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Canadian Addiction Survey 2004: 

Microdata eGuide 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Canadian Addiction Survey 2004: 

Microdata eGuide 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

June, 2005 

This document is revised from

an earlier edition (November 2004) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

 

 

Updates to November 2004  Microdata eGuide

 
 
 

1.  Section 4.1 - Questionnaire Content and Design  

This section has been revised and a table describing item allocation in the 3 panels of the questionnaire has been added  (Table 1.1, page 4). 
 

2.   Section 5.1 – Data weighting 

The variable ��strata�� in the CAS 2004 data file is based on the 21 regional strata described in Table 5.1 (page 13).   
 

3.  Variables not documented in this eGuide 

The following variables in the CAS 2004 data file are not meant for analysis and are thus not documented: 


    rmr j1 to j7 gend_rmr
    strat lcp5a freqalc
    aleaa lcp5b alclev7
    aleac age_6  
 
 

4.  Occupation 

The variable ��sdem3�� was revised in a new variable named ��occupat��.  The variable ��occupat��, which contains revised occupation codes based on the NOC (National Occupation Codes), should be used for recoding purposes. 
 

5.   Updates to Appendix 1 (Derived Variables) 

The information regarding derived variables has been extensively updated. 

6.   Updates to Appendix 3 (Questionnaire). 

A detailed table describing the questionnaire content and item allocation across panels has been added (Table A3.1). 
 
 

 

 

The Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) is a major national survey of Canadians�� attitudes, beliefs, and personal use of alcohol and other drugs. It is a collaborative initiative financially supported by Health Canada, the Canadian Executive Council on Addictions (CECA) -- which includes the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission (AADAC); the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba (AFM); the  Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA); the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH); Prince Edward Island Mental Health and the Kaiser Foundation; --  the Victoria-based Centre for Addiction Research (CAR – BC), the British Columbia Ministry of Health Planning, the New Brunswick Department of Health and Wellness, and the Nova Scotia Department of Health.  

The CAS Research Advisory Team includes the following (alphabetical order): 

Edward Adlaf (CAMH, University of Toronto)

Patricia Begin (CCSA)

Andree Demers (University of Montreal),

Robert Hanson (Health Canada),

Florence Kellner (Carleton University),

Anca Ialomiteanu (CAMH),

David Patton (AFM),

Christiane Poulin (Dalhousie University)

Stephane Racine (Health Canada),

Juergen Rehm (CAMH, University of Toronto)

Ed Sawka (AADAC)

Eric Single (University of Toronto)

Patrick Smith (CAMH, University of Toronto) 
 

The CAS Microdata eGuide was prepared by Edward Adlaf (CAMH, University of Toronto) and Anca Ialomiteanu (CAMH).  This document was revised in June 2005 from an earlier edition (November, 2004)  

Suggested Citation:

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (2005).  Canadian Addiction Survey 2004: Microdata eGuide.  Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Ottawa. 

This publication can be accessed electronically at www.ccsa.ca 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Table of Contents        

1.  Background and Rationale 1

2.  Objectives 2

3.  CAS Sample Design 2

4.  Data Collection and Quality 3

      4.1 Questionnaire Content and Design 3

      4.2 Questionnaire Pretesting and Interviewing 3

      4.3  Participation and Sample Evaluation 5 

5. Data Weighting and Analysis 11

      5.1 Data Weighting 11

      5.2 Guidelines for Analysis and Release 12

      5.3 Reliability and Suppression 13 

6.  Data Limitations 22 

7. References 24 

8. Appendices 25

      8.1 Appendix 1 – Derived Variables 25

      8.2 Appendix 2 - WHO-ASSIST  Guidelines 50

      8.3 Appendix 3 -  Questionnaire   

 

 

1. Background and Rationale 

Timely and relevant data are necessary prerequisites for effective health policy and programming and for the monitoring of established health objectives. During the last decade, national health surveys such as the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) have been developed to meet these important needs. 

Although these existing national health surveys provide some prevalence indicators for the addiction field, they do not provide the necessary knowledge base required for ongoing planning. Indeed, professionals in other health behaviours such as tobacco and physical activity have found the need for dedicated on-going surveys (Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, Physical Activity Monitor). This absence of addiction specific data at a national level is especially important given that the political agenda will likely see the greatest changes to drug use policy since the turn of the century. 

The Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) is a major national survey of Canadians�� attitudes, beliefs, and personal use of alcohol and other drugs. It is a collaborative initiative sponsored by the Canadian Executive Council on Addictions (CECA) - which includes the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA); Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission (AADAC); the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba (AFM); the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Prince Edward Island Mental Health and Addictions and the Kaiser Foundation - , the provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia and Health Canada.   

The CAS Research Advisory Team included the following:  

    Edward Adlaf (CAMH, University of Toronto)

    Patricia Begin (CCSA)

    Andree Demers (University of Montreal),

    Robert Hanson (Health Canada),

    Florence Kellner (Carleton University),

    Anca Ialomiteanu (CAMH),

    David Patton (AFM),

    Christiane Poulin (Dalhousie University)

    Stephane Racine (Health Canada),

    Juergen Rehm (CAMH, University of Toronto)

    Ed Sawka (AADAC)

    Eric Single (University of Toronto)

    Patrick Smith (CAMH, University of Toronto) 

     

    2. Objectives 

    The key objectives of the proposed CAS are as follows: 

    1.  To determine the prevalence, incidence and frequency of alcohol and other drug use in the Canadian population aged 15 and older. The drugs of interest include alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, including cannabis, heroin and other opiates, cocaine and crack, amphetamines, hallucinogens (including MDMA) and inhalants.  

    2. To assess the context of use and the extent of harms that result from those individuals who use drugs. Measures include indicators of hazardous and harmful drinking, dependence and abuse indicators, and the adverse effects on personal and social functioning. 

    3.  To identify the risk and protective factors related to the use and consequences of drug use in the general population and in specific sub-groups. 

    4.  To assess the public��s opinions, views and knowledge regarding existing and potential addiction policies and to identify emerging policy issues. 
     
     

    3.   CAS Sample Design

     

    The CAS was based on a two-stage (telephone household, respondent) random sample stratified by 21 regional units.  The CAS was administered by Jolicoeur et associ��s, who were responsible for sample selection, telephone interviewing, and preparation of the initial microdata file. The survey used random-digit-dialling (RDD) methods via Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). The sampling frame was based on an electronic inventory (Statplus) of all active telephone area codes and exchanges in Canada. Within each of the 21 regional strata, defined by CMA versus non-CMA within each province (see Table 5.1), a random sample of telephone numbers was selected with equal probability in the first stage of selection (i.e., households).  Within selected households, one respondent age 15 or older who could complete the interview in English or French was selected according to the most recent birthday of household members.  A minimum of 12 call-backs were placed to unanswered numbers and all households who refused to participate on the first contact are re-contacted in order to secure maximum participation.

     

    The base sample allocation was for 10,000 completions, 1,000 per province. In addition, some provinces purchased additional cases (1,400 in Alberta, 2,000 in British Columbia and 500 in Manitoba) resulting in a final allocation of 13,909.

     

    The CAS sample represents some 24,214,815 Canadians aged 15 and older.

     
     

    4. Data Collection and Quality

     

    4.1 Questionnaire Content and Design

     

    The CAS is one of the most detailed and extensive addiction surveys ever conducted in Canada, with more than 400 unique questionnaire items.  In order to maximise the content areas of the survey without increasing the interview length, two categories of questions were created in the CAS: full items, those questions asked of all respondents, and panel items, those asked of three independent random sub-samples, Panels A through C. In  total, 13,909 respondents comprised the full interview items, 4,612 were interviewed for Panel A items, 4,639 for Panel B items, and 4,658 for Panel C items (see Table 1.1).

     

    Some of the new or unique content areas in the CAS include the following:

    • An extended section on public attitudes, opinions & policy issues 
    • Newly developed health related quality of life indicator (HRQoL)
    • Occasion-based drinking characteristics
    • World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (WHO AUDIT) to measure high risk drinking  
    • Detailed items related to cannabis use opportunities, reasons and market factors
    • World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (WHO ASSIST) to measure hazardous or harmful illicit drug use
    • Extended detail on personal and contextual factors for illicit drug use
    • An extended section on drug use harms and victimization
    • New national estimate of drug use and driving
    • New material assessing unmet treatment needs
    • New material allowing researchers to further study economic cost issues. 
     
     
     

    Table 1.1 - CAS 2004 - Questionnaire Panels


      Panel A Panel B Panel C
    Number of respondents (Total N=13,909) 4,612 4,639 4,658
           

    Attitudes, Opinions, Policy (part 1)

         
       Perceived seriousness at national level    
       Perceived seriousness at provincial level    
       Perceived seriousness at community    
       Perceived harm of drug use  
       Perceived risk    
       Perceived availability    
    Health & Well-Being      
      General Health; Mental Health    
      Social isolation    
    Tobacco Use    
    Alcohol      
        Prevalence, patterns of consumption
        Occasion-based drinking    
        Home Brew (wine & beer)    
        Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

    Cannabis

         
        Prevalence, patterns of consumption
        Context of cannabis use
        Cannabis problems (WHO ASSIST)
    Illicit Drugs      
         Prevalence, patterns of consumption  (cocaine, speed,
         ecstasy, hallucinogens, inhalants,  heroin, steroids)      
         Context of use
         Injection drug use
         Illicit drug use problems (WHO ASSIST)
    Harms and costs      
         Self-reported harms (alcohol & drugs)
         Victimization and violence
         Willingness to pay    
    Attitudes, Opinions, Policy (part 2)      
       Government programs    
       Societal impact    
       Policy opinion (alcohol, cannabis, drugs)    
    Driving and substance use (alcohol and cannabis)    

    Treatment

    Demographics (MSCN-FSA)
           

                                                                                                                       

     
     

    4.2 Questionnaire Pretesting and Interviewing

     

    Core substance use measures were typically drawn from pre-existing national surveys, including the 1989 NADS (Eliany, Giesbrecht, et al.,1990), the 1994 CADS (MacNeil and Webster, 1997) and the current CCHS (Tjepkema, 2004). Prior to the initiation of fieldwork, all new questions and full interviews were pretested with approximately 25 respondents. This pre-survey analysis included information from pretest respondents, and expert evaluation from the Research Advisory Team.

     

    Telephone interviews were conducted in both English and French by Computer-Assisted-Telephone Interviewing (CATI) methods between December 16 to December 23, 2003 and from January 9 to April 21, 2004. Compared with ��paper-pencil�� questionnaires, CATI interviews have several advantages, including: immediate data capture, automatic control of question sequences, centralized interviewer supervision and capability of randomization of respondents to particular questions.For each time zone, the normal interviewer��s working schedule was from 8:00 am to 11:00 pm Monday to Friday, from 12:00 pm to 8:00 pm on Saturday and from 1:00 pm to 9:00 pm on Sunday. Ten percent of interviews were validated by re-contacts.

     

    As seen in Table 1.2, the median interview time was 23 minutes (80% of interviews were completed within 30 min). Interviews were conducted by 89 interviewers, many of whom had considerable CATI experience. In addition, all respondents who refused to participate on the first call, were recontacted by an experienced interviewer in order to maximize participation. Table 1.2 also documents interviewing activity related to day of interview, length of interview and number of calls.

     
     
     
     

    Table 1.2 – CAS Interviewing Activity

     
      N Unweighted %
    Fieldwork    
      Dec. 16- Dec. 23, 2003; 409 2.1
      Jan. 9 – April 21, 2004 13501 97.9
         
    Days    
      Sunday 2042 14.7
      Monday 2155 15.5
      Tuesday 2219 16.0
      Wednesday 2107 15.1
      Thursday 2000 14.4
      Friday 1461 10.5
      Saturday 1925 13.8
         
    Interview length (min.)    
      <10 min. 334 2.4
      10-19 3,324 23.9
      20-29 9,740 70.0
      30-49 407 2.9
      50-59 72 0.5
      60+ min 32 0.2
      Median 23 min ---
         
    No. of contacts    
      1 2,146 15.4
      2-3 3,856 27.7
      4-6 3,867 27.8
      7+ 4,040 29.1
         
    Language of Interview    
      English 12,596 90.6
      French 1,313 9.4
     
     
     

    4.3  Participation & Sample Evaluation

     

    Of the 59,795 selected telephone numbers (of which 29,573 were known to be eligible or estimated to be eligible), 13, 909 respondents participated, representing an effective response rate of 47.0% (Table 2). Response rates varied from 43.6% in British Columbia to 51.1% in Manitoba.

     

    The response rate approaching 50% is lower than prior national addiction surveys, and thus, an evaluation of potential bias is necessary. It is important to note, however, that the potential bias of nonresponse is not solely a function of the response rate. It is influenced by (1) the magnitude of the response rate and (2) the difference between respondents and non-respondents (which is generally unknown). Thus, sizeable bias may occur in a survey with a good response rate, but with large differences between responders and non-responders, and ignorable bias may occur in a survey with low response rate, but with small differences between responders and non-responders (Groves & Couper, 1998).

     

    Thus, to strengthen the confidence in these data, it is important to show that key demographic characteristics and the CAS sample are similar to the Canadian population, and that drug use indicators seem reasonable. Table 3 presents key demographic characteristics of the CAS sample, including the number of interviews, the unweighted and weighted percentages and the design effects. Table 4 compares demographic characteristics of the CAS sample to population data based on the 2001 Canadian Census. As seen in Table 4, the weighted CAS distribution compares favourably to the Census data (note that this should be case given that the weights include population adjustments for sex, age and province). It is important to note, however, that the CAS sample tends to underrepresent respondents who were never married and had some post-secondary education and overrepresent respondents who were married and had a university degree. These differences are common to telephone surveys (Trewin & Lee, 1988).

     

    In addition, confidence in the CAS data would also be strengthened by demonstrating that substance use estimates were similar to recent surveys such as the 2002 CCHS. As seen in Table 5, CAS estimates are generally within range of those found in the CCHS. Indeed, of the 66 estimates in Table 5, only 9 comparisons exceed ��3% points. In all instances, the CAS estimates are higher than the CCHS. For the total sample the CAS estimates are higher for lifetime cannabis use and any lifetime illicit drug use; for men, the CAS estimates are higher for lifetime cannabis, lifetime cocaine, lifetime hallucinogens and any illicit drug use; for women, the CAS estimates are higher for lifetime alcohol, past year alcohol and lifetime cannabis use. In sum, despite a response rate of 47%, there is no obvious evidence of systematic bias in the CAS data.

     

    Among participants, data quality also appeared to be evident. A majority of CAS respondents (79.5%) answered all questions required of them. In total, 97.4% of respondents had two or fewer item missing responses (total item missing responses ranged from 0 to 31, mean=0.33).

     

     

    Table 2.    CAS Fieldwork Statistics

     
        NWF PEI NS NB QUE ONT MAN SAS ALB BC TOTAL %
      NUMBERS AVAILABLE 4600 3725 3900 4600 3700 4850 6500 4200 9920 13800 59795  
      NUMBERS CALLED 4600 3725 3900 4600 3700 4850 6500 4200 9920 13800 59795 100.00%
      Out of service 1832 1052 1223 1722 905 1427 2362 1295 2034 3459 17311 28.95%
      Non-residential 299 245 261 343 285 476 422 285 1012 903 4531 7.58%
      Line problems 54 35 21 41 21 34 29 36 52 72 395 0.66%
      Fax 205 206 207 235 230 308 378 328 883 1140 4120 6.89%
      Changed numbers 30 46 47 108 83 103 34 18 91 96 656 1.10%
    A, NON VALIDE {out-of-scope}} 2420 1584 1759 2449 1524 2348 3225 1962 4072 5670 27013 45.18%
      VALIDE {in scope} 2180 2141 2141 2151 2176 2502 3275 2238 5848 8130 32782 54.82%
      Not eligible 8 11 8 9 10 16 13 5 28 45 153 0.47%
      Language problems 19 8 8 10 42 155 114 28 185 555 1124 3.43%
      Age, sickness 76 72 65 68 39 48 94 64 87 167 780 2.38%
      Duplicate 6 5 4 3 0 6 3 2 7 12 48 0.15%
    B, HORS ÉCHANTILLON 109 96 85 90 91 225 224 99 307 779 2105 6.42%
      ÉCHANTILLON 2071 2045 2056 2061 2085 2277 3051 2139 5541 7351 30677 93.58%
    C, Household refusal 435 410 472 372 421 579 745 474 1389 2063 7360 23.99%
    D, Selected person refusal 170 158 172 195 252 173 227 168 394 521 2430 7.92%
    D, Long absence 28 18 11 7 4 21 14 5 27 51 186 0.61%
    D, Incomplete 16 7 8 17 20 19 18 15 27 38 185 0.60%
    C. No answer 225 305 258 231 191 302 343 279 755 1025 3914 12.76%
    D, Call backs 196 147 133 239 194 183 202 198 548 653 2693 8.78%
                               
      COMPLETED 1001 1000 1002 1000 1003 1000 1502 1000 2401 3000 13909  
                               
      % REFUSAL 29.2% 27.8% 31.3% 27.5% 32.3% 33.0% 31.9% 30.0% 32.2% 35.2% 31.9%  
      % COMPLETED 48.3% 48.9% 48.7% 48.5% 48.1% 43.9% 49.2% 46.8% 43.3% 40.8% 45.3%  
    ER ELIGIBILITY RATE 92.8% 93.3% 94.0% 94.2% 94.3% 86.1% 89.8% 93.3% 91.7% 84.6% 90.2%  
    RR RESPONSE RATE 49.5% 50.1% 49.9% 49.4% 48.9% 46.4% 51.1% 47.9% 44.8% 43.6% 47.0%  
     

          Table 3.  Demographic Characteristics of the CAS 2004 Sample

     
     
     
     
    No. Interviews
     
    Unweighted %

    (N=13909)

     
    Weighted %

    (N=25773)

     
    Design Effect
     
    Gender
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
      Male
    5721 41.1 48.5 3.4
     
      Female
    8188 58.9 51.5 3.4
     
    Age
           
     
      15-17
    581 4.2 4.2 3.0
     
      18-19
    439 3.2 3.6 3.5
     
      20-24
    1065 7.7 8.5 3.5
     
      25-34
    2342 16.8 16.1 2.9
     
      35-44
    2720 19.6 20.5 3.5
      45-54 2706 19.5 17.8 3.4
      55-64 1853 13.3 11.5 2.9
     
      65-74
    1179 8.5 9.7 3.9
     
      75+
    719 5.2 5.9 3.8
     
      Missing
    305 2.2 2.3 3.0
     
    Marital Status
           
     
      Married
    6778 48.7 45.2 3.3
     
      Partner/ Common-law
    1152 8.3 9.9 3.1
     
      Widowed
    914 6.6 6.7 3.6
     
      Separated
    454 3.3 3.8 3.7
     
      Divorced
    885 6.4 6.3 3.3
     
      Never Married
    3632 26.1 27.6 3.3
     
      Missing
    94 0.7 0.5 3.2
     
    Province *
           
     
    Newfoundland
    1001 7.2 1.7  
    1.14
    Prince Edward Island 1000 7.2 0.4  
    1.10
    Nova Scotia 1002 7.2 3.0  
    1.19
    New Brunswick 1000 7.2 2.4  
    1.11
    Quebec 1003 7.2 24.1  
    1.09
    Ontario 1000 7.2 38.5  
    1.11
    Manitoba 1502 10.8 3.6  
    1.07
    Saskatchewan 1000 87.2 3.1  
    1.06
    Alberta 2401 17.3 9.8  
    1.15
    British Columbia 3000 21.6 13.4  
    1.09
     
    Rural FSA
           
     
      Rural
    3016 21.7 15.7 2.8
     
    Not-Rural
    10893 78.3 84.3 2.8
     
    Highest Education
           
     
      Less than high school
    2471 17.8 17.2  
    3.1
     
      Completed high school
    3926 28.2 26.6  
    3.2
     
      Some college or university
    4267 30.7 30.3  
    3.3
     
      Graduated university
    3146 22.6 25.1  
    3.3
     
      Missing
    99 0.7 0.8  
    3.2
     
    Gross Family Income (,000s)
           
     
     
      <$20
    1067 7.7 6.8  
    3.0
     
      $20-29.9
    1083 7.8 7.2  
    3.2
     
      $30-39.9
    1139 8.2 7.8  
    3.2
     
      $40-49.9
    1039 7.5 7.4  
    3.4
     
      $50-59.9
    957 6.9 6.9  
    3.3
     
      $60-69.9
    774 5.6 5.6  
    3.3
     
      $70-79.9
    730 5.2 5.0 3.0
     
      $80-89.9
    561 4.0 4.4 3.6
     
      $90-99.9
    332 2.4 2.3 3.2
     
      $100+
    2286 16.4 18.0 3.5
     
      DK
    1470 10.6 10.2 3.2
     
    Refused
    2471 17.8 18.4 3.4
     
    Employment Status
           
     
      Full-time job
    6018 43.3 45.3  
    3.3
     
      Part-time job
    1366 9.8 9.0  
    3.1
     
      Unemployed
    674 4.8 4.4  
    2.9
     
      Homemaker
    724 5.2 4.5  
    2.9
     
      Student
    1236 8.9 9.1  
    3.3
     
      Retired
    2526 18.2 19.2  
    3.6
     
      Other
    1304 9.4 8.0  
    3.2
     
      Missing
    61 0.8 1.0  
    3.1
     
    Language spoken at home
           
     
      English
    12014 86.4 70.1  
    1.8
     
      French
    1338 9.6 23.2  
    1.2
     
      Other
    525 3.8 6.5  
    4.6
     
      Missing
    32 0.4 0.4  
    1.4
     

     
     

          Table 4.  Selected Demographic Characteristics: Weighted CAS 2004 versus 2001 Census Data, Canada Population, Aged 15 Years and over.

     
     
     
    CAS 2004

    (N=13,909)

     
     
    2001 Canada Census

    (N=24,214,835)

     
    GENDER
             
    Male (47.0 48.5 50.0)   48.5
    Female (50.0 51.5 53.0)   51.5
    AGE          
    15- 24 (15.4 16.5 17.6)   16.7
    25- 44 (36.0 37.4 38.9)   37.9
    45- 64 (28.6 30.0 31.4)   30.3
    65+ (14.8 16.0 17.2)   15.2
    MARITAL STATUS          
    Never married (26.4 27.7 29.1) * 33.4
    Married/ Common Law (53.9 55.4 56.9) * 50.1
    Widowed/ Separated/ Divorced (15.7 16.9 18.0)   16.5
    PROVINCE          
     
    Newfoundland
    (1.64 1.7 1.73)   1.7
    Prince Edward Island (0.04 0.4 0.04)   0.4
    Nova Scotia (2.93 3.0 3.10)   3.1
    New Brunswick (2.36 2.4 2.49)   2.5
    Quebec (23.71 24.1 24.72)   24.6
    Ontario (37.89 38.5 39.03)   37.9
    Manitoba (3.54 3.6 3.71)   3.7
    Saskatchewan (3.02 3.1 3.22)   3.2
    Alberta (9.65 9.8 9.98)   9.7
    British Columbia (13.1 13.4 13.5)   13.2
    HIGHEST EDUCATION          
    High School or Less (42.6 44.1 45.6)   45.4
    Some Post-Secondary (29.2 30.6 32.0) * 39.2
    University Degree (23.9 25.3 26.7) * 15.4
               
     

      Notes: CAS data refer to: lower limit of 95% confidence interval, percentage estimate, and upper limit of 95% confidence interval; * indicates census data is not within the bounds of the CAS CI (CAS data excludes missing data).

          Source: Statistics Canada. [On-line]. Available: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/home/index.cfm

     
     
     

     

      Table 5.    Comparison of Substance Use Indicators, CAS versus CCHS 2002

     
      Total   Men   Women  
      CAS CCHS CAS CCHS CAS CCHS
                 
    Alcohol – life 92.8

    (92.0-93.6)

    90.3 94.1

    (92.8-95.2)

    93.6 91.6

    (90.5-92.7)

    87.2
    Alcohol – 12m 79.3

    (78.1-80.5)

    77.3 82.0

    (80.1-83.8)

    82.0 76.8

    (75.1- 78.4)

    72.7
    Cannabis – life 44.5

    (43.0- 46.0)

    41.3 50.1

    (47.8-52.5)

    47.0 39.2

    (37.3-41.1)

    35.9
    Cannabis – 12m 14.1

    (13.1-15.2)

    12.2 18.2

    (16.6-20.0)

    15.5 10.2

    (9.1-11.5)

    9.1
    Cocaine/crack—life 10.6

    (9.7-11.6)

    8.0 14.1

    (12.6-15.8)

    10.7 7.3

    (6.4-8.3)

    5.4
    Ecstasy – life 4.1

    (3.5-4.7)

    2.9 5.2

    (4.3-6.3)

    3.7 3.0

    (2.4-3.7)

    2.2
    Hallucinogens –life 11.4

    (10.5-12.4)

    8.4 16.0

    (14.4-17.8)

    11.1 7.1

    (6.2-8.1)

    5.8
    Speed -- life 6.4

    (5.6-7.2)

    4.6 8.7

    (7.4-10.2)

    6.0 4.1

    (3.5-4.9)

    3.2
    Heroin – life 0.9

    (0.6-1.2)

    0.7 1.3

    (0.9-1.9)

    1.1 0.5

    (0.3-0.7)

    0.4
    Any illicit –life 17.0

    (15.9-18.1)

    13.7 21.8

    (20.0-23.8)

    17.3 12.4

    (11.2-13.7)

    10.2
    Any illicit—12m 3.1

    (2.6-3.6)

    2.4 4.4

    (3.6-5.4)

    3.2 1.9

    (1.4-2.4)

    1.6
                 
     
     

    5. Data Weighting and Analysis

     

    5.1 Data Weighting

     

    Because the sample is allocated disproportionately to the provincial representation, weights are required to restore population representation. The weights for the CAS sample are based on 252 population classes based on 21 regional strata (variable = strata) by 6 age groups and by sex (Table 5.1).

     

    Table 5.1. Regional strata, age groups and sex variables (used for weights calculation)


    STRATA          (21 regional strata)

     

    1. St-John��s CMA (Newfoundland)

    2. Other in Newfoundland

     

    3. Charlottetown CMA

    4. Other in Prince-Edward-Island

     

    5. Halifax CMA

    6. Other in Nova-Scotia

     

    7. St-John (N.-B.) CMA and Moncton CMA

    8. Other in New-Brunswick

     

    9. Montreal CMA and Quebec CMA

    10. Other in Quebec

     

    11. Ottawa CMA and Toronto CMA

    12. Other in Ontario

     

    13. Winnipeg CMA

    14. Other in Manitoba

     

    15. Saskatoon CMA and Regina CMA

    16. Other Saskatchewan

     

    17. Calgary CMA

    18. Edmonton CMA

    19. Other in Alberta

     

    20. Vancouver CMA

    21. Other in British-Colombia

    AGE  

    15 to 24 years old

    25 to 34 years old

    35 to 44 years old

    45 to 54 years old

    55 to 64 years old

    65 years and older

    SEX  

    Men

    Women

     

    5.2 Guidelines for Analysis and Release

     

    Sample designs employing complex sampling procedures, such as stratification, weighting and multistage selection, tend to underestimate the variance (or error) of estimates when simple random sampling (SRS) formulas are used.  The implication of using SRS formulas on estimates from complex sampling designs is that we are likely to create a more narrow confidence interval than truly exists.  We will therefore be more likely to find a greater number of statistically significant differences than ought to exist.  The Deff is a measure which can be used to crudely adjust for this problem.  It is essentially the ratio of the variance of an estimate derived from the particular sampling design over the variance of the same estimate of an SRS of the same size.  A Deff of 1.0 indicates that the variance of a given sample design is equivalent to the variance of a SRS.  Most complex designs, however, tend to have Deffs larger than one. The adjustment can also be seen as reducing the size of the sample; thus, if the sample size is 10,000, a Deff of 3.0 would reduce our sample to an equivalent SRS, or effective sample size, of 3,0001 (i.e., 10,000/3.0). Because each estimate has a unique Deff, attempts to use an average Deff to downweight the sample to an effective sample size is not feasible. See Kish (1965) or Lee et al. (1989) for an elaboration of Deffs.

     

    In the CAS design, the Deffs are primarily influenced by the two-stage selection and the disproportional sampling fractions related to equal provincial allocations. As seen in Table 3, the CAS generally has a Deff of about 3.4, although this can vary by various outcomes and subgroups.

     

    If the particular research question involves inference to the total population of Canadians aged 15 and older (e.g., epidemiological estimates of drinking or drug use), the investigator must employ weights. If the research question does not require a probability sample, the requirement of weighting can be relaxed (see Groves 1989: 279-294, for a discussion on this matter). If a probability sample is a necessary component of the analysis, the following MUST be applied when using CAS data.

     

    In order to provide proper estimates of variance, confidence intervals and statistical tests, appropriate computer software that corrects for the complex sampling design must be used (e.g., SUDDAN, Stata, Epiinfo, and special modules found in SPSS (Complex Sampling) and SAS).

     

    The CAS design variables for statistical analysis are as follows:

          Weight variable = XWGT

          PSU/Cluster variable = IDNUM

          Stratification variable = STRATA

     

    For exploratory analysis purposes, a relative weight variable (RWGT) is also included in the microdata file.

     

    5.3  Reliability and Suppression

     

    Small estimates (e.g., small percentages) based on a small number of respondents can produce, not only wide confidence intervals, but unstable estimates.

     

      The relative standard error  or the coefficient of variation (CV) should be employed to identify unstable estimates (see Tables 6.1-6.4).

     

    There are two aspects to the statistical quality of survey data: precision - typically measured by the 95% confidence interval (CI), and stability - typically measured by the ratio of the standard error to its estimate. Confidence intervals indicate the probable error of a given survey estimate; thus, a ��0.8% 95% CI (based on the total CAS sample of 13,909 (��2.8% assuming a Deff of 3.4) with a percentage estimate of 50% indicates that with repeated sampling, 95% of the samples would contain the true population estimate.  Confidence intervals, however, do not reflect total errors or accuracy, but reflect errors due to the fact that we are surveying only a sample of the total population.  Errors as measured by confidence intervals do not include nonsampling errors such as question nonresponse, problems of respondent memory and recall, interviewer effects, sensitivity of questions, underreporting of drug use, and the like.  Thus, the reader should always bear in mind that the "precision" of an estimate, as indicated by the confidence interval, is not synonymous with "total accuracy" of an estimate.

     

    The ratio of the standard error to its estimate is a measure especially useful when comparing the precision of different estimates based on different sample sizes and different measures.  The criteria for the suppression for CAS data is based on the coefficient of variation (CV).

     

    Guidelines for data suppression based on the CV are as follows:

     
    CV range Estimate stability
    0-16.5 Estimate stable
    16.6-33.3 Estimate has moderate sampling variability and should be interpreted with caution
    33.3+ Estimate unstable and should be suppressed
     
     

    As seen in Table 6.1, for the total CAS sample of 13,909 respondents, estimates as low as 0.5% are reportable without suppression, and estimates as low as 4% are reportable without suppression provincially.  

    Table 6.1  Coefficient of Variation Values by Percentage Estimate and CAS Sample Size

     
    CAS Sample size

    Percentage Estimate

                                 
        0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Total 13909 12 8.4 6.9 5.9 5.3 4.8 4.5 4.2 3.7 3.4 3.1      
                                   
    Sex                              
    Men 5721 18.7 13.2 10.7 9.3 8.3 7.5 6.9 6.5 5.8 5.2 4.8      
    Women 8188 15.6 11 9 7.7 6.9 6.3 5.8 5.4 4.8 4.4 4      
                                   
    Age                              
    15-17 581 58.6 41.3 33.6 29.1 25.9 23.6 21.8 20.3 18.1 16.4 15.1 14.1 13.2 12.5
    18-19 439 67.4 47.5 38.7 33.4 29.8 27.2 25.1 23.4 20.8 18.9 17.4 16.2 15.2 14.3
    20-24 1065 43.2 30.5 24.8 21.5 19.1 17.4 16.1 15 13.4 12.1 11.2 10.4 9.7 9.2
    25-34 2342 29.2 20.6 16.7 14.5 12.9 11.8 10.9 10.1 9 8.2 7.5 7 6.6 6.2
    35-44 2720 27.1 19.1 15.5 13.4 12 10.9 10.1 9.4 8.4 7.6 7 6.5 6.1 5.8
    45-54 2706 27.1 19.1 15.6 13.5 12 10.9 10.1 9.4 8.4 7.6 7 6.5 6.1 5.8
    55-64 1853 32.8 23.1 18.8 16.3 14.5 13.2 12.2 11.4 10.1 9.2 8.5 7.9 7.4 7
    65-74 1179 41.1 29 23.6 20.4 18.2 16.6 15.3 14.3 12.7 11.5 10.6 9.9 9.3 8.7
    75+ 719 52.6 37.1 30.2 26.1 23.3 21.2 19.6 18.3 16.3 14.8 13.6 12.7 11.9 11.2
                                   
    Province                              
    Newfoundland 1001 44.6 31.5 25.6 22.1 19.7 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10.1 9.5
    Prince Edward Island 1000 44.6 31.5 25.6 22.1 19.8 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10.1 9.5
    Nova Scotia 1002 44.6 31.4 25.6 22.1 19.7 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10.1 9.5
    New Brunswick 1000 44.6 31.5 25.6 22.1 19.8 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10.1 9.5
    Quebec 1003 44.6 31.4 25.6 22.1 19.7 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10 9.5
    Ontario 1000 44.6 31.5 25.6 22.1 19.8 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10.1 9.5
    Manitoba 1502 36.4 25.7 20.9 18.1 16.1 14.7 13.6 12.6 11.3 10.2 9.4 8.8 8.2 7.7
    Saskatchewan 1000 44.6 31.5 25.6 22.1 19.8 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10.1 9.5
    Alberta 2401 28.8 20.3 16.5 14.3 12.7 11.6 10.7 10 8.9 8.1 7.4 6.9 6.5 6.1
    British Columbia 3000 25.8 18.2 14.8 12.8 11.4 10.4 9.6 8.9 8 7.2 6.7 6.2 5.8 5.5
                                   
    Marital status                              
    Never married 3632 23.4 16.5 13.4 11.6 10.4 9.4 8.7 8.1 7.2 6.6 6 5.6 5.3 5
    Married 7930 15.8 11.2 9.1 7.9 7 6.4 5.9 5.5 4.9 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.4
    Prev. married 2253 29.7 21 17.1 14.8 13.2 12 11.1 10.3 9.2 8.3 7.7 7.1 6.7 6.3
                                   
    Education                              
    <High School 2471 28.4 20 16.3 14.1 12.6 11.4 10.6 9.9 8.8 8 7.3 6.8 6.4 6
    Completed HS 3926 22.5 15.9 12.9 11.2 10 9.1 8.4 7.8 7 6.3 5.8 5.4 5.1 4.8
    Some post-sec 4267 21.6 15.2 12.4 10.7 9.6 8.7 8 7.5 6.7 6.1 5.6 5.2 4.9 4.6
    Univ. Degree 3146 25.2 17.7 14.4 12.5 11.1 10.1 9.4 8.7 7.8 7.1 6.5 6 5.7 5.3
                                   
    Income                              
    >$30,000 2150 30.4 21.5 17.5 15.1 13.5 12.3 11.3 10.6 9.4 8.5 7.9 7.3 6.9 6.5
    $30,000-$49,000 2178 30.2 21.3 17.4 15 13.4 12.2 11.3 10.5 9.3 8.5 7.8 7.3 6.8 6.4
    $50,000-$79,000 2461 28.4 20.1 16.3 14.1 12.6 11.5 10.6 9.9 8.8 8 7.3 6.8 6.4 6
    $80,000+ 3179 25 17.6 14.4 12.4 11.1 10.1 9.3 8.7 7.7 7 6.5 6 5.6 5.3
    DK/REF 3941 22.5 15.9 12.9 11.2 9.9 9.1 8.4 7.8 6.9 6.3 5.8 5.4 5.1 4.8
                                   

    Note: Green (dark shaded) entries represent unstable estimates;  Yellow (light shaded) entries represent estimates with moderate sampling variability;

          Unshaded entries represent estimates with acceptable reliability.  

          CV assume simple random sampling

     
     

    Table 6.2   Panel A - Coefficient of Variation Values by Percentage Estimate and Sample Size

     
    PANEL A  (sample size) Percentage Estimate
                                   
        0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
                                   
    Total 4612 20.8 14.7 11.9 10.3 9.2 8.4 7.7 7.2 6.4 5.8 5.4      
                                   
    Sex                              
    Men 1928 32.1 22.7 18.5 15.9 14.2 13 12 11.2 9.9 9 8.3      
    Women 2684 27.2 19.2 15.6 13.5 12.1 11 10.1 9.5 8.4 7.6 7      
                                   
    Age                              
    15-17 201 99.7 70.4 57.3 49.5 44.2 40.2 37.1 34.6 30.8 28 25.8 24 22.5 21.2
    18-19 141 119.2 84.1 68.5 59.2 52.8 48.1 44.4 41.4 36.8 33.5 30.8 28.7 26.9 25.4
    20-24 349 75.6 53.3 43.4 37.5 33.5 30.5 28.1 26.3 23.4 21.2 19.5 18.2 17 16.1
    25-34 796 50 35.3 28.7 24.8 22.1 20.2 18.6 17.4 15.5 14 12.9 12 11.3 10.6
    35-44 882 47.5 33.5 27.3 23.6 21 19.2 17.7 16.5 14.7 13.3 12.3 11.4 10.7 10.1
    45-54 906 46.9 33.1 26.9 23.3 20.8 18.9 17.5 16.3 14.5 13.2 12.1 11.3 10.6 10
    55-64 635 56 39.5 32.2 27.8 24.8 22.6 20.9 19.5 17.3 15.7 14.5 13.5 12.6 11.9
    65-74 372 73.2 51.7 42.1 36.3 32.4 29.5 27.3 25.4 22.6 20.5 18.9 17.6 16.5 15.6
    75+ 231 93 65.6 53.4 46.2 41.2 37.5 34.6 32.3 28.7 26.1 24 22.4 21 19.8
                                   
    Province                              
    Newfoundland 317 79.4 56 45.6 39.4 35.1 32 29.5 27.6 24.5 22.3 20.5 19.1 17.9 16.9
    Prince Edward Island 353 75.2 53 43.2 37.3 33.3 30.3 28 26.1 23.2 21.1 19.4 18.1 16.9 16
    Nova Scotia 334 77.3 54.5 44.4 38.4 34.2 31.2 28.8 26.8 23.9 21.7 20 18.6 17.4 16.4
    New Brunswick 314 79.7 56.2 45.8 39.6 35.3 32.1 29.7 27.7 24.6 22.4 20.6 19.2 18 17
    Quebec 337 77 54.3 44.2 38.2 34.1 31 28.6 26.7 23.8 21.6 19.9 18.5 17.3 16.4
    Ontario 340 76.6 54 44 38 33.9 30.9 28.5 26.6 23.7 21.5 19.8 18.4 17.3 16.3
    Manitoba 478 64.6 45.6 37.1 32.1 28.6 26 24 22.4 20 18.1 16.7 15.5 14.6 13.7
    Saskatchewan 329 77.9 54.9 44.7 38.7 34.5 31.4 29 27.1 24.1 21.9 20.1 18.7 17.6 16.6
    Alberta 811 49.6 35 28.5 24.6 21.9 20 18.4 17.2 15.3 13.9 12.8 11.9 11.2 10.5
    British Columbia 999 44.7 31.5 25.7 22.2 19.8 18 16.6 15.5 13.8 12.5 11.5 10.7 10.1 9.5
                                   
    Marital status                              
    Never married 1233 40.2 28.3 23.1 19.9 17.8 16.2 15 14 12.4 11.3 10.4 9.7 9.1 8.5
    Married 2593 27.7 19.5 15.9 13.7 12.3 11.2 10.3 9.6 8.6 7.8 7.2 6.7 6.2 5.9
    Prev. married 749 51.6 36.4 29.6 25.6 22.8 20.8 19.2 17.9 15.9 14.5 13.3 12.4 11.6 11
                                   
    Education                              
    <High School 826 49.1 34.6 28.2 24.4 21.7 19.8 18.3 17.1 15.2 13.8 12.7 11.8 11.1 10.4
    Completed HS 1298 39.2 27.6 22.5 19.4 17.3 15.8 14.6 13.6 12.1 11 10.1 9.4 8.8 8.3
    Some post-sec 1395 37.8 26.6 21.7 18.7 16.7 15.2 14.1 13.1 11.7 10.6 9.8 9.1 8.5 8
    Univ. Degree 1057 43.4 30.6 24.9 21.5 19.2 17.5 16.2 15.1 13.4 12.2 11.2 10.4 9.8 9.2
                                   
    Income                              
    >$30,000 725 52.4 37 30.1 26 23.2 21.1 19.5 18.2 16.2 14.7 13.5 12.6 11.8 11.1
    $30,000-$49,000 721 52.6 37.1 30.2 26.1 23.3 21.2 19.6 18.3 16.2 14.8 13.6 12.6 11.9 11.2
    $50,000-$79,000 798 50 35.2 28.7 24.8 22.1 20.1 18.6 17.4 15.4 14 12.9 12 11.3 10.6
    $80,000+ 1075 43 30.4 24.7 21.4 19.1 17.4 16 14.9 13.3 12.1 11.1 10.3 9.7 9.2
    DK/REF 1293 39.2 27.7 22.5 19.5 17.4 15.8 14.6 13.6 12.1 11 10.1 9.4 8.8 8.3
                                   

         Note: Green (dark shaded) entries represent unstable estimates;  Yellow (light shaded) entries represent estimates with moderate sampling variability;

          Unshaded entries represent estimates with acceptable reliability.  

          CVs assume simple random sampling

     

    Table 6.3   Panel B - Coefficient of Variation Values by Percentage Estimate and Sample Size

     
    PANEL B sample size Percentage Estimate
                                   
        0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
                                   
    Total 4639 20.7 14.6 11.9 10.3 9.2 8.3 7.7 7.2 6.4 5.8 5.4      
                                   
    Sex                              
    Men 1853 32.8 23.1 18.8 16.3 14.5 13.2 12.2 11.4 10.1 9.2 8.5      
    Women 2786 26.7 18.9 15.4 13.3 11.8 10.8 9.9 9.3 8.3 7.5 6.9      
                                   
    Age                              
    15-17 195 101.3 71.4 58.2 50.3 44.8 40.8 37.7 35.2 31.3 28.4 26.2 24.3 22.8 21.5
    18-19 143 118.4 83.5 68 58.7 52.4 47.7 44.1 41.1 36.6 33.2 30.6 28.5 26.7 25.2
    20-24 357 74.8 52.7 42.9 37.1 33.1 30.1 27.8 26 23.1 21 19.3 18 16.9 15.9
    25-34 778 50.6 35.7 29.1 25.1 22.4 20.4 18.8 17.6 15.6 14.2 13.1 12.2 11.4 10.8
    35-44 914 46.7 32.9 26.8 23.2 20.7 18.8 17.4 16.2 14.4 13.1 12.1 11.2 10.5 9.9
    45-54 930 46.3 32.6 26.6 23 20.5 18.7 17.2 16.1 14.3 13 12 11.1 10.4 9.8
    55-64 584 58.4 41.2 33.6 29 25.9 23.6 21.7 20.3 18.1 16.4 15.1 14 13.2 12.4
    65-74 383 72.2 50.9 41.5 35.8 32 29.1 26.9 25.1 22.3 20.3 18.6 17.4 16.3 15.3
    75+ 246 90.1 63.6 51.8 44.7 39.9 36.3 33.5 31.3 27.8 25.3 23.3 21.7 20.3 19.2
                                   
    Province                              
    Newfoundland 345 76.1 53.6 43.7 37.7 33.7 30.7 28.3 26.4 23.5 21.3 19.7 18.3 17.1 16.2
    Prince Edward Island 325 78.4 55.3 45 38.9 34.7 31.6 29.2 27.2 24.2 22 20.2 18.8 17.7 16.7
    Nova Scotia 336 77.1 54.4 44.3 38.2 34.1 31.1 28.7 26.8 23.8 21.6 19.9 18.5 17.4 16.4
    New Brunswick 322 78.7 55.5 45.2 39.1 34.9 31.7 29.3 27.3 24.3 22.1 20.3 18.9 17.7 16.7
    Quebec 329 77.9 54.9 44.7 38.7 34.5 31.4 29 27.1 24.1 21.9 20.1 18.7 17.6 16.6
    Ontario 313 79.9 56.3 45.9 39.6 35.4 32.2 29.7 27.7 24.7 22.4 20.6 19.2 18 17
    Manitoba 512 62.4 44 35.8 31 27.6 25.2 23.2 21.7 19.3 17.5 16.1 15 14.1 13.3
    Saskatchewan 345 76.1 53.6 43.7 37.7 33.7 30.7 28.3 26.4 23.5 21.3 19.7 18.3 17.1 16.2
    Alberta 797 50 35.3 28.7 24.8 22.1 20.2 18.6 17.4 15.4 14 12.9 12 11.3 10.6
    British Columbia 1015 44.3 31.2 25.4 22 19.6 17.9 16.5 15.4 13.7 12.4 11.4 10.6 10 9.4
                                   
    Marital status                              
    Never married 1201 40.7 28.7 23.4 20.2 18 16.4 15.2 14.1 12.6 11.4 10.5 9.8 9.2 8.7
    Married 2655 27.4 19.3 15.7 13.6 12.1 11 10.2 9.5 8.5 7.7 7.1 6.6 6.2 5.8
    Prev. married 750 51.5 36.4 29.6 25.6 22.8 20.8 19.2 17.9 15.9 14.5 13.3 12.4 11.6 11
                                   
    Education                              
    <High School 830 49 34.6 28.1 24.3 21.7 19.7 18.2 17 15.1 13.7 12.7 11.8 11 10.4
    Completed HS 1269 39.6 27.9 22.8 19.7 17.5 16 14.7 13.8 12.2 11.1 10.2 9.5 8.9 8.4
    Some post-sec 1472 36.8 25.9 21.1 18.3 16.3 14.8 13.7 12.8 11.4 10.3 9.5 8.8 8.3 7.8
    Univ. Degree 1038 43.8 30.9 25.2 21.7 19.4 17.7 16.3 15.2 13.5 12.3 11.3 10.5 9.9 9.3
                                   
    Income                              
    >$30,000 698 53.4 37.7 30.7 26.5 23.7 21.5 19.9 18.6 16.5 15 13.8 12.8 12 11.4
    $30,000-$49,000 709 53 37.4 30.5 26.3 23.5 21.4 19.7 18.4 16.4 14.9 13.7 12.7 12 11.3
    $50,000-$79,000 835 48.8 34.5 28.1 24.2 21.6 19.7 18.2 17 15.1 13.7 12.6 11.7 11 10.4
    $80,000+ 1085 42.8 30.2 24.6 21.3 19 17.3 15.9 14.9 13.2 12 11.1 10.3 9.7 9.1
    DK/REF 1312 39 27.5 22.4 19.3 17.2 15.7 14.5 13.5 12 10.9 10.1 9.4 8.8 8.3
                                   

         Note: Green (dark shaded) entries represent unstable estimates;  Yellow (light shaded) entries represent estimates with moderate sampling variability;

          Unshaded entries represent estimates with acceptable reliability.  

          CVs assume simple random sampling

     
     

    Table 6.4   Panel C - Coefficient of Variation Values by Percentage Estimate and Sample Size

     
    PANEL C sample size Percentage Estimate
                                   
        0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
                                   
    Total 4658 20.7 14.6 11.9 10.3 9.2 8.3 7.7 7.2 6.4 5.8 5.3      
                                   
    Sex                              
    Men 1940 32 22.6 18.4 15.9 14.2 12.9 11.9 11.1 9.9 9 8.3      
    Women 2718 27.1 19.1 15.5 13.4 12 10.9 10.1 9.4 8.4 7.6 7      
                                   
    Age                              
    15-17 185 104 73.4 59.7 51.6 46 41.9 38.7 36.1 32.1 29.2 26.9 25 23.4 22.1
    18-19 155 113.7 80.2 65.3 56.4 50.3 45.8 42.3 39.5 35.1 31.9 29.4 27.3 25.6 24.2
    20-24 359 74.6 52.6 42.8 37 33 30.1 27.8 25.9 23 20.9 19.3 17.9 16.8 15.9
    25-34 768 50.9 35.9 29.3 25.3 22.5 20.5 19 17.7 15.7 14.3 13.2 12.2 11.5 10.8
    35-44 924 46.4 32.8 26.7 23 20.6 18.7 17.3 16.1 14.3 13 12 11.2 10.5 9.9
    45-54 870 47.9 33.8 27.5 23.7 21.2 19.3 17.8 16.6 14.8 13.4 12.4 11.5 10.8 10.2
    55-64 634 56.1 39.5 32.2 27.8 24.8 22.6 20.9 19.5 17.3 15.7 14.5 13.5 12.6 11.9
    65-74 424 68.6 48.4 39.4 34 30.4 27.6 25.5 23.8 21.2 19.2 17.7 16.5 15.5 14.6
    75+ 242 90.9 64.1 52.2 45.1 40.2 36.6 33.8 31.6 28.1 25.5 23.5 21.8 20.5 19.3
                                   
    Province                              
    Newfoundland 339 76.7 54.1 44.1 38.1 34 30.9 28.6 26.6 23.7 21.5 19.8 18.4 17.3 16.3
    Prince Edward Island 322 78.7 55.5 45.2 39.1 34.9 31.7 29.3 27.3 24.3 22.1 20.3 18.9 17.7 16.7
    Nova Scotia 332 77.5 54.7 44.5 38.5 34.3 31.3 28.9 26.9 24 21.8 20 18.6 17.5 16.5
    New Brunswick 364 74 52.2 42.5 36.7 32.8 29.8 27.6 25.7 22.9 20.8 19.1 17.8 16.7 15.7
    Quebec 337 77 54.3 44.2 38.2 34.1 31 28.6 26.7 23.8 21.6 19.9 18.5 17.3 16.4
    Ontario 347 75.8 53.5 43.6 37.6 33.6 30.6 28.2 26.3 23.4 21.3 19.6 18.2 17.1 16.1
    Manitoba 512 62.4 44 35.8 31 27.6 25.2 23.2 21.7 19.3 17.5 16.1 15 14.1 13.3
    Saskatchewan 326 78.3 55.2 45 38.8 34.6 31.5 29.1 27.2 24.2 22 20.2 18.8 17.6 16.6
    Alberta 793 50.1 35.4 28.8 24.9 22.2 20.2 18.7 17.4 15.5 14.1 13 12 11.3 10.7
    British Columbia 986 44.9 31.7 25.8 22.3 19.9 18.1 16.7 15.6 13.9 12.6 11.6 10.8 10.1 9.6
                                   
    Marital status                              
    Never married 1198 40.8 28.8 23.4 20.2 18.1 16.4 15.2 14.2 12.6 11.4 10.5 9.8 9.2 8.7
    Married 2682 27.2 19.2 15.7 13.5 12.1 11 10.1 9.5 8.4 7.6 7 6.5 6.1 5.8
    Prev. married 754 51.4 36.3 29.5 25.5 22.8 20.7 19.1 17.9 15.9 14.4 13.3 12.4 11.6 10.9
                                   
    Education                              
    <High School 815 49.4 34.9 28.4 24.5 21.9 19.9 18.4 17.2 15.3 13.9 12.8 11.9 11.1 10.5
    Completed HS 1359 38.3 27 22 19 16.9 15.4 14.2 13.3 11.8 10.7 9.9 9.2 8.6 8.1
    Some post-sec 1400 37.7 26.6 21.7 18.7 16.7 15.2 14 13.1 11.7 10.6 9.7 9.1 8.5 8
    Univ. Degree 1051 43.5 30.7 25 21.6 19.3 17.5 16.2 15.1 13.5 12.2 11.2 10.5 9.8 9.3
                                   
    Income                              
    >$30,000 727 52.4 36.9 30.1 26 23.2 21.1 19.5 18.2 16.2 14.7 13.5 12.6 11.8 11.1
    $30,000-$49,000 748 51.6 36.4 29.6 25.6 22.8 20.8 19.2 17.9 15.9 14.5 13.3 12.4 11.6 11
    $50,000-$79,000 828 49.1 34.6 28.2 24.3 21.7 19.8 18.3 17 15.2 13.8 12.7 11.8 11.1 10.4
    $80,000+ 1019 44.2 31.2 25.4 21.9 19.6 17.8 16.5 15.4 13.7 12.4 11.4 10.6 10 9.4
    DK/REF 1336 38.6 27.2 22.2 19.2 17.1 15.6 14.4 13.4 11.9 10.8 10 9.3 8.7 8.2
                                   

         Note: Green (dark shaded) entries represent unstable estimates;  Yellow (light shaded) entries represent estimates with moderate sampling variability;

          Unshaded entries represent estimates with acceptable reliability.  

          CVs assume simple random sampling

     

                

     

    6.0 Data Limitations

     

    Although sample surveys are the most feasible means to establish and monitor substance use issues in the population, those interpreting CAS data should consider the following:

    • Telephone households.  The CAS is based on a target population of households with telephones.  Whether drug use estimates would be significantly biased by projecting to all households depends on the size of non-telephone households and their demographic composition. Fortunately, Canada has high telephone coverage rates exceeding 97% (Trewin & Lee 1988). As well, conventional household surveys are limited to those residing in conventional households and are not intended as a sample of all possible adults.  Thus, those in prisons, hospitals, military establishments, and, as well, transient populations such as the homeless, are not included.  These excluded groups often contain an especially large number of drug users and heavy drinkers (Rossi 1989).  However, the bias caused by such noncoverage depends upon firstly, the difference in drug use between those surveyed and those not surveyed, and secondly, the size of the group missed (Groves & Couper 1998).  Thus, even if rates of drug use are substantially higher in the excluded group than are those in the sampled group, if the size of the excluded group is small relative to the total population the bias is usually minimal (see Kandel 1991; Trinkoff et al. 1990).  Telephone surveys tend to over-represent those with higher education and under-represent those with lower education (Trewin & Lee 1988).  
      • Interview Barriers.  Some interviews could not be completed because respondents could not adequately converse in English or French or were too ill or aged.  
      • Self-reports.  Survey estimates are influenced by errors related to individual reporting of behaviours and the conditions under which the survey is conducted. One limitation of the sample survey in this regard is its reliance on self-reported behaviour.  Reviews of self-report methods for alcohol and drug use suggest that although surveys tend to underestimate true usage, they are still regarded as the best available means to estimate such behaviours (Harrison et al. 1993; Turner et al. 1992).  Moreover, although these biases influence alcohol and drug use estimates at a single point in time, they should have less impact on estimating trends as long as underreporting remains constant.  If this is the case, estimates of change should remain unbiased and valid.   
      •  
      • Survey differences.  As noted below, there are differences in various design and timing factors between the CAS and other national surveys.

     

    Comparison of the CAS to Recent National Addiction Surveys

     
      CAS 2004 CADS 1994 NADS 1989
    Fieldwork Dec. 16- Dec. 23, 2003; Jan. 9 – April 21, 2004 Sept 7 – November 5, 1994 March, 1989
    Design Random-digit-dailling sample of telephone households. Stratified two-stage selection. Random-digit-dailling sample of telephone households. Stratified two-stage selection. Random-digit-dailling sample of telephone households. Stratified two-stage selection.
    Provincial allocation Equal Unequal Unequal
    Interview mode CATI Telephone CATI Telephone CATI Telephone
           
    Target population Ages 15+ Ages 15+ Ages 15+
    Completions 13, 909 12,155 11,634
    Response rate 47% 76% 79%
    Survey organization Jolicoeur et associ��s Statistics Canada Statistics Canada
           
     
     

    The short timetable of the CAS required that interviews were conducted between December 2003 and April 2004. However, to ensure that the data were not seriously biased by the holiday season, interviews were not conducted during a three week period (December 24th-Janurary 8th). It is expected that such seasonal differences would affect alcohol use estimates more than drug use estimates. Indeed, a comparison of eleven key substance use measures (lifetime, 12-month and 30 day alcohol use, monthly and weekly 5+ drinking, AUDIT, lifetime 12-month and 30 day cannabis use and lifetime and 12-month any illicit drug use) showed that three measures – 12-month and 30-day alcohol use and lifetime cannabis use showed higher reports after the holiday period. 

    7. Cited References

     

    Eliany, M., N. Giesbrecht, et al., (Eds.). (1990). National Alcohol and Other Drugs Survey: Highlights Report. Ottawa, Health and Welfare Canada.

     

    Groves, R. M. (1989). Survey Errors and Survey Costs. New York: Wiley.

     

    Groves, R. M, & Couper, M. P. (1998). Nonresponse in Household Interview Surveys. New York: Wiley.

     

    Harrison, E. R., Haaga, J., & Richards, T. (1993). Self-reported drug use data: What do they reveal? American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 19(4), 423-441.

     

    Kandel, D. (1991). The social demography of drug use. The Millbank Quarterly, 69, 365-414.

     

    Kish, L. (1965). Survey Sampling. New York: Wiley & Sons.

     

    Lee, E. S., Forthofer, R. N. & Lorimor, R. J. (1989). Analyzing Complex Survey Data. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

     

    MacNeil, P. & I. Webster (1997). Canada's Alcohol and Other Drugs Survey 1994: A Discussion of the Findings. Ottawa, Minister of Public Works and Government and Services Canada.

     

    Rossi, P. H. (1989). Down And Out In America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

     

    Tjepkema, M. (2004). Use of cannabis and other illicit drugs. Health Reports,15(4): 43-47.

     

    Trewin, D., & Lee, G. (1988). International comparisons of telephone coverage. In R. M. Groves, P. P. Biemer, L. E. Lyberg, J. T. Massey, W. L. Nicholls, & J. Waksberg (Eds.), Telephone Survey Methodology (pp. 9-24). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

     

    Trinkoff, A. M., Ritter, C., & Anthony, J. C. (1990). The prevalence and self-reported consequences of cocaine use: An exploratory and descriptive analysis. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 26, 217-225.

     

    Turner, C. F., Lessler, J. T., & Gfroerer, J. C. (Eds.). (1992). Survey Measurement of Drug Use: Methodological Studies. Washington DC: Department of Health and Human Services.

     
     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    APPENDIX 1

     

    Derived Variables

     

    Several derived variables have been created on the CAS file.  In this section, the methods used to derive the more complex variables and some of the coding structures are described.  Some of the derived variables have been grouped for ease of use .  

     

    In some cases, the creation of intermediate variables was needed due to the complex structure of the derived variable.  These intermediate variables are also listed and documented as much as possible.  Also, due to the complexity of the coding structure and analysis requests, for some of the grouped and derived variables, alternatively coded versions have been created.  These alternatively coded variables are also listed and documented.  

     

    The descriptions of  the derived variables below are listed according to topic. 

     
     

      Alcohol Use

     

          ALCSTAT3 Drinking status

          ALCLIFE Alcohol use lifetime

          ALC12M Alcohol use past 12 months

          ALC30D Alcohol use past 30 days

          QFVOL  Total volume of alcohol consumed in standard drinks in past 12 months

          QFVOLWK Weekly volume of alcohol consumed in standard drinks in past 12 months

          ALDAILY Daily drinking - past 12 months

          FIVEMN Five or more drinks in a single sitting once a month or more often

          FIVEWK Five or more drinks in a single sitting once a week or more often

          AHEAVYMN Heavy monthly alcohol use (past 12 months) (5+ men; 4+ women)

        AHEAVYWK Heavy weekly alcohol use (past 12 months) (5+ men; 4+ women)

          ALC7D  Total standard drinks in past 7 days

          ALCLEV4 Daily alcohol intake level  (past 12 months)

        LRISKDRK Percent exceeding the low-risk drinking guidelines (past 7 days)

          ALCSTAT6 Drinking pattern (6 categories) (total sample)

          HEAVYDRK  Heavy drinking pattern

     

    Alcohol Use Problems (AUDIT) and Harm

     

          AUDIT  AUDIT total score (total sample)

          AUDIT8 AUDIT score - 8+ cut-off  (total sample)

                AUDITC  AUDIT score for consumption/ intake

          AUDITD  AUDIT score for dependence

          AUDITAC AUDIT score for adverse consequences

          AUDITP AUDIT score for problems (adverse consequences + dependence)

          AHARML One or more types of harm from one��s own alcohol use – lifetime

          AHARM12 One or more types of harm from one��s own alcohol use – past 12m

          HARMOTHR One or more types of harm from others�� alcohol use – past 12m

     

    Cannabis Use 

     

          CANLIFE Cannabis use lifetime

          CAN12M Cannabis use past 12 months

          CAN3M Cannabis use past 3 months

          CAN30D Cannabis use past 30 days

        DRIVCAN Driven a motor vehicle after using cannabis within 2 hours before driving

               (among valid drivers) (Panel B only)

     

    Cannabis Use Problems  (WHO��s ASSIST)

     

          ASISTCAN  Cannabis ASSIST score

          ASISTCN3 Risk level for cannabis consumption (3 categories)

          ASISTCN2 Risk level for cannabis consumption (2 categories)

     
     

    Illicit Drug Use

     

          COCLIFE Cocaine use lifetime

          COC12M Cocaine use past 12 months

          COC3M Cocaine use past 3 months

     

          SPEDLIFE Speed use lifetime

          SPED12M Speed use past 12 months

          SPED3M Speed use past 3 months

     

          XTCLIFE Ecstasy use lifetime

          XTC12M Ecstasy use past 12 months

          XTC3M  Ecstasy use past 3 months

     

          HALLIFE Hallucinogens use lifetime

          HAL12M Hallucinogens use past 12 months

          HAL3M Hallucinogens use past 3 months

     

          INHLIFE Inhalant use lifetime

          INH12M Inhalant use past 12 months

          INH3M  Inhalant use past 3 months

     

          HERLIFE Heroin use lifetime

          HER12M Heroin use past 12 months

          HER3M Heroin use past 3 months

     

          STERLIFE Steroid use lifetime

          STER12M Steroid use past 12 months

          STER3M Steroid use past 3 months

     
     

          Any Illicit Drug Use (grouped variables - different combinations)

     

          ANY8DL Lifetime use (any drug, including cannabis)

          ANY8D12 Past 12 months use (any drug including cannabis) 

          ANY8D3M Past 3 months use (any drug including cannabis)

     

          ANY7DXL Lifetime use (any drug excluding cannabis)

          ANY7DX12 Past 12 months use (any drug excluding cannabis)

          ANY7DX3M Past 3 months use (any drug excluding cannabis)

     

          IL6DL    Lifetime use (any illicit drug including cannabis)

          IL6D12  Past 12 months use (any illicit drug including cannabis)

     

          IL5DXL Lifetime use (any illicit drug excluding cannabis)

          IL5DX12 Past 12 months use (any illicit drug excluding cannabis)

     
     

    Illicit Drug Use Problems (WHO��s ASSIST) (cannabis not included)

     

                ASISTIL  Illicit Drugs ASSIST score

                ASISTIL3 Risk level for illicit drug use (3 categories)

          ASISTIL2 Risk level for illicit drug use (2 categories)

     

    Harm From Drug Use

     

                DHARML One or more types of harm from one��s own drug use – lifetime

          DHARM12 One or more types of harm from one��s own drug use – past 12m

     
     

      Smoking   (Panel C only)

     

          SMKSTAT3   Smoking status (3 cat)

     

    Health Related Quality of Life Measures   (Panel B only)

     

          FAIRHLT Percent fair or poor health

          FAIRMHLT Percent fair or poor mental health

          UNHLTPD Physically unhealthy days

          UNHLTMD Mentally unhealthy days

          ACTLIMD Activity limitation days

          UNHLTD Sum of unhealthy days (physically & mentally)

          MENTDISD Frequent mental distress days

     

    Demographics

     

          AGECAT9 Age recoded in 9 categories

          agecat3 Age recoded in 3 categories

                agecat4 Age recoded in 4 categories

                agecat6 Age recoded in 6 categories

                agecat7 Age recoded in 7 categories

                age8cchs Age recoded in 8 categories (CCHS comparable)

                age8nphs Age recoded in 8 categories (NPHS comparable)

     

                EDUCAT4 Highest level of education recoded  ( 4 categories)

     

                MARSTAT3 Marital status recoded   (3 categories)

                MARSTAT4 Marital status recoded   (4 categories)

     

                EMPCAT8 Employment status recoded ( 8 categories)

     

                PINCOME Personal Income Before Taxes (past year)

                HINCOME Household Income Before Taxes (past year)

                HINCCAT5 Household Income (5 categories)

                INCADEQ4  Income Adequacy  (4 categories)

                INCADEQ5  Income Adequacy  (5 categories)

     

                LANGHOME Language spoken at home 

                RURAL  Location of Household

     

                REGION Canada��s five regions 

     

     

    1.  ALCOHOL DERIVED VARIABLES

     

    1.1.  ALCOHOL USE

     

    ALCSTAT3 Drinking status

        Based on ALC1 and ALC3

     
     
    ALCSTAT3=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    Current drinker
     
    ALC1=1
     
    2
     
    Former drinker
     
    ALC3=1 AND ALC1=5
     
    3
     
    Abstainer (never drank)
     
    ALC3=5 AND ALC1=5
     
     

    ALC12M Alcohol use past 12 months

        Based on ALCSTAT3

     
     
    ALC12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Not used alcohol past 12 months
     
    ALCSTAT3=2,3
     
    1
     
    Used alcohol past 12 months
     
    ALCSTAT3=1
     
     
     

        QFVOL  Volume of alcohol consumed in standard drinks in past 12 months

        Estimated using usual quantity by usual frequency approach, recoded for total sample. 

     

          Based on ALC2 and ALC6.

     

      QFVOL = ALC2 (recoded) * ALC6.

     

        Note: ALC2 (frequency of use of alcohol) and related frequency categories are recoded as follows:

     

          7  ' every day' = 365 times

          6  '4 to 6 times a week' = 260 times

          5  '2 to 3 times a week' = 130 times

          4  'once a week' = 52 times

          3  '2 to 3 times a month' =30 times

          2  'once a month' = 12 times

          1  'less than once a month' = 6 times

          0  'non-drinker' = 0

     
     
     
    QFVOL =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    0  through   highest
     
    Number of standard drinks in past 12 months
     
    99999
     
    Missing
     

      See also: Item QFVOLWK (weekly volume of alcohol consumed in standard drinks in past 12 months). 

     
     

    ALDAILY Daily drinking  (past 12 months)

                Based on ALC2 -- recoded for total sample.

     
     
    ALDAILY=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Non-daily /non-drinker past 12 months
     
    ALC2=1 through 6,

    system missing=0

     
    1
     
    Daily drinker past 12 months
    ALC2=7

     

    FIVEMN FIVE or more drinks in a single sitting once a month or more often

        Based on item ALC5, recoded for total sample

     
     
    FIVEMN =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    No/ non-drinker past 12 months
    Never 5+ monthly/ non-drinker
     
    1
     
    Five plus monthly past 12 months
    5+ drinks monthly

    (ALC5=5, 6)

     

    FIVEWK FIVE or more drinks in a single sitting once a week or more often

        Based on item ALC5, recoded for total sample

     
     
     
    FIVEWK =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    No/ non-drinker past 12 months
    Never 5+ weekly/ non-drinker
     
    1
     
    Five plus weekly past 12 months
    5+ drinks weekly

    (ALC5=5, 6)

     
     

    AHEAVYMN Heavy Monthly Alcohol Use (past 12 months)

        FOUR or more drinks (for women) OR FIVE or more drinks (for men) in a single sitting once a month or more often

        Based on items ALC5 (men) or ALC5A (women), recoded for total sample

     
     
     
    AHEAVYMN =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
    Males Females
     
    0
     
    No/ non-drinker past 12 months
    Never 5+ monthly/ non-drinker Never 4+ monthly/ non-drinker
     
    1
     
    Four or Five plus monthly  past 12 months
    5+ drinks monthly

    (ALC5=4 through 6)

    4+drinks monthly

    (ALC5A=4 through 6)

     
     
     
     

    AHEAVYWK Heavy Weekly Alcohol Use (past 12 months)

        FOUR or more drinks (for women) OR FIVE or more drinks (for men) in a single sitting weekly)

        Based on items ALC5 (men) or ALC5A (women), recoded for  total sample

     
     
     
    AHEAVYWK =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
    Males Females
     
    0
     
    No/ non-drinker past 12 months
    Never 5+ weekly/ non-drinker Never 4+ weekly/ non-drinker
     
    1
     
    Four or Five plus weekly past 12 months
    5+ drinks weekly

    (ALC5=5,6)

    4+drinks weekly

    (ALC5A=5,6)

     
     

    ALC7D Total standard drinks in past 7 days

        Based on items AL5A1 (Sunday) to AL5A7 (Saturday)– total no. of standard drinks consumed in the past 7 days, recoded for  total sample

     

                ALC7D = summation of items AL5A1 (Sunday) to AL5A7 (Saturday).

     

    See also: Items SUN to SAT (no. of standard drinks consumed each day in past 7 days).

     

     

    ALCLEV4 Daily Alcohol Intake Level 1 (past 12 months)

        Volume of alcohol consumed in a day in standard drinks (1 standard drink=13.6g) in the past 12 months

        Based on QFVOL in standard drinks per day, recoded for total sample (adapted in grams of alcohol to match English et al. typology).

     
     
     
    ALCLEV4
    Standard Drinks per Day

    (1 standard drink=13.6grams)

    Males Females
    0= Abstinence 0 0
    1= Low 0.01 - 3.00 0.01- 1.50
    2= Hazardous/Harmful 3.01+ 1.51+

    Note: 1 (see (English 1995))

     

    LRISKDRK - EXCEEDING LOW- RISK DRINKING GUIDELINES

     

    Canadian guidelines referring to ��low-risk drinking�� were disseminated in 1994 following an international conference on health benefits and risks (Ashley, Ferrence et al. 1994).  In 1997, revised guidelines were released by the former Addiction Research Foundation (currently CAMH) and the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse).  These guidelines have now been endorsed by various national and provincial government and non-government agencies (Bondy, Rehm et al. 1999).  The ��low-risk drinking�� guidelines (LRD) recommend that men and women limit weekly alcohol intake to no more than 14 and 9 standard drinks, respectively.  Also, alcohol intake on any one day should generally be limited to 2 standard drinks.  Caution should be taken to avoid intoxication and injury, and circumstances were identified where abstinence may be warranted.  The guidelines are intended to represent low risk of the most important forms of harm and to address usual drinking over many years. 

     
     

        LRISKDRK Percent exceeding the low-risk drinking guidelines (past 7 days)

        It is based on items ALC7D and items AL5A1 (Sunday) to AL5A7 (Saturday).

     
    LRISKDRK DESCRIPTION CONDITION
    Males Females
    0 Not exceeding LRD/ non-drinker past 12 months 14 or less drinks/week AND

    2 or less drinks/day

    9 or less drinks/week AND

    2 or less drinks/day

    1 Exceeding weekly and daily sex specific limits past 12 months 15+ drinks/week

    3+drinks/day

    10+ drinks/week

    3+ drinks/day

     

    See also: Items  SUN3DK  to SAT3DK  (percent exceeding 3 standard drinks each day, past 7days).

     

    DRINKING PATTERN

     

        ALCSTAT6 Drinking pattern – 6 categories (similar to CADS, 1994 and NADS, 1989)

        Based on items ALCSTAT3, ALC2 and ALC6R.

     
    ALCSTAT6 PATTERN DESCRIPTION
    0 Lifetime abstainers Never had alcohol
    1 Former drinkers Drank sometime during their lives, but not during the past 12 months preceding the survey
    2 Light/infrequent drinkers Drink less often than once a week, usually fewer than 5 drinks, when alcohol is used
    3 Light/frequent drinkers Drink once a week or more, usually fewer than 5 drinks, when alcohol is used
    4 Heavy/infrequent drinkers Drink less often than once a week, usually 5 or more drinks, when alcohol is used
    5 Heavy/frequent drinkers Drink once a week or more, usually 5 or more drinks, when alcohol is used
     

    See also: Item HEAVYDRK (heavy drinking pattern, 3 categories)

     
     

    1.2. ALCOHOL PROBLEMS  - AUDIT (WHO)

     

    Harmful and Hazardous Drinking  - based on WHO��s Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) 

     

    The World Health Organization has developed a screening instrument - the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) - designed to detect problem drinkers at the less severe end of the spectrum of alcohol (Saunders, Aasland et al. 1993; Babor, Higgins-Biddle et al. 2001).  The AUDIT assesses hazardous and harmful drinking. Hazardous drinking refers to an established pattern of drinking that increases the likelihood of future physical and mental health problems (e.g., liver disease), whereas harmful drinking refers to a pattern of drinking that is already causing damage to health (e.g., alcohol-related injuries; depression). A score of 8 or more is conventionally used as a cut-off point to estimate the percentage who drink at hazardous or harmful levels.

     

    AUDIT, AUDIT8

     

    Derived  AUDIT variables (AUDIT, AUDIT8) are based on the following items:


     
    Variable name
     
    AUDIT Items
     
    Recoded category
     
     
     
    Alcohol Intake
     
    ALC2

    (aud1)

     
    1. How often did you drink alcoholic beverages during the past 12 months?
     
    0.  Never
     
    1.  Monthly or less
     
    2.  2-4 times/month
     
    3.  2-3 times/week
     
    4.  4+ times/week
     
    ALC6

    (aud2)

     
    2. On those days when you drink, how many drinks do you usually have?
     
    0.  None/ or One
     
    1.  Two to Three
     
    2.  Four
     
    3.  Five to Seven
     
    4.  Eight or more
     
    ALC5

    (aud3)

     
    3. About how often during the past 12 months would you say that you had five or more drinks at the same sitting or occasion?
     
    0.  Never
     
    1.  Less than monthly
     
    2.  Monthly
     
    3.  Weekly
     
    4.  Daily or almost daily
     
     
     
                Dependence Indicators 
     
    Aud4
     
    4. How often during the last year have you found that you were not able to stop drinking once you had started?
     
    0.  Never
     
    1.  Less than monthly
     
    2.  Monthly
     
    3.  Weekly
     
    4.  Daily or almost daily
     
    Aud5
     
    5. How often during the last year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?
     
    0.  Never
     
    1.  Less than monthly
     
    2.  Monthly
     
    3.  Weekly
     
    4.  Daily or almost daily
     
    Aud6
     
    6. How often during the last year have you needed a first alcoholic drink in the morning to get yourself going after a heavy drinking session?
     
    0.  Never
     
    1.  Less than monthly
     
    2.  Monthly
     
    3.  Weekly
     
    4.  Daily or almost daily
     
     
     
                Adverse Consequences 
     
    Aud7
     
    7. How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?
     
    0.  Never
     
    1.  Less than monthly
     
    2.  Monthly
     
    3.  Weekly
     
    4.  Daily or almost daily
     
    Aud8
     
    8. How often during the last year have you been unable to remember what happened the night before because you had been drinking?
     
    0.  Never
     
    1.  Less than monthly
     
    2.  Monthly
     
    3.  Weekly
     
    4.  Daily or almost daily
     
    Aud9
     
    9. Have you or someone else ever been injured as a result of your drinking?
     
    0.  No
     
    2.  Yes, but not last year
     
    4.  Yes, during last year
     
    Aud10
     
    10. Has a relative or friend or a doctor or other health worker ever been concerned about your drinking or suggested that you cut down?
     
    0.  No
     
    2.  Yes, but not last year
     
    4.  Yes, during last year
     
     
     

        AUDIT  AUDIT score (total sample)

     

                Items aud1 to aud10 were recoded for total sample: aud1t to aud10t.

     

      summation of:   aud1t, aud2t, aud3t, aud4t, aud5t, aud6t, aud7t, aud8t, aud9t, aud10t

     

          min: 0     max: 40  (higher score = increased likelihood of alcohol problems) 

     
     
     

        AUDIT8 AUDIT score cut-off  8+ (total sample)

     

        Based on AUDIT

     
     
    AUDIT8=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    AUDIT score less than 8
     
    AUDIT ge 0 and AUDIT le 7
     
    1
     
    AUDIT score of 8 and over
     
    AUDIT ge 8
     
     

    See also: Items AUDITC (consumption/ intake), AUDITAC (adverse consequences), AUDITD (dependence), AUDITP (problems); based on the 3 AUDIT domains.

     

     

    1.3.  HARM from ALCOHOL

     

    Harm from one��s own alcohol use

     

    AHARML One or more types of harm from one��s own alcohol use – lifetime

                      Based on 8 items, ahar1 to ahar8, recoded for lifetime harm.

     


     
    AHARML=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    0
     
    Never any harm from  alcohol use
     
    1
     
    At least one harm from alcohol use during lifetime (1 of 8)

     

    See also: Items ahar1L  to  ahar8l (derived lifetime harm items).

     

     

    AHARM12 One or more types of harm from one��s own alcohol use – past 12m

                      Based on 8 items, ahar1 to ahar8, recoded for past12m harm.

     


     
    AHARM12=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    0
     
    No harm from alcohol use – past 12m
     
    1
     
    At least one harm from alcohol use during past 12m (1 of 8)

     

    See also: Items ahar1c12  to  ahar8C12 (derived past 12 months harm items).

     

     

    Harm from others�� alcohol use – past 12 months

    Only respondents aged 18 years and older

     

    HARMOTHR One or more types of harm from others�� alcohol use – past 12m

                  Based on items 6 opd1, opd2, opd3, opd5, vic1, and vic4;

                  asked only of respondents aged 18+.

     


     
    HARMOTHR=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    0
     
    No harm from others�� alcohol use – past 12m
     
    1
     
    At least one harm from others�� alcohol use – past 12m (1 of 6)
     

    2.  CANNABIS

     

    2.1 CANNABIS USE

     
     

    CANLIFE Lifetime cannabis use

        Based on CAN1

     
     
    CANLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    CAN1=3
     
    1
     
    Ever used in lifetime
    CAN1=1,2
     
     
     

    CAN12M Cannabis use past 12 months

        Based on  CAN2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    CAN12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    CAN2=2 and 

    [valid skip=0]

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    CAN2=1
     
     

    CAN3M Cannabis use past 3 months

        Based on  CAN3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    CAN3M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    CAN3=2 AND

    [valid skip=0]

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    CAN3=1 through 4

     

     

    See also:  Items CAN30D (cannabis use past 30 day); CANLIFEX (cannabis use lifetime, excluding one time use); CAN12MX (cannabis use past 12m, excluding one time use); CNONLYL (used only cannabis, lifetime); CNONLY12 (used only cannabis, past 12m).

     

     

     

    2.2.  CANNABIS PROBLEMS  - ASIST (WHO)

     

    Based on WHO��s Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) 

     

    The World Health Organization has developed a screening instrument – the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) - designed to assess, for users of specific substances, the risk of experiencing health and other problems (e.g. social, financial, legal, relationship) from their current pattern of use (WHO ASSIST Working Group 2002)(see Appendix 2). 

     

    The ASSIST is asked only of past 3 moths users. The ASSIST score ranges from 0 to 39.  Three cut-off points are used to assess the risk of experiencing health and other problems: 1) ��low�� (a score of 0-3) refers to a pattern of use associated with a low risk of experiencing problems;  2) ��moderate�� (a score of 4-26) refers to a pattern of use associated with a moderate risk of experiencing problems; and 3) ��high�� (a score of 27 +) refers to a pattern of use that is associated with a high risk of experiencing problems and is likely to lead to dependency.

     

     

    ASISTCAN  Cannabis ASSIST score

                      Based on 6 items CAN3M, CNAS1 through CNAS5.

     

      summation of items:   can3m, cnas1, cnas2, cnas3, cnas4, cnas5

     

          min: 0     max: 39 (higher score = increased likelihood of experiencing problems) 

     
     
     

    ASISTCN3 Risk level for cannabis consumption - 3 categories

        Based on CANASIST score

     
     
    ASISTCN3=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0= ��low��
     
    Score <=3

    Low risk of developing health and other problems

     
    CANASIST ge 0 and le 3
     
    1= ��moderate��
    4=< Score <=26

    Moderate risk of developing health and other problems

     
    CANASIST ge 4 and le 26
     
    2= ��high��
     
    Score >=27

    High risk of developing health and other problems and likely to be dependent

     
    CANASIST ge 27

     

    ASISTCN2 Risk level for cannabis consumption - 2 categories

    Based on CANASIST score – categories (moderate /high) combined

     
     
     
    ASISTCN2=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0= ��low��
     
    Score <=3

    Low risk of developing health and other problems

     
    CANASIST ge 0 and le 3
     
    1= ��moderate/ high��
    Score >=4

    Moderate or high  risk of developing health and other problems (eventually likely to be dependent)

     
    CANASIST ge 4

     

     

    3.  ILLICIT DRUGS

     

     

    3.1. COCAINE

     

    COCLIFE Lifetime cocaine use

        Based on  COC1

     
     
    COCLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    COC1=3 
     
    1
     
    Ever used  in lifetime
    COC1=1,2
     

    COC12M Cocaine use past 12 months

        Based on  COC2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    COC12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    COC2=2  AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    COC2=1
     
     

    COC3M Cocaine use past 3 months

        Based on  COC3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    COC3M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    COC3=2 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    COC3=1 through 4

     

     

    3.2.  SPEED

     

    SPEDLIFE Lifetime speed use

        Based on  SPED1

     
     
    SPEDLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    SPED1=3
     
    1
     
    Ever used  in lifetime
    SPED1=1,2
     
     

    SPED12M Speed use past 12 months

        Based on  SPED2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    SPED12M =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    SPED2=2  AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    SPED2=1
     
     

    SPED3M Speed use past 3 months

        Based on  SPED3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    SPED3M =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    SPED3=2 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    SPED3=1 through 4

     

     

    3.3.  ECSTASY

     

    XTCLIFE Lifetime ecstasy use

        Based on  EXT1

     
     
    XTCLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    EXT1=3 
     
    1
     
    Ever used  in lifetime
    EXT1=1,2
     
     

    XTC12M Ecstasy use past 12 months

        Based on  EXT2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    XTC12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    EXT2=2  AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    EXT2=1
     
     

    XTC3M  Ecstasy use past 3 months

        Based on  EXT3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    XTC3M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    EXT3=2 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    EXT3=1 through 4

     

     

    3.4.  HALLUCINOGENS

     

    HALLIFE Lifetime hallucinogens use

        Based on  HAL1

     
     
    HALLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    HAL1=3 
     
    1
     
    Ever used  in lifetime
    HAL1=1,2
     
     

    HAL12M Hallucinogens use past 12 months

        Based on  HAL2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    HAL12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    HAL2=2  AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    HAL2=1
     
     

    HAL3M Hallucinogens use past 3 months

        Based on  HAL3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    HAL3M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    HAL3=2 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    HAL3=1 through 4

     

     

    3.5.  INHALANTS

     

    NHLIFE Lifetime inhalant  use

        Based on  GLUE1

     
     
    INHLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    GLUE1=3 
     
    1
     
    Ever used  in lifetime
    GLUE1=1,2
     
     

    INH12M Inhalant use past 12 months

        Based on  GLUE2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    INH12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    GLUE2=2  AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    GLUE2=1
     
     

    INH3M  Inhalant use past 3 months

        Based on  GLUE3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    INH3M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    GLUE3=2 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    GLUE3=1 through 4

     

     

    3.6.  HEROIN

     

    HERLIFE Lifetime heroin use

        Based on  HER1

     
     
    HERLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    HER1=3 
     
    1
     
    Ever used  in lifetime
    HER1=1,2
     
     

    HER12M Heroin use past 12 months

        Based on  HER2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    HER12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    HER2=2  AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    HER2=1
     
     

    HER3M Heroin use past 3 months

        Based on  HER3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    HER3M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    HER3=2 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    HER3=1 through 4
     
     

    3.7.  STEROIDS

     
     

    STERLIFE Lifetime steroid use

        Based on STER1

     
     
    STERLIFE=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    STER1=3 
     
    1
     
    Ever used  in lifetime
    STER1=1,2

     

     

    STER12M Steroid use past 12 months

        Based on STER2 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    STER12M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    STER2=2  AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 12 months
    STER2=1
     
     
     

    STER3M Steroid use past 3 months

        Based on STER3 – recoded for total sample

     
     
    STER3M=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    STER3=2 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used past 3 months
    STER3=1 through 4

     

     

     

    3.9.  ANY ILLICIT DRUG USED

     

    3.9.1. ANY DRUG INCLUDING CANNABIS

         (8 drugs: cannabis, cocaine, speed, ecstasy, hallucinogens, inhalants, heroin, and steroids)

     
     

    ANY8DL Lifetime use (any drug, including cannabis)

        Based on 8 items (can1, coc1 through ster1)

     
     
     
    ANY8DL =
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    if (can1=3 or coc1=3 or sped1=3 or ext1=3 or hal1=3 or glue1=3 or her1=3 or ster1=3)
     
    1
     
    Used at least one drug in lifetime
    if (can1=1,2 or coc1=1,2 or sped1=1,2 or ext1=1,2 or hal1=1,2 or glue1=1,2 or her1=1,2 or ster1=1,2)
     
     
     

    ANY8D12 Past 12 months use (any drug including cannabis)

        Based on 8 items (can2, coc2 through ster2) recoded for total sample

     
     
    ANY8D12=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    if (can2=2 or coc2=2 or sped2=2 or ext2=2 or hal2=2 or glue2=2 or her2=2 or ster2=2) AND sysmis=0
     
    1
     
    Used at least one drug in past 12 months
    if (can2=1 or coc2=1 or sped2=1 or ext2=1 or hal2=1 or glue2=1 or her2=1 or ster2=1)
     
     

    ANY8D3M Past 3 months use (any drug including cannabis)

                      Based on 8 items (can3, coc3 through ster3) recoded for total sample

     
    ANY8D3M=  
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    can3, coc3 through ster3=0 AND sysmis=0
     
    1
     
    Used at least one drug in past 3 months
    can3, coc3 through ster3=1 through 4
     

    See also: Item ANY8D3  (frequency of use past 3m).

     
     

    3.9.2. ANY DRUG EXCLUDING CANNABIS

         (7 drugs: cocaine, speed, ecstasy, hallucinogens, inhalants, heroin, and steroids)

     
     

    ANY7DXL Lifetime use (any drug excluding cannabis)

        Based on 7 items (coc1 through ster1)

     
     
    ANY7DXL=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used
    if (coc1=3 or sped1=3 or ext1=3 or hal1=3 or glue1=3 or her1=3 or ster1=3)
     
    1
     
    Used at least one drug in lifetime
    if (coc1=1,2 or sped1=1,2 or ext1=1,2 or hal1=1,2 or glue1=1,2 or her1=1,2 or ster1=1,2)
     
     

    ANY7DX12 Past 12 months use (any drug excluding cannabis)

        Based on 7 items (coc2 through ster2) recoded for total sample

     
     
    ANY7DX12=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 12 months
    if (coc2=2 or sped2=2 or ext2=2 or hal2=2 or glue2=2 or her2=2 or ster2=2) AND sysmis=0
     
    1
     
    Used at least one drug in past 12 months
    if (coc2=1 or sped2=1 or ext2=1 or hal2=1 or glue2=1 or her2=1 or ster2=1)
     
     

    ANY7DX3M Past 3 months use (any drug excluding cannabis)

                      Based on 7 items (coc3 through ster3) recoded for total sample

     
    ANY7DX3M =  
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0
     
    Never used/ not used past 3 months
    coc3 through ster3=0 AND

    sysmis=0

     
    1
     
    Used at least one drug in past 3 months
    coc3 through ster3=1 through 4
     
     

    See also:

     

    3.9.3. ANY ILLICIT DRUG INCLUDING CANNABIS

         (6 drugs: cannabis, cocaine, speed, ecstasy, hallucinogens, and heroin)

     
     

    IL6DL   Lifetime use (any illicit including cannabis)

        Based on 6 items (can1, coc1 through hal1, her1)

     

    IL6D12 Past 12 months use (any illicit including cannabis)

        Based on 6 items (can2, coc2 through hal2, her2) recoded for total sample

     
     

    3.9.4. ANY ILLICIT DRUG EXCLUDING CANNABIS

         (5 drugs: cocaine, speed, ecstasy, hallucinogens, and heroin)

     

    IL5DXL Lifetime use (any illicit excluding cannabis)

        Based on 5 items (coc1 through hal1, her1)

     

    IL5DX12 Past 12 months use (any illicit excluding cannabis)

        Based on 7 items (coc2 through hal2, her2) recoded for total sample

     
     
     

    See also:  items il51dl, il51d12, il50dl, il50d12, il4dxl, il4dx12, il3dxl, il3dx12 (different drug use combinations for comparison across surveys); IVLIFE; IV5DL (injection drug use)

     

     

     

    3.10.  DRUG USE PROBLEMS (Cannabis excluded) – ASSIST (WHO)

     

    Based on WHO��s Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) 

     

    The ASSIST is asked only of past 3 months illicit drugs users (see Appendix 2). The score ranges from 0 to 39.  Three cut-off points are used to assess the risk of experiencing health and other problems (e.g. social, financial, legal, relationship): 1) ��low�� (a score of 0-3) refers to a pattern of use associated with a low risk of experiencing problems; 2) ��moderate�� (a score of 4-26) refers to a pattern of use associated with a moderate risk of experiencing problems; and 3) ��high�� (a score of 27 +) refers to a pattern of use that is associated with a high risk of experiencing problems and is likely to lead to dependency.

     

     

    ASISTIL  Illicit Drugs ASSIST score

        Based on 6 items: ANY7DX3M (past 3 months any drug use - coc3m through ster3m) + ASIS1 through ASIS5

     

      summation of:   any7dx3m, asis1, asis2, asis3, asis4, asis5

     

          min: 0     max: 39  (higher score = increased likelihood of experiencing problems) 

     
     
     

    ASISTIL3 Risk level for illicit drug use- 3 categories

        Based on ASISTIL score

     
     
     
    ASISTIL3=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0= ��low��
     
    Score <3

    Low risk of developing health and other problems

     
    ASISTIL ge 0 and le 3
     
    1= ��moderate��
    4< Score <26

    Moderate risk of developing health and other problems

     
    ASISTIL ge 4 and le 26
     
    2= ��high��
     
    Score >27

    High risk of developing health and other problems and likely to be dependent

     
    ASISTIL ge 27

     

     

     

    ASISTIL2 Risk level for illicit drug use- 2 categories

        Based on ASISTIL score – categories (moderate/high) combined

     
     
     
    ASISTIL2=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    0= ��low��
     
    Score <=3

    Low risk of developing health and other problems

     
    ASISTIL ge 0 and le 3
     
    1= ��moderate/ high��
    Score >=4

    Moderate or high  risk of developing health and other problems (eventually likely to be dependent)

     
    ASISTIL ge 4

     

     

     

    3.11.  HARM FROM DRUGS

     

     

    DHARML One or more types of harm from one��s own drug use – lifetime

                      Based on 8 items, dhar1 to dhar8, recoded for lifetime harm.

     


     
    DHARML=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    0
     
    Never any harm from drug use
     
    1
     
    At least one harm from drug use during lifetime (1 of 8)

     

    See also: Items Dhar1L  to  Dhar8l (derived lifetime harm items).

     

     

    DHARM12 One or more types of harm from one��s own drug use – past 12m

                      Based on 8 items, dhar1 to dhar8, recoded for past12m harm.

     


     
    DHARM12=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    0
     
    No harm from drug use – past 12m
     
    1
     
    At least one harm from drug use during past 12m (1 of 8)

     

    See also: Items Dhar1c12  to  Dhar8C12 (derived past 12 months harm items).

     

     

     

    4.  SMOKING   (only in Panel C)

     
     

    SMKSTAT3   Smoking status - Standard to Health Canada Recommendations

        Based on  SMOK1, SMOK2, SMOK5

     
     
     
    SMKSTAT3=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    Current smoker
     
    (SMOK1=1, 3)     OR

    (SMOK1=5 AND SMOK2=1 AND SMOK5=1)

     
    2
     
    Former smoker

    (includes those who ��recently�� quit- 1-11 months ago )

     
    (SMOK1 =5 AND SMOK2=1 AND SMOK5=2,3,4,5) 

    OR 

    (SMOK1=3 AND SMOK5=2,3,4,5)

     
    3
     
    Never 100 cigarettes
     
    SMOK1=5 AND SMOK2=5

     

     

    5.  HRQOL  - HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE MEASURES

     

    Based on the health-related quality of life core module (HRQOL-4) developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, US. 

     

    Investigators at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed a brief survey tool to identify health-related quality of life in adult populations (Ôunpuu, Krueger et al. 2000; Moriarty, Zack et al. 2003).  The four-item HRQOL core module measures self-perceived health, recent physical and mental health, and recent activity limitation.  HRQOL measures capture the key concepts of health, identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948, as ��a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being – not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.��

     

    HRQOL measures are based on 4 items: gh1, gh3, gh4, gh5.  Unlike other health profiles, the HRQOL-4 does not use a summary score or subscale scores based on psychometrically derived or preference-based weights.  The only scoring used is with a summary ��unhealthy days�� index, computed by adding a respondent��s physically and mentally unhealthy days, with a maximum of 30 days for one person.    For comparing populations and examining patterns and trends, population means are generally used for the ��days�� measures.  For some analyses, derived measures based on a cut point are used, for example, ��frequent mental distress�� is defined as 14 or more mentally unhealthy days reported by a respondent.

     

     

    DERIVED ��HRQOL�� VARIABLES

     

    FAIRHLT  Percent fair or poor health

                      Based on item gh1 (self-rated health)

          Recoded into 2 categories: ��0�� (excellent, very good, good); ��1�� (fair, poor)

     
     

    FAIRMHLT  Percent fair or poor mental health

                      Based on item gh2 (self-rated mental health)

          Recoded into 2 categories: ��0�� (excellent, very good, good); ��1�� (fair, poor)

     

    UNHLTPD   Physically unhealthy days

              Based on item gh3.

              Range: 0-30.

     

    UNHLTMD   Mentally unhealthy days

              Based on item gh4.

                      Range: 0-30.

     

    ACTLIMD  Activity limitation days

              Based on item gh5.

                      Range: 0-30.

     

    UNHLTD  Sum of unhealthy days (physically & mentally)

                      Sum of items UNHLTPD and UNHLTMD, recoded so max=30.

                      Range: 0-30.

     

    MENTDISD  Frequent mental distress days

                      Based on item UNHLTMD (mentally unhealthy days)

              Recoded into 2 categories: ��0�� (0-13 days);  ��1�� (14+ days)

              (as recommended by CDC).

     

     

    6.  DERIVED DEMOGRAPHICS

     

    AGE – recoded in several categories.

     

        AGECAT9 Age recoded in 9 categories (CADS)

        Based on age

     
     
    AGECAT9
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    15 - 17 years
     
    age= 15 thru 17
     
    2
     
    18- 19 years
     
    age= 18 thru 19
     
    3
     
    20 - 24 years
     
    age= 20 thru 24
     
    4
     
    25 - 34 years
     
    age= 25 thru 34
     
    5
     
    35 – 44 years
     
    age = 35 thru 44
     
    6
     
    45 – 54 years
     
    age = 45 thru 54
     
    7
     
    55 - 64 years
     
    age = 55 thru 64
     
    8
    65 –74 years  
    age = 65 thru 74
     
    9
     
    75+ years
     
    age= 75 thru HI
     

    See also:  items agecat3, agecat4, agecat6, agecat7, age8cchs, age8nphs.

     
     

        EDUCAT4 Highest level of education recoded  ( 4 categories)

              Based on SDED1

     
     
    EDUCAT4
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    less than high school
     
    SDED1 = 1 thru 4
     
    2
     
    completed high school
     
    SDED1 = 5
     
    3
     
    some post-secondary (college or university)
     
    SDED1 = 6 thru 10
     
    4
     
    university degree
     
    SDED1 = 11 thru 14
     

        See also: item EDU4CADS

     
     

        MARSTAT3 Marital status recoded   (3 categories)

        Based on MSCN

     
     
    MARSTAT3
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    Married/ Living with partner
     
    MSCN=1,2
     
    2
     
    Previously married (divorced, widowed,  separated)
     
    MSCN=3,4,5
     
    3
     
    Never married
     
    MSCN=6
     

        MARSTAT4 Marital status recoded   (4 categories)

        Based on MSCN

     
     
    MARSTAT4
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    Married/ Living with partner
     
    MSCN=1,2
     
    2
     
    Divorced, separated
     
    MSCN=3,4,5
     
    3
     
    Widowed
     
    MSCN=6
     
    4
     
    Never married
     
    MSCN=6
     

    See also: items ms4cads; mstat4r.

     
     

    EMPCAT8 Employment status recoded ( 8 categories)

        Based on SDEM1

     
     
    EMPCAT8
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    full-time
     
    SDEM1=1
     
    2
     
    part-time
     
    SDEM1=2
     
    3
     
    unemployed
     
    SDEM1=4
     
    4
     
    retired
     
    SDEM1=5
     
    5
     
    homemaker
     
    SDEM1=6
     
    6
     
    student
     
    SDEM1=7
    7  
    self-employed
     
    SDEM1=8
     
    8
     
    other
     
    SDEM1=0,3, 10, 11
     
     

    PINCOME Personal Income Before Taxes (past year)

                      Based on items SDIN3 and SDIN4

     
     
    PINCOME=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    less than $20,000
     
    sdin3 lt 20 or sdin4=1
     
    2
     
    between $20,000 and $29,999.99
     
    (sdin3 ge 20 and sdin3 lt 30) or sdin4=2
     
    3
     
    between $30,000 and $39,999.99
     
    (sdin3 ge 30 and sdin3 lt 40) or sdin4=3
     
    4
     
    between $40,000 and $49,999.99
     
    (sdin3 ge 40 and sdin3 lt 50) or sdin4=4
     
    5
     
    between $50,000 and $59,999.99
     
    (sdin3 ge 50 and sdin3 lt 60) or sdin4=5
     
    6
     
    between $60,000 and $69,999.99
     
    (sdin3 ge 60 and sdin3 lt 70) or sdin4=6
     
    7
     
    between $70,000 and $79,999.99
     
    (sdin3 ge 70 and sdin3 lt 80) or sdin4=7
     
    8
     
    between $80,000 and $89,999.99
     
    (sdin3 ge 80 and sdin3 lt 90) or sdin4=8
     
    9
     
    between $90,000 and $100,000
     
    (sdin3 ge 90 and sdin3 lt 100) or sdin4=9
     
    10
     
    more than $100,000
     
    (sdin3 ge 100) or sdin4=10
     
    98
     
    Don�� know
     
    Don�� know
     
    99
     
    Refused
     
    Refused
     
     
     

    HINCOME Household Income Before Taxes (past year)

                      Based on items SDIN1 and SDIN2 and PINCOME

     
     
    HINCOME=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    less than $20,000
     
    sdin1 lt 20 or sdin2=1
     
    2
     
    between $20,000 and $29,999.99
     
    (sdin1 ge 20 and sdin1 lt 30) or sdin2=2
     
    3
     
    between $30,000 and $39,999.99
     
    (sdin1 ge 30 and sdin1 lt 40) or sdin2=3
     
    4
     
    between $40,000 and $49,999.99
     
    (sdin1 ge 40 and sdin1 lt 50) or sdin2=4
     
    5
     
    between $50,000 and $59,999.99
     
    (sdin1 ge 50 and sdin1 lt 60) or sdin2=5
     
    6
     
    between $60,000 and $69,999.99
     
    (sdin1 ge 60 and sdin1 lt 70) or sdin2=6
     
    7
     
    between $70,000 and $79,999.99
     
    (sdin1 ge 70 and sdin1 lt 80) or sdin2=7
     
    8
     
    between $80,000 and $89,999.99
     
    (sdin1 ge 80 and sdin1 lt 90) or sdin2=8
     
    9
     
    between $90,000 and $100,000
     
    (sdin1 ge 90 and sdin1 lt 100) or sdin2=9
     
    10
     
    more than $100,000
     
    (sdin1 ge 100) or sdin2=10
     
    98
     
    Don�� know
     
    Don�� know
     
    99
     
    Refused
     
    Refused
        AND  If HH (household)=1

    HINCOME = PINCOME

     
     
     

    HINCCAT5 Household Income (5 categories)

                      Based on items HINCOME

     
     
    HINCCAT5=
     
    DESCRIPTION
     
    CONDITION
     
    1
     
    less than $30,000
    (HINCOME  le 2)
     
    2
     
    between $30,000 and $49,999.99
     
    (HINCOME  gt 2 and HINCOME  le 4)
     
    3
     
    between $50,000 and $79,999.99
     
    (HINCOME  gt 4 and HINCOME  le 7)
     
    4
    more than $80,000 (HINCOME  gt 7 and HINCOME  le 10)
     
    5
    Not stated (refused or DK)  
    (HINCOME  = 98 or HINCOME  = 99)
     

     

     

    INCADEQ4  Income Adequacy  - 4 categories

     

    Based on items SDIN1, SDIN2, and SD_3 (HH size)

     
    INCADEQ3 DESCRIPTION IncOME

    (revised)

    HH SIZE
    1 Lowest income <$20,000 1-2 persons
    <$30,000 3 or more persons
    2 Middle income $20,000-$59,000 1-2 persons
    $30,000-$79,000 3-4 persons
    $30,000-$79,000 5 or more persons
    3 High income $60,000+ 1-2 persons
    $80,000+ 3 or more persons
    9 Not stated Not stated Unknown

     

     

    INCADEQ5  Income Adequacy  - 5 categories

     

    Based on items SDIN1, SDIN2, and SD_3 (HH size)

     
    INCADEQ DESCRIPTION IncOME

    (revised)

    HH SIZE
    1 Lowest income <$20,000 1-2 persons
    <$30,000 3 or more persons
    2 Lower middle income $20,000-$29,000 1-2 persons
    $30,000-$49,999 3-4 persons
    $30,000- $59,000 5 or more persons
    3 Upper middle income $30,000-$59,000 1-2 persons
    $50,000-$79,000 3-4 persons
    $60,000-$79,000 5 or more persons
    4 Highest income $60,000+ 1-2 persons
    $80,000+ 3 or more persons
    9 Not stated Not stated Unknown
     

    See also: item HH3CAT (household size – 3cat)

     
     

          RURAL Location of Household - based on FSA (��Forward Sortation Area�� – first 3 digits of the postal code)

     

              1= rural;  0 = non-rural

     

     

    Note: 
    Occupation: Main Occupation Codes are recorded in item SDEM3, and are based on the National Occupation Codes (NOC).

     

     

     

    7.  Derived Variables References

     
     

    Ashley, M., R. Ferrence, et al. (1994). "Moderate drinking and health:  Report of an international symposium." CMAJ (151): 809-28.

     

    Babor, T. F., J. C. Higgins-Biddle, et al. (2001). AUDIT: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test.  Guidelines for Use in Primary Care. Geneva, World Health Organization.

     

    Bondy, S., J. Rehm, et al. (1999). "Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The Scientific Evidence." Canadian Journal of Public Health 90(4): 264-70.

     

    English, D, et al. (1995). The quantification of drug caused morbidity and mortality in Australia 1993. Canberra, ACT : Dept. of Community Services and Health.

     

    Moriarty, D. G., M. M. Zack, et al. (2003). "The Centers for Disease control and Prevention's Health Days Measures - Population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time." Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1(37).  Available at http://www.hqlo.com

     

    Ôunpuu, S., P. Krueger, et al. (2000). "Using the U.S. Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System's Health Related Quality of Life Survey Tool in a Canadian City." Canadian Journal of Public Health 91(1): 67-72.

     

    Saunders, J. B., O. G. Aasland, et al. (1993). "Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption BII." Addiction 88: 791-804.

     

    WHO ASSIST Working Group (2002). "Alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST): Development, reliability and feasibility." Addiction 97(9): 1183-1194.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    APPENDIX 2

     

    WHO  ASSIST

     
     

     

     

     

    APPENDIX 3

     

    Questionnaire

     


    Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS)  2004  -  ITEM ALLOCATION              
                   
      National Sample (Total N = 13909)    PANEL  A PANEL  B PANEL  C
                   
      Panels (N) 4612   4639   4658  
                   
      Variables  description (variable name) No. of items No. of items No. of items
                   
                   
    1 Attitudes, Opinions, Policy  (Block 1)            
    1.1 Perceived seriousness            
          a. at national level (HCP1 to HCP6) 6          
          b. at provincial level (HCP7 to HCP12)     6      
          c. at community (city or town) level  (HCP13 to HCP18)         6  
    1.2 Opinions on govt. impact/ societal impact (agree/disagree) 5   5   5  
      (HCP19- HCP33)             
    1.3 Perceived harm1 (users harming themselves) 20          
      (HCR1-HCR20) (+metamph)            
    1.4 Perceived harm2 (users harming others)     20      
      (HCR21-HCR40) (+metamph)            
    1.5 Perceived risk (RISK1 to RISK9)         8  
    1.6 Perceived availability (GET1 -GET7) 7          
                   
    2 Health & Well-Being            
    2.1 General Health & Mental Health  (GH1 - GH5)     5      
    2.2 Social isolation (QSI1-QSI3)     3      
                   
    3 Tobacco            
      Smoking status (SMOK1 -SMOK3)         3  
                   
    4 Alcohol Use            
    4.1 Use (ALC1-ALC8, ALC11)            
            Prevalence of drinking 1   1   1  
            Lifetime drinkers 1   1   1  
            Past 12M drinkers - drinking patterns 8   8   8  
    4.2 Past 7 days drinking (ALC10- ALC5A7) 7   7   7  
      Age of onset (ALC12) 1   1   1  
      Past 12M have you consumed more/less (q/f) (ALC13-ALC14) 2   2   2  
    4.3 Drinking Occasions (AF1 - AT15A)            
      (asked of only 40% of Panel C sample)            
             Occ1            
             12M drinker?         13  
             Partial         4  
             Occ2            
             12M drinker?         13  
             Partial         4  
             Occ3            
             12M drinker?         13  
             Partial         4  
    4.4 Home brew  (HB1-HB3)         3  
                   
    4.5 Alcohol Problems            
        AUDIT (AUD4 - AUD10) 7   7   7  
                   
    5 Cannabis Use            
    5.1 Use (CAN1-CAN6) 7   7   7  
      Age of onset (CAN4) 1   1   1  
      Opportunity (CAN1A) 1   1   1  
    5.2 Patterns of use/ Reasons for use            
      Past 12M have you consumed more/less (q/f) (CAN5-CAN6) 2   2   2  
      Where/ With whom...? (HCCN1-HCCN2) 2   2   2  
      Reasons for use (HCCN3-HCCN4) 2   2   2  
    5.3 Medical use (CAME1-CAME2) 2   2   2  
    5.4 Market Info (CMI1-CMI7) 7   7   7  
                   
    5.5 Cannabis Problems            
         ASIST (CNAS1-CNAS5) (past 3M) 5   5   5  
                   
    6 Illicit Drugs            
    6.1-6.8 Use (7 drugs)            
        Cocaine (COC1-COC3) 3   3   3  
        Speed (SPED1-SPED3) 3   3   3  
        Ecstasy (EXT1-EXT3) 3   3   3  
        Hallucinogens (HAL1-HAL3) 3   3   3  
        Inhalants (GLUE1-GLUE3) 3   3   3  
        Heroin (HER!-HER3) 3   3   3  
        Steroids (STER!-STER3) 3   3   3  
      Age of onset (for each drug) (COC4, SPED4,��,STER4) 7   7   7  
    6.9 Patterns of use  (HCCO1- HCHE4)            
      (asked for cocaine, speed, hall, ecstasy, heroin )            
      Past 12M consumed more/less 10   10   10  
      Where usually consume 5   5   5  
      With whom usually consume 5   5   5  
    6.10 Reasons for use/not use (HCRU1- HCRU4)            
      Why start using (past12M) 2   2   2  
      Why not used (past 3M) 1   1   1  
      Why still using (past 3M) 1   1   1  
    6.11 Injection drug use (IDU1-IDU13)    16   16   16  
                   
    6.12 Drug Use Problems            
      ASIST (WHO) (ASIS1-ASIS5) (past 3M) 5   5   5  
                   
    7 Consequences of use            
      (asked of users of all drugs except tobacco)            
    7.1      Alcohol Harm (AHAR1-AHAR8) 8   8   8  
    7.2      Illicit Drugs Harm (DHAR1-DHAR8) 8   8   8  
      (ask non-users)            
    7.3 Reasons for not using  (HCRN1 - HCRN2) 2   2   2  
                   
    8 Victimization            
      (asked only of respondents aged 18 and older)            
    8.1    Alcohol - harm from others (OPD1-OPD5) 4   4   4  
    8.2    Violence (VIC1-VIC9) 9   9   9  
    8.3    Cost victimization (CV1-CV4) 4   4   4  
                   
    8.4    Willingness to pay (WTP1-WTP6) 6          
                   
    9 Attitudes, Opinions, Policy  (Block 2)            
    9.1 Govt. programs to reduce use/conseq (HCP41-HCP54) 14          
    9.2 Drug use impact on society (HCP55- HCP62)     8      
      Main cause of drug problem (HCP63)     1      
      Most likely at risk...? (HCP64)     1      
      Prevention/treatment OR Incarceration (HCP65)     1      
    9.3    Alcohol  Policy (ALCP1-ALCP6)         6  
    9.4    Drug Policy (DRP1-DRP6A)         11  
    9.5    Cannabis Policy (CANP1-CANP5)         5  
    9.6    Cannabis driving (CAND2-CAND3)         2  
                   
    10 Driving and substance use  (ADR1-DCD2)     12      
                   
    11 Treatment (T1 - T17K)            
         Ever treated? 5   5   5  
         Yes effort/Yes treatment 3   3   3  
         Needed treatment (past 12M only)? 8   8   8  
         Made effort? (Y/N) 1   1   1  
         Yes effort/No treatment (why?) 8   8   8  
         No effort (why?) 11   11   11  
                   
    12 Demographics (MSCN-FSA) 21   21   21  
    13 Administrative 3   3   3  
                   
      TOTAL ITEMS (for each panel) 282   286   324  
                   
                   

     


     

    CAS 2004  Microdata eGuide  

     

    CAS 2004  Microdata eGuide  

     

    CAS 2004  Microdata eGuide  

     

    CAS 2004  – Microdata eGuide – Derived Variables

     

    CAS 2004  – Microdata eGuide - Derived variables

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