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Nutrition in Prevention and Treatment of Disease


Nutrition and Health

Rima E. Laibow, MD

Medical Director

Natural Solutions Foundation



With special thanks to

Arline McDonald, PhD, Assistant Professor, Adjunct

For her permission to use portions of the

Preventive Medicine Lectures

Feinberg School of Medicine

Northwestern University, Chicago Illinois

Lauren Congo

Andrew Saul, PhD 

Nutrition is nothing less than the foundation of medicine, the cornerstone of all medical therapeutics.

                                 A Forum on Nutrition and Health, JON 2(4), 1993                                  

Prevention cannot start too early.  Neither can it start too late.

Rima E. Laibow, MD 2005 


Nutrition brings together the goals and objectives of public health policy planners, medical/health systems and consumers. Global health policy experts know that health, itself, is a great bargain since people who are robustly well:

  • Create and fully participate in functioning communities stabilizing society;
  • Work and fully contribute to local and world economies;
  • Consume far fewer scarce resources for preventable diseases since they require less conventional, industrial-economy-based health resources than do hungry and ill-nourished people;
  • Enjoy life and treasure the stability that supports their health.

Robust individual and family health objectives thus become goals that are shared between people and society. 

The core of robust health is a level of nutritional abundance which supports and meets the global right and the unique personal nutritional requirements of each individual to optimal nutritional status and health.  This is, however, a challenging goal to achieve in a world in which the degradation of the quality of the food supply is an increasingly severe problem in both the developing and the developed world.  

A 2003 WHO/FAO joint expert consultation report, Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases 1 states that chronic diseases are preventable and that the developing world is facing the medical consequences of a nutritionally compromised food supply..  It goes on to identify the consequences of under-nutrition on the development of what it refers to as a ��non communicable epidemic,�� noting that increasingly sedentary lifestyles, sharp decreases in the nutritional adequacy of food and globally produced, commercially prepared food are in stark contradistinction to local and national food supplies and trading economies supportive of access to fresh and local food and sustainable economic and agricultural practices. 

The non-communicable epidemic to which the WHO/FAO refers is in fact a global pandemic, one marked by a growth in the prevalence of widespread chronic illness which is impacting heavily the developing nations of the world.  The pandemic is, by contrast, already well established in the developed world and is now worsening in both economic sectors of the world. 

This WHO/FAO report identifies obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke and some types of cancer as increasingly significant causes of premature death and disability in both developing and developed countries.  These diseases place additional burdens on already overtaxed medical systems.2 

 ��Nutrition is coming to the fore as a major, modifiable determinant of chronic disease with scientific evidence increasingly supporting the view that alterations in diet have strong effects, both positive and negative, on health throughout life,�� adds the WHO/FAO report. ��Most importantly, dietary adjustments may not only influence present health, but may determine whether or not an individual will develop such diseases  

��. In many developing countries, food policies remain focused only on under nutrition and are not addressing the problem of chronic disease��3  and overall long-term health status, including immune capacity to resist infectious diseases, parasitic infestations and other health assaults dependant upon an optimally and healthy underlying nutritional matrix in each individual. 

In fact, that nutritional matrix is crucial.  To illustrate this point, it is useful to examine the importance, and dangers, of saturated fat.  It has become a matter of axiomatic truth that saturated fat is a component of an unhealthy diet and that intake is correlated strongly with elevated LDL-cholesterol and the resulting increase in cardiovascular disease.  However, the biochemical and nutritional picture does not support that well-held belief without significant qualification. 

In the context of the modern nutrient-depleted diet which most urban and urbanizing people consume saturated fat (SFA) is the strongest dietary predictor of LDL-cholesterol levels in the presence of inadequate antioxidant levels. In the presence of adequate nutritional components (i.e., unmodified saturated fat from healthy plant and animal sources including free range, naturally fed animal protein) SF not a health threat; rather, it is of great benefit.  Dietary recommendations and strategies must take into account the nutritional context of the person being nourished, supported and advised.  Single findings of depletion or depression of nutrients usually have concomitant significance far beyond the specific nutrient profile or symptom associated with that finding and should be addressed as part of a total nutritional picture which involves the biochemical, dietary and physiological matrix of that individual.  Attention should be paid to that person��s relationship with food and supplements as well as the production, preparation, preference and consumption of food for optimal health., 

Weston Price4, an American dentist, carried out decades of observation and examination of people living on native and modern diets all over the world over many decades.  His conclusion was that when native foods were replaced by the "displacing foods of modern commerce��5 —sugar, white flour, condensed milk, canned foods, chocolate, jams and pastries—results were not only serious dental abnormalities, but the development of the diseases of modern civilization��s diet, including the epidemic development of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease.6  

This global exploration of diet and health found that universally, healthy people eat saturated fat in the context of optimal nutritional intake of vitamins and minerals along with co-factors found both in meat and in fats. Optimal nutrition is supported by a complex and complete relationship between intake of fats and nutrients.  It is important to note that dietary SF, recently vilified in Western science, play many critical roles in human health and biochemistry. 

Saturated fatty acids:

    • Constitute at least 50% of the cell membranes, giving them necessary stiffness and integrity
    • Play a vital role in bone health,7,8
    • Lower Lp(a), a marker which indicates proneness to heart disease9, 10
    • Protect the liver from the damage caused by alcohol ingestion;11, 12
    • Enhance the immune system13, 14
    • Required for the proper utilization of essential fatty acids;15, 16
    • Are the preferred food for the heart17, 18
    • Have important antimicrobial properties against harmful microorganisms in the digestive tract.19, 20

Perhaps even more important, animal fats are carriers for vital fat-soluble vitamins A and D which are needed for a host of processes, from prevention of birth defects to health of the immune system to proper development and maintenance of bones and teeth. In fact, Price was convinced that these "fat-soluble activators" were key to the beautiful facial development, freedom from dental caries and absence of chronic degenerative diseases that characterized the people he studied.  

The diets of traditional groups noted for longevity are rich in animal fats: The people of Hunza consume large quantities of fermented goat milk products. Goat��s milk is higher in fat, and contains more SF, than cow��s milk; the inhabitants of Vilcabamba in Ecuador consume fatty pork and whole milk products; and the long-lived inhabitants of Soviet Georgia also eat liberally of pork, whole milk yoghurt and cheeses. In fact, a Soviet study  

found that longevity was greatest in rural communities where people ate the most fatty meat, compared to town dwellers who ate more carbohydrates.21, 22 

Dr Price found that healthy, disease free people eating their native diets which, without exception, contained, compared to the processed Western diet:

  • At least four times the nutritional minerals—calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, etc.,
  • Ten times the fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin A from animal sources is not the same as its precursors, the carotenes, which are found in plant foods. The conversion of carotenes in the human body is often compromised, and even under optimal conditions is not efficient enough to supply the amount of true vitamin A needed by the body.

Price found in the diets of healthy isolated populations.

  • The richest sources of vitamins A and D from the very foods modern man eschews: animal fats, organ meats, lard, fish eggs, shellfish, eggs and butter—but not pale, commercial store-bought butter which is virtually devoid of these nutrients.23, 24

It is vitally important to note that the so-called laboratory ��norms�� and population definitions of ��nutritional adequacy�� and ��health�� upon which our understandings of levels and limits of nutrients are built may not express normal findings but, rather, normative ones for an unhealthy population.  Our conventional definitions of nutritional adequacy may be, in reality, standards developed from populations eating a compromised diet (ours) and prone to develop preventable diseases (and, on a statistical basis, already in the process of developing them at the time that any lab value might have been drawn or other data gathered).  Thus, the concept of limitation of nutrients to a supposed standard of normality drawn from the most disease-prone population the world has ever known, a population which habitually eats foods depleted in nutrients and whose genetic potential for health is manifestly not supported by that diet is not based in either science or sense, despite its familiarity. 

This fully flawed premise leading to nutrient and nutritional status ��norms�� based on ill people, rather than healthy ones, is neither rational nor logical.  And, most important, it does not allow for decisions on either a personal, regulatory or population basis, which support optimal health and the fullest possible expression of the genetic capacity for health and productivity inherent in optimal nutrition.  These cautions pertain to levels of both macro and micro nutrients. Dr. Price��s important data is supported by other medical and physical anthropologists, physicians, cultural and health workers. (See for example,25,26

Like SF, carbohydrate intake must be evaluated in the context of its quality and the food environment of the patient.  Dr. Price found that while seed foods (i.e., grains, legumes

and nuts) were consumed in native diets among disease free peoples consuming native diets, they were always prepared with great care in traditional societies by sprouting, roasting, soaking, fermenting and sour leavening. 27, 28 These processes neutralize substances in whole grains and other seed foods that block mineral absorption, inhibit protein digestion and irritate the lining of the digestive tract. Such processes also increase nutrient content and render seed foods more digestible. In these societies, in fact, seed foods are not consumed unless they meet these preparation criteria. In essence, the food value of our carbohydrates and the native diet ones is as different as the saturated fat from the animals they eat and that from our animal food sources.  

Thus, it is important to view dietary consumption an impact of carbohydrates and saturated fat on, for example, blood lipids in the context of a pattern of dietary intake because healthy native peoples routinely eat as much saturated fat as they can get but do so in the context of a dietary environment in which food is not degraded in nutrient density and carbohydrates are, in fact, enhanced in nutritional value.   

Since the dietary matrix of modern populations is far inferior to that of the societies Dr. Price studied, it is important to correct intake to those levels to help move populations back toward healthy intakes and healthy outcomes. 

Hunger and under-nutrition are devastating realities for the vast majority of the world.  WHO estimates that 30% of the world��s population is malnourished29.  If standards of nourishment are modified to rest on the nourishment of truly healthy people, such as those studied by Dr. Price in his extensive research, the result would be to include most of the world��s population in the undernourished category. Current definitions of homeostatic values would no longer obtain since these are the homeostatic maladaptations of challenged and compromised individuals who either have, or are in the process of developing, preventable chronic degenerative diseases of under-nutrition.  

This expansion of the under-nourished, is medically and scientifically-based although politically problematic, would, in fact, be a positive advance since until malnutrition is recognized, public health policy designed to correct it cannot be created and implemented.  Thus, the important distinction between normal (i.e., well nourished with an end point of optimal nutrition) and normative (ill-nourished with an end point of diagnosable dietary deficiency diseases which may not yet clinically apparent) is a crucial one.  Using the second definition, what is, and what is not, a dietary deficiency disease is determined by the state of nutritional medicine��s knowledge.  As diseases are added to the category of dietary deficit disorders, more of the world is categorized as malnourished.  

With this perspective in mind it becomes clear that the current definitions of biological homeostasis are both incorrect and misleading. 

On the other hand, using optimal nutrition as a public health goal leads to the development of an appreciation for, and an awareness of, the importance of supporting, real physical and physiological well-being based in the achievable goal of population-wide optimal nourishment. 

Although the problem is of massive proportion, unlike many other complex issues it is manageable and relatively inexpensive to solve.  In 2001 preventable chronic disease accounted for more than 60% of all global deaths (nearly 34 million deaths) and approximately 46% of the global disease burden.30 All estimates suggest a sharp increase in the problem since that time.  

In fact, nutritional treatment and prevention has a major contribution to make in the developing world because of the unique susceptibility of poorly fed and culturally disrupted populations.  These populations are increasingly open to chronic preventable diseases and highly susceptible to infectious diseases because of long-term absence of optimal nutrition which predisposes them to enhanced vulnerability.   

Although HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases are predominant cause of death in Sub Saharan Africa (and will continue to be for some time), of those deaths attributable to chronic disease, 79% occur in the developing countries.31 

WHO projections predict that chronic degenerative diseases, although misnamed ��diseases of affluence�� are, in fact, burdens of the developing world as well so that by 2020 preventable chronic diseases will account for nearly 75% of world deaths and that, of those, non-optimally nourished people of the developing world will account for

  • 71% of all ischemic heart disease deaths
  • 70% of all diabetic deaths
  • 75% of all stroke-related deaths.

Diabetes will increase among the non-optimally nourished in the developing world from its 1995 rate of 84 million cases to 228 million in 2025.32 

The WHO and FAO notes that ��countries that have actively intervened in the diet and nutritional behavior of their populations �� have seen decreases in their risk factors and falling rates of chronic disease.��33 Adoption of a national policy of optimal nutrition could have a tremendous impact on the economic status of a country while enhancing the well-being of her people in an unprecedented manner. 

The US provides a sad but illustrative example of a country spending enormous sums on everything except the powerful combination of preventive nutrition and natural medicine focused on optimal health.  Her efforts are toward slamming the high tech barn door after  

the nutritional horse is well away.  The declining health of Americans testifies to the fact that this is an alluring, but incorrect strategy toward wide spread health facilitation.  Estimates of cost reduction per year looking only at hospital costs if preventive nutrition were instituted in the US are illustrative of the vast amount of money spent on preventable diseases which could be better spent on increasing health and well-being by sparing the distress and loss of productivity and life which disease brings.  Savings which could be expected if adequate nutritional prevention impacted the US population are listed below:  

    Disease                                                    Reduction in Hospitalization Cost/year 

    Cardiovascular Disease  $  22 Billion  US

      Cancer  $    1 Billion  US 

      Low Birth Weight $500 Billion  US

      Neural Tube Birth Defects $  70 Billion  US

      Cataract   $    2 Billion  US34 

Although the percentage of the US Gross National Product which the United States spends on health care is enormous (15%, twice that of any other nation) 35

  and decidedly unproductive in terms of the health of her people compared to other countries with a more natural approach to health care (unnecessary medical procedures and drugs cause nearly 800,000 preventable deaths and hundreds of thousands of severe drug reactions per year36

in the US)37

, the point here pertains to any economy.  Preventing disease through economical and remarkably safe, non-toxic nutritional strategies offers substantial savings over allopathic medicine and substantial increase in health and well being.  As drug side effects are eliminated and toxic loads on the body are reduced to the virtual null point obtaining and maintaining optimal health becomes easier. 

In fact, the side effects and toxicity of pharmaceuticals are without parallel in the nutrition world.  No class of medicaments in the pharmacological realm offers the safety of nutrients.  The difference is orders of magnitude apart in favor of nutrients. 

Nutritional status and immune competence are the cornerstones upon which the house of health rests.  Assertions are frequently made that a good diet will supply all needed nutrients. If this unproven assertion were true, those people eating such a diet should not develop the preventable diseases of under-nutrition and should not respond to the introduction of nutrients with resolution of those diseases.  In fact, clinical nutrition confirms what biochemistry and immunology explain: optimal nutrition is difficult or impossible to achieve through diet alone given 

  • Widespread demineralization of agricultural soils leading to, and proceeding from, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides.
  • The degradation of food quality and nutrient density with increased time and processing between harvest and consumption
  • The increased need for nutrients imposed by a toxic load far in excess of that experienced by our agrarian ancestors.38

When the nutritional support available to the individual falls below the combined requirements of metabolic and environmental challenges, the result is either immediate or delayed sub-optimal health resulting in

  • Increased susceptibility to infection
  • Failure to reach neurologic, intellectual and physical genetic potential
  • Lowered vitality including chronic fatigue and diminished productivity
  • Decreased level of well-being
  • Development of chronic cell injury which can lead to chronic degenerative diseases
  • Craving and addictions
  • Reduced fertility
  • Increased rates of mental and emotional, attentional and neurological disorders
  • Increased violence.

Given the difference between the quality of food available to us and the food quality that we need to flourish, supplements make sense and add health promoting options to large number of people.  It makes sense then, that dietary supplements of micronutrients are beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of disease as part of the maintenance of optimal health and in helping to end world hunger.39


Dr. Arline McDonald of The Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University��s points out ��Nutrients are the raw materials that support physiologic and metabolic functions needed for maintenance of normal cellular activity.  Malfunctioning of cellular activities due to an inadequate level of support from available nutrients is initially expressed in biochemical changes that will eventually develop into clinical symptoms characteristic of the particular roles of the nutrients involved.  Nutrient deficiencies may develop as a result of inadequate intake, impaired absorption, increased demand, or increased excretion.  Excessive intakes of some nutrients may promote deficiencies of others through impaired absorption, increased demand, or increased excretion.  

Chronic disease can be considered the result of cellular change resulting from nutrient insufficiencies since they are, in fact, an expression of cumulative cellular damage due to environmental assaults for which the threshold of exposure at which damage is incurred is defined by genetics.  An imbalance in dietary patterns is among the environmental factors that contribute to the development of chronic diseases.  Diet may either be  

directly involved in the pathogenesis of the disease or it may exacerbate pathological changes due to other environmental factors.�� 40 

High Dose Supplementation (HSD) with available and inexpensive nutrients like folic acid, the B Complex, (especially vitamins B3, 6 and 12) magnesium, essential fatty acids, methionine, reduced glutathione, alpha ketoglutarate, dietary fiber, and vitamin C offer the body the opportunity to repair nutritional and toxic cellular damage and support the pathways of detoxification overwhelmed by an imbalance of the required nutritional load (low) and the toxic load (high). Nutrients have both nourishing (metabolic) and supportive/corrective functions in the body.  Physiological doses of nutrients are required for metabolic support while HSD is required for correction of tissue, organ, cellular and sub-cellular pathology and for detoxification support.   

Metabolic functions include supporting growth and maintenance, immune surveillance, maintaining homeostasis and maintaining adequate reserves for efficient function. Intake imbalances at the metabolic level result in the classic nutrient deficiency symptoms and diseases. 

Supportive/Corrective nutrient functions are evoked when HSD offers the body a larger amount of the nutrient(s) than commonly found in food.  The resultant easily available nutrients drive reaction toward repair and re-equilibration within the physiological capacity of the organism, often resulting in the cellular and sub-cellular restoration of balance and health.  Nutrients have a remarkably low toxicity profile so that very large doses may be offered with great safety.  Thus, HSD nutrition stimulates biochemical and tissue restoration of health or maintains those processes when such restoration is not possible. 

Supplementation of metabolic levels of nutrients supports

  • Production of storage and release of energy
  • Maintenance of lean body mass and skeletal mass
  • Tissue synthesis
    • Requires
      • Protein
      • Fat
      • Zinc
      • Vitamin A
      • Vitamin C
      • Iron
  • Membrane potentials (brain, heart, etc.)
  • Neuromuscular activity
  • Plasma and cellular fluid volumes
  • Synthesis of Bioactive Compounds (enzymes, hormones, immune substances)
    • Requires
      • Amino acids
      • Vitamin B6, fatty acids
      • Selenium
  • Regulatory functions (enzyme activation, cell messengers, gene induction)

HSD of nutrients supports

  • Detoxification (biotransformation and conjugation)
  • Immune function (mitogenic, microbicidal and phagocytic activity)
    • Requires
      • Zinc
      • Vitamin C
      • Proteins
      • Vitamin A
      • Vitamin B6
      • Folate
  • Inflammatory response modulation by cytokines, prostaglandins
  • Antioxidant activity (free radical scavengers)
    • Includes
      • Vitamin C
      • Carotenoids
      • Vitamin E
      • Selenium
  • Enzyme induction and inhibition
  • Homeostatic and feedback control
  • Gene expression

Offering nutrients at either the metabolic or HSD dosage levels should:

  • Optimize cellular activity and tissue/organ function
    • provide sufficient supplies to meet continuous demand
    • maintain adequate reserves for intermittent increased demand
  • Stimulate inherent reparative capacity by providing sufficient nutrient support to allow robust cellular health
  • Reduce the metabolic burden imposed on cardiac, pulmonary, neurological, renal, hepatic, and musculoskeletal systems by environmental factors
    • minimize workload of organ systems
    • support reparative or compensatory responses required to maintain normal function
  • Support cellular defenses that protect tissue integrity
    • maintain immunocompetence
    • promote detoxification of chemicals
    • prevent oxidative damage

Inadequate nutrient intake can be detected by clinical symptoms if the deficiencies are severe or prolonged. Use of clinically-defined signs of deficiency to determine whether nutrient intakes are adequate has significant limitations that underscore the need for dietary assessment as a critical component of clinical evaluation.  One is that many nutrients, particularly trace elements and some vitamins do not have well-defined signs or symptoms that are targeted to a specific nutrient.  Consequently, metabolic abnormalities may develop that could cause cellular injury or compromise defenses.  In the early stages of iron deficiency, for example, cellular energy production is compromised even though hemoglobin levels may still be in a clinically normal range.  Another example of the same process is in folic acid deficiency.  Megaloblastic cellular changes due to folic acid  

deficiency occur in the late stages of progression of the deficiency long after metabolic abnormalities were established.   

Nutrient status is seriously compromised in the face of environmental or dietary imbalances.  The resulting compensatory mechanisms stress the organs, the glands and the nutrient base creating a cycle of deepening deficiency which is ultimately expressed as signs or symptoms of chronic disease, often after serious or irreversible tissue damage has occurred.  ��If these responses are sustained by prolonged imbalances in intakes of these nutrients, then adaptive changes to counter these responses may contribute to cellular injury and pathology.  Compensatory responses and/or adaptive changes are among the risk factors identified for chronic diseases that can be managed by modifications in dietary habits.��41 

The urgency of not ignoring early stages of nutrient deficiencies because of the absence of clearly defined clinical deficiency symptoms is illustrated by vitamin B12.  Development of a Vitamin B12 deficiency that is unrelated to lack of intrinsic factor (pernicious anemia) is not uncommon among adults over age 65, but the nonspecific pattern of symptoms associated with a deficiency of this vitamin (e.g., depression, dementia, lassitude, memory loss, unsteady gait, numbness and tingling in the extremities, etc.) are difficult to separate from other possible causes in this age group.  Consequently, abnormalities in vitamin B12-dependent cellular activities may go uncorrected resulting in irreversible damage to nervous tissue (e.g., demyelineation).42


The functional capacity of a cell depends on its genetics, nourishment, exposure to environmental toxins like smoking, personal hygiene, exercise, stress levels, environmental pollutants like pesticides and UV exposure, and habitual nutrient intake.   

The absorption of ingested nutrients depends upon absorptive efficiency; the rate at which they are consumed is determined by metabolic demand; excretory rate excreted depends on excretion efficiency. 

Unless given by a novel route such as transdermal application or IV, nutrient absorptive efficiency depends upon a healthy GI tract and kidneys (e.g., no diarrhea, loss of electrolytes, vomiting or fat malabsorption which would limit absorption of Vitamins A, D, E, K).  Bio-availability of Iron, Calcium and Zinc depend on pH, and the absence or presence of factors and anti-factors such as phytic acid. 

Ratios of nutrients are crucial for absorption and utilization.  For example, Calcium and Iron must be in a proper balance with each other as must Iron and Zinc.  Zinc must also be in an appropriate ratio to Copper and these balances must be maintained over extended periods whether the dose of nutrients is low, intermediate or in the HSD range with the proviso that there are absolute limits on safe intake some nutrients like copper if absorption is normal although persons with impaired absorptive capacity.  The concept of optimum nutrition, with its inherent recognition of biochemical individuality, allows for  

personal deviation from the statistical norm since normal values are statistically, not biologically, derived.  

Absorptive deficiencies (often based in absolute or relative nutrient imbalances) can prevent proper absorption of other nutrients.  For example, if Vitamin B12 is low, folate deficiency will result, if Vitamin D is low, calcium will be deficient and if Magnesium is low, Calcium absorption will be impaired.  Thus, not only absolute amounts of nutrients must be considered, the unique biochemical makeup of that person at that particular time needs to be factored in for efficient and effective nutritional therapy so that it either enhances long-term well-being or addresses the current situation on a responsive, as well as a preventive, level. 

Health, disease, balance/imbalance in nutrients, medications and sequestrants all change the excretion pattern of nutrients.  Happily, because the toxic profile is so low, there is a huge safety margin for nutrients.  Because of this, it is easy to have a beneficial impact using nutrients but very hard to do harm using them, unlike drugs where the opposite is true. 

During apparent health (before deep cellular changes make themselves apparent in symptoms or disease entities) metabolic requirements for nutrients go up rapidly under many circumstances.   

Growth, for example, increases the need for Iron, Zinc and Folate, Pyridoxine, Vitamins A and D and Calcium while stress (including alcohol intake) not only causes mineral wasting and, over a long period, accelerates bone loss, but also causes Vitamin C to be rapidly depleted.  Magnesium, Vitamin K, Zinc, Magnesium, Chromium, Pyridoxine and all antioxidants are depleted rapidly as a consequence of dietary excesses. 

On the other hand, once disease (accumulated profound cellular damage) develops and symptoms and dysfunctions are apparent, other shortfalls develop rapidly.  During infection, for example, Iron, Zinc, Pyridoxine and Vitamin C are in short supply. All of the functions they carry out and modulate are now either halted or challenged to keep up with the metabolic demands which are usually increased in illness. Alcoholism depletes Magnesium, Zinc, Magnesium and Thiamin while medications routinely deplete CO Q 10, Vitamin D, Folate and Pyridoxine plus many other nutrients.  It is important to remember that just as the requirements for a nutrient are individual points along a cpntinuum of requirement and that point may change with age, nutritional status, stress, toxicity, etc., so, too, the absorptive pathways and particulars of nutritional requirements vary widely within and between people.   

For those people who neither absorb nor metabolize vitamins well, an activated form of, for example, B1 (Thiamin Pyrophosphate or TPP), B6 (Pyridine 5 Phosphate or P5P) or B12 (dibencozide) is required to provide optimal nutritional status.43

 The reality, then, is that the individual status of a patient determines his/her nutrient requirements and that appropriate treatment takes this into account and capitalizes on it. 

Few people live in the pristine environments many of our ancestors did 250 years ago.  We are, regrettably, no longer free of pesticides, human and veterinary drug residues, xenobiotics, flame retardants, petrochemicals, formaldehyde and heavy metal residues in  

our bodies and our surroundings.  Fewer people still partake of an unadulterated food chain grown in fully mineralized soil, diets which provide them with perfect ratios of omega 3, 6 and 9 fats, zero hydrogenated and other dangerous fats, adequate unprocessed and well prepared food which has made its way swiftly from a nearly farm to their daily feast. 

Assuming that these pristine eaters (and breathers) never come into contact with any of the toxins of an industrial food supply and the industrial world, they may find themselves in the tiny minority of people who might be able safely to avoid judicious consideration of nutritional supplement at one or more points of their lives.  Vitamins and minerals are essential for both cellular processes and cellular detoxification.  The greater the body burden of  toxins, the greater the requirement for nutrients and, in the uniquely toxic modern world, the greater level and diversity of nutrients required to support not just a standard of minimal health (which can be described as the absence of overt deficiency diseases), but optimal and robust health.  This sought-after and achievable goal requires nutritional support at a level far greater than the amount of these nutrients reasonably consumed from food.   

Personal nutritional optimization though supplementation in addition to the best available diet is an effective strategy which, when properly individualized, offers a country the opportunity to increase the well being of its citizens while reducing the fiancial and social cost of medical care to the society substantially compared to a national strategy of allowing cellular damage/chronic degenerative diseases to develop and suppressing their symptoms with toxico-pharmacology.   

Put simply, prevention of the staggering personal, social and economic burden of nutritional diseases can be accomplished through nutritional supplementation, but cannot be accomplished without it.  The paradigmatic opposite of preventive health is reactive medicine, in which a condition presents itself with already apparent pathology and that pathology, not the underlying cause of it, is addressed, usually with pharmaceuticals that inhibit or poison enzyme pathways to produce specific desired (and undesired) changes.  Reactive medicine is effective and important in acute and traumatic situations while preventive medicine is significantly more effective at reducing the personal and social burden of degenerative disease.  Preventive medicine is significantly less expensive than reactive medicine since it is low tech and uses substances whose costs are low; the bulk of the nutrient materials cannot be patented since they are found in nature.   

Properly designed, an economical and effective health system which makes an active and meaningful contribution to ending preventable ill health and disease combines the strengths of conventional reactive, allopathic medicine and those of natural, preventive medicine and public health.  Reactive medicine��s strength in acute/trauma care and diagnosis can be effectively used to guide preventive and natural medicine.  Natural medicine excels at prevention and at repairing underlying cellular damage while prevention of disease represents one of conventional allopathic medicine��s weakest areas.  

Nutritional strategies are employed at various levels of organization from the cellular to the organismic in order to achieve several goals which conventional medicine is rarely able to achieve:


    1. Optimization of Cellular Activities.  Since cellular activities are absolutely dependent upon nutrient components being both abundantly present and available for use, nutritional strategies are uniquely critical to support of the metabolic processes upon which both health and life depend.  Common examples of optimization in clinical situations through nutritional strategies include the nutritional correction of diverse mechanisms for similar problems.  For example, two different anemias require different treatment they are not conditions of the blood, but hematic expressions of underlying nutritional imbalances:
      1. Iron-deficiency anemia (microcrystal, hypochromic), is the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease globally and is a part of a cluster of signs and symptoms associated with insufficient oxygen carrying capacity. 
      2. Folate deficiency (megaloblastic anemia) is the most prevalent vitamin deficiency disease and results when replication, but not growth, of cells is inhibited.
    1. Reduction of Metabolic Burden Imposed on Organ Systems. Poor quality or unwise intakes (e.g., excess refined carbohydrates, trans fats, excess omega-6 and -9 fatty acids, etc.) and dietary excesses impose a metabolic burden on organ systems necessitating compensatory responses to support vital functions in the absence of sufficient amounts of nutrients.  If these responses are sustained by prolonged imbalances in intake/absorption of these nutrients, maladaptive changes to counter these responses will cumulatively contribute to cellular injury and pathology. While diet and physical exercise habits are vitally important in this response pattern, supplemental nutritional strategies are strikingly effective in moderating the cellular metabolic status.  Examples of these compensatory responses to alleviate diet-related metabolic burdens include: 
      1. Elevated Insulin (Hyperinsulinemia) is a compensatory response designed to normalize fasting blood glucose levels when insulin receptors are down-regulated by excess dietary intake of refined sugars and fat.  Chromium picolinate and vanadium (vandyl sulfate) are important nutritional tools for the normalization of insulin levels as are Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Biotin, Calcium, Manganese, Magnesium Co Q 10, Soluble Fiber, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Selenium, Taurine, Cysteine, Vitamins B 1, 3, 6 (especially pyridoxal 5-phospahate), C, E and Zinc.

    Elevated blood pressure (Hypertension) is a compensatory response which often (but not always) results from hypervolemia required to maintain plasma osmolality/osmolarity and volume when Sodium intake exceeds renal excretory capacity44

    .  Increased Potassium in conjunction with decreased Sodium, Calcium supplementation, Garlic, L-tryptophan, Vitamins A, B 3, B6, C, E, Co Q 10, Zinc, Omega  

              3 Fatty Acids and Flax Seed meal, Magnesium, Taurine and Arginine all help to    correct this underlying maladaptive response.

    1. Protection of Tissue Integrity and Support of Cellular Defense Systems.
      1. Free radical damage from activated oxygen species is responsible for initiation of cellular injury underlying most disease processes. Nutrient-dependent cellular defense systems include antioxidant protection against free radical damage, detoxification enzymes, and immune function.  All of the critical cellular antioxidant systems either are nutrients or are derived from nutrients.  These critical components include free radical scavengers made from Carotenoids, Vitamins A, C and E, enzymes which require Selenium, Manganese, Iron and Glutathione (synthesized from amino acids). 
      2. Detoxification Biologically active endogenous and exogenous compounds are detoxified by Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes induced and moderated by dietary factors that include nutrients and other bioactive compounds found in foods of plant origin such as Beta-Sistosterol. They can be easily compromised or overwhelmed and require vigorous support with Iron, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium, Alpha Carotene, Beta Carotene, Lutein/Zeaxanhthine and Lycopene.45
      3. Immune compromise Long before classical disease states manifest, the cellular damage resulting from the early stages of deficiencies of a wide array of nutrients results in an increased vulnerability to infection secondary to compromised immune function.  Subtle immune compromise of nutrients such as Iron, Zinc, Vitamins A, and C, Folate, Pyridoxine, protein and energy intake are often first suggested by frequent or opportunitistic infections, poor healing and poor infection resolution.  The immune system is dependent on an available abundance of a large number of nutrients including those which
        1. Preserve epithelial barrier function
        2. Support increased rates of lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation
        3. Contribute to synthesis of immune substances
        4. Maintenance of immune cell activities and inflammatory response.

    Nutritional strategies for prevention, mitigation, treatment and cure are exceptionally powerful modalities in any disease condition or degenerative trend which occurs because of:

    • Depleted nutritional status secondary to
      • Poor intake (reduced nutrient density and diversity in available foods)
      • Poor lifestyle choices (prepared, processed food diminished in nutritional value, over-reliance on a small number of foods)
      • Impaired digestive capacity (e.g., insufficient hydrochloric acid, etc.)
      • Impaired pH balance (e.g., choice of acidifying foods, paucity of alkalinizing ones) 
      • Impaired ability to absorb or utilize nutrient in the available form
      • Underlying disease states
      • Poor underlying nutritional status when faced with acute demand (e.g., wound healing, disease recovery, pregnancy and birth, etc.)
      • Inadequate nutritional supplementation specific to individual needs
    • Immune compromise secondary to
      • Pharmaceuticals (e.g., steroids, etc.)
      • Environmental contamination (e.g., pesticides, industrial by-products, etc.)
      • Pathogenic organisms (e.g., viral load, parasites, pathogenic bacteria, etc.)
      • Compromised nutritional status (e.g., macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients, co-factors)
      • Radiation poisoning
    • Accumulation of toxic materials such as
      • Metabolic by-products (e.g., Phase I metabolites, fecal contaminents, etc.)
      • Metabolic poisons (e.g., heavy metals, organophosphates, petrochemical contaminants, etc.)
      • Toxic contaminants of food (e.g., aflatoxin, etc.)

    A comprehensive discussion of the prevention, mitigation, treatment and cure of all preventable diseases and treatment strategies for acute conditions is beyond the scope of this discussion so a few representative diseases and conditions have been chosen to demonstrate the power, depth and profundity of nutritional strategies to the nutritional treatment of serious, potentially life threatening disease.  The outlines of the nutritional therapy picture will be sketched here to be filled in later.  Nutritional strategies are not only promising in their prevention and treatment but in many cases, have already been proven and effective. 

    Several framing assumptions are important here.   

    A. Natural Health and Western Medicine.  There is no intent to undermine or displace conventional Western Medicine its areas of strength


    1. Technical diagnosis (including radiological and other visualization techniques and laboratory studies of all types)


    2. Acute care for emergencies and trauma.  No other type of medicine offers as much power in acute and traumatic situations as allopathic medicine.  

    B.  Natural Health and Botanicals. This paper focused on nutritional strategies for

      • Prevention
      • Mitigation
      • Treatment
      • Eventual elimination of chronic degenerative disease

    No discussion is offered of the many important herbal and non-nutritional strategies which form a vital core in the natural and non-toxic prevention and treatment of disease.  Exercise, smoking cessation, safe or absent alcohol use, lack of illicit drug use, sanitation, education and other vital areas of public health have likewise not been addressed.   

    The current threat to consumer (and health professional) choice is to nutrients for which unwarranted and dangerous restrictions are being urged by various international organizations.  It would be foolhardy to attempt to deliver wise and effective natural health care without botanicals and other non-nutrients or without considering the other aspects of a healthy – or an ill -- population. 

    C. Natural Health across the Life Span and Diversity of Chronic Degenerative Diseases. The field of Natural Health encompasses the immense areas of

      • Health promotion
      • Health maintenance
      • Treatment of chronic preventable illness. 

    Although this field is vast, it is crucial to this dialogue that the power and depth of Natural Health options based in nutrition be clear.  The representative conditions which are presented here were selected because they present important public health problems and are paradigmatic for the remainder of the universe of chronic degenerative illnesses and are suitable for treatment at a reduced monetary cost to the health care system compared to conventional Western Medicine at a significant savings in the human dimension. in efficacy and population well-being. 

    Nutrients as Foods 

    Nnutrients are essential ingredients necessary to feed, supply, activate, regulate and indeed, create our cell structures, interstitial materials, bones, hormones and, importantly, our enzymes.  ��The physiology of organisms is based on the existence and speed of chemical [enzyme] reactions46

    : the optimal function of our enzymes depends on optimal nutrient availability when and where those nutrients are needed.  Optimum enzyme function is intimately associated with a supra-abundance of nutrients since excesses are either excreted from the body or stored in fat for future use. 

    Optimal health is possible only in the sustained presence of sufficient nutrients in the form, amount and type required at that moment.  Optimal health is one of the common goals of people everywhere.  People know instinctively, from countless eons of human memory, that food and health are intimately linked.  They may or may not know biochemistry and nutritional science, but they understand that health and food are deeply connected.   

    Biochemistry has illuminated many of the mechanisms by which this common human truth is expressed. At any given moment, about 35,000 enzymes in each cell are actively carrying out all of the processes of life. They are, in fact, the very stuff of life.  In his presentation speech of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Medicine, Professor Sven Gard, a member of the Nobel Committee, stated, ��one of the principal functions of genes must be to determine the nature and number of enzymes within the cell, the chemical apparatus which controls all the reactions by which the cellular material is formed and the energy necessary for various life processes is released. There is thus a particular gene for each specific enzyme��47


    Thus, every aspect of biological life can be seen as providing what enzymes need so that they can carry out the functions which, in total, comprise a human being. Nutrition is provided to the cells so that their enzymes have the means to carry out their functions and, in the process, life emerges.  But illness emerges, too, if poor choices, limited availability, degraded foods from degrades soils and chemical contamination a variety of sources force a distortion on the sequence of events, numbers, status or health of those enzymes.   

    Common sense and the life sciences converge at the perception that nutrients are foods:

    • Nutrients have their origin in foods stuffs although they may be sometimes be synthetically produced in the modern industrial context
    • Nutrients are used by the body through their interaction with enzymes and other biological systems which have evolved over the course of human development to deal with the components of the food supply 
    • Nutrients support biological processes, they do not interfere with them
    • Nutrients are required for every biological process either for the energy they supply or the molecules which the enzymes of the body require for every action
    • Nutrients have a negligible toxicity profile.  Even fat soluble vitamins require massive, nearly impossible to attain, doses to produce any signs of toxicity.  Polar bear livers in the hands of starving arctic explorers are in short supply in most of the world
    • Nutrients have been extensively consumed (billions of doses) but the number of deaths or serious outcomes which can accurately be attributed to them is less than miniscule.
    • Most diseases are the result of long-term, sub clinical states of nutritional inadequacy.  Cellular damage is produced during the period of uncorrected, undetected, early and mid-stage nutritional deficit
    • Nutrients are required for optimal health in dosages which vary widely depending on the multi-variant, complex and dynamic biological status of the individual which is impacted by Biochemical Individuality which is made up of
        • Genetic factors/family history
        • Digestive capacities
        • Absorbtive capacities
        • Toxic load
        • Heavy metal or other enzyme inhibitors
        • Underlying disease
        • Adrenal status
        • Immune competence and status
        • Acid-Base balance
        • Enzyme production
        • Lymphatic efficiency
        • Mineralization of bone
        • Hormone status
        • Age
        • Gender
        • Life cycle stage
        • Dietary intake
        • Treatment with drugs, radiation
        • Emotional status
        • Vaccination status
        • Gut ecology
        • Etc.
    • Nutrient status in food has declined over the course of the industrialization and resulting adulteration of the food supply resulting in a sharp rise in the incidence of the chronic diseases of degeneration and neurological conditions.
    • Nutrients frequently correct the underlying cellular functional damage which results in the chronic degenerative diseases without introducing toxic or damaging compounds. 
    • Nutrients, like other foods, are so safe that no protective or restrictive regulation to limit their use is desirable, necessary, prudent, scientifically supported or logical.  

    Our current norms for biological normality and health have been derived from information gathered from a population which has the poorest health of any society in the history of mankind-- ours.  We have more cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, autism and other neurological disorders, macular degeneration, arthritis, osteoporosis, MS and a host of other diseases than any population known to history.  Human remains of the past hundreds of thousands of years make it clear that our ancestors were better fed and therefore better nourished than we.  Numerous observers of pre-technological peoples and of the archeological record conclude atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer diabetes, osteoporosis, rickets and other common western diseases were absent when humans were eating much more nutrient dense food and became common as the nutrient density in our food declined.   

    Weston Price, DDS, studied both the food supply and the health status of pre-technological peoples all over the world and found them to be superior to the peoples of the industrialized world in their physique, dentition, and health.  He documented that rather than being short and ill, these peoples were tall and healthy.  Moreover, they were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and other diseases of the developed and developing world.  These tribes of the world ate a diet that was many fold richer in nutrients than our modern diet and which a prudent modern diet with nutritional supplementation could approach. 

    The populations Dr. Price studied consumer food that contained at least:

    • Four times the nutritional minerals—Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron, etc.,
    • Ten times the fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin A from animal sources is not the same as its precursors, the carotenes found in plant foods. The conversion of carotenes in the human body is often compromised, and even under optimal conditions is not efficient enough to supply the amount of true vitamin A Price found in the diets of healthy isolated populations.

    The human experience and the life sciences tell us that nutrients are food and that their toxic profile is virtually inconsequential with the possible exception of nutrients derived from genetically modified sources.  But the options available to us in the conventional Western medical tradition when our nutrient status fails us, when we develop the preventable diseases of under nutrition, are not substances and procedures with a low toxicity profile.  In fact, in the conventional allopathic model, when nutrition fails and disease develops, pharmaceuticals are routinely employed.   

    Pharmaceuticals are, however, dangerous and highly toxic.  Drugs work by a common mechanism: they poison enzyme systems.  If the outcome is acceptable, it is labeled a ��therapeutic effect��.  If not, it is a ��side effect��.  Side effects pile on top of one another until the body can no longer compensate or tolerate the poisoning and, if the drug is not discontinued, the iatrogenic (doctor caused) problem either results in another drug being introduced to counter the first or death.  In fact, in the United States alone, properly used prescription drugs are the 4th leading cause of death (a minimum of 106,000 people per year)48

    while total drug-related deaths reach at least 200,000 per year.49 

    It is important to remember that in the conventional Western medical model, nutrition is neglected until disease manifests and then toxic, expensive and, if the goal is restoring underlying health, ineffective treatment is instituted.  In short, devastatingly toxic drugs are the conventional option for treatment if nutrient status is not adequate to prevent the development of disease.  Dietary adjustments may not only influence present health, but may determine whether or not an individual will develop such diseases.  Some statistical analyses will make the point clear through Ronald Law, MD��s simple and illustrative figures.

    Risk of Hospital Care, Drug Treatment, Traffic Accidents, Foods and Dietary Supplements 

    In the prevention, treatment and mitigation of the preventable chronic diseases of under nutrition, Natural Medicine has treamendous safety issues illustrated here in several different ways. 

    Risk of Iatrogenic Injury (Australia) 

    Much of the risk of being a patient in a hospital is due to the risk of medication reaction or death.   

    In a study of patients leaving the hospital, out-patient adverse events from drugs occurred in at least 66% of patient50

      Nutrients are orders of magnitude away from that disastrous level of risk. 

    Relative Risk of Death from Natural vs. Western Medical Compared to the Risk of Dying in a Boeing 747 Crash 

    Statistical Risk of Death from Various Causes, Australia, 2004 

    Risk of Dying in Canada Relative to Being Killed on a Boeing 747 


    Do Ultra Safe Options Need Regulation? 

    Accompanying his graphs, Ron Law, MD, includes this relevant information which is quoted in full:

     Properly researched, regulated, prescribed and properly used drugs are the fourth most common cause of death – but they are never reported. (Source, Journal of the American Medical Association - Range 90,000 to 160,000 deaths per year.) That��s a Boeing 747 crashing every day! 46 people die every day from Aspirin alone in the USA.

     Avoidable medical misadventure is the sixth most common cause of death. (Source, CDC - range 40,000 to 90,000) In Australia 9,000 people die from avoidable medical misadventure every year. (Source, Australian Medical Journal). In Australia 50,000 people are maimed by medical misadventure every year. (AMJ)

     The figures used in this chart are at the lower end of the range (we wouldn��t want to be accused of exaggerating!)

     Food poisoning/adverse reactions cause between 5,000 to 9,000 deaths per year. (Source, CDC.) 

     Dietary supplements have averaged less than 5 confirmed deaths per year over the past 25 years in the USA. Most of those relate to a single batch of genetically engineered tryptophan introduced in the late 1980��s. (Source, CDC/FDA) There have been no proven deaths to dietary supplements in NZ.

     A wide range of dietary supplements are consumed by over 50% of the population in both the USA and New Zealand (Source, NIH/MOH)

      You are less likely to die from taking a supplement than dying from bee stings, sports injuries, lightening, animal bites, horse riding, radon gas, etc, etc.

     Dietary supplements are incredibly safe.

     Dietary supplements have the potential to reduce deaths from cancers and heart disease by over 50%. (Optimists would go as high as 75%)

     Greater than 26,000 times more people die from preventable medical misadventure and properly regulated properly prescribed and properly used drugs than from dietary supplements.

     You can have every confidence in assuring the safety of dietary supplements.

     There have been two deaths reported as being linked to dietary supplements in NZ – both were in people with malignant cancer who consumed the herbal mixture K4. Neither were proven to be due to K4. The coroner in one case said there was no evidence to link K4 to one of the deaths – he had terminal cancer of the liver, took K4 and died of liver failure. Officials tried to blame his death on K4. Despite the evidence to the contrary, K4 was banned.

     There was a recent media report linking Ginkgo Biloba to the death of a heart patient due to cerebral haemorrhage. The patient had been taking Ginko for some time. He was taking blood thinning drugs which are notorious for causing cerebral haemorrhage. Contrary to media reports, papers obtained by the NNFA under the official information act revealed that the MARC did not find Ginkgo to be the cause of death.51 

    In ratifying the Vitamin and Mineral Guideline (VMG) on July 4, 2005, the Codex Alimentarius Commission made several serious errors which will, if enancted by Codex member countries, have disastrous impact on the health of their peoples.  Codex adopted a standard which allows for the assessment of risk without the possibility of any consideration of benefits.  Thus, if a nutrient could be said to be toxic at any level it can be considered a dangerous substance.  Clearly, this is not a game being played on a level playing field: any substance, including oxygen and water, are toxic at some dose.

    Worse yet, the definition of an adverse event accepted is the scientifically untenable position that any substance which changes a bio marker so that it is no longer in homeostasis should have an Upper Limit (UL) created for it by Codex��s modified risk assessment protcedures.   

    Codex toxicology is far an appropriate methodology for determining upper limits for Vitamins and Minerals if they were needed. Toxins and dangerous industrial chemicals  

    should have safe ULs.  We have seen how far from toxic or dangerous nutrients are in Dr. Law��s figures.     

    The VMG specifies that ��upper safe levels of vitamins and mineral established by scientific risk assessment based on generally accepted scientific data�� should be used to determine these values.  Since there is no ��scientific risk assessment based on generally accepted scientific data�� which exists for the evaluation of a substance essential to life and beneficial over a wide dosage range, this is not a meaningful requirement.  The inappropriate application of the tool will inevitably lead to incorrect answers to incorrect questions.  In fact, Codex nutrient risk managers are urged to create ULs out of incomplete and inaccurate data which does not pertain to the populations under regulatory control by making corrections on imaginary corrections on top of corrections based on poor quality or absent data. The net result for those countries which adopt this system of thought will be mandated under-nutrition and a predictable rise in the death and suffering resulting from preventable diseases. 

    Risk assessment is a discipline of toxicology which is designed for, and has been peer reviewed and evaluated within the context of, the evaluation of the highest dose of a toxin which can be tolerated by a human being before there is a discernable change in that human being��s state.  It is appropriately used for poisons, dangerous industrial chemicals, agricultural chemicals and the like.   

    Codex has accepted the use of Risk Assessment procedures for nutrients without scientific justification either in the focus of the risk assessment analysis, (i.e., ultra low toxicity components of food) or the methodology used to make the determinations of dangerousness in order to set ULs on nutrients. 

    Codex acted unwisely in ratifying the Vitamin and Mineral Standard which focuses only on risk of nutrients with no consideration of benefits. Risk Assessment is a methodology relevant only to toxicology and both irrelevant and antithetical to Nutritional Science and Biochemistry.  The Risk Assessment methodology employed by CODEX has been arbitrarily modified without scientific validation or professional consensus to restrict permissible dosages of nutrients essential to life to levels which can, by intent, have no meaningful impact on any human being, no matter how sensitive.  This misapplication, distortion and misconstruction of Risk Assessment is in clear contradiction to the principles of toxicology and scientific Risk Assessment procedures which have been developed to determine the highest dosages of dangerous industrial and natural toxins to which humans can be exposed to without discernable effect. For this reason, instead of evaluating vitamin and mineral upper limits using inappropriately modified and unscientific Risk Analysis, the Natural Solutions Foundation is urging the US to change its policy on this and related issues.  We urge the use of Nutritional Science rather than toxicology to support the liberal access to nutrients enjoyed under legislative protection in the US.  Under the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act, passed by unanimous Congressional consent in 1994, while a nutrient may be dealt with by the FDA if it is shown to pose a significant risk to health and safety, barring that, nutrients are treated  as foods and, as such, may have no upper limits set upon their use.\


    The inappropriate classification of nutrients as dangerous substances from which the public needs protection lacks a scientific basis.  None the less, this is precisely what Codex articulated in its October 2004 document on Risk Assessment52

    .  In that document, the preface states:

      The need for an internationally relevant or ��harmonized approach for nutrient risk assessment is well recognized.  The increased consumption of fortified foods, formulated so-called ��functional foods�� and dietary/food supplements has made nutrients risk assessment highly relevant to protecting public health and to the practice of setting science-based international standards for food��53 

    when, in fact, the premise of public danger is not supported by data or experience.  Nutreints are not toxins or dangerous industrial chemicals.   

    The document then goes on to make it clear that the form of risk assessment used is not science-based because the application of risk assessment to substances vital for life is a newly created mis-application of the process:


    ��Certain nutrients and related substances, like other ingested substances (e.g., food additives, contaminants) can produce adverse effects if intake exceeds a certain amount.  This potential for harm is described by the process of risk assessment, which is a science-based evaluation of available data followed b y a series of decision points. Risk assessment is well established for non-nutrient chemicals in foods.  However, nutrients and related substances are unlike non-nutrients in that, within a range of intake, they provide benefit.  For this reason, new paradigms have had to be considered that build upon the principles established for assessing the risk from non-nutrients, but also go beyond to incorporate additional or different principles that take into account the special characteristics of nutrients and related substances.��54

      [Emphasis added] 

    The bold face phrases make clear the problematic and illogical process at work here.   

    • Nutrients are NOT like food additives or contaminants and should not be treated as if they were. 
    • Some, but not all, nutrients could cause adverse effects if intake exceeds a certain amount.  Billions of doses of nutrients chosen freely from a vast array has not produced a single death attributable to nutrients with the exception of children swallowing a whole bottle of pills they thought were candy or other mishaps unrelated to the substances themselves.  Risk assessment requires a risk.  Nutrients do not meet that requirement.
    • The process of risk assessment as employed by Codex and WHO/FAO is profoundly un-science based.  It has not been established through a meaningful process of peer review and validation but instead is a jury-rigged system cobbled together to serve a political, not a scientific purpose.  Scientific assessment systems are not created by committee and then employed with no peer input or clinical-world testing before the system is used on real people in a grand statistical experiment.   

    The October 2004 document states

      • ��Based on discussion papers to be developed, workshop participants will be asked to formulate an internationally-relevant scientific approach for nutrient risk assessment.
      • Then, to test and demonstrate the application of the approach, workshop participants will apply the approach to a subset of nutrients, specifically several vitamins and minerals.  The approach will then be refined based on this experience.��55

    It should be noted that the document goes on to state that it is the intent to apply this procedure to all nutrients in all categories since the ��overarching interest is dietary substances that provide benefit but may cause harm at a different level of intake [and] ��should have applicability to other nutrients and related substances.��56 

    When the FOA/WHO released the results of the workshop (anticipated by the October, 2004 documents announcing it], the demonstrated bias was evident in that report57

    .  Despite its dire health consequences, this system has not been tested in the real world and, since it is explicitly not based on real data, can be expected to create confusion and inaccuracy.58


    In the table of contents to the 357 page FAO/WHO document, there is no mention of benefits from nutrients.  The report does mention that while attention was paid to the hazards of high nutrient intake (a fictitious risk), no attention was paid to the impact of low nutrient intake (a very real risk).59


    This flight of imagination continues as the report goes on to state that the risk assessment process has been modified in novel ways and that the fact that risk assessment is being used to deal with non toxic substances ��influences approaches used to estimate an upper level of intake and also necessitates that the homeostatic mechanisms specific to essential nutrients be taken into account��60 

    This means that an entirely different standard of scientific relevance has been introduced to create a new standard of nutrient impact without any scientific justification: ��biochemical changes outside the homeostatic range can be relevant surrogates for adverse health effects associated with nutrient substances.��61

    [Emphasis added] 

    The dangerous illogic of this methodology is apparent: homeostatic measurements derived from an unhealthy population are now the yardstick for toxicity: any nutrient which brings about a change (or is likely to lead to an enhanced stated of health) will be declared a hazardous substance at that dose.  ��Hazard�� is defined in this document as ��the inherent property of a nutrient or related substance to cause adverse health effects depending on level of intake.��62

      By this standard, all substances are hazardous, nutrients among them.  Since adverse events are defined as biochemical responses, including desirable ones, and since there was no participation in this workshop of nutritionists, clinicians or other persons knowledgeable in the clinical uses of nutrients, the toxic slant given to all nutrients may make some sort of sense politically.  But the imposition of this skewed system on trade and health makes no sense and is a very dangerous policy. 

    The report makes it clear that anything other than a definition of nutrients as hazardous was outside of the interest of the group, ����other aspects of evidence-based systematic review, notably the kinds of questions it seeks to address were generally not viewed as appropriately suited to nutrient risk assessment.��63

      This is further confirmation that clinical and population health concerns were ��not appropriately suited�� to the task at hand. 

    Of course, if every nutrient is toxic under this definition no possible significant deviation based on consumer preference or individual biochemistry will be possible. Although this system was created de novo and does has not been validated or tested, the world's health can be expected to be seriously impacted by it. 

    The report states that ��issues related to the physiological severity of adverse health effect are considered separately rather than as a component of selecting the critical adverse health effect.��64

      The impact of this curious standard is that even the tiniest "adverse effect" is enough to ban a nutrient at a dose which is greater than the dose at which the effect was noted: for example, the flush felt with niacin at, for sensitive people, 10 mg, would make that an adverse reaction.  The fact that the physiological severity is to taken into account means that Niacin could be regarded (incorrectly) as a toxin at that level.  Applying a safety margin of 100, as risk assessment procedure demands, the permitted dose would then be 100 ug, a meaningless dose designed to have no discernable impact on the human body. 

    For a science-based document, the workshop report is surprising.  For example, the document makes clear that there are few circumstances in which data exists for the substance being controlled but that, ���� adjustments for uncertainly must make use of uncertainly. Factors��.In any case, the these uncertainty considerations must be checked against the level of recommended intake relative to biological essentiality or the levels of intake associated with the demonstrated impact on health. ��After uncertainties are taken into account, the resulting value is the UL for the specified sub-population. When data are insufficient for setting a UL for one or more sub-populations (as is often the case) the risk assessor fills the gap by adjusting a UL that has been established for another sub-population. It is desirable [but not necessary – author] to make these adjustments based on understandings of physiological differences between the groups.  Lacking such information, however, an alternative is the use of scaling based on body weight.  This type of scaling adjusts the UL on the basis of energy requirements.��65

      Most nutrients have little or no impact on energy requirements so setting intake criteria on this basis is more than a little surprising.  Biochemistry and biochemical individuality is nowhere to be found. 

    The weaknesses of the system are prominent in the report.  Consider, for example, ��If available intake data obtained from individuals is the most useful type of data. The group recognized, however, that such data are rare in most regions of the world.  Thus, the report outlines approaches that allow the use of aggregated data. The derivation of an intake distribution may be accomplished even with limited aggregated data by using special statistical methods to estimate and refine a distribution curve for the (sub) population of interest. Special considerations were given to considerations for strategies for combining data from different sources in order to estimate intake.��66

    [Emphasis added] 

    The clinical, medical and scientific weakness of this method, which is central to the entire nutrient risk assessment process, is clear.  Imagined data will be combined with other imagined data to create ULs on nutrients which will have no adverse effect even if that is a statistical concept, not a clinical one.  This pro-illness system does not even require data for its globe-spanning determinations. 

    According to the Workshop Report, the process of risk assessment is designed primarily to meet the ��risk manager��s special needs��67

    .  Those needs are referred to many times in the document but they are never specified.   

    It is clear that rigorous data have only a facultative part to play in this process since ��risk managers�� are told that they may ��make additional corrections��, the nature of which is  

    not specified.  Managers are told, ��Because a nutrient risk manager typically needs a UL even in the face of limited data, efforts should be made to establish ULs if at all possible.  Of course, the nutrient risk assessor clarifies the degree of uncertainty surrounding the value of the UL which in turn enables the nutrient risk manager to take this factor into account in his or her decision making.��68


    Even more surprising is the following statement which follows immediately after the previous one:, ��The absence of evidence of an adverse heath effect is not equivalent to evidence of the absence of an adverse health effect.  That means that it is inappropriate to make conclusions about the risk or lack of risk associated with nutrient substances based solely on studies designed for purpsoses other than studying risks��69

    which says quite plainly that all nutrients are guilty until proven innocent but that there will be only kangaroo trials for nutrients for some time to come! 

    The Report struggles with how to deal with substances for which no known risk is known and decides that the upper limit will be the highest observed dose despite any evidence of toxicity.  The report does not state the rationale for this odd position nor does it give a reason for stating that it does not consider people who are ill or in poor nutritional status to need separate guidelines although should data come to light, perhaps other limits could be set.70 

    Nutrient Risk Managers, who are unelected bureaucrats, are given the authority to remove nutrients from the food supply through regulation or other means.  Given the poor quality data which is allowed, this is a very ominous empowerment. 

    In short, the application of risk assessment to nutrients is unwarranted, unscientific and admittedly based on poor quality data.  Since there is no health problem,  
    fixing�� it with a restriction of nutrients is a highly irrational act. 


    Clinical Examples of Nutrition in Prevention and Treatment 

    Nutrition, Wounds and Trauma 

    Nutritional status is strongly predictive of disease or trauma outcome.71

      Maintenance of optimal nutritional status has been shown to reduce the incidence of complications such as infection/sepsis, respiratory distress, acute renal failure, hepatic encephalopathy, congestive heart failure, and multiple organ system failure. 

    Recovery from disease or trauma is more likely to occur over a shorter duration and with fewer complications in well-nourished individuals.  Optimal nutritional status also allows more aggressive treatment to be tried with minimal risk of adverse events.  The ability to restore optimal nutritional status to a poorly nourished individual with a serious illness or injury is limited not only by the accompanying metabolic, physiological, and hormonal perturbations associated with the conditions, but also by the patient��s lack of interest or ability to consume the additional amounts of nutrients required.72


    Malnutrition causes a decreased rate of fibroblastic proliferation and neo-vascularization and impairs both cellular and humeral immunity. A high rate of metabolic activity is present at the wound site, especially within new granulation tissue. If nutrients necessary for those activities are not provided, the health of the tissue is tenuous. Proteins and their amino acid building blocks, such as Methionine, Proline, Glycine, and Lysine, are essential for normal cell function and the repair of cutaneous wounds. Linolenic and linoleic acid must be supplied in the diet, which is why they are termed essential fatty acids.73


    Because they are critical constituents of the cell membrane and are the source of prostaglandins that mediate inflammation, deficiency of essential fatty acids causes impaired wound healing. Deficiency of vitamins C or K leads to scurvy and coagulopathy, respectively. Minerals, including calcium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese, must be delivered to the wound milieu to act as cofactors for vital reactions in the synthesis of proteins needed in the healing process. If the diagnosis is impaired  

    wound healing resulting from malnutrition, ensure that the patient receives adequate protein and energy (caloric) intake. Specific vitamin and mineral supplements [often at high doses] may be required for rapid recovery of the necessary nutrients.74


    Cellular injury occurs in trauma and disease and requires abundant and diverse nutrient availability to provide the factors and co-factors necessary to support and provide:

    • Structural and functional components of the repair process. (e.g., chondroitin and glucosamine 75, 76, 77, 78,79 80, 81, 82)
    • Chemical mediators needed to elicit cellular responses (e.g., Vitamin C83, 84 ,85)
    • Enzyme function and pH (e.g., Manganese86, 87Bromelain88, 89)
    • Cellular replication and differentiation (e.g., ornithine alpha ketoglutarate [OKG]90, 91)
    • Platelet activity (Calcium, Vitamin K92 
    • Protein synthesis (e. g., aginine93, 94, 95, 96)
    • Membrane ion transport (Chloride, Sodium ions97
    • Osmotic activity (honey98)
    • Immune response (.e. g., Vitamin A, Vitamin E99, 100, 101, 102, 103)

    Tissue-specific requirements for nutrients depend upon the nature of the disease (renal, hepatic, pulmonary, cardiovascular) or type of injury (burns, fractures, head injury, multiple trauma, major surgery) while person-specific requirements for dosage vary greatly dependant upon underlying nutritional, genetic, toxicologic, health status and other factors unique to each individual. Careful clinical assessment of the clinical complex consisting of the patient and his/her disease or condition rather than assessment of the disease or condition isolated from the underlying host realities of nutrition, genetic and biochemical individuality. This is true whether the issue is wound healing or any other disease or condition requiring healing. 

    The hyper metabolic

    states which frequently follow trauma alter cellular metabolism and create special nutritional requirements.  In additio

    n to increased energy, there is a  



    demand for vitamins, minerals and cofactors which support energy metabolism

    under these conditions.  The demand for increased metabolic and cellular support

    is superimposed

    upon the








    on the nutritional continuum

    which ranges from highly deficient through marginal on towards


    and finally reaching



    The nutrients required in abundance specifically for wound healing


    • Coenzymes for their role in the reactions of oxidative metabolism

        • Niacin
        • Riboflavin
        • Thiamin
        • Pantothenic Acid
      • Vitamins and Minerals involved in
        • synthesis and hydrolysis of ATP
          • Phosphorus
          • Magnesium
        • Electron Transport
          • Iron
          • Copper
        • Hemoglobin Synthesis
          • Iron
          • Copper
          • Vitamin B6

      Loss of Lean Body Mass (LBM), a common sequel of trauma, reduces the size of the metabolically active compartment responsible for repairing the underlying cellular injury and fighting infection. A weight loss of 20% of total body weight is associated with impaired wound healing and host immune defense with potentially cataclysmic results.  All tissues except brain lose LBM proportionately to the total weight loss.  Critical tissues such as cardiac and respiratory muscle are not spared.  Increased hydration and fatty infiltration of muscle and liver may actually underestimate actual weight loss of metabolically active tissue.  When appropriate nutrition is provided, immune system and plasma proteins recover cell mass most rapidly, but skeletal muscle may take months or even years to fully recover.104 

    Glucose and protein metabolism are severely altered in traumatic hyper metabolism and wound healing.  In addition to macronutrients and energy, specific amino acids are required for wound healing:

      • Increased Urea Synthesis
        • Ornithine
      • Direct Oxidative Energy Source
        • Branched chain amino acids (BCAA)
      • White Blood Cell, Small Intestine Mucosal Cell Energy source and Collagen Synthesis 
        • Glutamine. 
      • Nucleic Acid Synthesis
        • Zinc
        • Iron
        • Folic Acid
      • Purine, Pyrimidine Synthesis
        • Folic Acid
        • Taurine
      • Epilthelial, Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation
        • Vitamin A
        • Vitamin D
      • Protein Sparing Fuel, Prostaglandin Substrates
        • Fatty Acids
      • Protein Metabolism
        • Vitamin B6
        • Taurine
      • Wound Healing
        • Vitamin A
        • Ascorbic Acid
        • Vitamin B1
        • Zinc
      • Collagen Synthesis
        • Thiamin
        • Ascorbic Acid
        • Copper
        • Iron
      • Hemostasis, Clotting
        • Vitamin D
        • Calcium
        • Vitamin K
      • Hemoglobin Synthesis, Erythropoiesis, Fluid, Electrolyte Balance
        • Protein
        • Ascorbic Acid
        • Copper
        • Iron
        • Zinc
        • Vitamin B12
      • Protect Cells from Oxidative Damage
        • Vitamin A
        • Vitamin C
        • Vitamin D
        • Vitamin E
        • Glutathione 
        • Selenium
        • Magnesium
        • Iron
        • Folic Acid
        • Riboflavin
        • Niacin
      • Promote Nitrogen Balance
        • Branched chain amino acids
        • Aromatic amino acids
        • Vitamin B6
      • Preserve Bone Mass
        • Calcium
        • Vitamin D
        • Potassium
      • Hepatic Support
        • Iron
        • Folate
        • Vitamin B12
        • Riboflavin
        • Niacin
        • Vitamin B6
        • Vitamin D105
      • Preterm special need
        • Cysteine
        • Taurine
      • Wound Healing
        • Pantothenic Acid106
        • Thiamine107
        • Vitamin A108,109
        • Thiamin110
        • B Vitamin Complex111
        • Vitamin C112,113,114
        • Vitamin E115 
        • Copper116
        • Manganese117
        • Glucosamine and Chondroitin118,119
        • Glutamine120
        • Zinc121,122,123
        • Arginine124,125,126,127,128
        • Essential Fatty Acids
        • Beta Carotene
        • Glutathione129
        • Bromelain130,131
        • Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG)132,133 
        • Carnosine134
        • Omega 3 Fatty Acids135

    Delayed wound healing represents a massive burden on the personal and social productivity as well as the costs of care and is predictably delayed or complicated by under nutrition, specific and general shortfalls in nutritional status and failure to treat the wounded with appropriate nutritional support based not on the nature of the wound, but the reality of the spot they occupy at that moment on the nutritional continuum. 

    Easy access to a wide variety of high quality nutrients along with easily available information on the nutritional support of wound healing is a very good bargain for any country and for its people. 

    Nutrition, Blood Lipids and Blood Pressure 

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a major world health problem which can be positively influenced by nutritional approaches both in prevention and treatment.  Prevention is obvious, but often ignored by those who develop CVD until they can see for themselves that their lives are threatened by the impact of their behavioral choices, that is, when they realize that they now have CVD.  Since the medical impact of risk factor-enhancing behavior (e.g., smoking, unbalanced diet, lack of exercise, etc.) is delayed, sometimes for decades, behavioral change is often initiated long after cellular damage has occurred.  In spite of this, the cardiovascular system is remarkably responsive even to late-stage nutritional strategies which therefore thus have a tremendous role to play in the prevention, mitigation and remediation of CVD. 

    WHO notes in the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health136


    • CVD accounted for 16.7 million, or 29.2% of total global deaths according to World Health Report 2003.
    • Around 80% of CVD deaths occurred in low and middle-income countries.
    • By 2010, CVD will be the leading cause of death in developing countries.
    • At least 20 million people survive heart attacks and strokes every year; many require continuing costly clinical care creating a vast and costly burden of continuing care.
    • Heart disease has no geographic, gender or socio-economic boundaries

    While nutritional deficiencies and imbalances are believed to pose another set of significant risk factors.137

      These nutritional deficiencies and imbalances include Vitamin C and other vitally important nutrients which are either low or undetectable in many CVD patients.  It should be remembered that a biological marker which is low may actually be severely depleted since the norms for biological markers and nutrient levels were developed in a population which was ill nourished and ill.138

    WHO notes further that of that 16.7 million global CVD deaths per year, an estimated 16.7 million (29.2%) result from the various forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which are preventable by positive action on the major primary risk factors: unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking. More than 50% of the deaths and disability from heart disease and strokes, which together kill more than 12 million people each year, can be cut by a combination of simple, cost-effective national efforts and individual actions to reduce major risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity and smoking. And, once CVD is diagnosed, nutritional strategies can often reverse or cure many types of CVD.

    CVD is no longer only a disease issue of the developed world: according to the WHO, some 80% of all CVD deaths worldwide took place in developing, low and middle-income countries, while these countries also accounted for 86% of the global CVD disease burden while WHO estimates that by 2010, CVD will be the leading cause of death in developing countries.139

      In fact, WHO identifies CVD as ��the major contributor to the burden of disease among the non communicable diseases��.In the next two decades, the increasing burden of CVD will be borne mostly by developing countries��140

    CVD is subdivided into the following clinical pictures:

    • Coronary (or ischemic) heart disease (heart attack)
    • Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
    • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
    • Heart failure
    • Rheumatic heart disease

    According to WHO, of the 16.7 million deaths from CVDs yearly:

    • 7.2 (43%) million are due to ischemic heart disease
    • 5.5 (32%) million are due to cerebrovascular disease
    • 3.9 (23%) million are due to hypertensive and other heart conditions.141  

    In addition, at least 20 million people world-wide survive heart attacks and strokes every year.  A significant proportion of these CVD patients require ongoing and costly clinical care, which puts a major burden on long-term care resources.  This burden is costly in man power, money, lost productivity and other resources.   CVD makes itself apparent through clinical manifestations primarily in the otherwise economically and socially productive mid-life years, undermining socioeconomic development, not only of affected individuals, but families, communities and nations. Members of lower socioeconomic groups generally have a greater prevalence of risk factors, diseases and mortality in developed countries and a similar pattern is emerging as the CVD epidemic matures in developing countries.142


    Thus, preventing and controlling the maturing non-communicable CVD epidemic is especially beneficial to nations whose resources must be devoted to their emergence into healthy, stable and powerful economies with a healthy and socially productive work force and community structure.

    Primary Risk Factors: 

    WHO notes that while CVD is influenced by a host of risk factors,143

    the five strongest influences, representing the majority of the risk144

    , are those which can be positively modified by dietary strategies:

    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Hypertension
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes mellitus145,
    • Sub optimal Vitamin C levels146,147,148

    Items in boldface are currently believed to have the greatest impact on CVD morbidity and mortality, especially in combination.  

    WHO further states ��In developing countries, the effect of the nutrition transition [to nutrient poor and processed food] and the concomitant rise in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease will be to widen the mismatch between healthcare needs and resources, and already scarce resources will be stretched even more thinly.  Because  

    unbalanced diets, obesity and physical inactivity all contribute to heart disease, addressing these, along with tobacco use, can help stem the epidemic.149 

    Although they are independent risk factors, obesity and diabetes mellitus are usually associated with elevated blood lipids and blood pressure thus compounding their dangers.  While successful weight loss and blood glucose control alone reduce CVD risk, to achieve the most meaningful results, blood lipids and blood pressure and nutritional status must be controlled along with them. 

      Blood Lipids:  Risk Factors for Morbidity and Mortality 

      Serum Markers for Risk Factors Predictive of CVD 



      LDL


       Tri-


     CRP
      HDL




     Vitamin           C Nutrient



    Dietary modifications that reduce total and LDL-cholest

    erol must not also decrease HDL

    cholesterol or contribute to elevated triglyceride levels.

    Oxidation of LDL-cholesterol is a key step in the formation of fatty streaks, the initial lesions of at

    herosclerosis.  LDL can be protected from oxidative stress by reduction of sources of free radicals that come into contact with it

    and by nutritional enhancement of free radical scavengers.  Absolute reduction of

    LDL levels also reduces the potential amoun

    t of oxidized LDL that may be formed regardless of the level of oxidative stress.  

      Compensatory Markers of the Chronic Degenerative Changes Associated with CVD: 

    Blood Pressure: Hypertension increases risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke.  Elevations in either systolic or diastolic pressure are associated with increased CVD risk.  The age-related increase in blood pressure typically observed may be minimized or delayed by dietary modifications earlier in life that normalize and sustain normal blood pressure and by nutritional interventions later in life either before or after hypertension has become clinically established.   

    Diabetes Mellitus:  Diabetes mellitus increases risk of CVD independent of weight, blood lipids and blood pressure.  Both Type I diabetics (5-10% of total prevalence) and Type II diabetics (90-95% of total prevalence) experience increased risk of cardiovascular complications.  Type II diabetes is often accompanied by obesity (especially metabolic fat), hyperlipidemia and hypertension.  Cellular insulin resistance is the common link between each of these risk factors.  The relationship between insulin and increased CVD risk is probably related to its vasoactive and proliferative effects.  Nevertheless, two prospective studies have recently confirmed that poor blood glucose  

    control can contribute to vascular complications of diabetes with or without accompanying hyperinsulinemia.





    Obesity:  Although obesity is not as strongly associated with risk of CVD as hyperlipidemia or hypertension, it may have a greater impact on morbidity and mortality because the prevalence is higher.  Obesity among children is increasing at a much greater rate than among adults.  Obesity is linked to consumption of high fat foods/high energy ��food�� in the face of reduced energy output including abandoning free play by children in favor of passive activities like television and computer games. Inappropriate intake of sweetened, nutrient empty drinks and food substitutes like candy and pastries with their low nutrient density and high energy input is contributory to the growing epidemic of overweight and obesity. 


      The relationship is so common between obesity and


      that some health experts have begun to refer to the constellation as









      , 154

      , 155 

      Nutritional Status: Suboptimal serum Vitamin C levels, although the subject of intense controversy has a long-established history of association with CVD beginning with the 


      lectures and teaching of Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling.156

      . Dr Pauling, his associates and followers postulate that CVD cannot develop in the presence of optimal levels of Vitamin C and state that amount of Vitamin C manufactured in stress free primates of our size would be between 8 and 10 grams per day157

      .  Stress of all types (including nutritional  

      insufficiency) is well known to increase the need for one of the most potent antioxidants known: Vitamin C. For examples:

      • People who supplement with more than 700 mg/day of vitamin C have a 62 per cent lower risk of dying from heart disease than do people with a daily intake of 60 mg/day or less.158
      • Supplementation with 2 g/day of vitamin C has been found to reduce adhesion of monocytes (white blood cells) to the lining of blood vessels and thereby reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.159, 160, 161
      • Harvard medical researchers found that vitamin C was the only one of 880 substances tested that caused heart muscle cells to regenerate from stem cells.162
      • Vitamin C supplementation (2 g/day) also effectively reverses the vasomotor dysfunction often found in patients with atherosclerosis163
      • Research carried out in Japan has shown that restenosis (re-closing of opened arteries) after angioplasty can be significantly reduced by supplementing with ascorbic acid (500 mg/day). When appropriate Vitamin C is available, cholesterol is not oxidized to form LDL-cholesterol and fatty streaks and other types of damage primate and, indeed, the experience of physicians using high dose Vitamin C both orally and intravenously with CVD patients supports this hypothesis.164 
      • Further evidence of the importance of supplementing with Vitamin C in CVD is shown by studies which show that Vitamin C lowers both blood pressure and cholesterol levels, helps thin the blood and protect it against oxidation and works in close synergism with vitamin E.165, 166, 167, 168169, 170, 171, 172
      • Vitamin C also helps prevent atherosclerosis by strengthening the artery walls through its participation in the synthesis of collagen, and by preventing the undesirable adhesion of white blood cells to damaged arteries.173, 174, 175  
      • An adequate intake of vitamin C is highly protective against stroke and heart attack.176, 177, 178
      • Regular doses of Vitamin C are necessary to support the positive impact on cardiovascular factors. In 1982 researchers at the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in the Slovak Republic, advised that "In every form of high cholesterol therapy, an adequate vitamin C supply should be ensured in doses capable of creating maximal steady-state levels of ascorbate in human tissues." 179
      • Oxidation of cholesterol particles (LDL and lipoprotein (a)) increases the risk of


            arterial disease by 14 times.180


      • Vitamin C, in doses easily obtained through oral supplementation, however, inhibits 75% of that oxidation.181 

      This well-documented fact alone could reduce the burden of CVD significantly.  Vitamin C is a safe, non-toxic and highly useful nutrient public health at little expense if adequate doses of Vitamin C are achieved population-wide.

      Unstable arterial plaque is associated with more than a half-million sudden-death heart attacks that occur annually, mostly in males with normal or low circulating cholesterol levels.182

        This strongly suggests that sudden normo-cholesterol heat attack risk can be sharply reduced with this simple, and remarkably inexpensive, dietary strategy.

      Arterial disease is initiated by activation of the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs). Sub-optimal Vitamin C "severely compromises collagen deposition and induces a type of plaque morphology that is potentially vulnerable to rupture."183

       The mechanism by which Vitamin C controls and eliminates this genetic initiation of intimal inflammation is identical to the mechanism of the statins.  Vitamin C is as effective as the  

      statins at controlling this inflammatory reaction: ��[this research] provides incontrovertible evidence to support the view that both statins and vitamin C have identical effects on the expression of genes coding for PPARs" at levels "well within the permissible dose of this vitamin."184


      The question, of course, is what is an adequate or optimal supply of this particular (or any) nutrient and what would be classified as ��within the permissible dose�� of a substance with many-fold variation in requirements for optimal dosing and without a meaningful toxic profile?  Appropriate doses must be determined on a clinical, not an administrative or epidemiological, basis.  

      In addition to Vitamin C, briefly considered here for the purposes of illustration are a host of vitally important nutrients which must be repleted in order to stop the progression, or even reverse CVD.   Since the amounts of food which would provide high dose nutrients is impractical and unhealthy for consumers to eat in a day, the only practical alternative is to use nutrient supplementation both under the guidance of professionals and by free consumer choice. 

      Secondary Risk Factors

      A number of less familiar risk factors for CVD may also be amenable to control by dietary means.  Of these, the strongest evidence supports a role for elevated plasma homocysteine levels and alterations in levels of blood coagulation factors through nutritional strategies. 


    Hyperhomocysteinemia (elevated blood

    homocysteine) is recognized as

    an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease

    , and peripheral vascular disease.  At moderate elevations of only 12% above the upper limits of normal, homocysteine has been prospectively associated with a three-fold risk in acute myocardial infarction in men. 

    Elevated homocysteine predisposes to arte

    riosclerosis and stroke.  In fact, in 47% of patients with arterial occlusion, a moderate elevation of homocystein


    was found.


     Homocysteine is an intermediate on the pathway to methionine.  If it is not methylated in the presence of adequate Folate, using either the B6 or the Folate and B12 dependant pathways, (and B2 in those with a genetic mutation in the MTHFR gene), it is instead oxidized to homocysteic or cysteic acids.  It is believed that the dangerous impact of homocysteine is, in fact, the result of the oxidative pathway of homocysteine to homecysteic acid which occurs when insufficient Folate and B12 are available.186


    Homocysteine metabolism is accomplished


    one of two known pathways

    in humans

    : one is dependent upon the presence of adequate B6

    and the other upon adequate levels of



    and F


    Insufficient effective levels of

    B 6,

    B12 and F

    olate (which may be the result of dietary, genetic an






    conditions) lead to the accumulation of


    in the blood

    with toxic

    impact upon brain, bone and vascular systems


    Blocks in either of these pathways due to inadequate amounts of these or other vitamins can produce hyperhomocysteinemia.   Other causes of this condition include inherited disorder of metabolism and impaired

    renal function.

    At elevated levels, homocysteine  

    stimulates proliferation of smooth muscle cells and inhibits proliferation of endothelial cells by a mechanism that is not well understood.    

    Blood coagulation factors:

    Atherosclerosis promotes endot

    helial injury which initiates platelet adhesion, aggregation and formation of a thrombus.  Hemodynamic alterations associated with turbulent blood flow or hypertension may be involved in thrombogenesis associated with endothelial injury.  Dietary factors a

    re involved at several points in the coagulation cascade as cofactors for prothrombin and thrombin formation.  High fat intakes resulting in


    postprandial lipemia may enhance thrombogenic activity through association with increased levels of Facto

    r VII.  Dietary fat composition may influence platelet


    through synthesis of prostanoids

    either favoring blood clot production or retarding it

    .  Dietary fiber may have an antithrombogenic effect as levels of intake have been inversely associated

    with levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-type, possibly mediated by effects of fiber on insulin


    Dietary enzymes may reduce the predisposition toward thrombogenesis and are an important preventive strategy as well as a treatment option should a clot form in, or migrate to, the brain. Enzymes like nattokinase and lumbrokinase have profound impact upon clot formation and, with sustained regular use, safely digest extra fibrin, lessening clot formation and promoting good circulation while reducing clot formation.




    , 189

    , 190

    , 191


    Diet and the Impact of Diet on Blood Lipid Levels: Control of blood lipid levels by dietary modifications is the first step in prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia in both adults and children. It is crucial to the immediate and long term health of a population to improve the lipid profile by natural, effective, non-toxic and inexpensive methods which will allow low-to-absent side effect levels, provide workable long term solutions for prevention and attractive options to patients with already established disease.  Medications for these elevations and ratio distortions are toxic, expensive and have a serious side effect profile which nutritional interventions lack.193


    According to the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the US government, findings of the Institute of Medicine support the use of nutritional treatment for the reduction of blood lipids and state in  their Guideline on CVD and nutrition, ��Benefits of Nutrition Management to Patients��,

      • ��The benefits of nutritional screening and intervention in patients at risk for or with established coronary heart disease (CHD) are considerable. The extent to which serum cholesterol declines depends on the extent to which dietary modification is instituted and maintained. Improvements in CHD mortality are also "dose-dependent". Statistically significant reductions in cardiac mortality ranging from 32 to 66% have been demonstrated in a number of trials of dietary fat restriction in CHD. Unlike trials of medications used to treat CHD, dietary trials have yielded no evidence of an excess of all-cause mortality.
      • Serum cholesterol levels can be effectively lowered by dietary and lifestyle modification. Recommendations regarding increased consumption of foods rich in the B-complex vitamins and Vitamin E are reasonable and will result in a diet that is palatable and compatible with good general health and may reduce cardiovascular risk.


    Benefits of Nutrition Management to Health Services Providers

      • Total blood cholesterol level is conclusively linked to the development of CHD. Most of this risk is associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. A 1-mg/dl reduction in LDL cholesterol levels results in an approximate 1 to 2% reduction in relative risk of CHD.
      • Virtually all lipid modification trials, including all trials involving pharmacologic agents, have utilized dietary counseling and dietary modification as cornerstones of therapy. With approximately 3 million first-time coronary events estimated to occur over a 10-year period in individuals with total cholesterol levels exceeding 200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/L), reducing saturated fat intake by 1 to 3% would reduce the incidence of CHD by 32,000 to 99,700 events. This would yield combined cost savings in medical expenditures and lost earnings ranging from $4.1 to 12.7 billion over the next 10 years.
      • Failure to adequately control LDL cholesterol levels with diet alone usually results in the prescription of one or more antilipemic drugs to reduce CHD risk. Costs of treatment can easily run $1,000 to 2,000/drug annually. Such costs can be significant to older persons living on fixed incomes and to the health care system as a whole. Failure to emphasize the importance of diet as primary or adjunctive therapy in the management of CHD frequently results in the need to use larger drug doses or drugs in combination. Either of these
      • alternatives contributes to increased medical costs and to the increased risk of side effects and adverse drug interactions.194 

    The same source notes that only downside to the use of nutrients as a treatment for CVD is that the frail elderly must be monitored carefully against loss of weight.195 

    Serum Cholesterol: Saturated fat (SF) intake is generally considered to be a strong predictor of elevated LDL-cholesterol.  However, as we have seen, this relationship only obtains when relevant nutrients are in short supply and carbohydrates have not been prepared in a wholesome fashion. 


                           Cholesterol Molecule

    Consideration of the hazards and necessary precautions which must be taken when SF is consumed are, it should be remembered, not applicable when the SF is from healthy and uncontaminated sources.  While eating SF from healthy, free range animals untreated with chemicals, veterinary drugs or contaminated feed, is a not a risk factor, it is true that SF from sick, toxic and stressed animals (unhealthy saturated fat or ��USatFat��) in the context of a poor nutritional environment raises LDL-cholesterol by decreasing expression and functional activity of hepatic LDL receptors.  Polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) lowers LDL-cholesterol, but at twice the level of intake that it takes for USatFat to raise it by the same increment.  When consumed in high amounts (>12% of total energy), PUFAs will lower also lower HDL-cholesterol however if

    -6 fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids) are the predominant PUFAs consumed, suppression of immune function may occur. It is very important for cardiovascular, immune and brain function that the PUFAs consumed have a beneficial ratio of

    -3, 6 and 9 moieties. Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers total and LDL cholesterol as effectively as PUFAs, but in contrast to PUFAs, will not unfavorably alter HDL-cholesterol levels.  Thus substitution of a proportion of the unsaturated fat component of total fat with MUFA (10% of total energy) will promote an optimal ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol.   

    Total fat intake may also contribute to increased LDL-cholesterol levels when large amounts are consumed (> 30% of total energy).  At high levels of total fat intake, it is more difficult to keep healthy at optimal levels (< 8 - 10% of energy) or to maintain an energy intake compatible with weight control.  High intake of dietary cholesterol and total fat also result in elevated chylomicrons which are produced in order to facilitate absorption.  When triglycerides are released from these chylomicron particles, the cholesterol-rich remnants have atherogenic effects similar to LDL-cholesterol itself. The life span and composition, as well as the size of chylomicrons vary with the composition and nature of ingested fats with the most favorable profile being derived from coconut oil and medium chain triglyceride diets.  Thus, dietary fat type and amount have a profound impact on the dynamic metabolism of lipids in the blood and the composition of those lipids.196 

    Not only is the composition of the fats consumed significant for cardiovascular and immune health, the ratio of PUFAs to USatFat is also of great importance to heart health.  LDL-cholesterol levels may be raised by dietary cholesterol but only if the ratio of PUFAs to USatFats is low (< 1).  Adequate intake of PUFAs relative to USatFats can lower LDL-cholesterol while inadequate levels promote the oxidation of cholesterol to form LDL-cholesterol.   

    At intakes higher than 400 mg, dietary cholesterol inhibits hepatic cholesterol synthesis by negative feedback control.  However when large amounts of USatFats are consumed with significant amounts of cholesterol (< 400 mg), this feedback control is overwhelmed and cannot by itself effectively reduce plasma cholesterol levels.  The effect, however, is more complex: several theories have been proposed to explain the synergy between saturated fat and dietary cholesterol which elevates LDL-cholesterol levels by more than can be explained by an additive effect.  These theories focus on mechanisms involving down regulation of hepatic cholesterol receptors and/or increased activity of cholesterol ester transfer protein.   

    In addition to dietary fat, total energy, simple carbohydrates [prepared in familiar Western ways, rather than those which promote healthy carbohydrate utilization], fructose, and alcohol intake may also affect blood lipid levels.  Elevated LDL-cholesterol levels have been found in individuals consuming low fat diets when the fat component has been replaced by carbohydrates consisting mostly of simple sugars from low fiber sources.  If these individuals also have elevated triglycerides in response to this dietary pattern, they are characterized as ��carbohydrate-sensitive��.  Carbohydrate sensitivity is seen almost exclusively with high intakes of fructose or sucrose (fructose + glucose), especially when consumed in liquid form.  The mechanism for this effect is unknown but may relate to metabolism of fructose to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate which is involved in endogenous triglyceride synthesis.  However, de novo lipogenesis accounts for only a small amount of hepatic VLDL production and the increase in VLDL synthesis is not accompanied by decreased LDL in carbohydrate sensitive individuals.  The greatest  

    sources for many people for their intake of fructose are soft drinks, candy, and desserts secondary to increased industrial usage of high fructose corn syrup as a sweetening agent. 

    It is interesting to note that fructose was forbidden as a sweetener in these items because of its deleterious impact until the soft drink industry forced the US FDA to change their

    regulation to allow it since it was permitted under the relevant Codex standard.


    In contrast to total and LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol is less responsive to dietary modifications.  Physical activity and alcohol have a substantial impact on raising HDL-cholesterol.  Alcohol may also increase triglyceride levels which are generally inversely related to HDL.  Thus consumption of large amounts of alcohol would not be an effective means for raising HDL in individuals with low HDL levels accompanied by elevated triglyceride levels. In fact, the neurotoxic, hetpatotoxic, nutrient depleting and caloric impact of alcohol makes it clear that it is not a cardio vascular health promoting agent. 

    Consumption of garlic extracts and allium vegetables (onions, garlic, leeks, etc,) has been shown to lower LDL-cholesterol effectively while raising HDL, probably due not only to factors intrinsic in these vegetables but also to their high content of manganese, Vitamin C, Iron, Folate and Vitamin B6.198 

    Cranberries contain polyphenols which inhibit the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. According to a recent study, 100 grams (100,000 mg) of cranberries are equivalent to 1000 mg of vitamin C or 3700 milligrams of vitamin E in countering LDL cholesterol oxidation.199

    Fresh cranberries typically provide 0.3% polyphenols, while cranberry extracts typically provide 7.0% polyphenols.  A new type of concentrated cranberry extract (CRAN-X) yields 30 percent polyphenols, making it at least as good at inhibiting LDL cholesterol oxidation as an equal amount of vitamin C. In addition, cranberries have potent anti-adhesion factors that help prevent bacteria and cholesterol from sticking to artery walls.200 

    Serum Triglycerides: Alcohol and simple sugars consumed from low fiber sources can elevate serum triglycerides.  Conversely, this cardiovascular risk factor is highly responsive to dietary strategies which include supplementation with

      • Fish Oil201
      • Inositol202, 203, 204
      • Green Tea (4 cups or equivalent)205 
      • Choline206, 207
      • Niacin (vitamin B3)208, 209
      • Pantethine210, 211, 212
      • Chromium213, 214, 215, 216, 217
      • Fructo Oligosaccharides/Inulin218, 219, 220, 221
      • Calcium222 
      • Vitamin E223, 224, 225, 226
      • Vitamins B6 and B12
      • Vitamin C227, 228
      • Vitamin E229,230
      • Linoleic Acid231
      • Vitamin Blueberry Leaf Extract (Hydroxy Cinnamic Acid/Chlorogenic Acid)232

    Seasonal Cholesterol Variation: Seasonal fluctuations observed in blood cholesterol levels have been attributed to changes in vitamin C intake.  The controlling enzyme of bile acid synthesis (cholesterol-

    -hydroxylase) is dependent on vitamin C to provide antioxidant protection for the iron moiety at its catalytic site.   

    Postprandial Hyperlipemia: The period following ingestion of a meal containing fat is a time of active lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.  In general, plasma triglycerides peak 3 hours following a meal and return to fasting within 9-12 hours.  Although postprandial  

    lipemia typically extends over a 9-12 hour period, its duration can be modified by the total amount of fat and dietary fiber consumed.  The major effect of postprandial lipemia on fasting lipids is observed in the concentration and composition of the lipoprotein fractions.  The duration of postprandial lipemia is believed to be associated with eventual development of fasting hyperlipemia and insulin resistance.  Hyperinsulinemia may result from sustained high levels of fatty acids in the portal circulations which decrease hepatic insulin clearance.  

    Effects of Diet on Regulation of Hypertension: Blood pressure is a function of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance.  Control of blood pressure is achieved over the

      short term by sympathetic nervous system activity and over the long term by renal

      mechanisms involving control of urinary sodium excretion.  Dietary factors can influence

    blood pressure through either direct effect on plasma volume and vasoactivity or by interfering with sympathetic and renal control of these parameters.  Dietary contributions to the control of blood pressure include: 

    • Folate233, 234, 235, 236
    • Calcium237, 238
    • Potassium239, 240
    • Magnesium241, 242, 243
    • Vitamin C244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249 
    • Co Q 10250, 251, 252, 253
    • Fish Oil254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259,260, 261
    • Garlic262, 263, 264, 265
    • Choline266, 267  
    • Taurine268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273
    • Vitamin B6 (or P5P)274, 275, 276, 277, 278

    Effects on Plasma volume: Increased plasma volume may result when renal capacity for sodium excretion is decreased.  Urinary sodium excretion imposes an osmotic workload on the kidney that can exceed functional capacity if sodium intakes are repeatedly high.  When this point is reached, the obligatory amount of fluid is retained with sodium in the extra cellular (interstitial and plasma) compartment.  The level of sodium intake at which decreased efficiency of sodium excretion is observed will vary with age, ethnicity, and family history of hypertension.  Moderate reductions in sodium intake can improve the efficiency of renal sodium excretion and thus enhance the therapeutic index of diuretics and minimize side effects associated with their use.   

    The efficiency with which sodium is excreted can also be modified by dietary factors other than the amount of sodium consumed.  These factors include calcium and potassium which promote sodium excretion, and long-term consumption of high protein and high glycemic index diets which may decrease it.  Modifications in intakes of these dietary factors can influence tolerance to any level of sodium intake.  High potassium and calcium intakes will enhance urinary sodium excretion, thus enabling higher sodium intakes to be consumed when renal excretory capacity is reduced without an increase in plasma volume.  High intakes of protein have been proposed to reduce renal functional  

    capacity over time as a consequence of glomerular capillary damage from the repeated high perfusion pressures required to excrete excess nitrogenous waste.  High glycemic index diets may contribute to the eventual development of hyperinsulinemia which may decrease the efficiency of sodium excretion through stimulation of sympathetic activity.  Insulin also inhibits sodium efflux from cells through effects on membrane ion transporter activity and thus hyperinsulinemia would favor renal sodium retention.279


    Effects on Vasoactivity:


    Changes in vascular tissue reactivity are observed in response to changes in efficiency of sodium excretion in order to maintain consistency of blood flow through the peripheral vasculature with fluctuations in plasma volume.  Whe

    n sodium is retained as a result of decreased renal excretion, plasma volume is increased and thus the peripheral vasculature must compensate by decreasing vessel diameter to maintain a constant blood flow through the capillary bed.  Increased stimulation

    of sympathetic nervous system activity also increases vasoconstriction of the peripheral vasculature.  

    Dietary patterns that favor elevated fasting insulin levels can contribute to increased vascular resistance by insulin-mediated effects on sympathetic a

    ctivity and renal sodium retention.  In contrast, calcium, potassium, and polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance sodium excretion and thus would favor relaxation of the peripheral vasculature.  Increased availability of magnesium directly affects capillary ve

    ssel resistance by inducing dilation through relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.  As precursors for synthesis of the prostacyclin and thromboxane, the balance of intakes between

    -6 and

    -3 PUFA will determine whether vasodilation or vasoconstriction act

    ivities will dominate.



    Other Effects Excess alcohol consumption adversely affects blood pressure by mechanisms that have not been clearly defined.  Among the possibilities proposed are induction of sodium retention by stimulation of vasopressin and increased sympathetic nervous system activity. 281

       Injury to vascular endothelial tissue can interfere with ability of the peripheral vasculature to normalize blood pressure with changes in plasma volume.  Vitamin C and vitamin E protect the vascular endothelium from oxidative injury.  


    Heart Healthy Nutrients: 

    L-carnitine is synthesized in a reaction which is catalyzed by five enzymes which require

    • Lysine282, 283, 284
    • methionine285
    • Vitamin C,
    • Vitamin B6,
    • Niacin as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD).286

    Because L-Carnitine is so important in energy production and management, an early sign of vitamin C deficiency is fatigue, related to decreased synthesis of L-carnitine.287 

    L-Carnitine provides myocardial support and increases the efficiency of cardiac contraction when taken on an on-going basis.  Used in the immediate post-myocardial period, the same substance has both immediate impact on survival and long term effect on the regaining of cardiac function. 

    • L-Carnitine treatment has been found to reduce injury to heart muscle resulting from ischemia in several animal models.288.
    • In humans, the administration of L-carnitine immediately after the diagnosis of MI improved clinical outcomes in several small clinical trials. In one trial, half of 160 men and women diagnosed with a recent MI were randomly assigned to receive 4 grams/day of L-carnitine in addition to standard pharmacological treatment. After one year of treatment, mortality was significantly lower in the L-carnitine supplemented group (1.2% vs. 12.5%), and attacks of angina were less frequent289.

    In coronary artery disease, the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries may prevent parts of the heart muscle from receiving adequate circulation, ultimately resulting in damage and impaired pumping ability.  In MI, heart tissue may be  

    damaged resulting in compromised pumping ability and clinical heart failure. Damage to the heart results in degraded exercise tolerance and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), indicative of heart failure when less than 40%.290 

    The addition of L-carnitine to standard medical therapy for heart failure has been evaluated in several clinical trials.

    • In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 30 heart failure patients, oral administration of 1.5 grams/day of propionyl-L-carnitine for 1 month resulted in significantly improved measures of exercise tolerance and a slight but significant decrease in left ventricular size compared to placebo.291
    • A larger randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial compared the addition of propionyl-L-carnitine (1.5 grams/day) to the treatment regimen of 271 heart failure patients to a placebo in 266 patients for 6 months.292 Overall, exercise tolerance was not different between the two groups. However, in those with higher LVEF values (greater than 30%), exercise tolerance was significantly improved in those taking propionyl-L-carnitine compared to placebo, suggesting that propionyl-L-carnitine may help to improve exercise tolerance in higher functioning heart failure patients.
    • In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 44 men with chronic stable angina, 2 grams/day of L-carnitine for 4 weeks significantly increased the exercise workload tolerated prior to the onset of angina and decreased ST segment depression during exercise compared to placebo.293.
    • In a recent randomized placebo-controlled trial in 47 men and women with chronic stable angina, the addition of 2 grams/day of L-carnitine for 3 months significantly improved exercise duration and decreased the time required for exercise-induced ST segment changes to return to baseline compared to placebo.294

    Nutrition and Glucose Control 

    Both absolute glucose values and fluctuations in those values are of extreme importance in the short and long term outcome of diabetics. Digestible carbohydrates make a major contribution to post-pirandial glucose levels.  In addition to the macro nutrient impact that carbohydrates have on blood glucose, minerals and other nutrients which are part of the diet or taken as supplemental nutrition have a significant and crucial role to play in mediating the body��s ability to restore or maintain post-pirandial blood glucose levels to fasting levels over time.  When properly mediated, this cycle allows proper absorption and utilization of glucose from the GI tract.  Minerals and other nutrients have a secondary impact on hormones and mediators which in turn impact the secretion of insulin, clearance and cellular response to it. 

    Numerous diseases, life style choices and conditions, as well as pharmaceuticals impair or impact glucose control. In each condition or drug reaction they are mediated not only with the often recommended physical exercise and diet, but are also strongly impacted by nutritional correction and control of blood glucose.  Disease conditions impacting glucose include: metabolic syndrome

    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Hypertension
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Obesity
    • Liver disease
    • Renal disease
    • Cancer
    • Trauma, injury
    • Sepsis
    • Medications (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide, prednisone, chlorpropamide, propranolol, etc.).295

    Hyperinsulinemia, (with or without hyperglycemia), is the most commonly observed abnormality in blood glucose regulation. Large amounts of rapidly absorbed simple sugars which lead to an insulin ��overshoot�� (a sharp rise in insulin greater than that required to accommodate the total glucose load).  This is rapidly followed by a rapid decline to below-fasting levels of glucose.  This hyperglycemia is rapidly followed by hypoglycemia within 60 to 120 minutes following the carbohydrate intake.  As a consequence of this recurring cycle over time, widespread consequences result including metabolic obesity and serious renal, retinal, cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine and reproductive abnormalities and diseases. 

    Habitual dietary abuses create pathological metabolic changes and aberrations at the cell receptor level which are difficult to mediate without adequate dietary and supplemental nutrients.  In fact, long term glucose patterns have a greater impact than short-term intakes because tissue response to insulin is a receptor-mediated phenomenon with more or fewer receptors induced by characteristic dietary intake296


    Sucrose intake should be restricted.  Both laboratory animals297

    and healthy humans298

    caused glucose tolerance to be impaired and rendered the tissues less sensitive to glucose.

      • Sucrose encourages the development of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy.299
      • A diet with more than 35% of calories from sucrose generates a chromium deficiency since increased sucrose metabolism leads to increased urinary chromium excretion.300

    Since fructose is a disaccharide composed of glucose and a sucrose moiety, the glycemic response in diabetics is determined largely by the glucose fraction.301

      Fructose, however, is superior to sucrose and may be similar to starch in terms of glycemic control.302

      However, it is the fructose moiety of the sucrose molecule which appears to be responsible for the adverse effects of sucrose on serum lipids 303

     so the addition of fructose may increase insulin resistance. 

    Because fructose leads to increase copper excretion, inclusion in the diet of diabetics can lead to a copper deficiency which can, in turn, impair glucose tolerance. 

    Changing not only the amount, but also the timing of meals and snacks has a beneficial impact if the change is to small frequent meals with no increase in caloric intake over the desired range.  Improvement in both serum insulin and 24 hour urinary C peptide levels decreased significantly in type I and type II diabetics.  Blood glucose was reduced in diabetic subjects but not in normals.  Non diabetic normals showed the same sharp improvement in their values which, in their case, took them from normal to near-optimal.304


    Among Australian aboriginal peoples diabetes was totally unknown as long as a hunter-gatherer lifestyle was followed. In the 1970s missionaries introduce flour and sugar to their converts.  By the 1980��s diabetes was rampant, diagnosed in more than 20% of urban aboriginals.  Prior to urbanization, they lived on what they could kill or collect and ate meat from wild animals so their diet was high in protein and dietary fiber but low in fat. 

      • Ten urbanized Type II diabetics agreed to return to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle for 7 weeks.  Average age was 54 and all were overweight and exercised little.  Before the study, most ate a diet high in fatty meat and several had hypertension while half of the study group drank heavily.

        During the 7 week study, their activity level increased and food intake was reduced to 1200 calories per day.  Although 64% of their diet (which they caught) was protein and only 13% was fat all subjects lost weight steadily Blood pressure and triglyceride levels fell.  Glucose tolerance improved greatly from an average fasting glucose of 200 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl indicating major improvement in post-pirandial clearance.305 

        Juvenile intake of coffee, tea,306 nitrates307 and nitrosamines308 potentiate the development of insulin dependent diabetes.  Many foods are diabetogenic including wheat, soy309 and cow��s milk310 especially in children and infants. Other factors may potentiate insulin resistance but, regardless of cause, the final common expressions of hyperinsulinemia and hyper/hypoglycemia are responsive to dietary strategies for regulation of glucose and prevention or amelioration of glucose related degenerative pathologies. 

        Non-diet-related insulin resistance is frequently precipitated by pregnancy, stress or sepsis.  Post-receptor defect in signal transduction involving glucose transporter synthesis and activity is a frequent complication of injury or sepsis which is potentiated by stress-mediated elevations in epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol.  Although diet is not involved in the development of insulin resistance in conditions associated with metabolic stress, dietary adjustments and nutritional strategies can prevent the worsening of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia frequently observed in pregnant, injured or septic patients.311   

      Protein restriction may delay or prevent the development of nephropathy.  Twenty two insulin dependant diabetics randomly received either an unrestricted protein diet or a moderately protein-restricted diet for 6 months.  Patents on the unrestricted diet showed progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate with no change in protinuria.  Protein-restricted patents showed a marked decrease in protinuria and a stabilization of glomerular filtration rate independently of changes in blood pressure or glycemic control.312 

      In patients whose insulin secretion is insufficient to carry out the tasks of glucose regulation, a wide variety of metabolic burdens are imposed on every cell and tissue in the body.  Correction and protection of the widespread damage caused by this metabolic deviation requires vigorous nutritional supplementation.  Commonly used pharmaceuticals exacerbate the nutritional requirements and their use makes the employment of nutritional strategies particularly important in order to reduce the complications of diabetes and assist in good control of the patient��s glucose.313 

      Availability of dietary glucose from food sources is the primary contributor to post-prandial hyperinsulinemia since maximal levels of circulating insulin are attained immediately following ingestion of a carbohydrate source.  However, total energy intake and its distribution throughout the day, type and amount of fat, type and amount of protein, and intakes of specific micronutrients may each modify the insulin response to a particular glucose load and/or protect against or modify the enzymatic, cellular, organ, tissue and systemic impact of poor glucose control.  Nutrients which show an important impact on insulin and glucose utilization and correction, amelioration or protection of hyperinsulinemia and diabetes-related damage include:  

    • Minerals
      • Chromium314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321
      • Vanadium322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330
      • Calcium331, 332, 333, 334, 335
      • Selenium336, 337  
      • Copper338, 339, 340
      • Manganese341, 342
      • Potassium343, 344 345, 346, 347 with caution
      • Magnesium348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354
      • Zinc355, 356,
    • Amino Acids
      • Arginine357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362
      • Taurine363, 364, 365, 366, 367 
      • Glutathione368, 369, 370
      • N-Acetyl Carnitine371, 372, 373, 374
    • Fats and Oils
      • Omega 3, 6 fatty acids375, 376, 377
    • Vitamins and Co-Factors
      • Vitamins B1378, 379, 380, 381, 382
      • Vitamin B6383, 384, 385, 386
      • Vitamin B12387, 388
      • Vitamin C389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395
      • Vitamin E396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405   



      • Niacin406, 407Niacinamide408, 409, Nicotinamide410, 411
      • Co Q 10412, 413, 414, 415, 416
      • Alpha lipoic acid417, 418, 419
      • Biotin420, 421, 422
      • Folic acid423, 424, 425 
    • Proanthrocyanidins426, 427, 428
    • Dietary Fiber429, 430, 431, 432, 433434
    • Ferulic Acid435, 436
    • Pancreatic enzymes437,438,439,440,441

    The following summary is used, with permission, from the excellent Preventive Medicine lectures of Dr. Arline McDonald, who teaches this subject at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwest University, Chicago, IL.442 

    Consequences of diet-induced insulin resistance:  The role of diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in the etiology of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) has not been clearly defined.  Hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia may precede development of diabetes characterized by insulin resistance by a 5 to10-year period.  Both of these abnormalities can have adverse cellular and systemic effects.  Adverse effects associated with hyperglycemia are a consequence of cellular injury in noninsulin-dependent tissues that occurs with increased intracellular concentration of glucose. These include vascular, renal, ocular, and infectious complications which are frequently observed in poorly controlled diabetes.  In the absence of diabetes, hyperglycemia is not usually observed in association with hyperinsulinemia because normalization of blood glucose is achieved at the expense of higher insulin levels.  

    Adverse effects of sustained hyperinsulinemia include increased sympathetic nervous system activity, alteration in calcium transport by smooth muscle cells, and increased proximal and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium.  Each of these effects may contribute to increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure.  Insulin also has mitogenic activity that promotes proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells resulting in thickening of capillary and blood vessel walls and narrowing the arterial lumen.  These structural changes contribute to increased peripheral resistance and formation of atherosclerotic plaques.  Fibrinolytic activity may also be increased with hyperinsulinemia since levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor are increased by insulin.  Insulin resistance is frequently observed in both hypertension and coronary heart disease.  Insulin resistance induced by dietary factors (e.g., obesity) differs from that which characterizes noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in severity and associated metabolic derangements.  Diet-induced insulin resistance also tends to be peripheral (e.g., skeletal muscle) rather than hepatic and appears to affect nonoxidative glucose disposal (e.g., glycogenesis) more than oxidative pathways.  In NIDDM, insulin is ineffective in suppressing hepatic glucose output and insulin resistance interferes with adipocyte lipogenesis and oxidative glucose metabolism by skeletal muscle.



    The glycemic index:  The glycemic index is a physiological measure that is used to predict the effects of a source of digestible carbohydrate on blood glucose.  The glycemic index is calculated as the AUC of the blood glucose response over a 2-hour period to the amount of carbohydrate ingested in a 100 g serving of a food expressed as a percentage of the response to a standard (white bread or glucose solution) providing an equivalent amount of carbohydrate.  For example, the AUC for whole wheat bread is 811 compared to the AUC for an isocarbohydrate serving of white bread which is 866.  The glycemic index of whole wheat bread would then be calculated as 0.94 (811/866) or 94%.  A glycemic index of 94 means that whole wheat bread will elicit a blood glucose response that is 94% of the response that would be observed with white bread over the same time period.  Glycemic response to a mixed meal can also be estimated using the glycemic indices of the individual foods.  Each food is then weighted by the proportion of total carbohydrate it contributes to the meal to obtain an estimate for the meal.  The percent difference among meal glycemic indices has been shown to accurately predict the mean  

    incremental glycemic response areas for different mixed meals consumed by groups of subjects.


    Specific effects of dietary components on blood glucose control.   

    Carbohydrate:  Digestible carbohydrate contributes directly to glycemic load which is the primary determinant of insulin response.  Foods that provide the largest glycemic loads are sources of carbohydrate that are readily digested to soluble sugars, and then rapidly and completely absorbed.  The glycemic effects of simple sugars (disaccharides and monosaccharides) can be predicted from differences in solubility in aqueous solutions.  Soluble sugars consumed in liquid form, e.g., beverages, will empty from the stomach faster than the identical sugars consumed in solid form and will thus reach the surface mucosal digestive enzymes sooner.  Simple sugars in solid form will solubilize more rapidly when consumed from highly refined (processed) sources, e.g., candy, beverages, pastries, processed cereals, jelly, and will be absorbed more rapidly than the same simple sugars consumed in fruits and whole grain cereals where solubility is reduced by the presence of dietary fiber.  Sucrose is the most soluble simple sugar while lactose (milk sugar) is the least soluble.  Fructose is relatively insoluble and contributes less to an increase in plasma glucose than the equivalent amount of carbohydrate consumed as sucrose.  The presence of sodium will accelerate the absorption of simple sugars in both liquid and solid form.   

    The glycemic effects of starches or polysaccharides can be predicted primarily from differences in digestibility which will determine how quickly the oligosaccharide and disaccharide fragments are released from amylase activity and solubilized in intestinal fluids.  Starches are consumed from cereal grains (e.g., wheat, corn, rice, barley, rye, oats), legumes (e.g., lentils, navy beans, chickpeas), and vegetables (e.g., potato).  Undigested starches are less soluble than simple sugars, but if starch is consumed from a refined source, it may be more quickly digested and thus solubilized and absorbed faster than simple sugars consumed from a source rich in dietary fiber.  Not all processed starches are rapidly digested and absorbed due to differences in molecular structure which can substantially influence digestibility.  Methods of processing that include extrusion (pasta and cereal shapes), as well as exposure to high temperature followed by cooling, promote a rearrangement of starch crystals such that the glycosidic bonds become resistant to digestive enzymes (alpha-amylases).  A high content of amylopectin (branching) relative to amylose (straight chain) will also facilitate digestion because the branch points of amylopectin provide more available sites for amylase to act upon.  Starches from unprocessed or less processed sources are digested more slowly than refined starches (e.g., whole wheat bread vs. white bread), and thus more slowly absorbed, because of the higher amount of dietary fiber present. 

    The glycemic effects of carbohydrate sources that also contain dietary fiber are differentiated by the viscosity of the fiber.  Viscous dietary fibers are classified as soluble fiber and include gums, pectins, mucilages, glucans, and hemicelluloses.  Soluble fiber has the greatest effect on slowing the rate of digestive and absorptive processes.  This type of dietary fiber forms a viscous gel when mixed with the aqueous solutions that comprise gastric and pancreatic fluids.  Viscosity creates a barrier that reduces access of the digestive enzymes to the food matrices.  Soluble fiber also increases the viscosity of the unstirred water layer adjacent to the mucosal absorptive surface, thus slowing the rate of diffusion of disaccharides and monosaccharides to the mucosal membranes where  

    digestive enzymes and membrane transport systems are located.  Soluble fiber is found in oats, barley, citrus fruit, legumes, and psyllium.   

    Fat:  Dietary fat can reduce the glycemic load available from ingestion of digestible carbohydrate by slowing gastric motility through stimulation of enterogastrone secretion in the duodenum.  A decrease in gastric motility will delay gastric emptying, thus slowing the release of sugars available to undergo digestion and absorption.  These short-term effects of fat may be offset by the long-term adverse effects of habitual high fat intakes on insulin sensitivity.  When consumed in large amounts, dietary fat reduces insulin sensitivity by increasing fat stores.  Body fat as measured by body mass index has been significantly correlated with dietary fat intake in both lean and obese adults.  Insulin sensitivity has also been related inversely to fat intake.  High fat diets apparently predispose to weight gain to a greater extent than other energy sources at equivalent energy intakes when total energy intake is moderate.  This observation has been explained by differences in fuel storage regulation between fat and carbohydrate.  The rate of carbohydrate oxidation increases as intake increases once glycogen stores have been maximized because the capacity to store carbohydrate as glycogen is limited.  In contrast, fat oxidation does not have to increase as intake increases to regulate the total body pool because fat storage capacity is virtually unlimited. 

    Dietary fat can also affect tissue sensitivity to insulin without weight gain or an increase in body fat.  A possible explanation is that high fat intakes proportionately reduce the amount of carbohydrate consumed, and thus may reduce the number of glucose transporters in the intracellular pool and down-regulate insulin receptors.  The composition of fat consumed may also influence tissue insulin sensitivity.  Because circulating fatty acids are deposited in membrane phospholipids, membrane fatty acid composition will reflect dietary fat composition.  A high saturated fat content in cell membranes will decrease membrane fluidity and adversely affect recruitment of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane from the intracellular pool.  The number of glucose transporters measured in rat adipocytes was higher in animals fed polyunsaturated fat than in those fed saturated fat.  Intakes of both monounsaturated fatty acids and medium chain saturated fatty acids (coconut oil) can promote insulin secretion.  This effect of these fatty acids may be helpful for controlling blood glucose among ��carbohydrate-sensitive�� individuals.  A significant proportion of diabetics are unable to decrease total fat intake by proportionately increasing carbohydrate without an increase in serum triglycerides and cholesterol.  For these people, increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fat ingested will allow a higher total fat to be consumed without compromising insulin sensitivity.    

    Protein.  Insulin responsiveness to dietary protein is a function of its amino acid composition.  The ratio of insulin to glucagon determines whether metabolism will favor increased (low ratio) or decreased blood glucose (high ratio).   The insulin to glucagon ratio also controls accretion of lean body mass by favoring either protein synthesis (high ratio) or catabolism (low ratio).  It also influences cholesterol metabolism by either stimulating (high ratio) or inhibiting (low ratio) the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step of cholesterol synthesis.  Lysine has been shown to be particularly effective in raising the ratio of insulin to glucagon in both animals and humans while arginine appears to diminish the effect of lysine.  Plant protein sources tend to be lower in lysine and higher in arginine than animal protein sources such as casein (cow��s milk).  

    Micronutrients Insufficient intakes of vitamins and minerals that support insulin function and carbohydrate metabolism may also contribute to impaired glucose tolerance.  These micronutrients include chromium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin E.  Chromium is required for normal glucose tolerance, but the mechanism of its effect has not been identified.  Tissue chromium levels appear to decrease with age coincident with increased glucose intolerance and risk of NIDDM.  The requirement for chromium is increased by high intakes of refined carbohydrate.  Since the primary dietary source of chromium is whole grains, replacement of whole grain products with refined grain products will reduce chromium intake while increasing requirements for the mineral.  

    Potassium and magnesium are more involved with glucose metabolism than with direct effects on insulin function.  Potassium is a cofactor for phosphofructokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme for glycolysis.  Magnesium is required for oxidative metabolism of glucose.  It is unclear whether supplementation with these minerals will improve glucose tolerance above the response to correction of the deficiencies.  Abnormal blood levels of copper, zinc, and magnesium are frequently observed in individuals with diabetic complications, but it is unknown whether these abnormalities are a cause or an effect of the associated pathology.  Low blood levels of chromium, magnesium, potassium, and pyridoxine have been reported in pregnant women with gestational diabetes.  This condition is characterized by insulin activity that is insufficient to balance the glucose-elevating effects of the placental, pituitary, and adrenal hormones. 

    Vitamin E may improve glucose tolerance by inhibiting membrane lipid peroxidation and thus preserving membrane integrity.  Optimal insulin tissue activity is observed when cell membranes are enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids.  The high degree of unsaturation in membrane lipids increases their fluidity and also their vulnerability to oxidative damage.  Plasma peroxides have been measured at higher concentrations in diabetics than in controls.  A recent study reported significantly lower fasting and two-hour plasma insulin, and a significant increase in nonoxidative glucose metabolism, among postmenopausal women taking vitamin E supplements at doses of 900 IU/day. 

    Energy Intake and Distribution.  Excess energy intake can contribute to insulin resistance by increasing the concentrations of glucose and fatty acids in circulation and by contributing to increased body fat stores.  Obesity has been associated with both receptor and post-receptor defects in insulin function.  Abdominal obesity is more strongly related to insulin resistance than gluteal or peripheral obesity.  Hyperinsulinemia is more likely to develop with abdominal obesity because hepatic insulin clearance is inhibited by high concentrations of free fatty acids in the portal circulation.  The mobilization of free fatty acids from abdominal fat depots also stimulates hepatic glucose production, which initiates the metabolic cascade that begins with hyperglycemia and is followed by establishment of hyperinsulinemia and down-regulation of insulin receptors.  Abdominal adipocytes also require significantly higher levels of insulin to promote glucose uptake than peripheral adipocytes. 

    The increase in body fat associated with aging occurs at the expense of skeletal muscle and is primarily the result of decreased physical activity.  Muscle mass enhances insulin sensitivity because skeletal muscle accounts for the majority of insulin-facilitated glucose uptake.  Exercise also protects against accumulation of fat stores by increasing energy expenditure.  Exercise enhances insulin sensitivity directly by lowering the km of skeletal muscle glucose transporters both during activity and after activity to replenish muscle  

    glycogen stores.  Exercise also enhances the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipocytes for uptake by working (skeletal) muscle and favors fatty acids mobilization from abdominal adipocytes.  Thus abdominal fat is more responsive to exercise resulting in a rapid improvement in insulin sensitivity as a result of a decline in portal free fatty acid levels that inhibit hepatic insulin clearance.  

    The pattern in which energy is distributed throughout the day may also influence insulin sensitivity.  A high frequency of eating occasions (e.g., ��grazing��) is often recommended to prevent the wide excursions in insulin levels between fasting and postprandial periods.  Since the post-prandial state typically lasts 3-4 hours following ingestion of a meal, timing of eating occasions at 3-4 hour intervals should stabilize delivery of glucose during the day, provided that the total energy requirement is evenly distributed and not exceeded, and the composition of the meal provides a moderate to low glycemic load.  Since post-prandial hyperinsulinemia must be chronic to elicit glucose intolerance by down-regulating receptors, frequent consumption of high glycemic loads could offset the benefits of dividing total energy intake into frequent small evenly divided meals.    

    Author��S NOTE: 

    I have practiced Natural Health for approximately 35 years since I was graduated from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine444

    , in 1970. Practicing Natural and drug-free Psychiatry and drug free Primary Care Medicine during that time I have come to expect ��near-miracles�� on a daily basis as reliably diagnosed ��irreversible��, ��terminal�� and ��hopeless�� patients made their way to my office from around the world.  Using simple, but physiologically and biochemically profound, treatment options, it has been my privilege and honor to preside over the change in status from ��hopeless�� to ��radiantly well�� of thousands of patients.  I have been fortunate to have the tools in my hand to offer many other patients (and, inevitably, friends and family members as well) the opportunity to defy the customary expectations for health and longevity derived from the statistics of an ailing and ill population.  The results have been gratifying in the extreme as people confronting illness and death, or the sad decay which we mistakenly identify as ��normal ageing�� have chosen options for themselves of continuing robust and healthy life in keeping with the genetic potential given to us all but foreshortened for so many through poor nutrition and industrial toxicity. 

    It is possible for many, perhaps most, people to enjoy robust good health in the midst of continuing and escalating challenges to the detoxification and immune systems which an increasingly industrial society and food supply present to us all if inexpensive, simple, science-based and logical prevention and treatment strategies are available to us.   

    If my experience were unique, however, it would be of little concern.  In fact, every doctor and health care professional who has chosen to practice their profession using  

    natural means to treat the underlying causes of disease (as conventional Western Medicine cannot do) has a similar clinical experience to which they can testify.   

    It is for that reason that the Revised Vitamin and Mineral Guideline has been endorsed by several eminent associations and organizations including

    • The American Academy of Environmental Medicine445
    • The National Association of Nutrition Professionals446
    • The Neurotherapy and Biofeedback Certification Board447
    • Great Smokies Medical Center of Ashville448
    • Institute for Health Research449
    • Freedom Club USA450
    • BioRenew LLC.451

    Biochemistry, Nutritional Science, Integrative and Nutritional Medicine��s clinical practice and wisdom all offer important guiding information in developing a framework in which optimal nutrition can be supported in a population reducing the joint burdens of the personal, social and economic cost of preventable disease.   

    Consumers and their health providers have the right, the need and the wisdom to make choices about nutrients without governmental restraint or regulation provided only that the nutrient is clean, unadulterated, and poses no unreasonable threat.  Within that framework, it is the right and the responsibility of consumers and care givers to use that freedom wisely.  If they do not, however, the inherent lack of toxicity in nutrients protects those who might be immoderate.  No such protection rests in pharmaceuticals which are usually toxic and, with appropriate or excessive use, often cause disease and death.  Nutrients are inexpensive and allow public health systems to use the same amount of money spent on non-acute, non-emergency care for the few and instead provide outstanding care for the many at the same or smaller cost. 

    Rima E. Laibow, MD

    Medical Director

    Natural Solutions Foundation



    1 http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC911E/AC911E00.HTM


    2  http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf

    , p12

    3 Ibid

    4 Price, W, DDS, Price, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, 1945, Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, San Diego, CA, (619) 574-7763

    5 Ibid

    6 http://www.westonaprice.org/traditional_diets/nasty_brutish_short.html


    7 Watkins, B A, et al, "Importance of Vitamin E in Bone Formation and in Chrondocyte Function" Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, AOCS Proceedings, 1996

    8 Watkins, B A, and M F Seifert, Food Lipids and Bone Health," Food Lipids and Health, R E McDonald and D B Min, eds, p 101, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY

    9 Khosla, P, and K C Hayes, J Am Coll Nutr, 1996, 15:325-339

    10 Clevidence, B A, et al, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 1997, 17:1657-1661

    11 Nanji, A A, et al, Gastroenterology, Aug 1995, 109(2):547-54

    12 Cha, Y S, and D S Sachan, J Am Coll Nutr, Aug 1994, 13(4):338-43

    13 Cohen, L A, et al, J Natl Cancer Inst, 1986, 77:43

    14 Kabara, J, The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids, J Kabara, ed, The American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, IL, 1978, 1-14

    15 Oliart Ros, R M, et al, Meeting Abstracts, AOCS Proceedings, May 1998, p 7, Chicago, IL

    16 Garg, M L, et al, The FASEB Journal, 1988, 2:4:A852

    17 http://www.westonaprice.org/traditional_diets/nasty_brutish_short.html


    18 L D Lawson and F Kummerow, B-Oxidation of the Coenzyme A Esters of Vaccenic, Elaidic and Petroselaidic Acids by Rat Heart Mitochondria, Lipids, 1979, 14:501-503

    19 Kabara, J, The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids, J Kabara, ed, The American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, IL, 1978, 1-14

    20 Cohen, L A, et al, J Natl Cancer Inst ,1986, 77:43

    21 http://www.westonaprice.org/traditional_diets/nasty_brutish_short.html


    22 Pitskhelauri, G Z, The Long Living of Soviet Georgia, 1982, Human Sciences Press, New York, NY

    23 Sally Fallon, "Vitamin A Vagary," PPNF Health Journal, Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, Summer 1995, 19 l

    24 Evidence, B A, et al, Arterioscler Thromb, Vasc Biol, 1997, 17:1657-1661:(2):1-3 (619) 574-7763

    25 http://www.agron.iastate.edu/courses/agron342/diamondmistake.html


    26 http://www.beyondveg.com/billings-t/comp-anat/comp-anat-8b.shtml


    27 Steinkraus, Keith H, ed, Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods, 1983, Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY

    28 http://www.westonaprice.org/traditional_diets/nasty_brutish_short.html


    29  http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf

    , p. 18

    30 Ibid

    31  http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf

    , p. 14

    32  http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf

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    33 http://www.scielosp.org/pdf/rpsp/v13n5/a15v13n5.pdf


    34 McDonald, A, Role of  Nutrition in Prevention of Disease, PowerPoint

    35 http://www.burtonreport.com/InfHealthCare/ManagedHlthCare.htm


    36 http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2004/mar2004_awsi_death_02.htm


    37 http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/L-healthcare.htm


    38 http://www.price-pottenger.org/Articles/kidney_liver_answers.htm


    39 Leibovitz, B, Nutrition at the Cross Roads, JON 2(4), 1993

    40 McDonald, A, Relationship of Nutrition to Prevention of Diseases, http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/nutrition/tools-resources/sbm.html


    41 Ibid

    42 Ibid

    43 Erasmus, U., Fats that Heal Fats that Kill, Revised, Alive Books, Burnaby BC, 1993, p. 78

    44 It should be noted that there are people in whom hypertension results when renal excretory capacity is excessive.  The compensatory mechanism in these people is an increase in aldosterone and resultant hypertension which is responsive to an increase in sodium.

    45 http://www.natap.org/2003/DDW/day10.htm


    46 http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/syris/modules/index.php?yr=0102&id=5


    47 Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1963-1970, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972

    48 http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2004/mar2004_awsi_death_02.htm


    49 Ibid

    50 Forster AJ, Murff HJ, Peterson JF, Gandhi TK, Bates DW. The incidence and severity of adverse events affecting patients after discharge from the hospital.

    Ann Intern Med

    . 2003 Feb 4;138(3):161-7.

    51 http://www.laleva.cc/petizione/english/ronlaw_eng.html


    52 Joint FAO/WHO Development of a Scientific Collaboration to Create a Framework for Risk Assessment of Nutrients and Related Substances http://www.lwho.int/ipcs/highlights/en/nrbacground.pdf


    53 Ibid, preface.

    54 Ibid. p. 2

    55 Ibid. p. 5

    56 Ibid.

    57 130106 FAO WHO risk assessment full_report.pdf

    58 Ibid. p. 18

    59 Ibid. p. 12

    60 Ibid. p. 13

    61 Ibid. p. 15

    62 Ibid. p. 14

    63 Ibid. p. 17

    64 Ibid. p. 17

    65 Ibid. p. 18

    66 Ibid. p.18

    67 Ibid. p. 19

    68 Ibid.

    69 Ibid.

    70 Ibid. p. 20

    71 http://www.acnem.org/journal/14-2_november_1995/wound_healing_and_nutrition.htm


    72 McDonald, A, Preventive Medicine Lectures, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

    73 http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic477.htm


    74 http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic477.htm


    75 Morrison LM, Murata K. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of acid mucopolysaccharides administered to animals and patients. In: Morrison LM, Schjeide

    76 OA, Meyer K.

    Coronary heart disease and the mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans)


    Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1974, 109–27

    77 Denuziere A, Ferrier D, Damour O, et al. Chitosan-chondroitin sulfate and chitosan-hyaluronate polyelectrolyte complexes: biological properties.



    78 McCarty MF. Glucosamine for wound healing.

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    79 Prudden JF, Wolarsky ER, Balassa L. The acceleration of healing.

    Surg Gynecol Obstet

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    80 Glade MJ. Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan accelerates net synthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans by arthritic equine cartilage tissues and chondrocytes.

    Am J Vet Res


    81 Suyama T, Iga Y, Shirakawa H. The acceleration of wound healing with chondroitin sulfate A and its acidic hydrolysates.

    Jpn J Exp Med


    82 Prudden JF, Allen J. The clinical acceleration of healing with a cartilage preparation; a controlled study.



    83 http://www.vitacost.com/science/hn/Supp/Vitamin_C.htm


    84 Levine M. New concepts in the biology and biochemistry of ascorbic acid.

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    85 Mazzotta MY. Nutrition and wound healing.

    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc

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    86 Shetlar MR, Shetlar CL. The role of manganese in wound healing. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DL, ed. Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.; 1994:145-157

    87 http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/manganese/


    88 Izaka K, Yamada M, Kawano T, Suyama T. Gastrointestinal absorption and anti-inflammatory effect of bromelain.

    Jpn J Pharmacol


    89 Hayashi M. Pharmacological studies of Shikon and Tooki. (3) Effect of topical application of the ether extracts and Shiunko on inflammatory reactions.

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    90 Cynober L. Amino acid metabolism in thermal burns.



    91 Cynober L. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in nutritional support.


    1991;7:313–22 [review]

    92 http://sln.fi.edu/biosci/blood/platelet.html


    93 Kirk SJ, Hurson M, Regan MC, et al. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings.



    94 Barbul A, Lazarou SA, Efron DT, et al. Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses in humans.



    95 De Bandt JP, Coudray-Lucas C, Lioret N, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the influence of the mode of enteral ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate administration in burn patients.

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    96 Cynober L. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in nutritional support.


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    97 http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/abstract/19/3/379


    98 http://www.manukahoney.co.uk/article5.html



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    100 Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing.

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    101 Hunt TK, Ehrlich HP, Garcia JA, et al. Effect of vitamin A on reversing the inhibitory effect of cortisone on healing of open wounds in animals and man.

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    102 Bartolomucci E. Action of vitamin E on healing of experimental wounds on parenchymatous organs.


    1939;113:1079 [abstract].


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    104 Ibid

    105 Ibid

    106 Aprahamian M, Dentinger A, Stock-Damge C, et al. Effects of supplemental pantothenic acid on wound healing: experimental study in rabbit.

    Am J Clin Nutr


    107 Alvarez OM, Gilbreath RL. Effect of dietary thiamine on intermolecular collagen cross-linking during wound repair: a mechanical and biochemical assessment

    J Trauma


    108 Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing.

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    109 Hunt TK, Ehrlich HP, Garcia JA, et al. Effect of vitamin A on reversing the inhibitory effect of cortisone on healing of open wounds in animals and man.

    Ann Sur





    111 Bosse MD, Axelrod AE. Wound healing in rats with biotin, pyridoxin, or riboflavin deficiencies.


    Soc Exp Biol Med


    112 Levine M. New concepts in the biology and biochemistry of ascorbic acid.

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    113 Mazzotta MY. Nutrition and wound healing.

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    114 Ringsdorf WM Jr, Cheraskin E. Vitamin C and human wound healing.

    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol

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    115 Bartolomucci E. Action of vitamin E on healing of experimental wounds on parenchymatous organs.


    1939;113:1079 [abstract].

    116 Rucker RB, Kosonen T, Clegg MS, et al. Copper lysyl oxidase, and extra cellular matrix protein cross-linking.

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    117 Leach RM. Role of manganese in mucopolysaccharide metabolism.

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    118 Morrison LM, Murata K. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of acid mucopolysaccharides administered to animals and patients. In: Morrison LM, Schjeide OA, Meyer K.

    Coronary heart disease and the mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans


    Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1974, 109–27.

    119 Prudden JF, Allen J. The clinical acceleration of healing with a cartilage preparation; a controlled study.



    120 Romito RA. Early administration of enteral nutrients in critically ill patients.

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    121 Sandstead HH. Understanding zinc: Recent observations and interpretations.

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    122 Liszewski RF. The effect of zinc on wound healing: a collective review.

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    124 Barbul A, Rettura G, Levenson SM, et al. Wound healing and thymotropic effects of arginine: a pituitary mechanism of action.

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    125 Kirk SJ, Hurson M, Regan MC, et al. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings.



    126 Barbul A, Lazarou SA, Efron DT, et al. Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses in humans.



    127 Barbul A, Rettura G, Levenson SM, et al. Wound healing and thymotropic effects of arginine: a pituitary mechanism of action.

    Am J Clin Nutr


    128 Kirk SJ, Hurson M, Regan MC, et al. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings.



    129 Werbach, M, Nutritional Influences on Illness, Op. Cit., pp 615-618

    130 Blonstein J. Control of swelling in boxing injuries.



    131 Tassman G, Zafran J, Zayon G. A double-blind crossover study of a plant proteolytic enzyme in oral surgery.

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    132 De Bandt JP, Coudray-Lucas C, Lioret N, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the influence of the mode of enteral ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate administration in burn patients.

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    133 Cynober L. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in nutritional support.


    1991;7:313–22 [review].

    134 Roberts PR, Black KW, Santamauro JT, Zaloga GP. Dietary peptides improve wound healing following surgery.



    135 Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine J, et al. Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic, and clinical outcome. Surgery. 1992; 112:56-67.

    136 http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/cvd/en/


    137 http://www.thecureforheartdisease.com/owen/HeartCure.htm



    See pp. 2-5 of this document for a discussion of this important issue.




    140 http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf

    p. 81

    141 Ibid

    142 Ibid

    143 Grundy et al. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk, J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:1348--59

    144 Lowe, L, Greenland, P, Ruth, K, Dyer, A,  Stamler, R Stamler, J, Impact of Major Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Particularly in Combination, on 22-Year Mortality in Women and Men , Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:2007-2014.

    145 http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/cvd/en/

    146 http://www.internetwks.com/owen/Synopsis.pdf

    147 http://www.nutraingredients.com/news/news-ng.asp?n=56749-high-dose-vitamin

    148 http://www.thecureforheartdisease.com/owen/suppress.htm

    149 http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf, p. 81

    150Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, 1995 http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/control/#what%20is

    151United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, 1998  http://www.dtu.ox.ac.uk/index.html?maindoc=/ukpds/

    152 http://www.eurodiabesity.org/

    153 http://www.shapeup.org/diabesity.html

    154 http://www.annecollins.com/obesity/diabetes-diabesity.htm

    155 http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/diabetes/diabete2262.html

    156 http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/pauling-and-vitamin-c.html

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    161 Heitzer, Thomas, et al. Antioxidant vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic smokers. Circulation, Vol. 94, No. 1, July 1, 1996, pp. 6-9

    162 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/04/030401073122.htm

    163 Levine, Glenn N., et al. Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation, Vol. 93, No. 6, March 15, 1996, pp. 1107-13


    165 Rath, Matthias. Eradicating Heart Disease. Health Now, San Francisco, CA, 1993

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    173 Rath, Matthias. Eradicating Heart Disease. Health Now, San Francisco, CA, 1993

    174 Weber, Christian, et al.  Op. Cit.

    175 Lehr, Hans-Anton, et al. Protection from oxidized LDL-induced leukocyte adhesion to microvascular and macrovascular endothelium in vivo by vitamin C but not by vitamin E. Circulation, Vol. 91, No. 5, March 1, 1995, pp. 1525-32

    176 Gale, Catherine R., et al. Vitamin C and risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease in cohort of elderly people. British Medical Journal, Vol. 310, June 17, 1995, pp. 1563-66

    177 Woodhouse, P.R. and Khaw, Kay-Tee. Seasonal variations in vitamin C status, infection, fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease - Are they linked? Age and Ageing, Vol. 23, Supplement No. 2, 1994, p. P5

    178 Sahyoun, Nadine R., et al. Op. Cit.

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    180 Tsimikas S., Brilakis E. S., Miller E. R., McConnell J. P., Lennon R. J., Kornman K. S., Witztum J. L., Berger P. B Oxidized Phospholipids, Lp(a) Lipoprotein, and Coronary Artery Disease. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:46-57, Jul 7, 2005.

    181 Chu YF, Liu RH, Novel Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Oxidation Model: Antioxidant Capacity for the Inhibition of LDL Oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 2004, 52: 6818-6823

    182 Circulation 105: 1485–90, 2002

    183 European Journal Clinical Nutrition 59: 978-81, 2005

    184 Ibid

    185 http://bioline.utsc.utoronto.ca/archive/00002649/01/ni04107.pdf p. 312

    186 http://bioline.utsc.utoronto.ca/archive/00002649/01/ni04107.pdf  p. 311

    187 National Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 50, No. 16, September 16, 2002.

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    189 Sumi, H., Hamada, H., Mihara, H. A novel strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese ��natto��. International Journal of Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis. Abstracts of the Ninth International Congress on Fibrinolysis, Amsterdam, 1988 Vol. 2, Sup. 1:67

    190 Sumi, H., Hamada, H., Tsushima, H., Mihara, H., Muraki, H. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet. Experientia 1987, Oct 15;43(10):1110-1

    191 Ryu GH et al. Antithrombogenicity of lumbrokinase-immobilized polyurethane. J Biomed Mater Res. 1994 Sep;28(9):1069-77

    192 Park Y., Ryu E.,  Kim H., Jeong J., Kim J. Shim J.,, Jeon S.,  Jo Y., Kim W.,  Min B., Characterization of Antithrombotic Activity of Lumbrokinase-Immobilized Polyurethane Valves in the Total Artificial Heart, Artificial Organs, Volume 23, Number 2, February 1999, pp. 210-214(5)

    193 http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?ss=15&doc_id=4225&nbr=3230#s23

    194 Ibid

    195 Ibid

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    197 Personal communication with Jim Turner, Citizens for Health, 2005

    198 http://www.happyherbalist.com/garlic1.htm


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    207 Watkins SM, Zhu X, Zeisel SH., Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity and dietary choline regulate liver-plasma lipid flux and essential fatty acid metabolism in mice. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3386-9

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    210 Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986;8:537–45.

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    223 Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449–52

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    226 J Nutr 1991;121:165–9

    227 Fidanza A, Audisio M, Mastroiacovo P. 1982. Vitamin C and Cholesterol, in Vitamin C: New Clinical Applications in Immunology, Lipid Metabolism, and Cancer, ed. A. Hanck. Hans Huber, Bern,pp.153-171.

    228 Ginter E et al. 1977. `Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Plasma Cholesterol in Humans in a Long-Term Experiment.' International Journal of Vitamin Nutrition Research 47(2):123-134.

    229 P Jordan, D Brubacher, U Moser, HB Stahelin, and KF Gey, Vitamin E and vitamin A concentrations in plasma adjusted for cholesterol and triglycerides by multiple regression [published erratum appears in Clin Chem 1995 Oct;41(10):1547] Clin Chem 1995 41: 924-927.


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    231 Ibid

    232 Abidoff M. 1999a. Evaluation of glucose lowering properties of blueberry leaves extract. Part 1: Double blind placebo controlled study at the Russian Center for Modern Medicine. Part 2. Effect of blueberry leaves extract on plasma glucose level in Type II diabetics. February 1999 - December 1999. http://www.enhansulin.com/research.htm

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    237 Y Kageyama, H Suzuki, K Arima and T Saruta, Oral calcium treatment lowers blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive rats by suppressing the renin-angiotensin system, Calcium Hypertension, Vol 10, 375-382

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    240 Whelton PK; He J; Cutler JA; Brancati FL; Appel LJ; Follmann D; Klag MJ , Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA 1997 May 28;277(20):1624-32

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    242 Seelig MS, Altura BT, Resnick BT, et al. Low magnesium: a common denominator in pathologic processes in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and eclampsia. Abstract. J Am Coll Nutr 11(5):597-637, 1992

    243 Altura BM, Altura BT. Interactions of Mg and K on blood vessels: Aspects in view of hypertension. Magnesium 3(4-6): 175-94, 1984

    244 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/VitaminCAscorbicAcidcs.html

    245 http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/s-s00/arteries.html

    246 http://archives.cnn.com/1999/HEALTH/12/20/vitamin.c.hypertension/

    247 http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/vit_0264.shtml

    248 Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, et al. Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. Lancet. 1999; 354:2048-2049.

    249 Ness AR, Chee D, Elliot P. Vitamin C and blood pressure—an overview. J Hum Hypertens. 1997; 11:343-350.

    250 Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, Willis R, et al. Treatment of essential hypertension with coenzyme Q10. Mol Aspects Med. 1994;15(suppl):S265–S272.

    251 Burke BE, Neuenschwander R, Olson RD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension. South Med J. 2001;94:1112–1117.

    252 Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, et al. Coenzyme Q (10) improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:1137-1142.

    253 Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Human Hypertens. 1999;13:203–208.

    254 http://patients.uptodate.com/abstract.asp?TR=hyperten/9501&viewAbs=1&title=1

    255 http://patients.uptodate.com/abstract.asp?TR=hyperten/9501&viewAbs=3&title=3

    256 http://patients.uptodate.com/abstract.asp?TR=hyperten/9501&viewAbs=5&title=5

    257 Howe PR. Dietary fats and hypertension: focus on fish oil. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997; 827: 339–352.

    258 Morris MC, Sacks F, Rosner B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation. 1993; 88: 523–533

    259 Appel LJ, Miller ER3rd, Seidler AJ, et al. Does supplementation of diet with ��fish oil�� reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153: 1429–1438.

    260 Mori TA, Watts GF, Burke V, et al. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on vascular reactivity of the forearm microcirculation in hyperlipidemic, overweight men. Circulation. 2000; 102: 1264–1269.



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    264 http://www.healthy.net/library/books/textbook/Section5/ALIUMS.PDF

    265 http://www.drlwilson.com/Articles/hypertension.htm

    266 Ibid

    267 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsConditions/PrimaryPulmonaryHypertensioncc.html

    268 http://www.drlwilson.com/Articles/hypertension.htm

    269 Kohashi N, Katori R. Decrease of urinary taurine in essential hypertension. Jpn Heart J 1983;24:91–102.

    270 Abe M, Shibata K, Matsuda T, Furukawa T. Inhibition of hypertension and salt intake by oral taurine treatment in hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1987;10:383–9.

    271 Fujita T, Ando K, Noda H, et al. Effects of increased adrenomedullary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension. Circulation 1987;75:525–32.

    272 Militante JD, Lombardini JB, Treatment of hypertension with oral taurine: experimental and clinical studies. , Amino Acids. 2002;23(4):381-93

    273 http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/cgi-bin/rp/rp2_abst_e?cjpp_y99-060_77_ns_nf_cjpp

    274 http://www.drlwilson.com/Articles/hypertension.htm


    276 http://www.knowledgeofhealth.com/report.asp?story=Do%20High-Dose%20Vitamin%20B6%20Supplements%20Produce%20Health%20Benefits

    277 Nutrition Metabolism Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 9, Pages 55-63, April 1999

    278 Molecular Cell Biochemistry, Volume 188, pages 137-48, 1998

    279 McDonald, A. Feinberg School of Medicine Lectures in Preventive Medicine, used with permission

    280 Ibid

    281 Ibid

    282 Ruiz MC, Ayala V, Portero-Otin M, Requena JR, Barja G, Pamplona R. Related Articles, Protein methionine content and MDA-lysine adducts are inversely related to maximum life span in the heart of mammals. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 Oct;126(10):1106-14.  
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    286 Seim H, Eichler K, Kleber H. L(-)-Carnitine and its precursor, gamma-butyrobetaine. In: Kramer K, Hoppe P, Packer L, eds. Nutraceuticals in Health and Disease Prevention. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 2001:217-256.

    287 Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin C. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:95-185.

    288 Lopaschuk G. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in ischemia and reperfusion. Am Heart J. 2000;139(2 Pt 3):S115-119.

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    292 Study on propionyl-L-carnitine in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 1999;20(1):70-76.

    293 Cherchi A, Lai C, Angelino F, et al. Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1985;23(10):569-572.

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    295 McDonald, A. Feinberg School of Medicine Preventive Medicine Lectures, Op. Cit.

    296 Ibid

    297 Storlien LH et. al., Effects of sucrose vs. starch diets on in vivo insulin action, thermogenesis, and obesity in rats. Am J. Clin Nutr 47:420-7, 1998

    298 Reiser S et. al., Effects of sugars on indices of glucose tolerance in humans, Am J. Clin Nutr 43(1):151-9, 1986

    299 Cohen, AM, Experimental models in diabetes in Sugars in Nutrition. Sna Francisco, Academic Press, 1974:483-511

    300  Kozlovsky, A S et al.  Effects of diets high in simple sugars on urinary chromium lossesMetabolism 35(6)515-18, 1986

    301 Hughes, TA, Glycemic responses in insulin dependent diabetics: effect of food composition. Am J Clin Nutr 49:658-66, 1989

    302 Thornburn, A W, et. al, Fructose induced in vivo insulin resistance and elevated plasma triglyceride levels in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 49:1155-63, 1989

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    304 Jenkins, DJ, Metabolic advantages of spreading the nutrient load: effects of increased meal frequency in non insulin dependent diabetics, Am J Clin Nutr 55:461-7, 1992

    305 O��Day, K, Marked improvement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic Australian aborigines after temporary reversion to traditional lifestyleDiabetes 33(6):596-603, 1984

    306 Virtanen, S M, et. al, Is children��s or parent��s coffee or tea consumption associated with the risk for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in children? Eur J Clin Nutr 48:279-85, 1994

    307  Kostraba, JN, et al., I 15(11):1505-8, 1992

    308 Dahlquist, GG, et. al, Dietary factors and the risk of developing insulin dependent diabetes in children. Br Med J 300:1302-6, 1990

    309  Scott, F W, et. al, Milk and type I diabetes, Examining the evidence and broadening the focus. Diabetes Care 19(4):379-83, 1996

    310  Atkinson, M A, Ellis, T M, Infants diets and insulin dependent diabetes: evaluating the ��cow��s milk hypothesis and a role for anti bovine serum albumin immunity. J Am Coll Nutr 16(4): 334-40 1997

    311  McDonald, Op. Cit.

    312 Raal, FJ, et. al, Effect of moderate protein restriction on the progression of overt diabetic neuropathy: a 6 month prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 60:579-85:1994

    313 McDonald, A, Op Cit.

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    317 Chatfield, K, Preventive Medicine Clinics: A case of diabetes. Townsend Letters for Doctors, March 1985, p. 105

    318 Jeejeebhoy, K N, et. al, Chromium deficiency, glucose tolerance and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long term parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 30(4): 531-8, 1977

    319 http://www.ams.ac.ir/AIM/0033/nour0033.html

    320 Anderson RA, Chen N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 1997;46:1786-1791.

    321 http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/20/3/212

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    335 Olukoga AO, Adewoye HO, Erasumus RT. Renal excretion of magnesium and calcium in diabetes mellitus. Cent Afr J Med. 1989 Apr;35(4):378-83.

    336 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/Seleniumcs.html

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    338 http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/11/1050

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    341 http://www.ams.ac.ir/AIM/0033/nour0033.html

    342 Walter RM, Uriu-Hare JY, Olin KS, et al. Copper, zinc, manganese and magnesium status and complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 1991;14:1050-1056

    343 Colditz, G A, et. al., Op. Cit.

    344 Norbiato, G et. al., Effects of potassium supplementation on insulin binding and insulin action in human obesity: Protein-modified fast and refeeding. Europ J Clin Invest 44:414-9, 1984

    345 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1307399

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    348 Olukoga AO, Adewoye HO, Erasumus RT. Op. Cit

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    350 McNair P, Christensen MS, Christensen C, Modshod S, Transbol IB. Renal hypomagnesaemia in human diabetes mellitus: its relation to glucose homeostasis. Eur J Clin Invest. 1982;12:81-85.

    351 DeValk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJM, Geerdink RA, Stuyvenberg A. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1998;15:503-507.

    352 http://www.ams.ac.ir/AIM/0033/nour0033.html

    353 Walter RM, Uriu-Hare JY, Olin KS, et al. Copper, zinc, manganese and magnesium status and complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 1991;14:1050-1056

    354 Eriksson J, Kohvakka A. Magnesium and ascorbic acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus. Ann Nutr Metab 1995;39:217–23.

    355 Walter RM, Uriu-Hare JY, Olin KS, et al. Copper, zinc, manganese and magnesium status and complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 1991;14:1050-1056

    356 http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/20/3/212

    357 http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/lar_0024.shtml

    358 http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/21/5/422

    359 Kawamori R, Shichiri M, Kikuchi M, Yamasaki Y, Abe H. The mechanism of exaggerated glucagon response to arginine in diabetes mellitus. 
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    360 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FDN/is_6_7/ai_96416603

    361 http://pharmacy.ankara.edu.tr/~gunere/full_text/PharmRes_41_201-209.pdf

    362 Wascher et al, Effects of Low Dose L-Arginine on Insulin-Mediated Vasodilatation and Insulin Sensitivity. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 27:690-695 (1997).

    363 http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/1/54

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    365 J Investig Med 2002);50(6):443-451

    366 J Hypertens 2002; 20(11): 2269-2274

    367 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FDN/is_1_6/ai_71948215  review

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    370 Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND.  Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92. Review.

    371 Crayhon R. The Carnitine Miracle. New York: M. Evans; 1999

    372 http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/28/1/89

    373 No Author, The effects of acetyl-L-carnitine and sorbinil on peripheral nerve structure, chemistry, and function in experimental diabetes. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental (USA), 1996, 45/7 (902-907)

    374 http://www.lef.org/prod_hp/abstracts/php-ab028.html#9

    375 http://ods.od.nih.gov/docs/omega3_dcv_abstracts.html#siscovick

    376 http://www.oilofpisces.com/diabetes.html

    377 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/Omega3FattyAcidscs.html

    378 http://www.oralchelation.com/ingred/vitaminb1.htm#4

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    380 Haugen HN. The blood concentration of thiamine in diabetes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1964;16:260–6.

    381 Vorhaus MG, Williams RR, Waterman RE. Studies on crystalline vitamin B1: observations in diabetes. Am J Dig Dis 1935;2:541–57.

    382 Abbas ZG, Swai ABM. Evaluation of the efficacy of thiamine and pyridoxine in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. East African Med J 1997;74:804–8

    383 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/VitaminB6Pyridoxinecs.html

    384 http://faculty.washington.edu/~ely/JOM2.html

    385 Okada M, Shibuya M, Yamamoto E, Murakami Y.  Effect of diabetes on vitamin B6 requirement in experimental animals. Diabetes Obes Metab. 1999 Jul;1(4):221-5.

    386 Abbas ZG, Swai ABM. Op. Cit.

    387 Diabetes In Control.com: Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1021-1025.

    388 http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/497911

    389 Cunningham JJ, Ellis SL, McVeigh KL, et al. Reduced mononuclear leukocyte ascorbic acid content in adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus consuming adequate dietary vitamin C. Metabolism 1991;40:146–9.

    390 Davie SJ, Gould BJ, Yudkin JS. Effect of vitamin C on glycosylation of proteins. Diabetes 1992;41:167–73.

    391 Will JC, Tyers T. Does diabetes mellitus increase the requirement for vitamin C? Nutr Rev 1996;54:193–202 [review].

    392 Eriksson J, Kohvakka A. Op. Cit.

    393 Paolisso G, Balbi V, Volpe C, et al. Metabolic benefits deriving from chronic vitamin C supplementation in aged non-insulin dependent diabetics. J Am Coll Nutr 1995;14:387–92.

    394 Will JC, Tyers T. Does diabetes mellitus increase the requirement for vitamin C? Nutr Rev 1996;54:193–202 [review].

    395 McAuliffe AV, Brooks BA, Fisher EJ, et al. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion. Nephron 1998;80:277–84.

    396 Challem J, Smith, MD. User��s Guide to Vitamin E. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publications, 2002.

    397 Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99–102

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    399 Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FJ, Machlin LJ, et al. The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, post coronary and normal subjects. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1171–80.

    400 Paolisso G, D��Amore A, Giugliano D, et al. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650–6.

    401 Paolisso G, D��Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433–7.

    402 Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

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    406 Rindone JP, Aachacoso S. Effect of low-dose niacin on glucose control in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. American Journal of Therapies, 1996; 3:637-639.

    407 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/VitaminB3Niacincs.html

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    409 Mandrup Paulsen T, et al., Nicotinamide in the prevention of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metabol Rev 9, 295-309, 1993.

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    424 http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/2/546

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    439 Pizzorono, J, Murray, M, Textbook of Natural Medicine, 2nd Ed., Vol. 2, Churchill Livingston, 1999, pp 1193-1218

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