Home >  Graphology Information for Radio Oxford website – March 08 We are all taught to write at school and it is the way we have deviated fr

Graphology Information for Radio Oxford website – March 08 We are all taught to write at school and it is the way we have deviated fr

Graphology Information for Radio Oxford website – March 08 

      We are all taught to write at school and it is the way we have deviated from that original copybook that reveals our personality.  Handwriting can tell a great deal about the writer and gives many clues to potential, fears and areas for development.  The writing and its placing on the page express the unique impulses of the individual; the brain sends signals along the muscles to the writing implement that is being controlled. By examining the handwriting or ��brainwriting�� a trained graphologist is able to identify relevant features of the script and their interaction. 

      When looking at a person it is easy to tell when they are feeling fed-up or depressed, their shoulders might be down and the voice could be heavy and flat.  When feeling happy, the head is up, shoulders are back, they smile and have vitality in  the voice.  The pen strokes on a piece of paper symbolize the writers feelings at the time of writing and often parallel their facial expression, tone of voice ie the body language.  The writing reflects the way the writer is experiencing the world and how he functions in it.  Handwriting is as individual as a fingerprint and, in many subtle ways, unique to the writer. Instead of analysing the movement of the hand, as would be the case with body language, graphologists are trained to analyse the results of the hand movements and the writing on the page. 

      Each aspect of handwriting (eg. size, slant, spacing, pressure etc.) conveys meaning in a general way because of the symbolism associated with it.   Basic interpretations show how each movement relates to a different aspect of someone��s personality or behaviour.  If a piece of writing looks very tidy this reflects a tidy mind and a well organised lifestyle.  It the writing dominates the space the writer will tend to dominate people around them.  Quick lively writing reflects a person who has quick mental ability.  An original style shows individuality and difficult to read writing suggests someone who is not a good communicator. But general interpretations are not specific to the writer because they do not take into account other features in the writing.  It is important to remember that no one handwriting movement means any one personality trait.  It is the combination of all the different elements within the writing that builds up the picture of the individual. For each interpretation to be correct it needs 3 different handwriting movements with the same meaning to be present. 

      It is also important to remember that there is no perfect writing style.  We all have strengths and limitations and graphology can be useful in revealing these to help us grow and develop as individuals.  Most graphological features have both positive and negative interpretations and the decision as to which is appropriate will be on the basis of how the writing flows and what other features are in combination. The words that are written on the page are irrelevant to the analysis and the graphologist cannot tell age, gender, nationality, or occupation of the writer. First impressions of a writing are important as they can direct you to the dominant and therefore most important handwriting movements. There will be writings where they are more contradictory elements than complementary.  This will mean that the writer has inner conflicts that he may find difficult to reconcile.  These may be unconscious and will not always be recognised by the writer.  

      The science of graphology uses at least 300 different handwriting features in its investigative process.  Precise rules are followed to measure the writing movements such as zones, size, slant, width, pressure, degree of connection, connective forms , end and start strokes, baselines, space between words and lines, layout on the page, signature.   Some of these elements are basic to the very nature of the writer and chosen unconsciously.  Some are more superficial and can change with mood ie. slant and size.   If a person is excited or angry their writing is more likely to grow in size and slant more to the right, with heavy pressure.  If they are sad, depressed or concentrating, their writing probably shrinks and slants more upright or to the left with lighter pressure.    

      Graphology is a very old and respected science first developed by the Chinese 3,000 years ago.  The Romans used it and through the centuries since then various civilisations and cultures have analysed handwriting.   The modern approach was established by a group of French clerics who defined key aspects of the science in the 1870s after 30 years of study.  This work formed the basis of modern graphology although it it still being researched and expanded today.  Professional graphologists operate to a strict code of ethics and are constantly in demand: those who use it recognise its value in the workplace as an additional method of understanding character.  It is an extremely useful tool in identifying the quality and capacity of an individual��s talents and potential particularly in career guidance and improving relationships as well as enabling the individual to understand himself better.   


There are 3 zones within handwriting- upperzone UZ, midzone  MZ and lowerzone LZ.  Average size for each zone is 3mm and if all zones are of equal size the writer is well balanced.  The 3 zones go together to give the average size. There is only one letter which spans all 3 zones – letter f. 

MZ letters include the vowels a,e,i.o and u and other small letters that have no extensions are c,m,n,r,s,v,w,x.  Parts of letters b,d,g,h,and y also exist in MZ.  MZ indicates how we relate to others and fit in with everyday life.  It represents our ego.

The pen movement into the UZ symbolizes reaching up into the mental sphere and relates to areas where values, goals and ambitions are indicated.  UZ letters are b,d,f,h,k,l,t.  If they are very extended there may be unrealistic expectations of what they feel they must achieve. 

In the LZ depth of feelings and our physical drives and security needs  are reflected. 

LZ letters that drop below the baseline are f,g,j,p,q,y,z. 

Often one zone will be larger than another, meaning that extra energy is invested in that area leaving another zone weaker ie. with larger UZ, interest is focused on high ideals, hope and aspirations. With larger LZ,  interest is focused on instinctual needs and  material considerations.  May be a down to earth person.   With emphasis in MZ energy is invested in social and sentimental matters and  everyday life.


Loops or Straight Strokes

Loops in the zones indicates ideas, dreams imagination and emotions.  There are different meanings depending on the zone the loops are found in and what shape they are.

Straight up and down strokes tend to indicate someone who has dispensed with emotion and gets down to getting the job done.  In LZ straight strokes may show impatience or determination.

UZ -Reasonably size loops mean that the writer can think things through using their imagination in a sensible way.  Wide loops indicate more imagination and use of ideas.

LZ – full loop here with heavy pressure indicates energy, interest in money and sensual matters.  Full loop with light pressure indicates wish for security. 

A LZ cradle (unfinished loop) indicates an avoidance of aggression and confrontation.  

If there is a lot of variation in LZ the writer may be restless or unfocused emotionally.  


The 3 zones make up the average size of the handwriting which is 9mm or 10mm and known as medium size. A word with letters that extend into the UZ and LZ needs to be measured to ascertain this.    Writing that therefore measures less than 9mm is small and over 10 mm is large.  Size will indicate the level of activity, self confidence and sense of self importance of the writer. 

Large size shows expansion and filling of the writing space and therefore indicates a person who is extrovert and outgoing and likes to interact with people. Can indicate ambition, idealism, leadership, adventure, courage, generosity, pride, need for space and long sightedness.   Very large writing is likely to be an exhibitionist who wants to be noticed.

Medium size will indicate a person with a straightforward and realistic attitude. Shows a need to conform with a preference for the tried and tested methods in life, particularly if there is not much variation in size.

Small size can therefore mean the opposite of large indicating contraction of personality- movement is controlled and inhibited.  Meanings include objectivity, modesty, discipline, a thinker or academic who has good powers of concentration and works well on his own.  These people are not particularly good at communicating unless with those on the same wavelength.   

A varying size particularly in the MZ will indicate someone who is sensitive with a ready response to what is going on around. They may be moody and uncertain in their direction in life 


The slant indicates leaning towards or away from other people therefore revealing the social attitude and amount of emotional control the writer has Also represents whether the writer focus on looking ahead or back at the past.

Right slant shows response to communication and initiative- writer could be warm-hearted, communicative, adventurous, sociable, enthusiastic, courageous and spontaneous, ruled by heart over head.

Left slant shows someone who is introspective, reserved, cautious, loyal, reflective, and makes decisions based on past experiences. They may be difficult to get to know well as emotions are hidden and writer needs to be true to self first and foremost and can be resentful if others try to push for more commitment from them.

Upright slant shows someone who is stable and independent, has commonsense, is realistic with discrimination and is calm in a crisis, living in the present.  Head rules heart.

Mixed slant indicates someone who may be unpredictable in their responses with inner conflict and lack of harmony.  May be moody and adaptable with creative ability.   


Heavy pressure indicates good energy levels, forcefulness and commitment.  If pressure is very heavy may mean the writer reacts quickly to criticism (or imagined criticism).  He reacts first and ask questions later.

Light Pressure shows sensitivity to atmosphere and empathy to people and also may show lack of vitality. 

You cannot tell the pressure just from looking at the writing – if you can feel the writing on the reverse of the paper it is on the heavy side.  If there is no impression into the paper the writing could be light. 

Degree of Connection

When all letters are joined together in a word it is connected and shows someone who is ruled by reason and logic.  The more the letters are joined the more the person enjoys mixing with other people, is good at concentrating and finishing tasks. Finds it hard being interrupted.

Disconnected writing indicates someone who follows instincts and intuition. He will ��feel�� rather than reason.   Can cope with several tasks at one time and has an imaginative mind.  

Combination of connected and disconnected (3 or 4 letters within a word joined) shows someone who is intuitive but can apply logic to bring ideas to fruition. 

Forms of Connection

These reveal the writers attitude towards life, other people, and towards the outside world.  Can also indicate mental ability.  Very generally if writing looks angular it indicates a person who does not mind conflict, rounded forms are used by the receptive persons and, thread looking writing is used by security types who do not wish people to get to know them. There may be a mixture of styles within one writing.

Arcade – m and n letters look like arches with rounded tops.  This indicates  loyal,  protective, independent, trustworthy and methodical task oriented people.  Work best to a routine and plan, accumulative learners.

Garland – inverted arcade and is a people orientated script.  M and n are like cups which are receptive enjoying being helpful and liking to be involved.

Angle – analytical style with angles giving impression of probing.  Is very efficient worker rather than nurturer.

Thread – looks like unravelled wool.  Writers are mentally alert and adaptable but can be elusive and lack patience.  They are responders rather than initiators.  Can be clever at drawing together information and making something of them therefore they observe and take their time on decision making.

Wavyline is a bit of a mixture of all above and indicates someone who is mentally mature and skilful.  Can be adaptable, resourceful ,with good coping mechanisms. 


Width is measured by looking at the rounded letters in the middle zone.  The width is broad if the letter looks wider than it is tall.  If it is narrower than it is tall it is narrow width.

Broad writing implies horizontal extension - social or physical, reaching out for more space.  It implies the intention to expand by doing rather than by thinking.  It is generally a loose or released movement and can mean sincerity, broad view, love of travel, talkativeness, extravagance.

Narrow writing implies restriction and avoidance of social expansion and reflects some form of inhibition or control.  It can mean discipline, self control, economy, pedantry, shyness, or narrow-mindedness. 

Ending and starting strokes

When endstrokes are present it shows how the writer finishes off a task or a social encounter.  If the stroke does not come back down to the baseline it means that the person may find it hard to commit or admit to things.   A long curved stroke can show

generosity and kindness but a long straight stroke along the baseline may mean the person is suspicious and curious.   A MZ final stroke that goes into the LZ means some obstinacy and hooks can mean selfishness or tenacity.   Absence of endstrokes means independence , no nonsense, and person can seem abrupt.

Starting strokes represent someone who needs to plan ahead, is deliberate and conventional and may procrastinate. Without the strokes the writer has already done their planning and thinking and immediately reacts to situations. 


The baseline is the writing line that the middlezone letters sit.   The straightness and direction of the line is looked at to indicate the emotions, state of mind and mood of the moment as well as being a reflection of the basic temperament. 

Rising lines which are straight show determination, ambition, optimism, hopefulness and a cheerful mood.  

Straight lines show constancy of purpose, will power and discipline. 

Falling lines may be as a result of physical weakness or tiredness which may be temporary. They could have a critical approach and be pessimistic. 

Wavy lines indicate someone who is acting to avoid trouble – may be diplomatic or not like conflict.

Concave lines are where they dip in the centre and rise again and indicate a recovery of strength of energy or comeback which therefore shows courage, stamina and determination.

Convex lines are where they rise followed by a descent which indicates a fading of initial enthusiasm and energy.  Could indicate a good starter who gets easily bored, someone who gives up and is a bad finisher, or lack of determination.

Spacing between words

Wide word spacing indicates the need for space for the writer.  The space he takes though also indicates a barrier between himself and others and if it becomes too wide he may wish to make social contact but finds it difficult.  Shows independence,  discrimination and a person who needs own space.

Narrow word spacing indicates the need for people contact owing to feelings of insecurity – shows warmth sympathy, gregariousness, inability to be alone may also be intrusive and crowd people.

Fluctuations in spacing indicate changeable attitude to others, and behaviour that cannot be depended upon.

Spacing between lines

Clear spacing shows good objective judgement, a sense of proportion and a clear mind.

Very wide spacing shows a loss of contact with  or poor grasp of the realities of everyday life.

Narrow spacing show poor judgement through inability to stand back from things – lack of perspective.  

Mingled lines (loops from LZ of one line become confused with loops form UZ of line below) is a sign of mental muddle, and confused thinking. 


Left margin shows the roots, past and beginnings  and therefore if there is a wide left margin it means that the writer is interested in moving on, away from the past.  When it is narrow it means that the writer is cautious to move on and likes links to the past.  A straight margin shows good self discipline.

Right margin shows other people and the future and therefore when wide means there is fear of the unknown.  When narrow it shows impatience and eagerness to get out there and on with things. 


This deals with the appearance of the script and how simplified or enriched (complicated) it is. 

A simplified style is legible and contains only the essential strokes. It indicates someone who has a practical approach to life and commonsense, is objective and analytical, concentrating on facts. They will have quick and clear thinking and are articulate.

Enriched writing has extra strokes such as loops and flourishes and indicates someone who is perhaps unconventional, creative and wishes to be recognised as such.  Usually means that the writing is slower and controlled and the writer is concerned with the image being created.  May have a love of luxury, desire to impress, sense  of tradition or lack of objectivity.

Neglected writing misses some of the essential elements and therefore the writing

may be illegible. This may be because the writer is rushing to get all his ideas down on paper or that he simply is not concerned with the reader and does not wish to communicate. Can indicate laziness, unpunctuality, unreliability.

Copybook style is writing which is exactly as it was taught at school. It indicates someone who is good at following rules, is reliable, and enjoys working in team


The signature symbolizes the real person and how he wishes the world to see him. It is most significant when shown with the body of the handwriting and differerences or similarities are noted.

When text and signature are consistent it shows a straightforward and honest person.


Larger signature denotes someone who needs to gain peoples attention wanting to make a good impact and impression.  Wishes to appear more confident than they may really feel. 

Smaller signature is indicative of someone who does not seek a high profile.  Likes to deal with people on a formal level.

Signature which is more right slanted than the script shows a friendly manner and a wish to communicate  but this tends to be superficial.  Social friendliness but need to work independently. 

If signature is more upright than text it shows someone with an independent attitude but who is happy to work within a social environment. Comfort is in a crowd rather than on one to one basis because writer is reserved.

Full stop after signature indicates reserve.  Often can mean ��I have had the last word�� attitude and writer does not welcome intrusions into private affairs.

An underlining gives emphasis to the signature.  May be attention seeking or statement of firm personality.  A dramatic paraph (line) may be an actor or a wavy line is asking for the reader to find the writer attractive or liked.

Pictorial implications should be looked out for, especially if they differ from text.  If the signature is loopy, soft and thready with angular text it may mean that the writer presents a welcoming and listening appearance showing interest in others but is using any information obtained for his own benefit. 

Personal Pronoun I (PPI)

The letter I in a sentence ie.�� I am happy��

This indicates the writers view of their personality and how they see themselves. 

A tall and confident letter consistent in size with the script indicates firm self possession.

A straight and uncomplicated stroke can indicate someone who sticks to essentials.

If curved towards left some attachment to past and self consciousness.

If stroke is small in comparison to the rest of the text there could be lack of self confidence.

Stroke at top and bottom indicates a business like attitude.  

A letter shaped like number 2 indicates that there is a feeling of being second rate in some way and writer does not like people getting too close. 

                                                Gill Beale M.BIG (Dip) 


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