagiarism 5

    Types of Writing 6

    Expressive Writing 6

    Journal Writing 6-7

    Literary Writing��������������������������������������.��. 8

    Expository & Persuasive Writing 8-9

    Writing Process: Deciding on a Topic 10

    Writing Process: Beginning to Write 11

    The Research Paper 12-13 

    Part II: Documentation

    Citation Directory 14

    Source Documentation���������������������������������������� 15

    Principles of Internal Documentation 15

    General Guidelines 15

    Citing Books 16-18

    Citing Periodicals 19-20

    Citing Other Sources 20-22

      Technology Sources General Guidelines 23

    Citing Technology Sources 24-26

    Parenthetical Documentation Examples 27-30

    Works Cited and Works Consulted 31 

    Index 32-33 




    Westfield High School is a community of writers.  The faculty believes strongly in the growth of communication and cognitive skills through the regular practice of writing across the curriculum.  The Writer��s Manual is one resource to help you along your journey to becoming effective and artful users of English.  For this edition, the manual has been revised and updated to address recent developments in citing on-line and electronically derived information.  In addition, we hope it will answer many questions about form and style and support the writing process in all classrooms at WHS. 

    Bear in mind that this manual is just one source of writing assistance.  Outside of your teachers and librarians, parents or other people important to you may also be useful resources in the writing process.  Ask them to push your thinking with meaningful questions about your writing.  They may even help with proofreading.  Realize, however, that any final corrections are up to you.  If volunteers help with word processing, understand that correcting errors is your responsibility – not theirs.  

    The guide to source documentation, which begins Part II, reflects the expectations of your teachers based on the MLA Handbook (Modern Language Association), which is one standard for secondary schools and institutions of higher learning.  But it is not the only standard.  You may find your current teachers or college professors asking you to follow other style manuals.  Your faculty members are important sources of advice and guidance in such matters; always check with individual subject teachers to be sure you understand what their expectations are in terms of how they wish you to document sources. 

    Parts of the documentation section of this manual have been adopted with permission of the Modern Language Association, 10 Astor Place, New York, NY 10003-6981.  From MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition, by Joseph Gabaldi  © 1999 All Rights Are Reserved

    Special thanks to Charles Soriano for creating the 1996 edition of Writer��s Manual and to Charlotte Faltermayer, Peter Horn, and Elizabeth Muller for their editorial assistance. 


    • Language and Style in Writing

    One of the tasks of a student writer is to develop and to cultivate a style.  Effective writing should be clear and readable, organized, unified, and structured for content and form.  For example, slang or dialect may be perfectly appropriate in a short story or play, while formal, standard English is the norm for most essays.  Your task as a writer is to find the most effective words and structures to convey your thoughts and make your point in any writing situation.  

    Use Inclusive Language 

    We have come to understand that language has powerful social connotations.  Thoughtful writers try to avoid careless language about race, class, age, gender, and ethnic background.  For example, writers should avoid the generic ��he�� or ��man�� to refer to everyone.  Sensitive writers recast pronouns into the plural form to avoid gender-specific references and seek to make their language inclusive.  

    At WHS we encourage you to make this commitment to inclusive language in your writing and to check with your teachers about ways to practice incorporating such language into your writing.  Here are some examples of gender-specific pronoun usage and suggestions on how to rewrite them.  More-detailed guides are available in the English Resource Center or from your teacher. 

       Eliminate the pronoun

        Each nurse determines the best way she can treat a patient.

            Each nurse determines the best way to treat a patient. 

        Replace pronouns with articles

            A careful secretary often consults her dictionary.

            A careful secretary often consults a dictionary.    

        Use plural nouns and pronouns

                  Everyone needs his own space.

            All people need their own space.

    NOTE: It is not appropriate to use ��their�� to refer to a singular noun. 

      Use both pronouns and vary their order

      A worker with minor children should make sure his will is up to date.

              A worker with minor children should make sure her or his will is up to date.  

      Use specific, genderless nouns

      The average man on the street speaks his mind on the issues.

              The average voter speaks out on political issues. 

       Substitute job titles or descriptions

              He gave a test on Monday.

              The professor gave a test on Monday. 

      Recast the sentence slightly

      The professor who gets published frequently will have a better chance when he goes before the tenure board.

              The professor who gets published frequently will have a better chance when faculty tenure is determined. 

NOTE: English has no proper gender for nations, battleships, gas tanks, and other such objects. 


  • Statement on Plagiarism

Plagiarism, the act of using another person��s expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source, sometimes happens accidentally and sometimes deliberately.  It cannot be tolerated at Westfield High School or in any academic community.  It is dishonest to claim as your own the ideas or words of another writer or thinker. 

The most obvious form of outright plagiarism occurs when someone hands in another person��s paper as his or her own.  More commonly, a student, pressured by time, incomplete research or the desire for a grade, incorporates into the paper ideas or phrases from sources not documented.  Sometimes the plagiarism is inadvertent, as when an elementary school student is assigned a report on snakes and copies word for word from the encyclopedia everything about the subject.  High school students sometimes copy passages, criticism, or commentary with no citation – this is plagiarism.




Suppose you are writing a paper about Emily Dickinson.  You read the following sentence from the editors�� introduction to her poems in The Harper American Literature.  ��Slant lines and an oblique form of expression ensure the oddness of surface in Dickinson��s poems: the resonant forms of her language stand for her conviction of the baffling eccentricity of life and thought.��  If you write the following without documentation, you have committed plagiarism: 

    Emily Dickinson seems to use slant rhymes, oblique language, and punctuation to show that she found life baffling. 

But you can present the same information simply by crediting the authors. 

    The editors of Emily Dickinson suggest that she used slant rhymes, oblique language, and punctuation to show how baffling she found life (McQuade et al. 1171).  

The best way to avoid plagiarism is to mention sources right in the text, to carefully document sources, and to write an original paper full of ideas about which you are passionate.  If you are working on a paper that interests you, you will not want to spoil your work with academic dishonesty.  Always check with your teacher when you are in doubt.  Any paper that shows evidence of plagiarism at WHS risks earning a failing grade. 


  Types of Writing

Effective writing takes many shapes and styles.  Student writers need to develop skill and style by writing in different forms and for different audiences.  This manual refers to three types of writing: expressive, literary, and expository/persuasive.  The purpose of this section of the manual is to define some of the conventions and characteristics of each type of writing.  

Expressive Writing 

Expressive writing allows the writer to explore ideas freely without concern for audience, purpose, or form.  It is a beginning place for thinking through ideas and observations and for experimenting with language and structure.  Journals are a common vehicle for expressive writing.  When a writer��s ideas are ready for an audience, it is time to determine the best language and form.  Deciding on either literary writing or expository/persuasive writing may be your next step.   

  • Journal Writing

Keeping a journal can help you start to make connections among various bits and pieces of information.  It is a place for you to think and to learn.  See the journal as an opportunity to explore, to experiment, or to imagine unique ways of approaching writing assignments in all of your classes.  It might be a good idea to start keeping a separate notebook for this purpose.  From time to time your teachers will be requiring various types of writing assignments from you.  Below are some suggestions for using your journal to help you think and write before you draft a paper.  

Christine Baldwin, in her book One to One: Self-Understanding Through Journal Writing, says:

The journal is a tool for recording the process of our lives��This is not to remove ourselves from involvement with our lives, but is an additional function, a special vantage point.  [The journal] makes it possible for one part of ourselves to write and one to read, so that one part may ask and one may answer, one may act and one may reflect, one may explore and one may comprehend the exploration (4).


  • Problem Solve through Journal Writing

A journal can be used for problem solving.  Use the journal to record your feelings about an experiment that went poorly in a science lab.  Brainstorm about what went wrong and why.  You could do the same about a math problem you couldn��t solve.  Use the journal as a basis for discussion with your classroom teacher.


  • Journal as Safe Haven

The journal is a place in which you can write and feel safe doing so.  No one need see it unless you want to share it with a larger audience.  It is a place to ��fool around�� with ideas and to explore options. It will rarely contain finished pieces.  Later it may become the source for more formal writing assignments like lab reports, poems, short stories, autobiographical sketches, and social studies papers.   Journals have been used by famous people throughout history.  Leonardo da Vinci, the great Renaissance thinker and inventor, was famous for keeping notebooks for jotting down ideas.  Later, some of these ��jottings�� became the foundation for many modern inventions like the helicopter, the submarine, and the parachute.  


  • Reader��s Journal

Another way of using the journal is to react to reading assignments.  For example, while reading a text for a course you might:

  • Record your impressions about the behavior of the main characters in a piece of fiction.  Consider what you liked or disliked about them.  Jot down specific details from the text that depict them.  If you are reading nonfiction, you might want to use the journal to comment about new ideas that occur to you or information that is new to you.
  • Write down a question you have about a class discussion. Did you find yourself agreeing or disagreeing with the prevailing opinion?  Note page numbers of text under discussion so that you can refer to them later.
  • Pretend to speak to the author personally.  If you had the opportunity, what questions would you most like to ask the writer?
  • React to the writer��s use of language.  What did you like best about it?  Least?
  • Detect a social/political/philosophical bias of the writer.  Free write in your journal about how the writer��s use of language made you uneasy or comfortable.
  • Record anything you feel is memorable about the ideas, place, characters, or situations presented in the text.


  • Research Journal

When you are asked to write a research paper, you may use your journal in the following ways:

  • Use the space to record questions you have about your reading in either the primary or secondary sources.  Make a list of things that confused you about your reading.  What things interested you so much that you want to explore them more thoroughly?
  • Perhaps you found that information in one source seems to disagree with another source.  Free write about these conflicting ideas.
  • What other specific problems did you have with your resources?  Did some materials seem easier to understand than others?  Why?
  • Do any of your questions seem to have the potential for becoming angles for your research paper?  Choose one of the questions and free write about why you think this idea would make for an interesting research project.
  • As you begin to draft the paper, you might use the journal to carry on a conversation with yourself about the problems you are having synthesizing your ideas.  Make a list of questions you might like to ask your teacher in a writing conference.
  • After you finish the paper, you might like to use your journal to relate your feelings about the total experience.  Make a list of things that frustrated you about the experience.  Try to identify what you liked best about the final product.
  • Writer��s Journal  

The journal can be a place to stow away ideas for future creative writing assignments.  One way of using the journal in this way is to take the journal with you when you are traveling to a new place (a vacation or a science field trip).  Record your observations about what you are seeing and hearing.  Perhaps news events make you angry.  Use the journal to record your responses to world events.  Draw a political cartoon and write a caption for it that expresses your opinion.  You might use the journal to talk about people in your life.  Try to get down details about them while they��re still fresh in your memory.  Record snippets of conversations you��ve had with them.  


Literary Writing 

Literary writing creates new worlds, or images or visions out of real or imaginary experiences. As a genre, literary writing is not less powerful or less important than expository writing – just different.  In fact, sometimes it is difficult to label a piece of writing, and categorical distinctions may sometimes blur.  Important ideas, understanding, and conclusions may be written in many different ways. 

The following assignments would lead to literary writing:

  • write a story/narrative;
  • write a poem;
  • write a dramatic monologue;
  • write a play or a scene from a play;
  • write an autobiographical piece;
  • write a satire.


Expository/Persuasive Writing


Most expository/persuasive writing contains these elements: 

  • Focus

A main idea or focus may also be called the thesis, the controlling idea or statement, the general statement, or the hypothesis.  In a single paragraph, the focus is usually called the topic sentence; in a longer essay, it may be called the thesis statement.  It may be expressed as a one-sentence statement, a question, or a several-sentence paragraph. 

  • Outline

This plan expresses the logic of your paper.  It may be written in complete sentences, phrases, or words, depending on the requirements explained by your teacher for each assignment. 

  • Introduction

The introduction tells the purpose of the paper and clearly expresses the main idea/focus/thesis/hypothesis.  It also sets the tone for the paper and makes the reader interested in the topic.


  • Body Paragraphs

These paragraphs develop the main idea with specific and supporting details.  

  • Conclusion

A concluding paragraph does one or all of the following:

  • summarizes or reviews the main ideas of your paper;
  • presents a conclusion that may offer a new idea or solution based on the facts or arguments of your paper;
  • applies the ideas of the paper to personal insights or understandings.


Analytical Paper

The analytical paper explores, but is not limited to, the significant components of a literary work, an historical event, a person��s contributions to a field, or a scientific process.  

The following assignments would lead to analytical papers:

  • analyze the causes of homelessness in the United States;
  • compare Walt Whitman��s and Emily Dickinson��s nature imagery in selected poems;
  • explain Newton��s contributions to physics;
  • write a lab report based on an experiment;
  • explain the steps in a mathematical process.


Critical Paper

The critical paper examines the features of an action, an event, a literary or an artistic work, or a political decision and evaluates its strengths, weaknesses, effectiveness, and social, ethnic, or cultural significance. 

The following assignments would lead to critical papers:

  • review a book or film;
  • write a critical review of the Bush administration��s foreign policy;
  • critically compare selected works of two authors or scientists;
  • evaluate solutions to an environmental problem such as acid rain or nuclear waste.


Book Report, Summary, Technical Paper

These papers explain, summarize, and tell facts about events, literature, processes.  Sometimes book reports and summaries call for varied writing activities such as analysis and comparison. 

The following assignments are examples of these types of writing:

  • explain two different ways an amendment is added to the Constitution;
  • explain Mendel��s Law of Dominance;
  • explain the steps in a mathematical process;
  • summarize the plot of a novel or short story;
  • report your observations on a nature hike.


Persuasive Paper

The persuasive paper attempts to change readers�� minds, to convince them to agree with you or to take action.  In the analytical and critical modes, you attempt to be objective; in the persuasive paper, you are openly subjective, presenting your case actively. 

The following assignments would lead to persuasive papers:

  • write a letter to the editor about the need to save the rain forest;
  • write a campaign speech for a particular candidate;
  • write a defense of an artist��s right to free expression or an appeal for censorship of some particular material.


 Writing Process: Deciding on a Topic


  • Step One

First, you need to know the kind of writing you are being asked to complete.  For example, will this paper be a report, a critical or analytical essay, a research paper, a personal essay, or literary writing?  You and your teacher should discuss the type of paper assigned, any choices or options you might have within the assignment, and the criteria by which the paper will be evaluated.


  • Step Two

Choose a topic appropriate to the kind of writing you will do.  In some cases, the teacher will assign a topic and the form of the essay; in other cases, you will have some choices to make.  Set up a writing conference to discuss these choices with your teacher.  You might also explore options with your classmates.  Your aim is to choose a topic that interests you, one that you care about.  Periodically check with your teacher to help clarify your thinking. 

  • Step Three

Narrow your topic.  Good writing requires that you be specific and detailed; therefore, try to narrow your topic from the very broad and general to the very specific.  American Folk Art as a topic is very broad; Quilts as a Legitimate Art Form is more focused.  War Movies as a topic does not suggest the specific possibilities of a topic such as Vietnam in Film.  Refine and define your focus.  

  • Step Four

Determine what you need to know in order to write this paper.  Because good writing is detailed and specific, you will probably need information before you begin.  Different types of writing may require different types of information. 

  • An analytical or critical essay requires that you have read the work and may require that you check what other critics have to say.
  • A poem about a vacation spot in the mountains may require that you know the names of plants, fish, and animals in the area.
  • A defense of a political or social position requires that you understand the arguments for and against before you begin.
  • A major research paper requires detailed investigation of a variety of sources.



Writing Process: Beginning to Write 

Your teachers have probably talked about writing as a process.  Whatever kind of writing you are doing, on whatever topic, you should try to follow the steps outlined here for a process-oriented approach.  Remember: writing is an organic process that is not the same for everyone; individuals approach these ��steps�� differently.  



There are many ways to brainstorm your topic; whatever method you choose, your purpose is to come up with as many ideas as you can to develop your topic.  Here is one suggestion for brainstorming: write your topic, and list every idea that comes to your mind about the topic.  When you run out of ideas, stop and read through the ones you have already listed; this may help you to think of others.  Go back and choose those that you think will work best for you; cross out the rest. It is often helpful to brainstorm with a partner or with a group of your classmates.  Try it.  

  • Organize Your Ideas

Your teacher may require a specific format for organization.  If not, you should still develop a system of organization that works best for you.  Using the pool of ideas that you generated through brainstorming, write a statement that will serve as a focus and a control for your paper.  You might try one of the following methods of organization: numbering your ideas in the order you want to present them; writing an outline, either topic or sentence; clustering related ideas for paragraphs or for larger sections of the paper.  

  • Write a Rough Draft

At this point, you should write quickly without worrying about syntax, punctuation, or spelling.  Just make sure that you have included all of the ideas that you generated in the last step.  

  • Edit your Rough Draft, Revise Your Rough Draft

Read your paper ALOUD to yourself or someone else.  This will help you hear problems in usage, word choice, sentence structure, and meaning.  The best help will come from individuals who ask you questions about your paper.  People who are genuinely curious can help you identify areas needing more information, better logic, or more mature wording.  You may need to write a second, third, or fourth rough draft – such revising is not unusual. 

  • Do a Final Proofread, and Submit your Paper



The Research Paper 

Former WHS Head Librarian Dawn Ganss was fond of saying ��Research is like a treasure hunt.��  The information search is a challenge to answer a question or to learn more information on a topic; the search requires the use of an organized library collection to extend learning beyond the classroom.  It may also include information through interviews, observations, and special resources.  The research paper requires a written compilation, analysis/interpretation, and evaluation of the information gathered from a variety of sources, and it must be organized to describe a chosen focus, point or view, or thesis statement.  The research paper is presented in a prescribed format with documentation.  The following steps will assist you in the library research process: 

  •   Understand the research assignment 

    •   Select your topic taking into consideration:
      • personal interest; 
      • previous knowledge;
      • assignment requirements;
      • availability and quantity of information;
      • time requirements.
    •   Explore information to assist in identification of a focus 
      • read an overview for general background (general encyclopedia), and gather specific facts about a particular aspect of the topic; 
      • explore other resources in the library;
      • define your topic (unabridged or special dictionaries);
      • list identifiers, possible subject headings;
      • read and reflect on the materials;
      • keep a record of interesting ideas;
      • keep a list of sources used, and write briefly about each source for future reference.
    •   Form your focus 
      • decide your focus from your general information exploration; 
      • use the selection criteria in forming your focus;
      • form a focus by choosing a theme;
      • survey the library catalog to ascertain titles that directly relate to your focus.                           
    • Create a working bibliography
      • prepare a list of potential sources that you feel will be useful to your assignment; 
      • record full citation information for future use.


    • Gather information from sources and take notes
    • library on-line catalog: print and non-print sources; 
    • appropriate indices: periodical, book, video tapes;
    • special resources: statistics, specialized reference, government documents;
    • information file;
    • current sources;
    • local, regional, and state resources;
    • personal contacts: interviews, surveys;
    • librarian assistance.
    • Prepare to write 
    • make a final check of library resources; 
    • review concepts and techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing;
    • identify, classify, and organize main ideas – separate relevant from irrelevant materials;
    • develop a thesis;
    • make an outline or plan;
    • expand and connect research with your analysis, perceptions, opinions, and ideas to  

          support the thesis;

    • draw conclusions.
    • Write the paper 
      • Write a rough draft that includes: 
        • introduction: presents subject and narrows it to a thesis
        • body: presents ideas and research findings that describe and support thesis
        • conclusion: summarizes, synthesizes, and/or sheds new light on the thesis
      • Undertake a rigorous revision process: 
        • consult with teachers, parents, peers, and other trusted readers;
        • re-read for correct and effective language;
        • check research paper format;
        • proofread and edit.
      • Complete final paper 


     Citation Directory 

    The following directory of model citations has separate sections for books, periodicals, other sources, and electronic/computer sources.


    Books  Other Sources
    1. Standard Entry for a Book  32.  Personal Interview
    2. Book with Subtitle  33.  Talk or Lecture

    3.    Book by Two or Three Authors   34.  Television or Radio Program

    4.    Book by More than Three Authors     35.  Live Performance

    5.   Later Edition of Book 36.  Film

    6.    Reprinting or Reissue of a Book          37.  Videotape and other visuals

    7.    Book with Editor��s Name First        38.  Audio Recording

    8.    Book with Editor��s Name Last  39.  Musical Composition

    9.    Book with Translator��s Name  40.  Work of Art

    10.  Unspecified or Institutional Author 41.  Cartoon

    11.  Work with Several Volumes  42.  Broadcast or Published Interview

    12.  Part of a Collection or Anthology 43.  Personal Letter   

    13.  Encyclopedia Entry  44.  Printed Speech

    14.  Less Well-Known Reference Book 45.  Map or Chart

    15. Bible or Literary Classic     

    16.  Anthology or Compilation  Technology Sources

    17.  An Anonymous Book  46.  Publications on CD-ROM 

    18.  Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword 47.  WHS Library Online Encyclopedia

    19.  Government Publication 48.  WHS Library Online Periodical Services

    20.  Book in a Foreign Language 49.  WWW/The Internet    

    1. Gale Literary Series  50.  E-mail

                      51.  Scholarly Project

    Periodicals  52.  Professional Site

    22.  Standard Entry for Magazine 53.  Online Book

    1. Newspaper Article  54.  Online Book within a Scholarly Project

    24.   Article by Several Authors  55.  Gopher

    1. Article with Volume Number  56.  FTP
    2. Signed or Unsigned Editorial  57.  Telnet
    3. Letter to the Editor  58.  Usenet Newsgroups

    26. An Anonymous Article  59.  A Listserv Posting

    1. Titled or Untitled Review 60.  Online Images

    30.    Newsbank: Microfiche  61.  Online Sounds

    31.    SIRS 62.  Online Video Clip 

    WHS Technological Resources for 2000-2001

    Collegesource (Web-based)

    EBSCO MasterFILE Premier (Web-based)

    Encyclopedias (Web-based)

    Encyclopedia Americana

    Cumbre en linea (Spanish language)

    Grolier��s Multi-media

    New Book of Knowledge

    Ethnic Newswatch/Gender Watch (Web-based)

    Exegy, Culture and Environment  (CD-ROM)

    Newsbank Plus (CD-ROM)

      OPAC - Online Catalog (Card catalog on hard drive)

    Proquest (Web-based)

    Readers�� Guide Abstracts, 1991 - present

    Roth��s Best Poetry (CD-ROM)

    SIRS Knowledge Source (Web-based)

    SIRS Government Reporter

    SIRS Renaissance

    SIRS Researcher

    Wilson Biographies Plus Illustrated (Web-Based)

    Wilson Indexes (CD-ROM)

    Education Index 


     Source Documentation 

    This section of WHS��s Writer��s Manual will assist you in documenting sources in your papers.  Effective documentation enables your reader to locate an article or book you have used and to turn to the right page.  Keep in mind that this section is intended as a handy reference; because of its limitations, this supplement is not meant to replace the detailed MLA Handbook.  Your English teacher and the Foose Library have copies of the handbook should you have any specific questions.


    Three Principles of Internal Documentation

      • Identify your sources briefly in your text;
      • Provide the author��s name or source��s title along with page or line references;
      • Provide a complete citation for each source in the final alphabetical listing of Works Cited and Works Consulted.

    In preparing research papers in various colleges and other academic fields, you may be required to follow their particular style of documentation; schools and professors have their own preferences.  For your information, widely followed style manuals include The Chicago Manual of Style, Kate L. Turabian��s Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, the AP Style Manual (Associated Press) for journalism, and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA).


    General Guidelines
    • Books

    When citing books, the information is normally arranged in the following order:

    1. Author��s name
    2. Title of a part of the book
    3. Title of the book
    4. Name of the editor, translator, or compiler
    5. Edition used
    6. Number(s) of the volume(s) used
    7. Name of the series
    8. Place of publication, name of the publisher, and date of publication
    9. Page numbers
    10. Supplementary bibliographic information and annotation

      Sample: Dawkins, Richard.  The Selfish Gene.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. 

  • Periodicals

    When citing periodicals, the information is normally arranged in the following order:

    1. Author��s name
    2. Title of the article
    3. Name of the periodical
    4. Series number or name
    5. Volume number
    6. Date of publication
    7. Page numbers

          Sample: Wallis, Claudia.  ��Faith & Healing.��  Time 24 June 1996: 58-64. 



    • Books
    1. Standard Entry for a Book 

    Put name of author first.  Italicize the title.  Include place of publication, name of publisher, and date of publication. 

    Williams, Tennessee.  A Streetcar Named Desire.  New York: New American Library, 1947. 

  1. Book with Subtitle

Use a colon to separate title and subtitle (unless the original has other punctuation).  Italicize both the title and the subtitle of the book. 

    Wood, Robert.  The Quest for Eternity: Manners and Morals in the Age of Chivalry.  Hanover [NH]: University Press of New England, 1970. 

  1. Book by Two or Three Authors

    For the first author, put the last name first.  Then give full names of co-authors in normal order.  With three authors, place commas between authors�� names. 

      Two authors: Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar.  The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman

            Writer and the Nineteenth Century Imagination.  New Haven: Yale UP, 1979. 

      Three authors: Marquart, James W., Sheldon Ekland Olson, and Jonathan R. Sorensen.  The Rope, the Chair, and the Needle: Capital Punishment in Texas, 1923-1990.  Austin: U of Texas P, 1994. 

    1. Book by More than Three Authors

    Give the first author��s name, followed by a comma and the abbreviation et al (Latin for ��and others��), or give the full names of all co-authors. 

      Stewart, Marie M., et al.  Business English and Communication.  5th ed.  New York: McGraw, 1978. 

    1. Edition of a Book

      If you have used a book revised or updated by the author, identify the new or revised edition the way it is labeled on its title page.  After the title of the book, put 2nd ed. for second edition, rev. ed. for revised edition, or 1989 ed. for 1989 edition. 

        Zettl, Herbert.  Television Production Handbook.  4th ed.  Belmont: Wadsworth, 1985. 

        Chaucer, Geoffrey.  The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer.  Ed. F.N. Robinson.  2nd ed.  Boston: Houghton, 1957.


      1. Reprinting or Reissue of a Book

      If a work has been republished unchanged (perhaps as a paperback reprint), include the date of the original edition; put it before full publishing data for the reprinting you have used.  If new material (like an introduction) has been added, include a note to that effect before the data for the reprinting.  

        Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. 1949.  New York: Viking Press, 1973.  

        Dreiser, Theodore.  Sister Carrie: 1900.  Intro. E.L. Doctorow.  New York: Bantam, 1982. 


        1. Book with Editor��s Name First

        If the title page lists an editor who has assembled or arranged the materials in the book, use ed. after the editor��s name or eds. If there are several editors (use ��comp.�� if the title page says ��Compiled by��). 

        Griffin, Alice, ed.  Rebels and Lovers: Shakespeare��s Young and Heroines.  New York: New York UP, 1976. 

        1. Book With Editor��s Name Later

        If an editor has edited the work of a single author, put the original author��s name first if you focus on the author��s work.  Add Ed. (for edited by) and editor��s or several editors�� names after the title (do not use ��eds.��).  

        Mencken, H.L. The Vintage Mencken.  Ed. Alistair Cooke.  New York:  Vintage, 1956. 

      If the editor


      s work is particularly significant or important to your project, put the editor


      s name

      first and the author


      s name later (after





        Cooke, Alistair, ed.

        The Vintage Mencken. 

        By H.L. Mencken.  New York:  Vintage, 1956. 

      1.   Book with a Translator��s Name

        Put ��Trans.�� followed by the translator��s name (or translator��s names) after the title.  But put the translator��s name first if the translator��s work is particularly significant to your project.  

          Buber, Martin.  I and Thou. Trans. Walter Kaufman. New York: Charles Scribner��s Sons, 1970. 

        1.   Unspecified or Institutional Authorship

        Reports or publications prepared by an organization or agency and major reference books may list a group as the author or not specify authorship. 

          Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. Giving Youth a Better Chance: Options for Education, Work, and Service.  San Francisco: Jossey, 1980. 

          1.   Work with Several Volumes

          If you have used one volume of a multivolume work (for instance, a historical work published as three books), add the abbreviation Vol. followed by the number of the volume: Vol. 8.  You may add the total number of volumes and inclusive dates at the end.  If the separate volumes have their own titles, include the volume title as well as the title of the multivolume work. 

          Doyle, Arthur Conan.  The Oxford Sherlock Holmes.  Ed. Owen Dudley Edwards.  Vol. 8.  New

                   York; Oxford UP, 1993. 

          If you have used more than one volume, list the whole multivolume work, giving the total number of volumes. 

          Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.  20 vols.  London: Macmillan, 1980. 

        1. Part of Collection or Anthology

          Identify fully both the article or other text (poem, short story) and the collection of which it is a part.  Put the individual title in quotation marks; italicize the title of the whole collection; conclude with inclusive page numbers for the part: 426-448. 

            Oates, Joyce Carol. ��Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?�� The American Tradition in Literature.  Ed. Sculley Bradley, et al.  4th ed. New York: Norton, 1974. Vol.2. 426-448. 


          1. Encyclopedia Entry

          Put the titles of entries in quotation marks.  Page numbers and facts of publication may be unnecessary for entries appearing in alphabetical order in well-known encyclopedias or other reference books.  Date or number of the edition used, however, should be included because of the frequent revisions of major encyclopedias.  Include the author��s name for signed entries.  If only the initials are given, you may find the full name in an index or guide.   

            Politis, M.J. ��Greek Music.��  Encyclopedia Americana.  10th ed. 1976. 

            ��Aging.��  Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia.  1983 ed. 

          1. Less Well-Known Reference Books

              Include full publishing data for lesser-known reference books. 

              Brakely, Theresa C. ��Mourning Songs.��  Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore,

              Mythology, and Legend.  Ed. Maria Leach and Jerome Fried. 2 vols. New York: Crowell,


            1. Bible or Literary Classic

            Specify the edition you have used, especially if different versions of the text are important, as with different Bible translations or with different editions of a Shakespeare play.  Put the editor��s name first if you want to highlight the editor��s contribution. Reference in Text:  (Job 2.8) or (Luke 3.7) for chapter and verse and (Hamlet III.ii.29-40) or (Hamlet 3.2.6-12) for act, scene, and line numbers. 

              The Holy Bible.  Revised Standard Version.  2nd ed.  Nashville: Nelson, 1971. 

              Hubler, Edward, ed. The Tragedy of Hamlet. By William Shakespeare.  New York: NAL, 1963. 

            1. Anthology or Compilation

              Heyman, Arthur, ed. Elizabethan Poetry.  Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1987. 

              17.  An Anonymous Book (No author��s name on the title page)

              Encyclopedia of Football.  New York: Crown, 1992. 

              18.  An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword

                Doctorow, E.L.  Introduction.  Sister Carrie.  By Theodore Dreiser.  New York: Signet-NAL,1962. v-xi. 

              19.  Government Publications

                United Nations.  Centre for National Resources.  State Petroleum Enterprises in Developing Countries.  Elmsford:  Pergamon Publishing, 1974. 

                20.  A Book in a Language other than English

                  Dahlhaus, Carl. Musikästhetik.  Köln: Gerig, 1967. 

                21.  Gale Literary Series:  Contemporary Authors – Contemporary Literary Criticism (CLC) – Dictionary of Literary Biography (DLB) – Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism (NCLC) – Poetry Criticism Shakespearean Criticism – Short Story Criticism—Something About the Author. 

              Citation form will vary according to type and source of material cited from these volumes.  There are essays within books or periodicals, original essays and encyclopedia entries among other types of source materials within the Gale Literary Series.  Add ��Rpt.�� for reprinted in.  

                Robert, Sheila.  ��A Confined World: A Rereading of Pauline Smith.�� World Literature Written in English 24 (1984): 232-38.  Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism.  Ed. Dennis Poupard.  Vol 25. Detroit: Gale, 1988.  399-405.


              • Periodicals

              22.  Standard Entry for a Magazine/Scholarly Journal

              Start with the last name of the author. Put the title of the article in quotation marks; italicize the name of the magazine.  Go on to the date (if designated), followed by the month and year, followed by a colon, then the page numbers of the article.  Abbreviate most months: Nov. 1990: 23-31. Or Apr. 1989: 77-80. 

              Hammer, Joshua. ��Cashing in on Vietnam.��  Newsweek 16 Jan. 1989: 38-39. 

              Scotto, Peter. ��Censorship, Reading and Interpretation: A Case Study from the Soviet Union.�� PMLA 109 (1994): 61-70. 

              23.  Newspaper Article

              If necessary, specify the edition of the newspaper – early or late, east or west, national (Wall Street Journal 14 July 1989, eastern ed.: A3).  Sections of a newspaper are often identified by letters (B34) or by numbers (late ed., sec. 3:7).  Use the major headline of the article as its title.  NOTE: Leave off the article ��The�� in the names of newspapers like The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. 

              Hechinger, Fred. ��How Free Should High School Papers Be?�� New York Times 5 July 1989, western ed.: B7. 

              24.   Article by Several Authors

            Give the full name of the co-authors.  If there are more than three, put et al (Latin for ��and others��) after the name of the first author instead. 

              Gale, Noel H. and Zofia Stos-Gale. ��Lead and Silver in the Ancient Aegean.��  Scientific American June 1981: 176-77. 

              Martz, Larry, et al. ��A Tide of Drug Killings.�� Newsweek 16 Jan. 1989: 44-45. 

            1. Article with Volume Number

              For most periodicals, the month or the date is sufficient to steer the reader to the right issue.  For scholarly or professional journals, you will typically include the volume number instead, followed by the year in parentheses. 

                Santley, Robert S. ��The Political Aztec Empire.��  Journal of Anthropological Research 41 (1985): 327-37. 

                26.  Opinion Column (signed) or Editorial (unsigned)

              After the title, add the right label: Editorial or Opinion Column (unitalicized, not in quotation marks).  If an editorial, then begin with the title. 

                Whitcroft, Jeremiah.  ��Talking to Strangers.��  Opinion Column.  Westfield Leader 13 Sept. 1989: 7. 

                ��A Frown on the Interface.��  Editorial.  Software News 3 Sept. 1988: 3-4.


                27.  Letters to the Editor

                  After the name of the author, add the right label: Letter (unitalicized, not in quotation marks). 

                  Vinaver, Martha.  Letter. Los Angeles Times 14 July 1989, sec. 2:6. 

                1. An Anonymous Article

                   ��A Traffic Ban Drives Rome Crazy.�� Newsweek 16 Mar. 1987:47. 


                  1. Titled or Untitled Review

                  Use the abbreviation ��Rev.�� before the title of the work being reviewed.  For unsigned reviews, start with the title of the review (if any) or the description of the review. 

                  Bromwich, David.  ��Say it Again, Sam,�� Rev. of The Oxford Book of Aphorisms, ed. John Gross. Time  6 Feb. 1984: 34-35. 

                1. Newsbank: Microfiche

                  Chapman, Dan. ��Panel Could Help Protect Children.�� Winston-Salem Journal (NC) 14 Jan. 1990: 14.  NewsBank: Welfare and Social Problems 12 (1990): fiche 1, grids A8-11. 

                1. Social Issues Resources Series (SIRS) (Print source, not CD-ROM)

                  See the electronic/computer section of this booklet if CD-ROM source is used. 

                  Cruver, Philip C. ��AIDS and Aging.��  American Demographics Mar. 1990:28+.  The AIDS Crisis.  Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 2.  Boca Raton: SIRS, 1991.  Art. 24.  

                   Other Sources 

                1. Personal Interview (see #42 for broadcast or published interview)

                Start with the name of the person you interviewed.  Use the correct label unitalicized, not in quotation marks.  Give the date.  NOTE: No internal documentation is necessary if your text names the person you interviewed. 

                Levine, James.  Personal Interview.  23 Oct. 1990. 

              1. Talk or Lecture

              Name the speaker and provide an appropriate label (unitalicized, no quotation marks): Lecture. Keynote Speech.  Address.  If the talk had a title, include it in quotation marks.  Then go on to the occasion (often including the sponsoring organization), the place, and the date. 

                Jacobi, Jean. Lecture. ��Television News: News from Nowhere.��  Valley Lecture Series.  Santa Clara, 29 Oct. 1990. 

              1. Television or Radio Program

                Identify network (if any), station, and city (with the last two separated by a comma: WABC, New York).  Include information about directors, writers, or performers when it seems especially significant.  Pull a name out in front to highlight a person��s contribution or a particular segment. 

                  ��Yes��but Is It Art?�� Narr. Morley Safer.  Sixty Minutes.  CBS.  WCBS, New York.  19 Sept. 1993. 

                  The Secret of Life. Narr. David Suzuki. 8 episodes.  PBS.  WETA, Washington. 26-29 Sept. 1993. 

                1. Live Performance

                Normally begin with the title (italicized).  Then specify author or composer and participants.  At the end, put the theater or hall, the place, and the date.  To highlight one person��s contribution, put the name out in front, followed by dir., chor. (for choreographer), cond. (for conductor), actor, or the like.  

                  Cats.  By Andrew Lloyd Webber.  Dir. Kevin Hall.  Orpheum Theater, San Francisco. 12 June 1988.  Based on T.S. Eliot��s Old Possum��s Book of Practical Cats. 


                  1. Film

                  Italicize the title.  Identify the director and the production company, and give the date.  Include further information as you wish about performers, scriptwriters, and other contributors.  Put a name out in front to highlight a person��s contribution, followed by a comma and person��s role. 

                  It��s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore,

                         and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. 

                    Zeffirelli, Franco, dir. Hamlet. By William Shakespeare.  Perf. Mel Gibson, Glenn Close, and

                         Helena Bonham-Carter.  Warner, 1990.     

                  1. Videotapes and Other Visuals

                    Label the medium: Videocassette. Filmstrip. Slide Program, etc. 

                    Creation vs. Evolution: Battle of the Classrooms. Videocassette.  Dir. Ryall Wilson.  PBS Video, 1982.

                    58 min.  

                  1. Audio Recording

                  Specify label of the recording company, followed by order number and date.  (Use n.d. for ��no date�� if date is unknown.)  Identify references to jacket notes or the like.  Highlight a particular song, if necessary. 

                  Sondheim, Stephen.  Into the Woods. Orch. Jonathan Tunick.  Perf.  Bernadette Peters and Joanna Gleason.  Cond. Paul Gemignani.  RCA Victor, 1987. 

                  Simon, Paul, and Milton Nascimento.  ��Spirit Voices.�� The Rhythm of the Saints.  Warner Bros., 1990. 

                1. Musical Composition

                  Italicize the titles of specific works.  Do not italicize the titles of works identified by generic label (symphony, sonata, quartet) and number or key: Symphony No. 7 in A, op. 92.  

                    Wagner, Richard.  The Flying Dutchman. 

                    Beethoven, Ludwig van.  Symphony no 8 in F, op. 93. 

                  1. Work of Art

                    Italicize the title of the work.  Show the location. 

                    Klee, Paul.  Red Balloon.  Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.  

                    41.   Cartoon

                  If the cartoon or the strip has a title, enclose it in quotation marks.  Label it: Cartoon (unitalicized, not in quotation marks).  You need not show that you obtained material or microfilm or microfiche – list the source the way you would have listed the original publication. 

                    Trudeau, Garry.  ��Doonesbury.��  Cartoon.  Star-Ledger [Newark] 3 Jan. 1994: 24. 

                    Chast, Roz. Cartoon.  New Yorker 11 Apr. 1994: 58. 


                    1. Broadcast or Published Interview

                    Identify the person interviewed, and label the material as an interview.  Add the title of the radio or TV program, the name and place of the station, and the date.  You may include the name of the interviewer if known. 

                    Blackmun, Harry.  Interview with Ted Koppel and Nina Totenberg.  Nightline. ABC.  WABC, New York. 5 Apr. 1994. 

                    Gordimer, Nadine.  Interview.  New York Times 10 Oct. 1991, late ed.: C25. 

                    43.   Personal Letter (for e-mail see #49)

                    For a letter you have received, name the letter writer and label the material as a letter.  Give the date.  For a published letter, use the name of the recipient as the title, and then give full publishing data, with inclusive page numbers.  

                    Chavez, Roderigo.  Letter to the author.  15 Jan. 1990. 

                    Hemingway, Ernest. ��To Lillian Ross.��  28 July 1948.  Ernest Hemingway: Selected Letters, 1917-1961.  Ed Carlos Baker. New York:  Scribner��s, 1981. 646-49. 

                  1.   Printed Speech

                    If you had access to a printed version of a speech, add full publishing data to the usual information about a talk.  (��Rpt.�� means reprinted; this article was originally printed elsewhere.) 

                      Partlet, Basil. ��Yuppies and the Art of Cooking.�� Western Chefs Forum.  Phoenix  19 Aug. 1989.  Rpt. in West Coast Review Spring 1990: 76-82. 

                    1. Map or Chart

                      Include the right label: Map, Chart (unitalicized, not in quotation marks). 

                      The Historic West.  Phoenix: Pathways, 1989. 


                    • Technology Sources

                    General Guidelines

                    Citations of electronic sources and those of print sources should accomplish the same ends and have analogous formats.  Both types of citations identify a source and give sufficient information to allow a reader to locate it.  Yet each type requires a different kind and amount of information to fulfill these objectives.  Print culture has developed standard reference tools (library catalogs, bibliographies, and so on) for locating published works.  Electronic media, in contrast, so far lack agreed-on means of organizing works.  Moreover, electronic texts are not as fixed and stable as their print counterparts.  References to electronic works therefore must provide more information than print citations generally offer.


                    Publication Dates


                    Most bibliographic references to printed works contain only one date of publication.  A citation of an electronic work, however, may require two and sometimes more publication dates to be identified fully.  Since electronic texts can be readily altered, any accessed version of an online source is potentially different from any past or future version and therefore must be considered unique.  Typically, then, a citation for an online text contains the date assigned to the document.  If the work originally had a print existence, it may be necessary to give the date of the original print publication, if provided, along with the date of electronic publication and the date of access, for the document may have been different at each stage. 

                    Uniform Resource Locator (URL) 

                    The most efficient way to find an online publication at present is through its network address, or uniform resource locator (URL).  It is crucial to be as accurate as possible in supplying not only URLs but also other identifying information (e.g., author��s name, title), so that the reader who cannot locate the material through the stated address might be able to find it with a network searching tool.  Moreover, since Internet sites and resources sometimes disappear altogether, you should print the material you use, so that you can verify it if it is inaccessible later.  Enclose URLs in angle brackets.  If a URL must be divided between two lines, break it only after a slash: do not introduce a hyphen at the break or allow your word-processing program to do so.  Give the complete address, including the access-mode identifier (http, ftp, gopher, telnet, news) and, after the first single slash, any relevant path and file name: 

                    http://www.princeton.edu/~ lancelot/ 

                    The recommendations in this section largely tend to treat sources for which a considerable amount of relevant publication information is available.  In truth, though, many sources do not supply all desired information, for few standards currently govern the presentation of electronic publications – for instance, many texts do not include reference markers, such as paragraph numbers, so it is difficult if not impossible to direct a reader to the exact location of the material you are citing.  Thus, while aiming for comprehensiveness, writers must often settle for citing whatever information is available to them. 

                    These recommendations are aimed not at specialists in academic computing but primarily at students who use ideas and facts from electronic sources to complement those derived from traditional print sources.   


                    A printout of the information accessed from an online source MUST accompany the bibliography submitted with the research paper.  Check data programs for current versions and URLs.



                    46.  Publications on CD-ROM:  The information on CD-ROM is made available either as a single publication or periodically and cited as such. 

                    Author's last name, first name. ��Title of the material accessed.�� Date of print publication [Day Month Year](if available) Title of the database. Edition, release, or version (if relevant). Name of the compiler, or translator (if relevant) Publication medium [CD-ROM]. Edition, release, or version (if relevant). Place of publication: Name of producer (if relevant). Publication date. 

                    ��Walter Sisulu.�� Exegy. CD-ROM. Version 1.23. ABC-CLIO, Inc. 1994-1999.


                    1. WHS Library Online Encyclopedia

                    Author��s Last Name, First Name. (if available) "Article Title."  Title of Database. Name of the editor (if given). Electronic publication information, including version number (if relevant and if not part of the title), date of electronic publication or the latest update. If a library is the subscriber - - the name and city (and state abbreviation, if necessary) of the library. Date accessed (Day Month Year) <URL of Service Home Page>. 

                      Miller, Banner I.  ��Hurricane.�� Encyclopedia Americana Online. 2000. Grolier Incorporated. WHS Library, Westfield, NJ.  14 May 2000 <http://ea.grolier.com/ea-online/static/search.htm>. 

                      48.  WHS Library Online Periodical Services:  Providers of electronically republished articles and documents that were originally published in a wide variety of sources and formats. 

                      Author��s Last Name, First Name. (if available) "Article Title." Original source of article Date of origin publication (Day Month Year)(,/./:) Edition (if available): Page numbers (If available) or number of pages printed. Name of subscription service. If a library is the subscriber - - the name and city (and state abbreviation, if necessary) of the library. Date when the researcher accessed the information (Day Month Year) <URL of Service Home Page>.


                        Bowser, Charles W. ��Public Schools Are Not Getting Funding They Need: Inner-City Kids Being Penalized for Poverty.�� Ethnic NewsWatch, SoftLine Information, Inc., 2000. WHS Library, Westfield, NJ. 14 June 2000 <http://www.softlineweb.com/softlineweb/ethnic.htm>. 

                        Parshall, Gerald. ��Papa and All His Children.�� U.S. News & World Report 1 June 1998 v124 n21 p67(3). EBSCOhost.  WHS Library, Westfield, NJ. 15 May 2000 <http://search.epnet.com/comm_generic.asp>. 

                          Pine, Art. ��Good Ol�� Days, Maybe, but Not Too Cheap.��  SIRS Researcher. SIRS Mandarin, Inc., 2000. WHS Library, Westfield, NJ. 19 May 2000. <http://ars.sirs.com/>.   

                            ��Saki.�� Profile from World Authors 1900-1950 1992. Wilson Biographies Plus. 1997-99. H.W. Wilson Company. WHS Library, Westfield, NJ. 4 Feb. 2000. <http://vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/cgi-bin/webspirs.cgi>.   

                               ��U.S. Judge Troubled By Microsoft Miscues.�� New York Times 4 Feb. 1999, Late Edition (East Coast); New York: Sect. A, 1-5.  Proquest.  UMI Art. NYT-3049-132, UMI Journal Code: NYT. WHS Library, Westfield, NJ. 4 May 2000 <http://proquest.umi.com/>. 


                              1. WWW (World Wide Web)/The Internet

                              Author��s Last Name, First Name. (if available) "Article Title." Title of site (If there is no title, use a description such as Home Page.  Name of the organization associated with the site. Date of access  (Day Month Year) <URL of network address>. 

                                ��Toxic Chemicals in Coastal Environments.��  Oceans Home Page. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 14 June 2000 <http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/cpr/cpr.html>. 

                                1. E-mail

                                Author of e-mail message. ��Subject line of the message.�� Description of the message that includes the recipient (e.g., ��E-mail to the author��; and the date of the message (Day Month Year).


                                Boyle, Anthony T. ��Re: Utopia.�� E-mail to Daniel J. Cahill. 21 June 1997. 

                                1. Scholarly Project


                                  Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. June 1998. Indiana U. 26 June 1998 <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/>.


                                1. Professional Site


                                Portuguese Language Page. U of Chicago. 1 May 2000 <http://humanities.uchicago.edu/romance/port/>.

                                1. Online Book 

                                  Austen, Jane.  Pride and Prejudice. Ed. Henry Churchyard. 1996. 10 Sept. 1998 <http://pemberley.com/janeinfo/pridprej.html.>


                                1. Online Book within a Scholarly Project


                                  Nesbit, E[dith]. Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. June 1998.  Indiana U. 26 Apr. 1998  <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/nesbit/ballsoc.html>.


                                55.  Gopher 

                                Author. ��Title of gopher item.�� <E-mail address>. Date of document or download (Day Month Year).

                                  U.S. Department of Agriculture. ��Agriculture Statistics for 4th Quarter 1995.�� <gopher:// 

                                      agri.usda.gov, Department of Agriculture/Latest Statistics for 1995/4th Quarter Folder>. 26 Jan.


                          Chalmers, Andrea. ��Bosnia: A Country in Transition.�� <gopher://nywer.net, Today��s News/World News/Bosnia-Herzegovina>. 5 Feb.1996.


                        56.  FTP 

                        Author. ��Title of item.�� <ftp address, path/filename>. Date of document or download (Day Month Year).


                          Hess, Hanna. ��Networking in the Information Age.�� <ftp://194.335.23.10, pub/research/internet/

                          internet/network.txt>.  5 Feb.1996. 

                      Gates, Gary. ��Shakespeare and his Muse.��  <ftp://ftp.guten.net,gproject/texts/english/bard/research/muse.txt>.  1 Mar.1996.  


                      57.  Telnet  

                        Author. ��Title of Item.�� <Telnet address, path>. Date of document or download (Day Month Year). 

                        Brady, Larry E. ��Map of Iraqi Troop Movements for 1/9/96.�� <telnet://fedworld.gov, Government Information/CIA/Maps/Latest Maps/Iraq>. 10 Jan.1996.  

                        Jackson, Fred. Statistical Weather Data for Wisconsin, January 1996. <telnet://weather.machine.

                        umich.edu, Weather Data/January 1996/States/Zooms/Data/Wisconsin>. 25 Feb. 1996.  

                        Taylor, Barry. ��Hubble Space Telescope image enhancement techniques.��<Student2@exeter.high.edu from btaylor@hst.nasa.gov>. 23 Jan.1995.


                        58.  Usenet Newsgroups 

                        Author. ��Title of Item.�� <Usenet address, group>. Date of post (Day Month Year).


                        Brown, David. ��Educational Insights 1995.�� <usenet://k12.ed.research>. 27 Dec. 1995.Madige, Ellen. How to Build a Better Moustrap. <usenet://sci.tech.inventions.mousetrap>.  16 Jan.1996.  

                        59.  A Listserv Posting 

                        Author. ��Title of Posting.�� [Description of medium]Online posting. Date. Name of listserv. Date of access  [Day Month year] <electronic address for retrieval>. 

                        Merrian, Joanne. ��Spinoff: Monsterpiece Theatre.�� Online posting. 30 Apr. 1994.  Shakesper: The Global Electronic Shakespeare Conference. 30 Oct. 1996 <http.//www.arts.ubc.ca/english/iemls/shak/shak-L.html>. 

                        60.  Online Images 

                        ��Description or title of image.�� [Description of medium] Online image. <http:// address, file name>. Date of download (Day Month Year).


                        ��Hubble Space Telescope Release in the Space Shuttle Payload Bay.�� Online Image. <http:// explorer.arc. Nasa.gov/pub/SPACE/GIF/s31-04-015.gif>. 1 Oct. 1996. 

                      61.  Online Sounds 

                      ��Description or title of sound.�� [Description of medium] Online sound. <http:// address, file name>. Date of download (Day Month Year).


                        ��Reflections on Apollo.�� Online sound. <http:// town hall.org/radio/IMS/NASA/100394_nasa_ITR.au.25 /Sept. 1996. 

                        62.  Online Video Clip

                        ��Description or title of video clip.�� [Description of medium] Online video clip. <http://address, file name>. Date of download (Day Month Year).


                        ��Shoemaker-Levy Comet enters Jupiter��s Atmosphere and breaks up.�� Online video clip. <http://ftp.cripxl.u-bordeaux.fr/astro/anim/si9/breaking up.mpg>. 5 March 1996. 


                         Parenthetical Documentation Examples

                        Documentation consists of 2 parts: 

                          Reference in Text

                        The parenthetical reference in the text of your paper consists of the writer��s name in addition to page or line references.  If the whole class is using the same edition of one text, it is generally accepted form to omit titles or authors�� names in the reference.  If, however, you are writing a paper comparing several novels by Charles Dickens, you must indicate the titles to avoid confusion throughout the paper.  For example: (Tale of Two Cities 212), (Bleak House 345), (David Copperfield 126). 

                        • Full Citation

                        The full citation format was explained in the pages that precede this example section.   These belong at the paper��s end in a list of works cited and works consulted.  

                        The following section is designed to assist you in placing your documentation within the text of your paper.  The parenthetical references included in this section are meant as examples of the types of source identification you may encounter in your papers.  Note placement of the period. 

                          Short Direct Quotation 

                        Traditional male sports often seem motivated by ��an inherent aggressiveness in man stemming from the Darwinian struggle for existence,�� with sports serving ��as substitutes for actual fighting, mock struggles that satisfied the urge to conquer�� (Smith 135). 

                        This information appears in a source ��Smith��; the reader would check your alphabetized list of works cited for the full reference.  

                          Paraphrasing 

                        By the early 1980s, Martina Navratilova, a top player on the Virginia Slims circuit, could win more than two million dollars in tournament action in one year, not counting the income from endorsements and other sources (Sherman 194). 

                        This paraphrased information appears in a source ��Sherman��; the reader would check your alphabetized list of works cited for the full citation.  


                          Long Quotations 

                        Quotations that exceed four or more typed lines require an indented setup; double space (entire paper is double-spaced), indent on both sides from existing margins, no quotation marks are necessary with block quotations. Note placement of period. 

                        The net effect of the new law was to promote sudden growth in women��s athletics.  According to Robert Sullivan in Sports Illustrated:

                        There were 32,000 females participating in college athletics in 1972,

                        the year the law was enacted; by 1983 the total had increased to 150,000��From 1974 to 1982 the number of colleges granting

                        athletic scholarships to women increased from 60 to 500 (19).

                        By the early 1980s, Martina Navratilova, a top player on the Virginia Slims circuit, could win more than two million dollars in tournament action in one year, not counting the income from endorsements and other sources (Sherman194). 

                          Weaving quotations into your analysis 

                        This example weaves quoted material with analysis containing your own observations and opinions.  If you make reference to the source in your sentence, you need not provide the author��s name or title in the parenthetical reference, just the page number.  

                        She contends that women writers need ��a room of one��s own�� in order to write fiction or anything else (Woolf 78).  Here the ��room�� is a metaphor for social and economic freedom and autonomy.  Adrienne Rich echoes Virginia Woolf��s theme in her essay on female students in which she asserts their need for time and place (18).

                        The reader knows to search works cited for Woolf��s book; the reader will also find the full reference for Adrienne Rich��s essay there.  


                          Quoting Poetry and Drama 

                        When quoting poetry or drama in your paper the same basic rules of quotation and parenthetical documentation apply.  Short quotations are woven directly into your analysis with the appropriate parenthetical line references.  Use the slash (/) with a space on each side to indicate line breaks.  Verse quotations of three or more lines should be indented, double-spaced (unless the original employs unusual spacing), and reproduced as they appear in their original form.  Dialogue quotations in plays between two or more characters should be indented, as in the poetry or prose example.  Begin each part of the dialogue with the character��s name written in all capital letters; follow the name with a period and insert the appropriate dialogue. 

                        Throughout the poem, Wordsworth encodes the bird��s descriptions with diction suggestive of divine origin.  In the fourth stanza, the bird is described as ��an invisible thing, / a voice, a mystery�� (��To the Cuckoo�� 15-16) and in the final stanza��s apostrophe as a ��blessed Bird�� (29).  In fact, the writer��s verbal choices focus the speaker��s attention heavenward:

                                    The same whom in my schoolboys days

                                    I listened to; that Cry

                                    Which made me look a thousand ways

                                    In bush, and trees, and sky (17-20).

                        The succession of monosyllables ��bush,�� ��tree,�� and ��sky�� effectively modulates the speaker��s perspective from the earth-rooted bush to the wide skyscape.  In this ladder-like movement, the cuckoo��s voice allows the speaker to climb to its vision from above; in the poem��s terms, the speaker recalls his ��schoolboy days�� (17) and ��beget[s] / That golden time again�� (27-28).  In enabling the speaker to recognize and recapture the past, the bird typifies Wordsworth��s poetic wish for imaginative transport to childhood.  




                        out and looked for work in California��s fruit and cotton fields (Stein 210).

                              These immigrants discovered that California agriculture was based on enormous farms, or ��factories in the field�� (McWilliams 42)   These farms were ��cultivated by migratory laborers who miraculously turned up for the harvest and disappeared once the crops were laid by�� (Stein 205).

                              These immigrants from Oklahoma swelled the numbers of California��s migrant labor force and drove wages down (Stein 213-24).  Wages were so low, and jobs were so few, that thousands of migrants were driven to desperate poverty.  The extent of the desperation is made clear in a

                        report written in 1939, the year that The Grapes of Wrath published:

                                    The State Relief Administration estimates that most agricultural

                                    workers only have employment for six months in the year or less;

                                    and that the average yearly earnings per family�� [were] $289 in 1935.

                                    In the same study the S.R.A.  estimated that each family��should have had

                                at least $780 to eke out the existence��.  In 1932 there were 181 agricultural

                                workers for every 100 jobs offered; in ��1934, 142.   (McWilliams 48)

                        In other words, the migrant workers were attempting to live on less than half what they needed just to survive, there were far more workers than there were jobs, and what few jobs there were disappeared entirely for half of each year.

                              Unable to find work, scorned and hounded from place to place, the migrants from Oklahoma gathered together in settlements along highways, places that became known as Hoovervilles, after President Herbert Hoover.  An actress who visited one of these camps wrote, ��I went around in a sick daze for hours after witnessing unimaginable suffering�� (qtd. 

                        Example of Works Cited and Consulted 

                        The list of works cited and works consulted appears at the end of a paper.  Please be sure to begin the list on a new page, which follows in the continuously numbered sequence you have established for your paper.  Center the title Works Cited, and provide an alphabetized list of the works cited parenthetically; do the same for Works Consulted. Begin an entry flush with the left-hand margin; if the entry exceeds one line, be sure to indent the subsequent line.  Double space the entire list, both between and within entries.  

                        Works Cited 

                          Clark, Willene, trans. The Medieval Book of Birds: Hugh of Fouilloy��s Aviarium. Binghamton [NY]: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1992.

                          Hardy, Thomas.  The Complete Poems of Thomas Hardy.  Ed. James Gibson. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1976. 

                          Keats, John.  Selected Poems and Letters.  Ed. Douglas Bush. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1959.

                          Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Zauberflöte. Libretto in sound recording.  Cond. Bernard Haitink.  EMI Records Ltd., 7-47951-8, 1981.

                          ��Saki.�� Profile from World Authors 1900-1950 1992. Wilson Biographies Plus. 1997-99. H.W. Wilson  

                           Company. WHS Library, Westfield, NJ. 4 Feb. 2000. <http://vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/cgi-bin/webspirs.cgi>.  

                          Shelley, Percy Bysshe.  Shelley��s Poetry and Prose.  Ed. Donald H. Reiman and Sharon B. Powers. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1977.

                        The New English Bible: The Old Testament.  Oxford and Cambridge UP: 1970.

                          Wordsworth, William. Selected Poems and Prefaces.  Ed. Jack Stillinger.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1965. 

                        Works Consulted 

                          Krutch, Joseph Wood and Paul S. Erikson. A Treasury of Birdlore. Garden City [NY]: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962.

                        The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd Edition.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. 





                        Afterword     18

                        Analytical paper  9

                        Anonymous article  19

                        Anonymous book  18

                        Anthology  17, 18

                        Art work  21

                        Article, multiple authors  19

                        Article, volume numbers  19

                        Audio recording   21



                        Bible  18

                        Block quotations   28

                        Book, multiple authors  16

                        Book report   9

                        Books, citation form   16

                        Brainstorming    11



                        Cartoons   21

                        CD-ROM  24

                        Charts   22

                        Citation Directory    14

                        Conclusion   8

                        Literary writing   8

                        Critical papers   9



                        Documentation   15

                        Drama, quoting from   29



                        E-mail   25

                        Edition, of a book   16

                        Editorial  19

                        Editors   17

                        Encyclopedias   18

                        Expository writing   8 - 9

                        Expressive writing   16



                        Film   21

                        Foreword   18



                        Gale Literary Series   18

                        Government publications   18 





                        Inclusive Language   4

                        Institutional authorship   17

                        Internal documentation   15

                        Internal documentation, general

                                Guidelines   15

                        Interviews    20, 22

                        Introduction, to a book   18




                        Journal writing   6-7

                        Journals, citations   19



                        Lectures   20

                        Letter   22

                        Letter, to the editor   19

                        Line numbers, poetry   29



                        Map   22

                        Microfiche   20

                        Movies   21

                        Musical composition   21



                        Newsbank   20

                        Newspaper articles   19



                        Outlines   8



                        Paraphrasing   5, 27

                        Parenthetical documentation

                             Examples   27

                        Performances, live   20

                        Periodicals, in citations   19

                        Persuasive writing   8-9

                        Plagiarism   5

                        Preface   18

                        Pronouns   4 







                        Quotations, long   28

                        Quotations, short   27

                        Quoting poetry & drama   30 



                        Radio program    20

                        Reference books  18

                        References in text, examples   27

                        Reprints, of books   16

                        Research papers   12

                        Reviews   20

                        Rough drafts   11



                        Scholarly journals   19

                        Social Issues Resources Series

                               (SIRS)   20

                        Speeches   20,  22

                        Style   4

                        Subtitle, of book   16

                        Summary   9



                        Talks   20

                        Technical papers   9

                        Television shows   20

                        Thesis statement   8

                        Topic selection   10

                        Translations   17



                        Usenet   26



                        Videotapes and other visuals   21

                        Volume numbers   17



                        Working bibliographies   12

                        Works cited   31

                        Works consulted  31 


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