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   Study Guide


      Chapter 2:  Historical Foundations of Management



      Chapter 2 

      Historical Foundations of Management 

Chapter Summary 

After you have read the text chapter, read through the summary below. Cover the left-hand margin and fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms. After you have filled in each blank, check your responses by uncovering the answer given in the margin. If you do not understand why the given answer is the correct one, refer back to the text. 

  Management and Organization
Social forces 





Studying the history of management helps today's manager to achieve strategic thinking, see the big picture, and improve conceptual skills.                           affect the way that businesses relate to employees and the public. It refers to the aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.  Generation                           workers are those in their 20s and 30s and Generation                           are those born between 1980 and 1995.  These younger workers are more educated, technologically adept, and globally conscious.  They also change jobs and careers more often and desire a work life balance.                             forces are the political and legal institutions which influence people and organizations..                           forces influence the allocation of scarce resources among competing users within society. Managers must learn to cope with these allocations. 

Classical Perspective



one best way

This perspective developed out of management experiences following the industrial revolution. The                           perspective endeavored to make organizations efficient operating machines.                           management is the term given to one of these perspectives and emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity. Led by Frederick W. Taylor, Henry Gantt, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and others, this school of thought developed in the early 1900s. It assumed that there was                           to do a job, which should be determined by scientific investigation. Managers should then assign workers to specialized tasks according to their abilities, plan the work, train and support the workers, and motivate them by the use of financial incentives. Scientific management did improve productivity, but failed to address the social context and workers' needs, and workers often felt exploited.


The                           organization developed by Max Weber was a reaction to subjective favoritism that existed in the late 1800s. The bureaucracy as conceived by Weber was to be managed on a rational and impersonal basis instead. Even though this term has taken on a negative connotation today, practically all organizations use some elements of the bureaucracy. 

The administrative                           approach to management focused on the total organization and the use of management principles. Henri Fayol taught that his 14 general principles and the five functions of management have application to all managers regardless of the type of organization. The concept of superordinate goals was introduced by Mary Parker Follett and was used by practicing managers of the day. She also addressed such ideas as ethics, power, and effective leadership. Chester Barnard introduced the concepts of informal organizations and the acceptance theory of authority. These administrative principles still have a profound effect on management today.

  Humanistic Perspective
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of understanding human behaviors, needs, and attitudes in the workplace. Three subfields of this perceptive are the human relations movement, the human resources perspective, and the behavioral sciences approach.
human relations


human resources 


Theory Y

The                           movement developed beginning with the famous                           studies, which were initially interpreted as demonstrating that human relations is the best approach for increasing productivity.  The                           perspective was based on the work of Maslow and McGregor. This movement emphasized worker satisfaction and need fulfillment as the key factors to productivity. Maslow formulated a                           of needs consisting of physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs. McGregor classified assumptions about workers under two categories, Theory X and Theory Y. He felt that                          , which is a more humanistic approach, was a more realistic view of managing.


The                                                     approach of the human resource perspective applied theories and practices from the social sciences to the management of people in organizational settings. This approach borrows heavily from economics, psychology, and sociology.


  Management Science Perspective
The use of                           methods to solve management problems and make decisions is the essence of the management science perspective. Operations research which grew out of World War II consists of using mathematical model building and other quantitative techniques to solve problems. Operations management applies quantitative techniques to the physical production of goods and services. Information technology (IT), as reflected in management information systems, help managers to obtain relevant and timely information. 

Recent Historical Trends

systems theory 






Understanding that all parts of an organization are related and that this relationship affects how the organization functions led to the development of the                          . All systems consist of inputs which are transformed into outputs giving feedback to the organization operating in a specified environment. These systems are almost always                           and must interact with the environment to avoid                          , which means that the system runs down and dies. A                           system does not interact with the environment.                           means that if all parts of a system (or the                          ) work well together, the result is greater than if they each worked alone.
The                           view emphasizes the need for managers to identify key variables such as industry, technology, the environment, and international culture. After these variables have been analyzed, then managers can determine the best approach to management for that situation.
Total Quality










At the forefront in helping managers to compete globally is                           , which focuses on managing the total organization to deliver quality to customers.  The four significant elements of TQM are employee involvement, focus on the customer, benchmarking, and continuous improvement. 

Two current directions in management are the shift to a learning organization and managing the technology-driven workplace.   

The Learning Organization 

Peter Senge��s book started managers thinking about the learning organization which is a matter of mangers developing five disciplines: systems thinking, shared vision, challenging mental models, team learning, and personal mastery.  This has lead to the concept of the                          , in which everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the organization to continuously experiment, improve, and increase its capability.  Three important adjustments to promote continuous learning are shifting to a team-based structure, empowering employees, and sharing information.  Leaders in learning organizations think in terms of ��control with�� rather than ��control over�� others.  This leader creates a shared vision that must be understood by everyone in the organization. The structure of the learning organization uses self-directed teams.  Employees are __________, meaning that they are given the power, freedom, knowledge and skills to make decisions and perform effectively. Open information is provided to people in a learning organization so they know what is going on and can solve problems.  Everyone helps develop and control strategy.  Strategy emerges from discussions with employees. The culture is strong and adaptive. 

Managing the Technology-Driven Workplace 

Today��s workers work on computers, in virtual teams, and are connected electronically to colleagues around the world.  __________ refers to the work an organization does by using electronic linkages.  These linkages may be via the Internet, an intranet—an internal system, or extranet—which gives access to selected parties outside the organization. 

__________ refers to business exchanges or transactions that occur electronically.  It replaces or enhances the exchange of money and products with the exchange of data and information from one computer to another.  Three types of e-commerce are business-to-consumer (B2C), business-to-business (B2B), and consumer-to-consumer (C2C). 

One approach to information management is __________ __________ __________ (ERP) which unites all of a company��s major business functions, giving managers the big picture and up-to-date information.  Knowledge management refers to the efforts to systematically find, organize, and make available a company��s intellectual capital and to foster a culture of continuous learning and knowledge sharing so that a company��s activities build on what is already known.


Chapter Review 

Multiple-Choice Questions:  Please indicate the correct response to the following questions by writing the letter of the correct answer in the space provided.       

    1. A historical perspective matters to executives because it

      a. provides patterns which may recur.

      b. provides a context in which to interpret problems.

      c. helps managers learn from the mistakes of others.

      d. helps managers learn from the success of others.

      e. all of the above      

        2. The unwritten, common rules and perceptions about relationships among people and between people and organizations are called

          a. political contracts.

          b. social contracts.

          c. human relations perspective.

          d. systems viewpoint.

          e. Hawthorne effect.      

            3. Basic assumptions underlying political systems include

              a. property rights.

              b. contract rights.

              c. the definition of justice.

              d. managers' rights.

              e. all of the above      

                4. Economic resources refer to

                  a. money.

                  b. people.

                  c. materials.

                  d. natural resources.

                  e. all of the above      

                    5. The classical management perspective

                      a. recognized environmental influences.

                      b. viewed workers as the same as managers.

                      c. ignored rationality in favor of human relations.

                      d. relied heavily on self-interest concepts.

                      e. failed to recognize the importance of individual productivity.      

                        6. The               approach to management initiated the careful study of tasks and jobs.

                          a. scientific management

                          b. classical management

                          c. administrative principles

                          d. systems theory

                          e. contingency       

                            7. The general approach of scientific management includes

                              a. flexibility of standards for performing each job.

                              b. selecting workers with appropriate abilities for each job.

                              c. training workers in methods according to individual abilities.

                              d. providing autonomy to workers in planning their own work.

                              e. eliminating wage incentives since they are counterproductive.      

                                8. Which of the following is not one of Fayol's 14 general principles of management?

                                  a. unity of command

                                  b. division of work

                                  c. wage incentives

                                  d. unity of direction

                                  e. scalar chain      

                                    9. Fayol's principle of unity of command means that

                                      a. top management must all be of one mind before issuing orders.

                                      b. each subordinate should receive orders from one—and only one—superior.

                                      c. after a command is received, subordinates have the duty of rallying behind the command even if they disagree with it.

                                      d. only one person should make a decision because group decision making is less efficient.

                                      e. similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager.       

                                        10. According to Chester Barnard's acceptance theory of authority,

                                          a. workers need to learn to accept the authority of managers.

                                          b. managers need to learn to accept the authority vested in them.

                                          c. people have free will and can choose whether to follow management orders.

                                          d. people have the tendency to accept authority regardless of their perceptions.

                                          e. all of the above      

                                            11. Weber designed a bureaucracy mainly because

                                              a. he was a German and therefore liked paperwork.

                                              b. he worked for the government and saw how rational such an organization really was.

                                              c. he objected to European organizations which were managed by favoritism and subjective methods.

                                              d. he had studied the writings of Frederick W. Taylor and felt Taylor's ideas could be applied to government structures also.

                                              e. he objected to the way organizations were so impersonally managed in his day.      

                                                12. According to the text, the bureaucratic model works just fine at

                                                  a. Boeing Corporation.

                                                  b. United Parcel Service (UPS).

                                                  c. research laboratories.

                                                  d. Apple Computer Company.

                                                  e. times when technology is changing rapidly.      

                                                    13. In Weber's bureaucracy, rationality means

                                                      a. employee selection and advancement should be based on competence.

                                                      b. rationing of rewards is beneficial to the organization.

                                                      c. the structure of the bureaucracy is rational.

                                                      d. rational people will appreciate a bureaucracy.

                                                      e. none of the above      

                                                        14. In a bureaucracy               is separate from ownership.

                                                          a. rationality

                                                          b. funding

                                                          c. management

                                                          d. authority

                                                          e. status       

                                                              15. Which of the following is not a significant element of Total Quality Management (TQM)?

                                                                      a.  strict control of quality by top management

                                                                      b. employee involvement

                                                                      c. focus on the customer

                                                                      d. benchmarking

                                                                      e. continuous improvement      

                                                            16. Most early interpretations of the Hawthorne studies

                                                              a. agreed that money was the cause of increased output.

                                                              b. pointed to the importance of illumination in affecting productivity.

                                                              c. supported Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management.

                                                              d. pointed to human relations as the best explanation for increased output.

                                                              e. were of medical importance, which led to the founding of the Mayo Clinic in honor of Elton Mayo, one of the chief researchers.      

                                                                17. Although team leadership is critical in learning organizations, the traditional boss

                                                                1. is still in charge of everything
                                                                2. must still make the tough decisions.
                                                                3. is practically eliminated.
                                                                4. must be maintained.
                                                                5. is still very important.

                                                                18. According to Maslow, one must first fill                needs before one is concerned with                needs.

                                                                  a. social, safety

                                                                  b. esteem, belongingness

                                                                  c. self-actualization, belongingness

                                                                  d. safety, physiological

                                                                  e. physiological, safety      

                                                                    19. The assumption that the average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility is an assumption of

                                                                      a. Theory Y.

                                                                      b. Abraham Maslow.

                                                                      c. contingency theory.

                                                                      d. Theory X.

                                                                      e. Frederick W. Taylor.      

                                                                        20. The behavioral sciences approach draws from

                                                                          a. anthropology.

                                                                          b. economics.

                                                                          c. psychology.

                                                                          d. sociology.

                                                                          e. all of the above      

                                                                            21.               is/are the management science application which is used in the physical production of goods and services.

                                                                              a. Operations research

                                                                              b. Operations management

                                                                              c. Management information systems

                                                                              d. Queuing theory

                                                                              e. Scientific management      

                                                                                22. If Tom digs a three-foot-deep ditch by himself, he can dig it 10 feet long. If you dig one by yourself, you can dig one 8 feet long. According to synergy,

                                                                                  a. if you team up and dig together, it would end up being less than 18 feet long.

                                                                                  b. if you team up and dig together, it would end up being more than 18 feet long.

                                                                                  c. if you team up and dig together, it would end up being exactly 18 feet long.

                                                                                  d. you should start at a center point and dig away from each other in opposite directions.

                                                                                  e. if you dig an 18-foot ditch together (syn), you will end up less tired (energy).      

                                                                                    23. An important contingency that management must understand is

                                                                                      a. production technology.

                                                                                      b. organization size.

                                                                                      c. culture.

                                                                                      d. all of the above

                                                                                      e. a and b only      

                                                                                        24. When work is done by using electronic linkages it is called

                                                                                        1. E-business.
                                                                                        2. E-commerce.
                                                                                        3. enterprise resource planning.
                                                                                        4. knowledge management.
                                                                                        5. cyber management.

                                                                                        25. According to Theory X, the average human being has an inherent               work.

                                                                                          a. understanding of

                                                                                          b. liking for

                                                                                          c. feeling, either positive or negative, towards

                                                                                          d. dislike for

                                                                                          e. trust in      

                                                                                            26. When a company sets up an internal communications system that uses the technology and standards of the Internet, but it is accessible only to people within the company, it is called a(n)

                                                                                            1. extranet.
                                                                                            2. internal Internet.
                                                                                            3. intranet.
                                                                                            4. cyber communications system.
                                                                                            5. E-commerce system.

                                                                                            27.   When companies sell products and services to consumers over the Internet it is referred to as

                                                                                            1. B2C
                                                                                            2. B2B
                                                                                            3. C2C
                                                                                            4. C2B
                                                                                            5. 2BC

                                                                                            28. Changes in one subsystem

                                                                                              a. lead to entropy.

                                                                                              b. affect other subsystems.

                                                                                              c. are never to be allowed by good management.

                                                                                              d. are impossible in an open organization.

                                                                                              e. usually result in synergy.      

                                                                                                29. In the learning organization

                                                                                                  a. everyone is expected to finish high school.

                                                                                                  b. everyone is expected to finish college.

                                                                                                  c. everyone is expected to finish graduate school.

                                                                                                  d. everyone is expected to complete a predetermined number of hours of continuing education each year.

                                                                                                  e. none of the above.      

                                                                                                    30. ERP stands for

                                                                                                    1. Electronic Research Process.
                                                                                                    2. Enterprise Resource Planning.
                                                                                                    3. Elective Research Planning.
                                                                                                    4. Electronic Risk Probability.
                                                                                                    5. Enterprise Risk Planning.

                                                                                                  True/False Questions:  Please indicate whether the following questions are true or false by writing a T or an F in the blank in front of each question.       

                                                                                                    1. Managers should not study the past, but instead concentrate on the future, since what is done is done and cannot be changed.      

                                                                                                      2. The basic assumptions about justice, determination of guilt or innocence, and various rights are included in political systems.      

                                                                                                        3. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, who had 12 children, were used by Frederick W. Taylor as an example of the disadvantages of not using scientific management.       

                                                                                                          4. According to Chester Barnard, people have free will and can choose whether to follow management orders.      

                                                                                                            5. While popular in the academic world, the behavioral sciences approach has never really been tried by any businesses.      

                                                                                                              6. Operations research consists of mathematical model building and other applications of quantitative approaches to managerial problems.      

                                                                                                                7. The only problem with the systems view of organizations is that it ignores feedback.       

                                                                                                                  8. Entropy is a fact of nature and cannot be avoided.      

                                                                                                                    9. A problem with the contingency view of management is that it ignores the external environment.      

                                                                                                                      10. The learning organization refers to a company in which everyone is encouraged to complete a college degree. 

                                                                                                                      Short-Answer Questions 

                                                                                                                        1. Why were the Hawthorne studies so important to the development of management? 


                                                                                                                          2. How has scientific management contributed to management? 

                                                                                                                            3. Explain which approach, Theory X or Theory Y, you feel is most appropriate with employees today. 

                                                                                                                              4. Explain how an adherent to contingency theory would react to scientific management's advocacy of "one best way." 

                                                                                                                                5. What is the role of a leader in the learning organization? 


                                                                                                                                Management Applications 

                                                                                                                                Your Managerial Approach 

                                                                                                                                Determine your own managerial approach by answering the following questions. Assume that you are the manager of a work group and answer the following questions accordingly. Put a Y for "yes" and an N for "no" in the blank preceding the question to indicate your response.      

                                                                                                                                  1. I would try to discover the best way to get the job done.      

                                                                                                                                    2. I would train the group to do the job the correct way.      

                                                                                                                                      3. I would offer an incentive pay for more work done.      

                                                                                                                                        4. I would assess workers' abilities and then assign them accordingly.      

                                                                                                                                          5. I would take the responsibility of planning who does what.      

                                                                                                                                            6. I would group activities of similar nature under one supervisor.      

                                                                                                                                              7. I would allow group members to communicate directly with each other when swift action is needed.      

                                                                                                                                                8. I would allow subordinates to use their own initiative in planning and organizing the work.      

                                                                                                                                                  9. I would try to foster a team spirit within the group.      

                                                                                                                                                    10. I would assign a place for everything and everyone.      

                                                                                                                                                      11. I would not use very much control over the group since it would tend to control itself.      

                                                                                                                                                        12. I would point out how fulfilling the job is when we reach our goals.      

                                                                                                                                                          13. I would give responsibilities to members of the group.      

                                                                                                                                                            14. I would listen to all the good ideas that group members come up with.      

                                                                                                                                                              15. I would try to think of ways in addition to the job to encourage the intellectual development of the group. 



                                                                                                                                                              A "yes" answer to the first five questions indicates a preference for the scientific management approach. 

                                                                                                                                                              A "yes" answer to the second five questions indicates a preference for the administrative principles method of the classical perspective. 

                                                                                                                                                              A "yes" answer to the third five questions indicates a preference for the human relations approach.

                                                                                                                                                                1. For which approach did your answers indicate a preference? 

                                                                                                                                                                  2. Did you answer "yes" to questions indicating a preference for more than one approach? If so, how do you explain it? Does the contingency approach help you to explain it? 

                                                                                                                                                                  A Case for History 

                                                                                                                                                                  This chapter points out the historical development of management thought. It makes the case that managers can learn both successful and unsuccessful practices from the past. For each of the approaches listed below identify one successful practice derived from that approach which you still see in practice today. For example, from scientific management we have the surgical techniques still used by surgeons today to eliminate wasted motion. 

                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific Management 

                                                                                                                                                                  Administrative Principles 

                                                                                                                                                                  Bureaucratic Organizations 

                                                                                                                                                                  The Human Relations Movement 

                                                                                                                                                                  Behavioral Sciences Approach 

                                                                                                                                                                  Systems Theory


                                                                                                                                                                  Mini Case 

                                                                                                                                                                  Ivan has just been promoted to be the manager of McDonald's second restaurant in Moscow. Ivan has been working for the company for the past two years as an assistant manager. He is one of four persons sent to first Canada and then to the United States to Hamburger University for training prior to the opening of the first McDonald's in Moscow. Although it has been difficult to change the way restaurants are perceived in the Soviet Union, McDonald's has been a success and it is ready to open its second store. 

                                                                                                                                                                  Ivan has been working very hard for McDonald's. At the same time he has been reading about management in Western countries and has been very impressed with many of the theories. Since he has been promoted to open and train the personnel for the new store, he is wondering what approach he should use. 

                                                                                                                                                                    1. Pick an approach to management that Ivan should not use and explain why not. 


                                                                                                                                                                      2. Pick the approach you feel would be most appropriate for Ivan to use and explain the reasons for your choice.


                                                                                                                                                                    Experiential Exercise 

                                                                                                                                                                    Sam Slick 

                                                                                                                                                                    You are the manager of a used car lot. The policy of the company is that your sales force never sell a car for below the established base price. Each sale results in a 5% commission for the salesperson. You have recently had some complaints from some of your employees regarding the actions of one of your best salespersons, Sam Slick. It seems that Sam has been selling cars for below the established base price. When you confront him about this practice, he points out that while the established base price gives the company a nice profit, no profit is realized if a car just sits on the lot forever. Consequently, he has been selling some of these slower-selling cars. A little profit is better than no profit at all he reasons. 

                                                                                                                                                                    Your instructor will divide the class into groups of four persons. Each group will be designated as a Taylor group, a Mayo group, a Deming group, or a Referee group. Depending on your group type, answer the question below. After five minutes your instructor will have each group present its solution. The Referee group will then pick the best solution and explain its choice. 

                                                                                                                                                                    Taylor Group

                                                                                                                                                                    You are a believer in scientific management. How would you handle this situation? Elect a spokesperson for the group to explain how and why you will handle it this way. This spokesperson will explain your rationale to the rest of the class. 

                                                                                                                                                                    Mayo Group

                                                                                                                                                                    You follow the human relations approach to management. How might you handle this situation? Elect a spokesperson for the group to explain how and why you will handle it this way. This spokesperson will explain your rationale to the rest of the class. 

                                                                                                                                                                    Deming Group

                                                                                                                                                                    You follow the management science approach to management. How might you handle this situation? Elect a spokesperson for the group to explain how and why you will handle it this way. This spokesperson will explain your rationale to the rest of the class. 

                                                                                                                                                                    Referee Group

                                                                                                                                                                    You will listen to the groups present their approaches to solving this problem. Decide on the criteria for judging their solutions while they are working out their solutions. 


                                                                                                                                                                    Which approach do you think would be best in this situation? Take a simple vote from all the referees to determine the best solution. Elect a spokesperson for the group to explain your choice to the rest of the class. 


                                                                                                                                                                     Study Guide Solutions 

                                                                                                                                                                    Chapter Review 

                                                                                                                                                                    Multiple-Choice Questions 

                                                                                                                                                                    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
                                                                                                                                                                    e b e e d a b c b c
                                                                                                                                                                    11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
                                                                                                                                                                    c b a c a d c e a e
                                                                                                                                                                    21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
                                                                                                                                                                    b b d a d c a b e b

                                                                                                                                                                    True/False Questions 

                                                                                                                                                                    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
                                                                                                                                                                    F T F T F T F F F F

                                                                                                                                                                    Short-Answer Questions 

                                                                                                                                                                      1. The Hawthorne studies were one of the first attempts to scientifically study human behavior on the job. They were an impetus to the human relations movement as they demonstrated that social factors were an important factor in determining behavior on the job. The belief that good human relations can improve productivity still exists today from these studies. 

                                                                                                                                                                        2. Scientific management demonstrated the importance of payment for job performance. It was also an early attempt to systematically study the tasks of work and various jobs. It explained the importance of personnel selection and training. 

                                                                                                                                                                          3. Most persons will answer that Theory Y is more appropriate for managers today since most employees meet Theory Y assumptions. Besides, it seems more decent and democratic to be more concerned for people. However, there are many situations in which Theory X is still appropriate. The contingency theory approach addresses this issue more fully. 

                                                                                                                                                                            4. An adherent of the contingency theory would reject the notion of one best way to do a job. According to contingency theory, the best way is dependent on several factors including the manager, the subordinates, and the situation. The one best way is the way that is appropriate for the set of contingencies present. 

                                                                                                                                                                              5. The leader in the learning organization creates a shared vision that includes what the organization will look like, performance outcomes and underlying values.  This vision may be created with employee participation and must be widely understood and imprinted in people��s minds. 

                                                                                                                                                                              Management Applications 

                                                                                                                                                                              Your Managerial Approach 

                                                                                                                                                                                1. The answer to this question depends on the scores to the questionnaire you received. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Most persons would probably answer "yes" to questions indicating a preference for more than one approach. The contingency approach helps to explain this because the answer one gives probably depends on the situation. Therefore, one could answer "yes" to some of the questions assuming a certain situation and "yes" to questions from a different approach assuming a different situation. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  A Case for History 

                                                                                                                                                                                  You are asked to give examples of practices that still exist today based on the following approaches: 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific Management

                                                                                                                                                                                  Bricklaying still uses the economy of motion techniques and the idea of "one best way" that were developed by scientific management. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Administrative Principles

                                                                                                                                                                                  The principle of unity of command is still used by almost all organizations today. In the military one knows exactly to whom he must report. Almost all organizations tell you who your direct supervisor is, adhering to this principle. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Bureaucratic Organizations

                                                                                                                                                                                  Several elements of a bureaucracy are identifiable in almost all organizations today. The government of almost all countries adheres to the bureaucratic model. For example, positions are organized in a hierarchy of authority in governments. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  The Human Relations Movement

                                                                                                                                                                                  The assumptions of McGregor are seen in many organizations. One example that most people are familiar with occurred during the Reagan administration in the United States. President Reagan used Theory Y assumptions about his cabinet and administrative staff, and he therefore delegated to them liberally. 


                                                                                                                                                                                  Behavioral Sciences Approach

                                                                                                                                                                                  Many organizations use information and techniques from the social sciences today. Personality tests such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator are frequently used by organizations to help them better understand employees. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Systems Theory

                                                                                                                                                                                  The concept of synergy is still used today. Almost all athletic teams understand the importance of teamwork and that by working together the team can be more successful than it can with the players working as individuals. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Mini Case 

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. An approach that Ivan should not use is the bureaucratic approach. Of course, elements of the bureaucratic model will still be evident in the organization, but life in Russia has been dominated by bureaucracy too long. Adherence to unbending rules and emphasis on procedures rather than on results are not what McDonald's needs to be successful at this time.  This is especially true, given the turbulent and uncertain environment in Russia. 

                                                                                                                                                                                      2. The approach that McDonald's uses successfully worldwide is the scientific management approach. McDonald's teaches its employees that there is one best way to fry burgers and french fries, for example. It trains employees in that method. McDonald's needs uniformity in all its locations and should probably stick to this approach. 

                                                                                                                                                                                      Experiential Exercise 

                                                                                                                                                                                      Sam Slick 

                                                                                                                                                                                      Taylor Group

                                                                                                                                                                                      As a believer in scientific management, you would try to convince Sam that there is one best way to sell used cars. You would try to train Sam in the company's prescribed way, including sticking to the established base price. You would also try to explain to Sam that by selling at a lower price he is reducing the amount of his commission. Since you believe that money is a prime motivator, this should convince him. You would also explain to him that it is management's job, not the employees', to establish procedures. 

                                                                                                                                                                                      Mayo Group

                                                                                                                                                                                      You would explain to Sam that his actions were causing the other employees to complain and would not make him very popular with them. You would also emphasize the importance of teamwork. You would ask him if he had any ideas to solve this problem himself. 


                                                                                                                                                                                      Deming Group

                                                                                                                                                                                      Since you subscribe to the management science approach, you would probably explain to Sam the quantitative rationale behind the present procedure. You would use logic to convince him that it is in his best interest to follow the procedure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                      Referee Group

                                                                                                                                                                                      Some of the criteria you might consider using include practicality of the proposed solution, how well Sam will accept the solution, and the effect of the solution on the rest of the company.




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